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Rutherford B. Hayes  The second issue concerned United States Notes (commonly called greenbacks), a form of fiat currency first issued during the Civil War. The government accepted these notes as valid for payment of taxes and tariffs, but unlike ordinary dollars, they were not redeemable in gold.[158] The Specie Payment Resumption Act of 1875 required the treasury to redeem any outstanding greenbacks in gold, thus retiring them from circulation and restoring a single, SAMSUNG NP-N150-JA04 Laptop Keyboard gold-backed currency.[158] Sherman agreed with Hayes's favorable opinion of the Act, and stockpiled gold in preparation for the exchange of greenbacks for gold.[159] Once the public was confident that they could redeem greenbacks for specie (gold), however, few did so; when the Act took effect in 1879, only $130,000 out of the $346,000,000 outstanding dollars in greenbacks were actually redeemed.[160]Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard Together with the Bland–Allison Act, the successful specie resumption effected a workable compromise between inflationists and hard money men and, as the world economy began to improve, agitation for more greenbacks and silver coinage quieted down for the rest of Hayes's term in office.[161]TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7226 Laptop Keyboard

Foreign policy

Most of Hayes's foreign policy concerns involved Latin America. In 1878, following the Paraguayan War, he arbitrated a territorial dispute between Argentina and Paraguay.[162] Hayes awarded the disputed land in the Gran Chaco region to Paraguay, and the Paraguayans honored him by renaming a city (Villa Hayes) and a department (Presidente Hayes) in his honor.[162] Hayes was also perturbed over the plans of Ferdinand de Lesseps, the builder of the Suez Canal, Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard to construct a canal across theIsthmus of Panama, which was then owned by Colombia.[163] Concerned about a repetition of French adventurism in Mexico, Hayes interpreted the Monroe Doctrine firmly.[164] In a message to Congress, Hayes explained his opinion on the canal: "The policy of this country is a canal under American control ... The United States cannot consent to the surrender of this control to any European power or any combination of European powers."[164]SONY 147963021 Laptop Keyboard The Mexican border also drew Hayes's attention. Throughout the 1870s, "lawless bands" often crossed the border on raids into Texas.[165] Three months after taking office, Hayes granted the Army the power to pursue bandits, even if it required crossing into Mexican territory.[165] Porfirio Díaz, the Mexican president, SONY KFRMBA151B Laptop Keyboard protested the order and sent troops to the border.[165] The situation calmed as Díaz and Hayes agreed to jointly pursue bandits and Hayes agreed not to allow Mexican revolutionaries to raise armies in the United States.[166] The violence along the border decreased, and in 1880 Hayes revoked the order allowing pursuit into Mexico.[167]IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R50E Laptop Keyboard Outside of the Western hemisphere, Hayes's biggest foreign policy concern dealt with China. In 1868, the Senate had ratified the Burlingame Treaty with China, allowing an unrestricted flow of Chinese immigrants into the country. As the economy soured after the Panic of 1873, Chinese immigrants were blamed for depressing workmen's wages.[168] SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard During the Great Railroad Strike of 1877, anti-Chinese riots broke out in San Francisco, and a third party, the Workingman's Party, was formed with an emphasis on stopping Chinese immigration.[168] In response, Congress passed a Chinese Exclusion Act in 1879, abrogating the 1868 treaty.[169] Hayes vetoed the bill, believing that the United States should not abrogate treaties without negotiation.[169] The veto drew praise among eastern liberals, but Hayes was bitterly denounced in the West.[169]TOSHIBA NB200 Laptop Keyboard In the subsequent furor, Democrats in the House of Representatives attempted to impeach him, but narrowly failed when Republicans prevented a quorum by refusing to vote.[170] After the veto, Assistant Secretary of State Frederick W. Seward suggested that both countries work together to reduce immigration, and he and James Burrill Angell negotiated with the Chinese to do so.[170] Congress passed a new law to that effect, the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, after Hayes left office.[170]HP HDX18-1000EO Laptop Keyboard Interior Secretary Carl Schurz carried out Hayes's American Indian policy, beginning with preventing the War Department from taking over the Bureau of Indian Affairs.[171] Hayes and Schurz carried out a policy that included assimilation into white culture, educational training, and dividing Indian land into individual allotments.[172] Lenovo 39T7417 Laptop Keyboard Hayes believed that his policies would lead to self-sufficiency and peace between Indians and whites.[173] The allotment system was favored by liberal reformers at the time, including Schurz, but instead proved detrimental to American Indians as most of their land was later resold at low prices to white speculators.[174] Hayes and Schurz reformed the Bureau of Indian Affairs to reduce fraud and gave Indians responsibility for policing their understaffed reservations.[175]HP 633736-001 Laptop Keyboard Hayes dealt with several conflicts with Indian tribes. The Nez Perce, led by Chief Joseph, began an uprising in June 1877 when Major General Oliver O. Howard ordered them to move on to a reservation.[176] Howard's men defeated the Nez Perce in battle, and the tribe began a 1700-mile retreat into Canada.[176] HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard In October, after a decisive battle at Bear Paw, Montana, Chief Joseph surrendered and General William T. Sherman ordered the tribe transported to Kansas, where they were forced to remain until 1885.[177] The Nez Perce war was not the last conflict in the West, as the Bannocks rose up in Spring 1878 and raided nearby settlements before being defeated by Howard's army in July of that year.[171] TOSHIBA Satellite P300 Laptop Keyboard War with the Ute tribe broke out in 1879 when the Utes killed Indian agent Nathan Meeker, who had been attempting to convert them to Christianity.[178] The subsequent White River War ended when Schurz negotiated peace with the Utes and prevented the white Coloradans from taking revenge for Meeker's death.[178] DELL V119525BS1 Laptop Keyboard Hayes also became involved in resolving the removal of the Ponca tribe from Nebraska to Indian Territory (present-dayOklahoma) because of a misunderstanding during the Grant Administration.[179] The tribe's problems came to Hayes's attention after their chief, Standing Bear, filed a lawsuit to contest Schurz's demand that they stay in Indian Territory. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Overruling Schurz, Hayes set up a commission in 1880 that ruled Ponca were free to return to Nebraska or stay on their reservation in Indian Territory.[179] The Ponca were awarded compensation for their land rights, which had been previously granted to the Sioux.[179] In a message to Congress in February 1881, Hayes insisted he would "give to these injured people that measure of redress which is required alike by justice and by humanity."[180]ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard Hayes's White House Hayes and his wife, Lucy, were known for their policy of keeping an alcohol-free White House, giving rise to her nickname "Lemonade Lucy."[181] The first reception at the Hayes White House included wine.[182] However, Hayes was dismayed at drunken behavior at receptions hosted by ambassadors around Washington, leading him to follow his wife's temperance leanings.[183] Alcohol was not served again in the Hayes White House. SONY VGN-FE11H Laptop Keyboard Critics charged Hayes with parsimony, but Hayes spent more money (which came out of his personal budget) after the ban, ordering that any savings from eliminating alcohol be used on more lavish entertainment.[184] His temperance policy also paid political dividends, strengthening his support among Protestant ministers.[183] Although Secretary Evarts quipped that at the White House dinners, "water flowed like wine," the policy was a success in convincing prohibitionists to vote Republican.[185]HP G61-420SO Laptop Keyboard Hayes appointed two Associate Justices to the Supreme Court. The first vacancy occurred when David Davis resigned to enter the Senate during the election controversy of 1876. On taking office, Hayes appointed John Marshall Harlan to the seat. A former candidate for governor of Kentucky, Harlan had been Benjamin Bristow's campaign manager at the 1876 Republican convention, and Hayes had earlier considered him for Attorney General.[186]  DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard Hayes submitted the nomination in October 1877, but it aroused some dissent in the Senate because of Harlan's limited experience in public office.[186] Harlan was nonetheless confirmed and served on the court for thirty-four years, in which he voted (usually in the minority) for an aggressive enforcement of the civil rights laws.[186]  ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard In 1880, a second seat became vacant upon the resignation of Justice William Strong. Hayes nominated William Burnham Woods, a carpetbaggerRepublican circuit court judge from Alabama.[187] Woods served six years on the Court, ultimately proving a disappointment to Hayes as he interpreted the Constitution in a manner more similar to that of Southern Democrats than to Hayes's own preferences.[188]DELL Inspiron N4030 Laptop Keyboard Hayes attempted, unsuccessfully, to fill a third vacancy in 1881. Justice Noah Haynes Swayne resigned with the expectation that Hayes would fill his seat by appointing Stanley Matthews, who was a friend of both men.[189] Many Senators objected to the appointment, believing that Mathews was too close to corporate and railroad interests, especially those of Jay Gould.[190] ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard The Senate adjourned without voting on the nomination.[189] The following year, when James A. Garfield entered the White House, he re-submitted Mathews's nomination. This time, the Senate did vote, confirming Mathews by one vote, 24 to 23.[189] Mathews served for eight years until his death in 1889. His opinion in Yick Wo v. Hopkins in 1886 advanced his and Hayes's views on the protection of the rights of ethnic minorities.[191]TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 Laptop Keyboard Hayes decided not to seek re-election in 1880, keeping his pledge that he would not run for a second term. He was gratified with the election of James A. Garfield to succeed him, and consulted with him on appointments for the next administration.[192] After Garfield's inauguration, Hayes and his family returned to Spiegel Grove.[193]  HP 517865-031 Laptop Keyboard Although he remained a loyal Republican, Hayes was not too disappointed in Grover Cleveland's election to the Presidency in 1884, approving of the New York Democrat's views on civil service reform.[194] He was also pleased at the progress of the political career of William McKinley, his army comrade and political protégé.[195]DELL AEFM8U00310 Laptop Keyboard Hayes became an advocate for educational charities, advocating federal education subsidies for all children.[196] He believed that education was the best way to heal the rifts in American society and allow individuals to improve themselves.[197] Hayes was appointed to the Board of Trustees of The Ohio State University, the school he helped found during his time as governor of Ohio, in 1887.[198] He emphasized the need for vocational, as well as academic, education: "I preach the gospel of work," SONY VAIO VGN-FS285H Laptop Keyboard he wrote, "I believe in skilled labor as a part of education."[199] He urged Congress, unsuccessfully, to pass a bill written by Senator Henry W. Blairthat would have allowed federal aid for education for the first time.[200] Hayes gave a speech in 1889 encouraging black students to apply for scholarships from the Slater Fund, one of the charities with which he was affiliated.[201] One such student, W. E. B. Du Bois, received a scholarship in 1892.[201] Hayes also advocated better prison conditions.[202]GATEWAY NV-53 Laptop Keyboard In retirement, Hayes was troubled by the disparity between the rich and the poor, saying in an 1886 speech that "free government cannot long endure if property is largely in a few hands and large masses of people are unable to earn homes, education, and a support in old age."[203] The following year, Hayes recorded his thoughts on that subject in his diary: TOSHIBA Satellite L505-S5984 Laptop Keyboard In church it occurred to me that it is time for the public to hear that the giant evil and danger in this country, the danger which transcends all others, is the vast wealth owned or controlled by a few persons. Money is power. In Congress, in state legislatures, in city councils, in the courts, in the political conventions, in the press, in the pulpit, in the circles of the educated and the talented, its influence is growing greater and greater. Excessive wealth in the hands of the few means extreme poverty, SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Laptop Keyboard ignorance, vice, and wretchedness as the lot of the many. It is not yet time to debate about the remedy. The previous question is as to the danger—the evil. Let the people be fully informed and convinced as to the evil. Let them earnestly seek the remedy and it will be found. Fully to know the evil is the first step towards reaching its eradication. Henry George is strong when he portrays the rottenness of the present system. SONY VAIO VGN-AW21M Laptop Keyboard We are, to say the least, not yet ready for his remedy. We may reach and remove the difficulty by changes in the laws regulating corporations, descents of property, wills, trusts, taxation, and a host of other important interests, not omitting lands and other property.[204]Toshiba Satellite A300-27H Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Hayes was greatly saddened by his wife's death in 1889.[205] He wrote that "the soul had left [Spiegel Grove]" when she died.[205] After Lucy's death, Hayes's daughter, Fanny, became his traveling companion and he enjoyed visits from his grandchildren.[206] In 1890, he chaired the Lake Mohonk Conference on the Negro Question, a gathering of reformers that met in upstate New York to discuss racial issues.[207] Hayes died of complications of a heart attack at his home on January 17, 1893.[208]HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Laptop CPU Cooling Fan His last words were "I know that I'm going where Lucy is."[208] President-elect Grover Cleveland and Ohio Governor William McKinley led the funeral procession that followed Hayes's body until he was interred in Oakwood Cemetery.[209] Following the donation of his home to the state of Ohio for theSpiegel Grove State Park, he was re-interred there in 1915.[210] The following year the Hayes Commemorative Library and Museum, the first presidential library in the United States, was opened on the site, funded by contributions from the state of Ohio and Hayes' family.[211]Gateway NV78 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Hayes next attempted to reconcile the social mores of the South with the recently passed civil rights laws by distributing patronage among southern Democrats. "My task was to wipe out the color line, to abolish sectionalism, to end the war and bring peace," he wrote in his diary. "To do this, I was ready to resort to unusual measures and to risk my own standing and reputation within my party and the country."[127] All of his efforts were in vain; Hayes failed to convince the South to accept the idea of racial equality and failed to convince Congress to appropriate funds to enforce the civil rights laws.[128]HP ProBook 4710S Laptop CPU Cooling Fan vice appointments, which had been based on the spoils systemsince Andrew Jackson was president.[129] Instead of giving federal jobs to political supporters, Hayes wished to award them by merit according to an examination that all applicants would take.[130] Immediately, Hayes's call for reform brought him into conflict with the Stalwart,  HP Pavilion dv5-1299eo Laptop CPU Cooling Fan or pro-spoils, branch of the Republican party. Senators of both parties were accustomed to being consulted about political appointments and turned against Hayes. Foremost among his enemies was New York Senator Roscoe Conkling, who fought Hayes's reform efforts at every turn.[131] To show his commitment to reform, Hayes appointed one of the best-known advocates of reform, Carl Schurz, to be Secretary of the Interior and asked Schurz and William M. SONY Vaio VPC-EA1S1E/W Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Evarts, hisSecretary of State, to lead a special cabinet committee charged with drawing up new rules for federal appointments.[132] John Sherman, the Treasury Secretary, ordered John Jay to investigate the New York Custom House, which was stacked with Conkling's spoilsmen.[130] Jay's report suggested that the New York Custom House was so overstaffed with political appointees that 20% of the employees were expendable.[133]SONY Vaio VGN-SZ61MN/B Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Although he could not convince Congress to outlaw the spoils system, Hayes issued an executive order that forbade federal office holders from being required to make campaign contributions or otherwise taking part in party politics.[133] Chester A. Arthur, the Collector of the Port of New York, and his subordinates Alonzo B. Cornell and George H. Sharpe, all Conkling supporters, refused to obey the president's order.[133] In September 1877, SONY Vaio VGN-NR310FH Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Hayes demanded the three men's resignations, which they refused to give. He submitted appointments of Theodore Roosevelt, Sr., L. Bradford Prince, and Edwin Merritt—all supporters of Evarts, Conkling's New York rival—to the Senate for confirmation as their replacements.[134] The Senate's Commerce Committee, which Conkling chaired, voted unanimously to reject the nominees, and the full Senate rejected Roosevelt and Prince by a vote of 31–25, confirming Merritt only because Sharpe's term had expired.[135]Compaq Presario CQ60-218ea Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Hayes was forced to wait until July 1878 when, during a Congressional recess, he sacked Arthur and Cornell and replaced them by recess appointments of Merritt and Silas W. Burt, respectively.[136][f] Conkling opposed the appointees' confirmation when the Senate reconvened in February 1879, but Merritt was approved by a vote of 31–25, as was Burt by 31–19, giving Hayes his most significant civil service reform victory.[138] Toshiba Satellite L635-S3010BN Laptop CPU Cooling Fan For the remainder of his term, Hayes pressed Congress to enact permanent reform legislation, even using his last annual message to Congress on December 6, 1880 to appeal for reform. While reform legislation did not pass during Hayes's presidency, his advocacy provided "a significant precedent as well as the political impetus for the Pendleton Act of 1883," which was signed into law by President Chester Arthur.[139]Toshiba Satellite L635-S3020 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Hayes also dealt with corruption in the postal service. In 1880, Schurz and Senator John A. Logan asked Hayes to shut down the "star route" rings, a system of corrupt contract profiteering in the Postal Service, and to fire Second Assistant Postmaster-General Thomas J. Brady, the alleged ring leader.[140] Hayes stopped granting new star route contracts, but let existing contracts continue to be enforced.[141] Hayes' Postmaster General, Horace Maynard, said that the public only cared their mail was delivered with "certainty, HP Pavilion dv5-1132la Laptop CPU Cooling Fan celerity, and security," not about the methods by which postal routes were contracted.[142] Democrats accused Hayes of delaying proper investigation so as not to injure Republican chances in the 1880 elections but did not press the issue in their campaign literature, as members of both parties were implicated in the corruption.[140] HP Pavilion dv7-6b55dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan As historian Hans L. Trefousse would later write, Hayes "hardly knew the chief suspect [Brady] and certainly had no connection with the [star route] corruption."[143] Although Hayes and the Congress both looked into the contracts and found no compelling evidence of wrongdoing, Brady and others were indicted for conspiracy in 1882.[144] After two trials, the defendants were found not guilty in 1883.[145]Compaq Presario CQ40-511TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Great Railroad Strike In his first year in office, Hayes was faced with the United States' largest labor disturbance to date: the Great Railroad Strike of 1877.[146] In order to make up for financial losses suffered since the panic of 1873, the major railroads cut their employees' wages several times in 1877.[147] In July of that year, workers from the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad walked off the job in Martinsburg, West Virginia to protest their reduction in pay.[148] IBM ThinkPad T41 2678 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The strike quickly spread to workers of the New York Central, Erie, and Pennsylvania railroads, with the strikers soon numbering in the thousands.[149] Fearing a riot, GovernorHenry M. Mathews asked Hayes to send federal troops to Martinsburg, and Hayes did so, but when the troops arrived there was no riot, SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W Laptop Keyboard only a peaceful protest.[150] In Baltimore, however, a riot did erupt on July 20 and Hayes ordered the troops at Fort McHenry to assist the governor in its suppression; by the time they arrived, the riot had dispersed.[149] Pittsburgh next exploded into riots, but Hayes was reluctant to send in troops without the governor first requesting them.[149] TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-SP5012M Laptop Keyboard Other discontented citizens joined the railroad workers in rioting.[151] After a few days, he resolved to send in troops to protect federal property wherever it appeared to be threatened and gave Major General Winfield Scott Hancock overall command of the situation, marking the first use of federal troops to break a strike against a private company.[149] The riot spread further, to Chicago and St. Louis, where strikers shut down railroad facilities.[149] DELL Latitude E5510 Laptop Keyboard By July 29, the riots had ended and federal troops returned to their barracks.[152] Although no federal troops had killed any of the strikers, or been killed themselves, clashes between state militia troops and strikers resulted in deaths on both sides.[153] The railroads were victorious in the short term, as the workers returned to their jobs and some wage cuts remained in effect, but the public blamed the railroads for the strikes and violence, and they were compelled to improve working conditions and attempted no further cuts.[154] HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard Business leaders praised Hayes, but his own opinion was more equivocal; as he recorded in his diary: "The strikes have been put down byforce; but now for the real remedy. Can't something [be] done by education of strikers, by judicious control of capitalists, by wise general policy to end or diminish the evil? The railroad strikers, as a rule, are good men, sober, intelligent, and industrious."[155]SONY VAIO VGN-AW21M Laptop Keyboard Currency debate The NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) is the only NCAA-sponsored sport without an organized tournament to determine its champion.[3] Instead, the postseason has historically consisted of individual bowl games. LENOVO IdeaPad S10e 4068 Laptop Keyboard The bowl system began in 1902 with the East-West game in Pasadena, California. Held on New Year's Day in conjunction with the Tournament of Roses, this was an exhibition game between a highly rated team from the west coast and a team east of the Mississippi River. In this first game, representing the East, theUniversity of Michigan Wolverines, SONY VGN-FE550G Laptop Keyboard SAMSUNG N128 Laptop Keyboard No. 1 and undefeated, having not been so much as scored upon all season, defeated the West's Stanford University Indians (later renamed Cardinal) by a score of 49–0. The lopsided score led to Stanford calling for an end to the game during the third quarter, and also led to the post-season football game not being played again until 1916. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5102CL Laptop Keyboard This was an ideal time for a postseason game, as fans could take off work or school during this holiday period to travel to the game. The game was renamed theRose Bowl in the late 1920s due to the shape of the new stadium built in Pasadena. By the 1930s, the Cotton Bowl Classic, Orange Bowl, and the Sugar Bowl were also held on January 1 to showcase teams from other regions of the country. Toshiba Tecra M5-S4333 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan By the 1940s, college football conferences began signing contracts that tied their championship team to a particular bowl. In 1947, the Big Ten Conference and the Pacific Coast Conference, a forerunner of today's Pacific-12 Conference, agreed to commit their champions to play in the Rose Bowl every year, an agreement that continued under the BCS. HP Pavilion dv7-6105sg Laptop CPU Cooling Fan This system raised the possibility that the two top-ranked teams in the final poll would not play each other in a bowl game. Indeed, since the AP began releasing its final poll after the bowl games in 1968 the two top-ranked teams in the final regular-season AP Poll had only played each other in a bowl six times until special bowl arrangements began in 1992. Under the circumstances, it was somewhat routine to have a split national championships with the Coaches Poll. This has occurred on eleven different occasions (1954, 1957, 1965, 1970, 1973, 1974, 1978, 1990, 1991, 1997, 2003) since the two polls came to co-exist. HP Pavilion dv6-3133eo Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 1991, the University of Miami Hurricanes and the University of Washington Huskies were considered the strongest teams in the nation. Since the Huskies were locked into the Rose Bowl as the Pacific 10 Conference champion against Big Ten champion Michigan, they could not play Miami, who played in the Orange Bowl. HP 540 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Both teams won their bowl games convincingly and shared the national championship, Miami winning the Associated Press poll and Washington earning the top spot in the Coaches Poll. A split national championship has happened on several occasions since then as well (1997, 2003). (See: NCAA Division I FBS National Football Championship for a compilation of past "national champions" since 1869.) HP Pavilion dv7-3165el Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Other teams have won the national championship despite playing presumably weaker schedules than other championship contenders. The BYU Cougars ended the 1984 season as the only undefeated and untied team in the nation as a member of the Western Athletic Conference. The Cougars opened the season with a 20–14 victory over No. 3 Pittsburgh, and won the Holiday Bowl against a 6–5 Michigan team that had been ranked as high as No. 2 that season.  HP ProBook 4525s Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan As the No. 4 ranked team at the end of the regular season, the University of Washington Huskies were offered a slot against BYU in the Holiday Bowl; Washington declined, preferring instead to play in the more lucrative Orange Bowl where they beat No. 2 Oklahoma to complete a Pac-10 sweep of New Year's Day bowls (USC Rose and UCLA Fiesta).  Toshiba UDQF2RH51C1N Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Washington (11–1) was voted No. 2 following the bowl season with their only blemish a late season loss at Pac-10 champ USC. Coupled with the 1983 season of 11 consecutive wins, BYU finished the 1984 season with a 24 game winning streak and was a near-unanimous choice as national champion in final polls. COMPAQ Presario V6410TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan To address these problems, five conferences, six bowl games, and leading independent Notre Dame joined forces to create the Bowl Coalition, which was intended to force a de facto "national championship game" between the top two teams. By entirely excluding all the other conferences, the Bowl Coalition also made it impossible for a non-Bowl Coalition team to win a national championship. This system was in place from the 1992 season through the 1994 season. HP Pavilion dv7t-3300 CTO Laptop CPU Cooling Fan While traditional tie-ins between conferences and bowls remained, a team would be released to play in another bowl if it was necessary to force a championship game. However, this system did not include the Big Ten and Pac-10 champions, as both were obligated to play in the Rose Bowl. The Coalition made several unsuccessful attempts to get the Tournament of Roses Association, IBM ThinkPad T42 2374 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan which operates the Rose Bowl, to release the Big Ten and Pac-10 champions if necessary to force a championship game. In 1994, undefeated Penn State, from the Big Ten, played Oregon in the Rose Bowl while undefeated Nebraska played Miami in the Orange Bowl. In a system that paired top-ranked teams, Penn State would have played Nebraska for the national championship. HP Pavilion dv6-3020ep Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Bowl Coalition was restructured into the Bowl Alliance for the 1995 season, involving five conferences (reduced to four for the 1996 season) and three bowls (Fiesta, Sugar, and Orange). The championship game rotated among these three bowls. It still did not, however, include the Pac-10 or Big Ten champions, the Rose Bowl, or any non-Bowl Alliance teams. HP G56-125NR Laptop CPU Cooling Fan After a protracted round of negotiations, the Bowl Alliance was reformed into the Bowl Championship Series for the 1998 season; former Southeastern Conference commissioner Roy Kramer is considered to be the "father" of the BCS.[4] The Tournament of Roses Association agreed to release the Big Ten and Pac-10 champions if it was necessary to force a national championship game. In return, SONY 1-480-442-21 Laptop Keyboard the Rose Bowl was added to the yearly national championship rotation, and the game was able to keep its coveted exclusive TV time slot on the afternoon of New Year's Day. However, beginning with the 2006 season, the BCS National Championship Game became a separate event played at the same site as a host bowl a week following New Year's Day. The new Bowl Championship Series not only included the Big Ten and the Pac-10 conferences but also teams from mid-major conferences, based on performance. COMPAQ Presario CQ60-201EP Laptop Keyboard No mid-major however, or team from any conference outside of the 6 aligned conferences, has ever played in the BCS Championship Game, causing increasing controversy. This controversy has become even more intense in light of the 4–1 record that mid-major teams have against teams from the 6 automatic qualifying conferences in the BCS Bowl games they have been allowed to play in. HP Pavilion dv3-2106tu Laptop Keyboard The performances and perfect record of Texas Christian University in the 2010 season, and Boise State University in the season prior to that has also fueled the controversy surrounding the perceived inequalities that the BCS seems to perpetuate (seeBCS Controversies below or in this more detailed separate article). However, little headway has been made to institute an alternative system like a playoff tournament, given the entrenched vested economic interests in the various bowls. HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard bowl games and the National Championship Game are considered "BCS bowl games." The four bowl games are the Rose Bowl Game in Pasadena, California, theSugar Bowl in New Orleans, the Fiesta Bowl in Glendale, Arizona and the Orange Bowl in Miami Gardens, Florida. In the first eight seasons of the BCS contract, the championship game was rotated among the four bowls, with each bowl game hosting the national championship once every four years. HP Pavilion dv3-2106tu Laptop Keyboard Starting with the 2007 BCS, the site of the game that served as the last game on January 1 (or if January 1 fell on a Sunday, January 2) in the BCS then served as the host facility of the new stand-alone BCS National Championship game played on January 8 of that year, one week following the playing of the traditional bowl game which would follow the Rose Bowl with the exception of the games to be played in 2010. There are also thirty non-BCS bowls. HP G71-442NR Laptop Keyboard Initial plans were for the additional BCS bowl game to be held at the site of that year's championship game, such that the additional, non-championship bowl be named after the original bowl (e.g. the Sugar Bowl when the championship is in New Orleans), and have the extra game just be called "The National Championship Game". Later, the BCS considered having cities bid to be the permanent site of the new BCS game, and to place the new game in the title rotation. In the end, the BCS opted for its original plan. HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard The University of Oklahoma is the only school to appear in all five BCS Bowls, playing in the 2007, 2008 and 2011 Fiesta Bowl, the 2004 Sugar Bowl, the 2001 and2005 Orange Bowl, the 2003 Rose Bowl, and the 2009 BCS National Championship Game. Oklahoma’s record stands at 3–5 with a 1–3 record in National Title games. HP 455264-001 Laptop Keyboard The University of Miami has appeared in every BCS bowl except for the standalone National Championship Game, although Miami did appear in the national championship when that designation was assigned to the original four bowls in rotation. Miami played in the 2001 Sugar Bowl, 2002 Rose Bowl (national championship), 2003 Fiesta Bowl (national championship), and 2004 Orange Bowl. GATEWAY MX8734 Laptop Keyboard HP CT1A Laptop Keyboard Television Initially, ABC held the rights to all four original BCS games, picking up the Fiesta and Orange Bowls from their former homes at CBS, and continuing their lengthy relationships with the Rose and Sugar Bowls. This relationship continued through the bowl games of January 2006. COMPAQ Presario CQ61 Laptop Keyboard Beginning with the 2006–07 season through the 2009–10 season, any BCS game (including the National Championship Game) hosted by the Fiesta, Orange or Sugar Bowls aired on the Fox Network while games hosted by the Pasadena Tournament of Roses were shown on ABC. Starting with the 2010–2011 season, ESPN will air all BCS games, including the Rose Bowl. The TV deal expires with the January 2014 games, however, ESPN will maintain broadcast rights to the Sugar Bowl and Orange Bowl through 2026 as a part of separate deals with their organizers.[1][5]DELL V100830AS1 Laptop Keyboard No more than one such team from Conference USA, the Mid-American Conference, the Mountain West Conference, the Sun Belt Conference, and the Western Athletic Conference shall earn an automatic berth in any year. However, a second team from one of these conferences may qualify as a BCS at-large.  HP AELX6U00210 Laptop Keyboard No more than two teams from any one conference may receive berths in BCS games unless two non-champions from an AQ conference finish as the top two teams in the final BCS standings, in which case they will meet in the National Title Game while their conference champion will play in their conference's BCS bowl game.The third-ranked team will receive an automatic berth if it has not already received one, if it is a member of an AQ conference, and provided that its conference has not already earned two automatic berths, if there is room. HP K031802E4US Laptop Keyboard If the third-ranked team did not require a berth using the previous provision, then the fourth-ranked team will receive an automatic berth if it has not already received one, if it is a member of an AQ conference, and provided that its conference has not already earned two automatic berths, if there is room. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard After the automatic berths have been granted, the remaining berths, known as "at-large" berths, are filled from a pool of teams who are ranked in the top 14 and have at least nine wins. The actual teams that are chosen for the at-large berths are determined by the individual bowl committees.  ACER Aspire 5920-302G12Mi Laptop CPU Cooling Fan If fewer than 10 teams are eligible for selection, then an at-large team will be any Football Bowl Subdivision team that is bowl-eligible, has won at least nine regular-season games, and is among the top 18 teams in the final BCS Standings, though any at-large team ranked in the top 14 will be guaranteed a bid over at-large teams ranked lower than 14th. If fewer than 10 teams are eligible after expanding the at-large pool to the top 18 BCS-ranked teams, HP Pavilion dv8315nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan then the at-large pool will continue to be expanded by four additional positions in the BCS Standings until 10 or more teams are eligible. No team ranked lower than 14 has used this rule to earn an at-large bid, although several teams ranked lower than 14 have received a bid for winning their conference, as the rule was not in place in the early years of the BCS. HP Pavilion dv6730ed Laptop CPU Cooling Fan All AQ conferences except the Big East have contracts for their champions to participate in specific BCS bowl games. Unless their champion is involved in the BCS National Championship game, the conference tie-ins are: The Big East champion takes one of the remaining spots. HP Pavilion dv6115tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan If the Pac-12 or Big Ten champion is picked for the BCS National Championship Game, then the Rose Bowl must choose the highest-ranked school from a non-AQ conference instead of the respective conference's #2 team if there is a non-AQ school ranked at least #4 in the final BCS standings. This was the case in 2010, when the #2 Oregon Ducks made it to the national championship, permitting the #3 TCU Horned Frogs to attend, and win, the 2011 Rose Bowl. The Rose Bowl is permitted to override this provision if it has been taken within the previous four seasons.  HP Pavilion dv6736nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan All 11 conferences compete for an opportunity to earn AQ status. As agreed by all 11 conferences, the results of the 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007 regular seasons were evaluated to determine which conferences earned automatic qualification. Three criteria were used: Rank of the highest-ranked team, rank of all conference teams, and number of teams in the top 25. The six conferences which met that standard are the current AQ conferences. HP Pavilion dv6-2119el Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011 seasons will be used to determine if another conference achieves automatic qualification, or a conference that currently has AQ status loses it, for the BCS games that will conclude the 2012 and 2013 seasons. HP Pavilion tx2514ca Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Rankings For the portions of the ranking that are determined by polls and computer-generated rankings, the BCS uses a series of Borda counts to arrive at its overall rankings. This is an example of using a voting system to generate a complete ordered list of winners from both human and computer-constructed votes. Obtaining a fair ranking system is a difficult mathematical problem and numerous algorithms have been proposed for ranking college football teams in particular. One example is the "random-walker rankings" studied by applied mathematicians Thomas Callaghan, Peter Mucha, and Mason Porter that employs the science of complex networks.  HP Pavilion dv5-1073ez Laptop CPU Cooling Fan 1998–2003 The BCS formula calculated the top 25 teams in poll format. After combining a number of factors, a final point total was created and the teams that received the 25 lowest scores were ranked in descending order. The factors were:Poll average: Both the AP and ESPN-USA Today coaches polls were averaged to make a number which is the poll average. HP Mini 110-3130tu Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Computer average: An average of the rankings of a team in three different computer polls were gathered (Jeff Sagarin/USA Today, Anderson-Hester/Seattle Times, and New York Times), with a 50% adjusted maximum deviation factor. (For instance, if the computers had ranked a team third, fifth, and twelfth, the poll which ranked the team twelfth would be adjusted to rank the team sixth.) SONY VAIO PCG-F70A/BP Laptop Keyboard Strength of Schedule: This was the team's NCAA rank in strength of schedule divided by 25. A team's strength of schedule was calculated by win/loss record of opponents (66.6%) and cumulative win/loss record of team's opponents' opponents (33.3%). The team who played the toughest schedule was given .04 points, second toughest .08 points, and so on. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard Margin of victory is a key component in the decision of the computer rankings to determine the BCS standings.Losses: One point was added for every loss the team has suffered during the season. All games are counted, including Kickoff Classics and conference title games.[8] IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R51 1833 Laptop Keyboard Before the 1999–2000 season, five more computer rankings were added to the system: Richard Billingsley, Richard Dunkel, Kenneth Massey, Herman Matthews/Scripps Howard, and David Rothman. The lowest ranking was dropped and the remainder averaged. IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 Laptop Keyboard Beginning in 2001, The Peter Wolfe and Wes Colley/Atlanta Journal-Constitution computer rankings were used in place of the NYT and Dunkel rankings. The change was made because the BCS wanted computer rankings that did not depend heavily on margin of victory.[9] The highest and lowest rankings were discarded, and the remainder averaged. A team's poll average, computer average, strength of schedule points, and losses were added to create a subtotal. HP Mini 110-1032NR Laptop Keyboard Also in 2001, a quality win component was added. If a team beat a team which was in the top 15 in the BCS standings, a range of 1.5 to .1 points was subtracted from their total. Beating the No. 1 ranked team resulted in a subtraction of 1.5-point, beating the No. 2 team resulted in a deduction of 1.4 points, and so on. Beating the No. 15 ranked team would have resulted in a deduction of .1 points. COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard A team would only be awarded for a quality win once if it beat a Top 10 team more than once (such as in the regular season and a conference championship game), and quality wins were determined using a team's current subtotal, not the ranking when the game was played. The subtotal ranks were used to determine quality win deductions to create a team's final score.  DELL Inspiron MINI 1010 Laptop Keyboard The BCS continued to purge ranking systems which included margin of victory, causing the removal of the Matthews and David Rothman (statistician) ratings before the 2002 season. Sagarin provided a BCS-specific formula that did not include margin of victory, and the New York Times index returned in a form without margin of victory considerations. In addition, a new computer ranking, the Wesley Colley Matrix, was added.[10] SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard The lowest ranking was dropped and the remaining six averaged. Also in 2002, the quality win component was modified such that the deduction for beating the No. 1 team in the BCS would be 1.0, declining by 0.1 increments until beating the 10th ranked team at 0.1. Teams on probation were not included in the BCS standings, but quality win points were given to teams who beat teams on probation as if they were ranked accordingly in the BCS. SONY VAIO VGN-AR170 Laptop Keyboard In response to the controversy created by the voters in the AP poll naming USC as the No. 1 ranked team at the end of the year,[11] the formula was rewritten. Supporters of USC and the media in general criticized the fact that polls were not weighted more heavily than computer rankings and this criticism led to the new algorithm. HP G61-300CA Laptop Keyboard AP Poll (2004): A team's score in the AP poll will be divided by the maximum number of points any team can receive if all voting members rank the same team as Number 1.Harris Interactive Poll (2005-present): A team's score in the Harris poll will be divided by the maximum number of points any team can receive if all voting members rank the same team as Number 1. [12]Coaches' Poll: A team's score in the Coaches' poll will be divided by the maximum number of points any team can receive if all voting members rank the same team as Number 1. DELL Inspiron N5030 Laptop Keyboard Computer Average: The BCS used six ranking systems: Jeff Sagarin, Anderson/Hester, Richard Billingsley, Colley Matrix, Kenneth Massey, and Dr. Peter Wolfe. A team's highest and lowest computer ranking will be discarded from figuring a team's computer poll average. Points will be assigned in inverse order of ranking from 1–25. The four remaining computer scores will be averaged and the total will be calculated as a percentage of 100.[13]ACER Aspire 4810TZ-4011 Laptop Keyboard All three components – The Harris Interactive Poll, the USA Today Coaches Poll and the computer rankings – shall be added together and averaged for a team's ranking in the BCS standings. The team with the highest average shall rank first in the BCS standings. TOSHIBA Satellite 2410 PS241L-5Y34T Laptop Keyboard This system placs twice as much emphasis on polls than computer rankings (since there were two polls and an average of six computer rankings) and makes it highly unlikely that the top team in both polls would be denied a place in the title game, as it happened in the 2003–04 season. FUJITSU Lifebook E8110 Laptop Keyboard The BCS formula for the 2005–06 season was the same as 2004–05, except that the Harris Interactive College Football Poll replaced the AP poll. [2] [3] The Harris Interactive College Football Poll's maximum point value was 2,825[14] and for the Coaches' Poll, it was 1,550. The Harris Interactive College Football Poll was created expressly to replace the AP Poll after the Associated Press refused the use of its poll as a component of the BCS formula following the 2004 season. Before the 2006–07 season, the maximum point value of the Harris Poll was increased to 2,850 and the USA Today/Coaches' Poll was increased to 1,575. TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5158 Laptop Keyboard In the week of April 20, 2009, Bowl Championship Series commissioners were meeting for its annual spring meetings in Pasadena, California in conjunction with the Rose Bowl's staging the 2010 BCS title game. The commissioners considered a proposal from the Mountain West Conference, which would establish an eight-team playoff and provide better accesses to the four BCS bowl games for the five conferences that do not have automatic bids. HP G71-343US Laptop Keyboard The proposal also included a motion to replace the BCS rankings with a selection and a motion to change the automatic qualifier criteria to better reflect inter-conference performance. The BCS rejected the proposal in June 2009, citing a "lack of overall support" among the member conferences.[15][16][17] Additionally, the proposal was scrutinized by theU.S. Congress, which determined that the BCS was not in violation of any laws or constitutional amendments, although this has since been reconsidered and the BCS is currently under renewed federal anti-trust scrutiny from the Justice Department.[18] Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard In June 2012, the BCS conference commissioners made the announcement that "we have developed a consensus behind a four-team, seeded playoff."[19] This will take effect in 2014, as the BCS Presidential Oversight Committee in Washington, D.C. gave its final approval a few days later.[2] HP Mini 210-2012eo Laptop Keyboard The primary criticism of the BCS centers around the validity of the annual BCS national championship pairings and its designated National Champions. Many critics focus on the BCS methodology itself, which employs subjective voting assessments, while others note the ability for undefeated teams to finish seasons without an opportunity to play in the national championship game. In fact, in the last 6 seasons of Division I FBS football, Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard there have been more undefeated non-BCS champions than undefeated BCS champions. Other criticisms involve discrepancies in the allocation of monetary resources from BCS games, as

well as the determination of non-championship BCS game participants, which need not comply with the BCS rankings themselves.[32] In the 2010–2011 bowl season, for example, the six automatic-qualifier (AQ) conferences were given $145.2 million in revenue from the BCS while the five non-AQ conferences received only $24.7 million.[33]SONY Vaio VGN-CR123E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan A recent survey conducted at the Quinnipiac University Polling Institute found that 63% of individuals interested in college football preferred a playoff system to the BCS, while only 26% favored the status quo.[34] President Barack Obama has been vocal about his opposition to the BCS. During an appearance on Monday Night Football during the 2008 presidential campaign season, ESPN's Chris Berman asked Obama to name one thing about sports he would like to change.[35]  HP Pavilion dv6-3257cl Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Obama responded that he did not like using computer rankings to determine bowl games, and he supported having a college football playoff for the top eight teams.[35]When Steve Kroft asked then-President-elect Obama about the subject during an interview on 60 Minutes, Obama reiterated his support of eight-team playoff; although he has said it is not a legislative priority.[36][37]HP Pavilion dv7t-6100 CTO Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Longtime college football announcer Brent Musburger also voiced his support for a playoff in an interview with the Chicago Sun-Times. "My dream scenario – and it's not going to happen – would be to take eight conference champions, and only conference champions, and play the quarterfinals of a tournament on campuses in mid-December," Musburger said. "The four losers would remain bowl-eligible. The four winners would advance to semifinals on New Year's Day with exclusive TV windows. Then, like now, one week later, there would be the national championship game."[38]SAMSUNG BA59-02487A Laptop Keyboard In 2008, a lawsuit was threatened due to the exclusion of teams from the non-automatic qualifying conferences in the BCS system.[39][40] Following Utah's win over Alabama in the 2009 Sugar Bowl, Utah Attorney General Mark Shurtleff announced an inquiry into whether the BCS system violates federal anti-trust laws.[41][42] ACER KB.I170A.083 Laptop Keyboard In 2009, senior Utah senator Orrin Hatch announced that he was exploring the possibility of a lawsuit against the BCS as an anti-competitive trust under the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. On November 27, 2009 the Fort Worth Star-Telegram ran a story that said that Rep. Joe Barton (R-TX), ranking member of the House Committee on Energy and Commerce, announced that he would hold anti-trust hearings on the BCS, SONY VAIO PCG-FR315M Laptop Keyboard again based on the Sherman Anti-Trust Act and its provisions outlawing non-competitive trusts, beginning in May 2010.[43] Meanwhile, various organizations, including the BCS, are spending hundreds of thousands of dollars to lobby the federal government both in support and in opposition to a college football playoff system.[44]ACER KB.I170A.083 Laptop Keyboard According to CBSSports.com wire reports and information obtained by the Associated Press, Senator Orin Hatch received a letter from the justice department concerning the possibility of a legal review of the BCS. The letter, received on January 29, 2010, states that the Obama administration will explore options to establish a college football playoff including (a) an anti-trust lawsuit against the BCS, (b) legal action under Federal Trade Commission consumer protection laws, (c) SONY VAIO PCG-FR315M Laptop Keyboard encouragement of the NCAA to take control of the college football postseason, (d) the establishment of an agency to review the costs and benefits of adopting a playoff system, and (e) continued legislation in favor of a playoff system. Assistant Attorney General Ronald Weich writes, "The administration shares your belief that the lack of a college football national championship playoff ...raises important questions affecting millions...." BCS Executive Director Bill Hancock responded to the letter that the BCS complies with all laws and is supported by the participating Division I universities.[45] SONY 148084122 Laptop Keyboard In April 2011, Utah attorney general Mark Shurtleff announced he would file an antitrust lawsuit against the BCS for, "serious antitrust violations that are harming taxpayer-funded institutions to the tune of hundreds of millions of dollars." The announcement followed the April 12, 2011 delivery of a letter to the US Department of Justice signed by 21 "high-profile" economists and antitrust experts asking for an investigation into the BCS' anticompetitive practices.[33]ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard Allegations of corruption and financial impropriety The BCS bowls have been accused of promoting the BCS system because they and their executive officers greatly benefit financially from the system. Bowl executives, such as John Junker of the Fiesta Bowl, are often paid unusually high salaries for employees of non-profit organizations. To promote support for their bowls and the BCS system, these highly-paid executives allegedly give lavish gifts to politicians, collegiate sports executives, and university athletic directors.[46]HP Pavilion dv3-2155ee Laptop Keyboard In response, a pro-playoff organization, called Playoff PAC, in September 2010 filed a complaint with the Internal Revenue Service. The complaint alleges that the top BCS bowls, with the exception of the Rose Bowl, routinely abuse favorable tax status by using charitable donations to give gifts and compensation to college athletic officials. In one example detailed in the complaint, the Orange Bowl treated its executive staff and invited college athletic directors to a four-day Royal Caribbean cruise in which no business meetings were held.[46]HP G62-361TX Laptop Keyboard There have been several occasions where a team's victory in a BCS bowl game was subsequently vacated by NCAA sanctions. USC's final appeals were exhausted in the Reggie Bush situation, with all penalties standing, including a two-year bowl ban and vacation of 14 wins, including a national championship and the entire following season. As a result, the BCS, in a first-time action, vacated the participation of USC's participation in their 2004–2005 National Championship Game win and the 2005–2006 National Championship Game loss to Texas. DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard The 2004–2005 BCS National Championship will remain permanently vacant.[47] This issue was further compounded by the Associated Press, whose writers vote on their own National Championship. That title was retained, with the AP staying consistent with similar policies with teams on postseason bans. (teams being penalised with postseason bans are still eligible for the AP National Championship.)  SONY V072078AS1 Laptop Keyboard In December 2010, five Ohio State University players were implicated in an illegal-benefits scandal preceding the 2011 Sugar Bowl. Though the five players were suspended for five games apiece, not only was Ohio State still allowed to play in the 2011 Sugar Bowl, but so were the five players. After defeating Arkansas, the scandal grew,  DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard including open deception by Ohio State coach Jim Tressel. As a result, the school fined Tressel $250,000 and then forced him out as coach on July 11, 2011, Ohio State University vacated all of its wins in an effort to reduce their penalties.[48] The NCAA gave Ohio State 3 years probation and reduced their football scholarships by 3 per year for three years. The BCS has banned Ohio State from participating in any post season games for the 2012 season.[49]GATEWAY M-1629 Laptop Keyboard On July 23, 2012, as a result of an unprecedented action from the NCAA, the NCAA rendered vacant all wins from the Penn State program during the 14-year cover-up (1998–2011) of the Jerry Sandusky's abuse scandal as outlined and accepted in the Freeh Report. Hence all Penn State victories from the 2005 season were vacated, including the 2006 Orange Bowl.  TOSHIBA Satellite 1805-s204 Laptop Keyboard While there is substantial criticism aimed at the BCS system from coaches, media, and fans alike, there is also support for the system. Tim Cowlishaw of The Dallas Morning News cites several advantages that the BCS has over a playoff system. Under the BCS, a single defeat is extremely detrimental to a team's prospects for a national championship,[50] FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard although critics point out regularly that history shows non-AQ conference teams are hurt far more than AQ conference teams when they lose a game. Supporters contend that this creates a substantial incentive for teams to do their best to win every game. Under a playoff system, front-running teams could be in a position of safety at the end of the regular season and could pull HP G61-400SP Laptop Keyboard or greatly reduce their use of top players in order to protect them from injuries or give them recovery time (this happens frequently in the NFL).[51] This may be less likely to happen under the BCS system where a team in the running for a No. 1 or No. 2 ranking at the end of the year would likely be punished in the polls for a loss, potentially eliminating them from contention. HP G62-b56EF Laptop Keyboard While the BCS routinely involves controversy about which two teams are the top teams, in rare instances there is a clear-cut top two; the BCS ensures these top two will play each other for the championship. For example, USC and Texas in 2005 were the only undefeated teams; both teams were only tested a couple of times all season and mauled every other opponent they faced by large margins. SAMSUNG N140 Laptop Keyboard Had this scenario occurred before the inception of the BCS, the teams would have been unable to play each other due to contractual obligations with the major bowls and there either would have been dual national champions or Texas would have been denied the title despite their record and talent. Under the BCS system however, these two teams got to play for the championship.[52]SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Laptop Keyboard The NCAA, the governing organization of most collegiate sports, has no official process for determining its FBS (Div. 1-A) champion. Instead, FBS champions are chosen by what the NCAA calls in its official list of champions "selecting organizations".[53]HP Pavilion dv3-2106tu Laptop Keyboard According to its website, the BCS: "...is managed by the commissioners of the 11 NCAA Division I-A conferences, the director of athletics at the University of Notre Dame, and representatives of the bowl organizations. "...is a five-game arrangement for post-season college football that is designed to match the two top-rated teams in a national championship game and to create exciting and competitive match-ups between eight other highly regarded teams in four other games".[54]SONY VAIO VGN-CR425E Laptop Keyboard The term "BCS Buster" refers to any team other than Notre Dame not from an AQ conference that manages to earn a spot in a BCS bowl game.[55] These teams are often referred to as non-BCS when discussed outside of the post-season structure. HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard With the exception of Notre Dame, it is generally extremely difficult for a non-AQ conference team to reach a BCS bowl, while it is much easier for an AQ conference team (see rules above) to do so due to the inherent bias built into the rules of the BCS system. This makes becoming a BCS Buster very noteworthy. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7332 Laptop Keyboard Despite the fact that there have been a number of eligible non-AQ conference teams, only seven teams (from only four schools – Utah, TCU, Boise State and Hawaiʻi) have succeeded in becoming BCS Busters. No team outside the six AQ conferences have ever been in the BCS Championship, while a team from the SEC has been in the Championship game every year since 2006. This consistent selection of one conference's teams, and other questionable selections, have been one area of intense criticism of the BCS system and its exclusionary tendencies. LENOVO Ideapad S10 Laptop Keyboard The University of Utah football program became the first BCS Buster in 2004 after an undefeated season, despite harder limits in place before the addition of a 5th bowl in 2006 made BCS Busters more commonplace. They also became the first team to repeat in 2008. The Utes played in the 2005 Tostitos Fiesta Bowl,[55] and beat their opponent, the Pittsburgh Panthers, 35–7. During the 2008 season, the Utes finished their regular season schedule undefeated (8–0 in the Mountain West Conference and 12–0 overall) and earned a berth in the Sugar Bowl against Alabama, DELL 0PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard winning 31–17. Both the number of Top 25 teams (4) and Top 10 teams (2) Utah defeated that year, equalled the number of such ranked teams defeated by eventual one-loss championFlorida. That season, no other team besides the Gators or Utes defeated four ranked teams. Ironically, the strength of schedule argument was often cited by those arguing that Utah did not deserve to be crowned National Champions. The Utes finished 2nd in the AP Poll and received 16 first place votes, the highest ever for a "BCS Buster." In the 2011 season, the Utes began competing as members of the Pacific-12 Conference, one of the six conferences with an automatic BCS tie in.  DELL Vostro 3500 Laptop Keyboard In 2006, Boise State became the second BCS Buster after a 12–0 regular season and subsequent Fiesta Bowl berth against the Oklahoma Sooners. The Broncos won 43–42 in overtime in what many fans, pundits and others consider to be one of the best Bowl games in history. TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard In 2007, Hawaiʻi also finished the regular season at 12–0, but were defeated by the Georgia Bulldogs 41–10 in the Sugar Bowl. This remains the only loss to date by a BCS Buster to an opponent from an AQ conference. DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard The 2009 season was the first in which two teams from non–AQ conferences earned BCS bowl berths. TCU, which finished the regular season 12–0 as champions of the Mountain West, earned the automatic BCS berth with a No. 4 finish in the final BCS rankings. Two slots behind the Horned Frogs were WAC champions Boise State, which finished at 13–0 for its second consecutive unbeaten regular season and fourth in six years. The Broncos defeated the Frogs 17–10 in the 2010 Fiesta Bowl,  HP Pavilion dv6-4003tu Laptop CPU Cooling Fan which marked the first BCS matchup between non-AQ schools, and the first time in BCS history that two unbeaten teams met in a BCS game other than the title match. This pairing created considerable controversy as the AQ conferences and the selection committees were accused of cowardice, pairing the two BCS Busters against each other so that the risk of AQ conference teams losing was eliminated. This game remains a controversial saga in the history of the BCS. SONY Vaio VPC-EA290L Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 2010, TCU was the only non–AQ conference team to get a BCS bowl berth. Boise State was ranked in the top five for most of the season, but a late-season overtime loss to Nevada knocked the Broncos out of serious contention for a BCS bowl bid, despite having still been technically eligible for one. TCU would defeat Wisconsin 21–19 in the 2011 Rose Bowl, once again calling into question the claim of AQ conference superiority, and doing so with an entirely new level of quality of play. HP Pavilion dv6-3033ss Laptop CPU Cooling Fan There was a strong movement to lobby those voting in the AP poll, which is not bound to vote for the BCS Championship winner as the Coaches Poll is, to vote TCU first and split the National Championship. While TCU got a few first place votes, this effort did not change the outcome of the AP poll, with TCU ending up the season in the No. 2 HP Pavilion dv7-6105sg Laptop CPU Cooling Fan spot in all of the major polls and the BCS rankings. As Utah did, TCU will soon join a conference with an automatic BCS tie in when they join the Big 12 Conference beginning with the 2012 season. Boise State will also join an automatic AQ conference in 2013 when they join theBig East Conference, leaving Hawaiʻi as the only non-AQ to have made a BCS bowl and not join an AQ conference. HP Pavilion dv6-3129el Laptop CPU Cooling Fan BCS Busters are currently 5–2 in BCS bowls, and 4–1 in BCS bowls against opponents from AQ conferences.The following table shows all 19 teams that were eligible to become BCS Busters, including the seven that succeeded.Note: Texas Christian University has moved from the Mountain West Conference to the Big 12 Conference and Temple University has moved from the Mid-American Conference to the Big East effective July 1, 2012 increasing the number of BCS AQ schools by 2 to 69 schools. Boise State University (Mountain West), HP Pavilion dv8315nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan San Diego State University (Mountain West), Southern Methodist University (Conference USA), the University of Houston (Conference USA), the University of Central Florida (Conference USA), and the University of Memphis (Conference USA) will all join the Big East Conference on July 1, 2013 increasing the number of BCS schools by 6 to 75 schools. The United States Naval Academy (FBS independent) will join the Big East Conference on July 1, 2015 increasing the number of BCS schools to 76. HP Pavilion dv6-4003tu Laptop CPU Cooling Fan  HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard SONY VAIO VGN-AW31S Laptop Keyboard

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