Overblog Suivre ce blog
Editer l'article Administration Créer mon blog
13 juillet 2013 6 13 /07 /juillet /2013 09:03

overthrew the government and Kabila proclaimed himself the new president of the renamed Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) in May 1997.

Kabila soon turned on his Rwandan and Ugandan supporters, who reinvaded the DRC in 1998 to overthrow Kabila. DELL 454RX Laptop Keyboard

Kabila formed an alliance with the Army for the Liberation of Rwanda, the successor organization to the Rassemblement Démocratique pour le Rwanda. After Kabila was assassinated in 2001 and his son Josephbecame president, Hutu militants reformed into the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR). SAMSUNG R522 Laptop Keyboard

The war ended officially in 2003.[clarification needed] However, the remnants of the FDLR and possibly other Hutu militants maintain a presence in eastern Congo. While not strong enough to pose a threat to the Kagame government, they continue to destabilize the Rwanda-DRC border region.  Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard

The Tutsi rebels defeated the Hutu regime and ended the genocide in July 1994, but approximately two million Hutu refugees - some who participated in the genocide and feared Tutsi retaliation - fled to neighboring Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zaire. Thousands died in epidemics of cholera and dysentery that swept the refugee camps. TOSHIBA Satellite L755D-SP5165RM Laptop Keyboard

The international community responded with one of the largest humanitarian relief efforts ever mounted. The Rassemblement Démocratique pour le Rwanda, composed of Hutu troops and militia members, began to militarize the camps, using them as bases to overthrow the new RPF-dominated government. SAMSUNG NP-Q320-FS01UK Laptop Keyboard

See also: Great Lakes refugee crisis, First Congo War, and Second Congo War

Its patience exhausted, Rwanda sponsored an invasion of Zaire in 1996. Its chosen proxy force was the Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo(AFDL) led by Laurent-Désiré Kabila. The AFDL and Rwandan forces, supported by Uganda, cleared the border refugee camps easily. However, many Hutu militants fled westwards, TOSHIBA Qosmio F20 Series Laptop Keyboard

away from the border. The AFDL followed behind, marching towards Kinshasa as the regime of Mobutu Sese Seko collapsed. The AFDL

With the fall of Kigali, the government forces began to disintegrate. The army lost cohesion and began to rout, being closely pursued by the RPF. This made defending the last two northern towns of Ruhengeri and Gisenyi almost impossible. SONY VAIO PCG-F20 Laptop Keyboard

With his forces in the capital now freed up from the battle for Kigali, Kagame moved the bulk of his army north to capture the government's new power base. On 13 July, Ruhengeri finally capitulated, followed on 18 July by Gisenyi.  HP G42-364LA Laptop Keyboard

In the south-west of the country, French forces from Operation Turquoise controlled a large area, which was given over to the RPF on 21 August 1994, thus giving the RPF complete control of the country.

According to UN sources, they had almost completely run out of ammunition. The following day, after a three-month long battle, the RPF moved in and captured the entire capital.  HP AESP7U00110 Laptop Keyboard

In the meantime, the RPF's eastern forces had reached the south eastern edge of the country and then swung on an axis, hinged on Kigali, westward. Through June they pushed the government forces west through the southern region, along the border with Burundi. They finally stopped following their capture of Butare on 2 July and the arrival of the French, who blocked their path with the implementation of Opération Turquoise. HP G61-425ES Laptop Keyboard

The RPF forces, having control of the northern, eastern and southern suburbs, began to move north around the south-western edge of the city. This put further pressure on Gitarama which fell on 13 June. At this point, the RPF began to close in on the center of the capital, hoping to defeat the government forces in the field. HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard

This took the form of putting pressure on three sides of the city with infantry and light artillery and mortars, allowing the defenders no respite. Heavy fighting continued through June and into the first week on July. However, on 3 July the government forces began to withdraw from the capital, taking with them the majority of the civilian population. Lenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard

officially the Republic of Rwanda (Kinyarwanda: Repubulika y'u Rwanda;French: République du Rwanda), is a sovereign state in central and east Africa. Located a few degrees south of the Equator, Rwanda is bordered by Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. All of Rwanda is at high elevation, with a geography dominated by mountains in the west, savanna in the east, and numerous lakes throughout the country.  DELL XPS 15 L502X Laptop Keyboard

The population is young and predominantly rural, with a density among the highest in Africa. Rwandans form three groups: the Hutu, Tutsi, and Twa. The Twa are a forest-dwelling pygmy people who descend from Rwanda's earliest inhabitants, but scholars disagree on the origins of and differences between the Hutu and Tutsi; IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R51 1833 Laptop Keyboard

some believe that they are derived from former social castes, while others view them as being races or tribes. Christianity is the largest religion in the country, and the principal language is Kinyarwanda, which is spoken by most Rwandans. Rwanda has a presidential system of government. The president is Paul Kagame of the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), HP G62-a20EJ Laptop Keyboard

who took office in 2000. Rwanda has low corruption compared with neighbouring countries, but human rights organisations allege suppression of opposition groups, intimidation, and restrictions on freedom of speech. The country has been governed by a strict administrative hierarchy since precolonial times; there are five provinces, which are delineated by borders drawn in 2006. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

Hunter gatherers settled the territory in the stone and iron ages, followed later by Bantu settlers. The population coalesced, first into clans and then into kingdoms. The Kingdom of Rwanda dominated from the mid-eighteenth century, with the Tutsi kings conquering others militarily, centralising power, and later enacting anti-Hutu policies. TOSHIBA Satellite M645-SP6001L laptop keyboard

Germany colonised Rwanda in 1884, followed by Belgium, which invaded in 1916 during World War I. Both European nations ruled through the kings and perpetuated pro-Tutsi policy. The Hutu population revolted in 1959, massacring a large number of Tutsi and ultimately establishing an independent Hutu-dominated state in 1962. SONY VGN-FE865E/H laptop keyboard

The Tutsi-led Rwandan Patriotic Front launched a civil war in 1990, which was followed by the1994 genocide, in which Hutu extremists killed an estimated 500,000 to 1 million Tutsi and moderate Hutu. The RPF ended the genocide with a military victory.FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard

Rwanda's economy suffered heavily during the 1994 Rwandan Genocide, but has since strengthened. The economy is based mostly on subsistence agriculture. Coffee and tea are the major cash crops for export. Tourism is a fast-growing sector and is now the country's leading foreign exchange earner; TOSHIBA MP-06863US-9308 Laptop Keyboard

Rwanda is one of only two countries in which mountain gorillas can be visited safely, and visitors are prepared to pay high prices for gorilla tracking permits. Music and dance are an integral part of Rwandan culture, particularly drums and the highly choreographed intore dance. Traditional arts and crafts are produced throughout the country, including imigongo, a unique cow dung art. Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard

Humans moved into what is now Rwanda following the last glacial period, either in the Neolithic period around 8000 BC, or in the long humid period which followed, up to around 3000 BC.[6] Archaeological excavations have revealed evidence of sparse settlement by hunter gatherers in the late stone age, followed by a larger population of early Iron Age settlers, who produced dimpled pottery and iron tools.[7][8] HP 608558-001 Laptop Keyboard

These early inhabitants were the ancestors of the Twa, a group of aboriginal pygmy hunter-gatherers who remain in Rwanda today.[9]Between 700 BC and 1500 AD, a number of Bantu groups migrated into Rwanda, and began to clear forest land for agriculture.[10][9] The forest-dwelling Twa lost much of their habitat and moved to the slopes of mountains.[11] DELL 454RX Laptop Keyboard

Historians have several theories regarding the nature of the Bantu migrations; one theory is that the first settlers were Hutu, while the Tutsi migrated later and formed a distinct racial group, possibly of Cushiticorigin.[12] An alternative theory is that the migration was slow and steady, with incoming groups integrating into rather than conquering the existing society.[13][9] Under this theory, the Hutu and Tutsi distinction arose later and was a class distinction rather than a racial one.[14][15] FUJITSU CP270342-02 Laptop Keyboard

The earliest form of social organisation in the area was the clan (ubwoko).[16] Clans existed across the Great Lakes region, with around twenty in the area that is now Rwanda.[17] The clans were not limited to genealogical lineages or geographical area, and most included Hutu, Tutsi, and Twa.[17] From the 15th century, the clans began to coalesce into kingdoms;[18] by 1700 around eight kingdoms existed in present-day Rwanda.[19] ACER MP-04653U4-698 Laptop Keyboard

One of these, the Kingdom of Rwanda, ruled by the TutsiNyiginya clan, became increasingly dominant from the mid-eighteenth century.[20] The kingdom reached its greatest extent during the nineteenth century under the reign of King Kigeli Rwabugiri. Rwabugiri conquered several smaller states, expanded the kingdom west and north,[21][20] and initiated administrative reforms; these included ubuhake, DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard

in which Tutsi patrons ceded cattle, and therefore privileged status, to Hutu or Tutsi clients in exchange for economic and personal service,[22] anduburetwa, a corvée system in which Hutu were forced to work for Tutsi chiefs.[21] Rwabugiri's changes caused a rift to grow between the Hutu and Tutsi populations.[21] The Twa were better off than in pre-Kingdom days, with some becoming dancers in the royal court,[11] but their numbers continued to decline.[23] GATEWAY NV-54 Laptop Keyboard

The Berlin Conference of 1884 assigned the territory to Germany as part of German East Africa, marking the beginning of the colonial era. The explorer Gustav Adolf von Götzen was the first European to significantly explore the country in 1894; he crossed from the south-east to Lake Kivu and met the king.[24][25] HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard

The Germans did not significantly alter the social structure of the country, but exerted influence by supporting the king and the existing hierarchy and delegating power to local chiefs.[26] Belgian forces took control of Rwanda and Burundi during World War I, beginning a period of more direct colonial rule.[27] HP Mini 110-1150LA Laptop Keyboard

Belgium simplified and centralised the power structure,[28] and introduced large-scale projects in education, health, public works, and agricultural supervision, including new crops and improved agricultural techniques to try to reduce the incidence of famine.[29] Both the Germans and the Belgians promoted Tutsi supremacy,  TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 Laptop Keyboard

considering the Hutu and Tutsi different races.[30] In 1935, Belgium introduced identity cards labelling each individual as either Tutsi, Hutu, Twa or Naturalised. While it had previously been possible for particularly wealthy Hutu to become honorary Tutsi, the identity cards prevented any further movement between the classes.[31] Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard

Belgium continued to rule Rwanda as a UN Trust Territory after World War II, with a mandate to oversee independence.[32][33]Tension escalated between the Tutsi, who favoured early independence, and the Hutu emancipation movement, culminating in the 1959 Rwandan Revolution: Hutu activists began killing Tutsi, HP Pavilion dm1-1010st Laptop Keyboard

 forcing more than 100,000 to seek refuge in neighbouring countries.[34][35] In 1962, the now pro-Hutu Belgians held a referendum and elections in which the country voted to abolish the monarchy. Rwanda was separated from Burundi and gained independence in 1962.[36] Cycles of violence followed, with exiled Tutsi attacking from neighbouring countries and the Hutu retaliating with large-scale slaughter and repression of the Tutsi.[37] SONY VAIO VGN-NW110D laptop keyboard

In 1973,Juvénal Habyarimana took power in a military coup. Pro-Hutu discrimination continued, but there was greater economic prosperity and a reduced amount of violence against Tutsi.[38] The Twa remained marginalised, and by 1990 were almost entirely forced out of the forests by the government; many became beggars.[39] Rwanda's population had increased from 1.6 million people in 1934 to 7.1 million in 1989, leading to competition for land.[40] TOSHIBA Satellite P300-1AO laptop keyboard

In 1990, the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), a rebel group composed mostly of Tutsi refugees, invaded northern Rwanda, initiating theRwandan Civil War.[41] Neither side was able to gain a decisive advantage in the war,[42] but by 1992 it had weakened Habyarimana's authority; mass demonstrations forced him into a coalition with the domestic opposition and eventually to sign the 1993 Arusha Accords with the RPF.[43] HP Mini 210-2015la laptop keyboard

The cease-fire ended on 6 April 1994 when Habyarimana's plane was shot down near Kigali Airport, killing him[44] The shooting down of the plane served as the catalyst for the Rwandan Genocide, which began within a few hours. Over the course of approximately 100 days, between 500,000 and 1,000,000[45] HP G42-272BR laptop keyboard

Tutsi and politically moderate Hutu were killed in well-planned attacks on the orders of the interim government.[46] Many Twa were also killed, despite not being directly targeted.[39] The Tutsi RPF restarted their offensive, and took control of the country methodically, gaining control of the whole country by mid-July.[47] HP Pavilion dm3-1080EF laptop keyboard

The international response to the Genocide was limited, with major powers reluctant to strengthen the already overstretched UN peacekeeping force.[48] When the RPF took over, approximately two million Hutu fled to neighbouring countries, in particular Zaire, DELL 454RX laptop keyboard

fearing reprisals;[49] additionally, the RPF-led army was a key belligerent in the First and Second Congo Wars.[50] Within Rwanda, a period of reconciliation and justice began, with the establishment of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) and the reintroduction of Gacaca, a traditional village court system. During the 2000s Rwanda's economy, tourist numbers and Human Development Index grew rapidly;[51][52] HP Pavilion dm1-1002tu laptop keyboard

between 2006 and 2011 the poverty rate reduced from 57 to 45 per cent,[53] and child mortality rates dropped from 180 per 1000 live births in 2000 to 111 per 1000 in 2009.[54] Persistant efforts at economic and political reform gave Rwanda some of the lowest corruption ratings in Africa, where giving a bribe is unknown. SAMSUNG R522 laptop keyboard

Income has doubled between 1994 and 2012, but electricity remains scarce, expensive and internal transport is difficult. Rule of law and efforts to clear red tape have given it a business friendly climate, leading journalists to call Rwanda the "Singapore of Africa"[55] HP 519265-001 laptop keyboard

SONY VAIO VGN-N110G laptop keyboard

The President of Rwanda is the head of state,[56] and has broad powers including creating policy in conjunction with the Cabinet,[57]exercising the prerogative of mercy,[58] commanding the armed forces,[59] negotiating and ratifying treaties,[60] signing presidential orders,[61] and declaring war or a state of emergency.[59] SAMSUNG NP-NB30-KP01 laptop keyboard

The President is elected by popular vote every seven years,[62] and appoints the Prime Minister and all other members of Cabinet.[63] The incumbent President is Paul Kagame, who took office upon the resignation of his predecessor, Pasteur Bizimungu, in 2000. Kagame subsequently won elections in 2003 and 2010,[64][65] although human rights organisations have criticised these elections as being "marked by increasing political repression and a crackdown on free speech".[66]  HP Pavilion dv5t-1200se CTO laptop keyboard

The current constitution was adopted following a national referendum in 2003, replacing the transitional constitution which had been in place since 1994.[67] The constitution mandates a multi-party system of government, with politics based on democracy and elections.[68] However, the constitution places conditions on how political parties may operate. SAMSUNG Q320 laptop keyboard

Article 54 states that "political organizations are prohibited from basing themselves on race, ethnic group, tribe, clan, region, sex, religion or any other division which may give rise to discrimination".[69] The government has also enacted laws criminalising genocide ideology, which can include intimidation, defamatory speeches, HP Pavilion dv6-2155dx laptop keyboard

genocide denial and mocking of victims.[70] According to Human Rights Watch, these laws effectively make Rwanda a one-party state, as "under the guise of preventing another genocide, the government displays a marked intolerance of the most basic forms of dissent".[71] Amnesty International is also critical,  IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 Laptop Keyboard

saying that genocide ideology laws have been used to "silence dissent, including criticisms of the ruling RPF party and demands for justice for RPF war crimes".[72]

The Parliament consists of two chambers. HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard

It makes legislation and is empowered by the constitution to oversee the activities of the President and the Cabinet.[73] The lower chamber is the Chamber of Deputies, which has 80 members serving five-year terms. Twenty-four of these seats are reserved for women, elected through a joint assembly of local government officials;  HP G61-400SP laptop keyboard

another three seats are reserved for youth and disabled members; the remaining 53 are elected byuniversal suffrage under a proportional representation system.[74] Following the 2008 election, there are 45 female deputies, making Rwanda the only country with a female majority in the national parliament.[75] SONY VAIO PCG-F50/BP laptop keyboard

The upper chamber is the 26-seat Senate, whose members are selected by a variety of bodies. A mandatory minimum of 30 per cent of the senators are women. Senators serve eight-year terms.[76] SONY VAIO VGN-NW320F/T laptop keyboard

Rwanda's legal system is largely based on German and Belgian civil law systems and customary law.[77] The judiciary is independent of the executive branch,[78] although the President and the Senate are involved in the appointment of Supreme Court judges.[79] Human Rights Watch have praised the Rwandan government for progress made in the delivery of justice including the abolition of the death penalty,[80] ACER TravelMate 2010 laptop keyboard

but also allege interference in the judicial system by members of the government, such as the politically motivated appointment of judges, misuse of prosecutorial power, and pressure on judges to make particular decisions.[81] TOSHIBA NB100 laptop keyboard

The constitution provides for two types of courts: ordinary and specialised.[82] Ordinary courts are the Supreme Court, the High Court, and regional courts, while specialised courts are military courts and the traditional Gacaca courts, which have been revived to expedite the trials of genocide suspects.[83] TOSHIBA MP-06863US-9308 laptop keyboard

Rwanda has low corruption levels relative to most other African countries; in 2010, Transparency International ranked Rwanda as the eighth cleanest out of 47 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and 66th cleanest out of 178 in the world.[84] The constitution provides for an Ombudsman, whose duties include prevention and fighting of corruption.[85][86] SONY Vaio PCG-K33 laptop keyboard

Public officials (including the President) are required by the constitution to declare their wealth to the Ombudsman and to the public; those who do not comply are suspended from office.[87]

The Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) has been the dominant political party in the country since 1994. The RPF has maintained control of the presidency and the Parliament in national elections, with the party's vote share consistently exceeding 70 per cent.SONY VGN-FE48E laptop keyboard

The RPF is seen as a Tutsi-dominated party but receives support from across the country, and is credited with ensuring continued peace, stability, and economic growth.[88] Human rights organisations, including Amnesty International and Freedom House, SONY VGN-FE48E laptop keyboard

claim that the government suppresses the freedoms of opposition groups by restricting candidacies in elections to government-friendly parties, suppressing demonstrations, and arresting opposition leaders and journalists.[72][89] ACER Extensa 5235 laptop keyboard

Rwanda is a member of the United Nations,[90] African Union, Francophonie[91], East African Community[92], and the Commonwealth of Nations[93]. For many years during the Habyarimana regime, the country maintained close ties with France, as well as Belgium, the former colonial power.[94] Under the RPF government, HP Mini 110-1150LA laptop keyboard

however, Rwanda has sought closer ties with neighbouring countries in East Africa and with the English-speaking world. Diplomatic relations with France were suspended between 2006 and 2010 following the indictment of Rwandan officials by a French judge.[95] Relations with the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) were tense following Rwanda's involvement in the First and Second Congo Wars;[50] HP AE0P7U00010 laptop keyboard

the Congolese army alleged Rwandan attacks on their troops, while Rwanda blamed the Congolese government for failing to suppress Hutu rebels in North and South Kivu provinces.[96][97] Rwanda's relationship with Uganda was also tense for much of the 2000s following a 1999 clash between the two countries' armies as they backed opposing rebel groups in the Second Congo War.[98] As of 2012, relations with both Uganda and the DRC are improved.[98][99]  IBM Thinkpad R61i Laptop Keyboard

Rwanda has been governed by a strict hierarchy since precolonial times.[100] Before colonisation, the King (Mwami) exercised control through a system of provinces, districts, hills, and neighbourhoods.[101] The current constitution divides Rwanda into provinces (intara), districts (uturere), cities, municipalities, towns, sectors (imirenge), cells (utugari), and villages (imidugudu); the larger divisions, and their borders, are established by Parliament.[102] Lenovo 3000 Y500 Laptop Keyboard

The five provinces act as intermediaries between the national government and their constituent districts to ensure that national policies are implemented at the district level. The "Rwanda Decentralisation Strategic Framework" developed by the Ministry of Local Government assigns to provinces the responsibility for "coordinating governance issues in the Province, as well as monitoring and evaluation."[103]  Lenovo 0A62039 Laptop Keyboard

Each province is headed by a governor, appointed by the President and approved by the Senate.[104] The districts are responsible for coordinating public service delivery and economic development. They are divided into sectors, which are responsible for the delivery of public services as mandated by the districts.[105] ASUS X88S Laptop Keyboard

Districts and sectors have directly elected councils, and are run by an executive committee selected by that council.[106] The cells and villages are the smallest political units, providing a link between the people and the sectors.[105] All adult resident citizens are members of their local cell council, from which an executive committee is elected.[106] The city of Kigali is a provincial-level authority, which coordinates urban planning within the city.[103]  Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard

The present borders were drawn in 2006 with the aim of decentralising power and removing associations with the old system and the genocide. The previous structure of twelve provinces centred around the largest cities was replaced with five provinces based primarily on geography.[107] These are Northern Province,Southern Province, Eastern Province, Western Province, and the Municipality of Kigali in the centre.  Lenovo 04W0872 Laptop Keyboard

At 26,338 square kilometres (10,169 sq mi), Rwanda is the world's 149th-largest country.[108] It is comparable in size toHaiti or the state of Maryland in the United States.[77][109] The entire country is at a high altitude: the lowest point is the Rusizi River at 950 metres (3,117 ft) above sea level.[77] Rwanda is located in Central/Eastern Africa, Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard

and is bordered by the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west, Uganda to the north, Tanzania to the east, and Burundi to the south.[77]It lies a few degrees south of the equator and is landlocked.[95] The capital, Kigali, is located near the centre of Rwanda.[110] HP G62-225NR Laptop Keyboard

The watershed between the major Congo and Nile drainage basins runs from north to south through Rwanda, with around 80 per cent of the country's area draining into the Nile and 20 per cent into the Congo via the Rusizi River.[111] The country's longest river is the Nyabarongo, which rises in the south-west, flows north, SONY VGN-FE41M Laptop Keyboard

east, and southeast before merging with theRuvubu to form the Kagera; the Kagera then flows due north along the eastern border with Tanzania. The Nyabarongo-Kagera eventually drains into Lake Victoria, and its source in Nyungwe Forest is a contender for the as-yet undetermined overallsource of the Nile.[112]  HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard

Rwanda has many lakes, the largest being Lake Kivu. This lake occupies the floor of the Albertine Rift along most of the length of Rwanda's western border, and with a maximum depth of 480 metres (1,575 ft),[113] it is one of the twenty deepest lakes in the world.[114] Other sizeable lakes include Burera, Ruhondo, Muhazi, Rweru, and Ihema, the last being the largest of a string of lakes in the eastern plains ofAkagera National Park.[115]  IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard

Mountains dominate central and western Rwanda; these mountains are part of the Albertine Rift Mountains that flank the Albertine branch of the East African Rift; this branch runs from north to south along Rwanda's western border.[116] The highest peaks are found in the Virunga volcano chain in the northwest; this includes Mount Karisimbi, HP COMPAQ NX6325 Laptop Keyboard

Rwanda's highest point, at 4,507 metres (14,787 ft).[117] This western section of the country, which lies within the Albertine Rift montane forestsecoregion,[116] has an elevation of 1,500 metres (4,921 ft) to 2,500 metres (8,202 ft).[118] The centre of the country is predominantly rolling hills, while the eastern border region consists of savanna, plains and swamps.[119] TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 Laptop Keyboard

Rwanda has a temperate tropical highland climate, with lower temperatures than are typical for equatorial countries because of its high elevation.[95] Kigali, in the centre of the country, has a typical daily temperature range between 12 °C (54 °F)and 27 °C (81 °F), with little variation through the year.[120] HP Mini 210-1073TU Laptop Keyboard

There are some temperature variations across the country; the mountainous west and north are generally cooler than the lower-lying east.[121] There are two rainy seasons in the year; the first runs from February to June and the second from September to December. These are separated by two dry seasons: Lenovo Thinkpad T520 Laptop Keyboard

 the major one from June to September, during which there is often no rain at all, and a shorter and less severe one from December to February.[122] Rainfall varies geographically, with the west and northwest of the country receiving more precipitation annually than the east and southeast.[123]  Lenovo 04W0872 laptop keyboard

In prehistoric times montane forest occupied one-third of the territory of present-day Rwanda. Naturally occurring vegetation is now mostly restricted to the three National Parks, with terraced agriculture dominating the rest of the country.[125] TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 laptop keyboard

Nyungwe, the largest remaining tract of forest, contains 200 species of tree as well as orchids and begonias.[126] Vegetation in the Volcanoes National Park is mostly bamboo and moorland, with small areas of forest.[125] By contrast, Akagera has asavanna ecosystem in which acacia dominates the flora. There are several rare or endangered plant species in Akagera, including Markhamia lutea and Eulophia guineensis.[127]  Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

The greatest diversity of large mammals is found in the three National Parks, which are designated conservation areas.[128]Akagera contains typical savanna animals such as giraffes and elephants,[129]  TOSHIBA K000009780 laptop keyboard

while Volcanoes is home to an estimated one-third of the worldwide mountain gorilla population.[130] Nyungwe Forest boasts thirteen primate species including chimpanzeesand Ruwenzori colobus arboreal monkeys; the Ruwenzori colobus move in groups of up to 400 individuals, the largest troop size of any primate in Africa.[131] Acer eMachines E640 laptop keyboard

There are 670 bird species in Rwanda, with variation between the east and the west.[132] Nyungwe Forest, in the west, has 280 recorded species, of which 26 are endemic to the Albertine Rift;[132] endemic species include the Ruwenzori Turaco and Handsome Francolin.[133] Eastern Rwanda, by contrast, features savanna birds such as the Black-headed Gonolek and those associated with swamps and lakes, including storks and cranes.[132] HP G56 laptop keyboard

Rwanda's economy suffered heavily during the 1994 Genocide, with widespread loss of life, failure to maintain the infrastructure, looting, and neglect of important cash crops. This caused a large drop in GDP and destroyed the country's ability to attract private and external investment.[77] The economy has since strengthened, HP Mini 210-1073TU laptop keyboard

with per-capita GDP (PPP) estimated at $1,592 in 2013,[3] compared with $416 in 1994.[134] Major export markets include China, Germany, and the United States.[77] The economy is managed by the central National Bank of Rwanda and the currency is the Rwandan franc; in June 2010, the exchange rate was 588 francs to the United States dollar.[135] IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 6478 laptop keyboard

Rwanda joined the East African Community in 2007 and there are plans for a common East African shilling, which could be in place by 2015.[136]

Rwanda is a country of few natural resources,[95] and the economy is based mostly on subsistence agriculture by local farmers using simple tools.[137] An estimated 90% of the working population farms, and agriculture comprised an estimated 42.1% of GDP in 2010.[77] Compaq 6720s Laptop Keyboard

Since the mid-1980s, farm sizes and food production have been decreasing, due in part to the resettlement of displaced people.[138][139] Despite Rwanda's fertile ecosystem, food production often does not keep pace with population growth, and food imports are required.[77] GATEWAY MT6730 Laptop Keyboard

Crops grown in the country include coffee, tea, pyrethrum, bananas, beans, sorghum and potatoes. Coffee and tea are the major cash crops for export, with the high altitudes, steep slopes and volcanic soils providing favourable conditions. Reliance on agricultural exports makes Rwanda vulnerable to shifts in their prices.[140] HP Mini 210-2004sa Laptop Keyboard

Animals raised in Rwanda include cows, goats, sheep, pigs, chicken, and rabbits, with geographical variation in the numbers of each.[141] Production systems are mostly traditional, although there are a few intensive dairy farms around Kigali.[141] Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

Shortages of land and water, insufficient and poor-quality feed, and regular disease epidemics with insufficient veterinary services are major constraints that restrict output. Fishing takes place on the country's lakes, but stocks are very depleted, and live fish are being imported in an attempt to revive the industry.[142]  ASUS M70 Laptop Keyboard

The industrial sector is small, contributing 14.3% of GDP in 2010.[77] Products manufactured include cement, agricultural products, small-scale beverages, soap, furniture, shoes, plastic goods, textiles and cigarettes.[77] Rwanda's mining industry is an important contributor, generating US$93 million in 2008.[143]Minerals mined include cassiterite, wolframite, gold, and coltan, which is used in the manufacture of electronic and communication devices such as mobile phones.[143][144] DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard

Rwanda's service sector suffered during the late-2000s recession as banks reduced lending and foreign aid projects and investment were reduced.[145] The sector rebounded in 2010, becoming the country's largest sector by economic output and contributing 43.6% of the country's GDP.[77] Key tertiary contributors include banking and finance, wholesale and retail trade, hotels and restaurants, HP Pavilion dv5-1104tu Laptop Keyboard

transport, storage, communication, insurance, real estate, business services and public administration including education and health.[145] Tourism is one of the fastest-growing economic resources and became the country's leading foreign exchange earner in 2011.[146] In spite of the genocide's legacy, the country is increasingly perceived internationally as a safe destination;[147]  DELL 454RX Laptop Keyboard

The Directorate of Immigration and Emigration recorded 405,801 people visiting the country between January and June 2011; 16% of these arrived from outside Africa.[148] Revenue from tourism was US$115.6 million between January and June 2011; holidaymakers contributed 43% of this revenue, despite being only 9% of the numbers.[148]  TOSHIBA PK130260100 Laptop Keyboard

Rwanda is one of only two countries in which mountain gorillas can be visited safely; gorilla tracking, in the Volcanoes National Park, attracts thousands of visitors per year, who are prepared to pay high prices for permits.[149] Other attractions include Nyungwe Forest, home to chimpanzees, Ruwenzori colobus and other primates, the resorts of Lake Kivu, and Akagera, a small savanna reserve in the east of the country.[150] SONY VAIO VGN-N11S laptop keyboard

The largest radio and television stations are state-run. Most Rwandans have access to radio and Radio Rwanda is the main source of news throughout the country. Television access is limited mostly to urban areas.[151] The press is tightly restricted and newspapers routinely self-censor to avoid government reprisals.[151]Nonetheless, publications in Kinyarwanda, ACER TravelMate 3012 laptop keyboard

English, and French critical of the government are widely available in Kigali. Restrictions were increased in the run-up to the Rwandan presidential election of 2010, with two independent newspapers, Umuseso and Umuvugizi, being suspended for six months by the High Media Council.[152] SONY VAIO VGN-FS215Z laptop keyboard

Rwandatel is the country's oldest telecommunications group, providing landlines to 23,000 subscribers, mostly government institutions, banks, NGOs and embassies.[153] Private landline subscription levels are low. As of 2013, mobile phone penetration in the country is 57%,[154] up from 35% in 2011.[155] The leading provider is MTN, HP Pavilion dv5-1120ez laptop keyboard

with around 2.5 million subscribers, followed by Tigo with 700,000.[155] A third mobile phone service, run by Bharti Airtel, launched in March 2012.[156] Rwandatel also operated a mobile phone network, HP Pavilion DV7-3067cl laptop keyboard

but the industry regulator revoked its licence in April 2011, following the company's failure to meet agreed investment commitments.[157] Internet penetration is low but rising rapidly; in 2010 there were 7.7 internet users per 100 people, up from 2.1 in 2007.[158] In 2011, a 2,300 kilometres (1,400 mi) fibre-optic telecommunications network was completed, intended to provide broadband services and facilitate electronic commerce.[159] ASUS M70 laptop keyboard

This network is connected to SEACOM, a submarine fibre-optic cable connecting communication carriers in southern and eastern Africa. Within Rwanda the cables run along major roads, linking towns around the country.[159] Mobile provider MTN also runs a wireless internet service accessible in most areas of Kigali via pre-paid subscription.[160] HP Pavilion DV6-1110eg laptop keyboard

The Rwandan government prioritised funding of water supply development during the 2000s, significantly increasing its share of the national budget.[161] This funding, along with donor support, caused a rapid increase in access to safe water; in 2008, 73% of the population had access to safe water, up from about 55% in 2005.[161] ACER AEZU2R00010 laptop keyboard

The country's water infrastructure consists of urban and rural systems which deliver water to the public, mainly through standpipes in rural areas and private connections in urban areas. In areas not served by these systems, hand pumps and managed springs are used.[162] Despite rainfall exceeding 100 centimetres (39 in) annually in many areas,[120]  IBM ThinkPad T42 laptop keyboard

little use is made of rainwater harvesting.[162]Access to sanitation remains low; the United Nations estimates that in 2006, 34% of urban and 20% of rural dwellers had access to improved sanitation.[163] Government policy measures to improve sanitation are limited, focusing only on urban areas.[163] The majority of the population, both urban and rural, use public shared pit latrines for sanitation.[163]  Lenovo 3000 Y500 laptop keyboard

Rwanda's electricity supply was, until the early 2000s, generated almost entirely from hydroelectric sources; power stations on Lakes Burera and Ruhondo provided 90% of the country's electricity.[164] ASUS X88S laptop keyboard

A combination of below average rainfall and human activity, including the draining of the Rugezi wetlands for cultivation and grazing, caused the two lakes' water levels to fall from 1990 onwards; by 2004 levels were reduced by 50%, leading to a sharp drop in output from the power stations.[165] This, coupled with increased demand as the economy grew, precipitated a shortfall in 2004 and widespread loadshedding.[165]  Lenovo 04W2236 laptop keyboard

As an emergency measure, the government installed diesel generators north of Kigali; by 2006 these were providing 56% of the country's electricity, but were very costly.[165] The government enacted a number of measures to alleviate this problem, including rehabilitating the Rugezi wetlands, which supply water to Burera and Ruhondo and investing in a scheme to extract methane gas from Lake Kivu, TOSHIBA NSK-TAE01 Laptop Keyboard

expected in its first phase to increase the country's power generation by 40%.[166] Only 6% of the population had access to electricity in 2009.[167]

The government has increased investment in the transport infrastructure of Rwanda since the 1994 Genocide, with aid from the United States, European Union, Japan, and others. The transport system centres primarily around the road network, SONY VAIO VGN-NR11M/S Laptop Keyboard

with paved roads between Kigali and most other major cities and towns in the country.[168] Rwanda is linked by road to other countries in East Africa, such as Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi and Kenya, as well as to the eastern Congolese cities of Goma and Bukavu; the country's most important trade route is the road to the port of Mombasa via Kampala and Nairobi.[169] The principal form of public transport in the country is the shared taxi. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

Express routes link the major cities and local service is offered to most villages along the main roads. Coachservices are available to various destinations in neighbouring countries. The country has an international airport at Kigali that serves one domestic and several international destinations.[170] As of 2011 the country has no railways, although funding has been secured for a feasibility study into extending the Tanzanian Central Line into Rwanda.[171]  Lenovo 04W0872 Laptop Keyboard

There is no public water transport between the port cities on Lake Kivu, although a limited private service exists and the government has initiated a programme to encourage development of a full service.[168] Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

In 2012, estimates place Rwanda's population at 11,689,696.[77] The population is young: an estimated 42.7% are under the age of 15, and 97.5% are under 65. The annual birth rate is estimated at 40.2 births per 1,000 inhabitants, and the death rate at 14.9.[77] The life expectancy is 58.02 years (59.52 years for females and 56.57 years for males), which is the 30th lowest out of 221 countries and territories.[77][172] The sex ratio of the country is relatively even.[77] SONY VAIO VPCF126FM Laptop Keyboard

At 408 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,060 /sq mi), Rwanda's population density is amongst the highest in Africa. Historians such as Gérard Prunier believe that the 1994 genocide can be partly attributed to the population density.[40] The population is predominantly rural, with a few large towns; ACER Aspire 5610Z Laptop Keyboard

dwellings are evenly spread throughout the country.[95] The only sparsely populated area of the country is the savanna land in the former province of Umutara and Akagera National Park in the east.[173] Kigali is the largest city, with a population of around one million.[174] Its rapidly increasing population challenges its infrastructural development. HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard

Other notable towns are Gitarama, Butare, and Gisenyi, all with populations below 100,000.[177] The urban population rose from 6% of the population in 1990,[175] to 16.6% in 2006;[178] by 2011, however, the proportion had dropped slightly, to 14.8%.[178]TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5112WH Laptop Keyboard

Rwanda has been a unified state since pre-colonial times,[30] and the population is drawn from just one ethnic and linguistic group, the Banyarwanda;[179] this contrasts with most modern African states, whose borders were drawn by colonial powers and did not correspond to ethnic boundaries or pre-colonial kingdoms.[180]Within the Banyarwanda people, there are three separate groups, the Hutu (84% of the population as of 2009), COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard

Tutsi (15%) and Twa (1%).[181][77] The Twa are a pygmy people who descend from Rwanda's earliest inhabitants, but scholars do not agree on the origins of and differences between the Hutu and Tutsi.[182]Anthropologist Jean Hiernaux contends that the Tutsi are a separate race, with a tendency towards "long and narrow heads, faces and noses";[183] DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard

others, such as Villia Jefremovas, believe there is no discernible physical difference and the categories were not historically rigid.[184] In precolonial Rwanda the Tutsi were the ruling class, from whom the Kings and the majority of chiefs were derived, while the Hutu were agriculturalists.[185] The current government discourages the Hutu/Tutsi/Twa distinction, and has removed such classification from identity cards.[186]  ACER AEZU2R00010 Laptop Keyboard

The majority of Rwandans are Catholic, but there have been significant changes in the nation's religious demographics since the Genocide, with many conversions to Evangelical Christian faiths and Islam.[187] As of 2006, Catholics represented 56.5% of the population, Protestants 37.1% (of whom 11.1% were Seventh Day Adventists) and Muslims 4.6%.[188]  ACER TravelMate 6292 Laptop Keyboard

1.7% claimed no religious beliefs.[188] Traditional religion, despite officially being followed by only 0.1% of the population, retains an influence. Many Rwandans view the Christian God as synonymous with the traditional Rwandan God Imana.[189]  Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard

The country's principal language is Kinyarwanda, which is spoken by most Rwandans. The major European languages during the colonial era were German, and then French, which was introduced by Belgium and remained an official and widely spoken language after independence.[190]  DELL Precision M4500 Laptop Keyboard

The influx of former refugees from Uganda and elsewhere during the late 20th century[190]has created a linguistic divide between the English-speaking population and the French-speaking remainder of the country.[191] HP Mini 210-1140LA laptop keyboard

Kinyarwanda, English and French are all official languages. Kinyarwanda is the language of government and English is the primary educational medium. Swahili, the lingua franca of East Africa, is also widely spoken, particularly in rural areas.[191] Additionally, inhabitants of Rwanda's Nkombo Island speak Amashi, a language closely related to Kinyarwanda.[192] Packard Bell Easynote TM81 laptop keyboard

Music and dance are an integral part of Rwandan ceremonies, festivals, social gatherings and storytelling. The most famous traditional dance is a highly choreographed routine consisting of three components: the umushagiriro, or cow dance, performed by women;[193] the intore, or dance of heroes, performed by men;[193] and the drumming, also traditionally performed by men, on drums known as ingoma.[194] TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7222 laptop keyboard

The best known dance group is the National Ballet, established by President Habyarimana in 1974, which performs nationally and internationally.[195] Traditionally, music is transmitted orally, with styles varying between the social groups. Drums are of great importance; the royal drummers enjoyed high status within the court of the King (Mwami).[196] Packard Bell NEW95 laptop keyboard

Drummers play together in groups of varying sizes, usually between seven and nine in number.[197] The country has a growing popular music industry, influenced by East African, Congolese, and American music. The most popular genre iship hop, with a blend of rap, ragga, R&B and dance-pop.[198] ACER AEZU2R00010 laptop keyboard

ACER TravelMate 6292 laptop keyboard

The cuisine of Rwanda is based on local staple foods produced by subsistence agriculture such as bananas, plantains (known asibitoke), pulses, sweet potatoes, beans, and cassava (manioc).[199] Many Rwandans do not eat meat more than a few times a month.[199] For those who live near lakes and have access to fish, tilapia is popular.[199] SONY VGN-FE11M laptop keyboard

The potato, thought to have been introduced to Rwanda by German and Belgian colonialists, is very popular.[200] Ubugari (or umutsima) is a paste made from cassava or maize and water to form a porridge-like consistency that is eaten throughout East Africa.[201] Isombe is made from mashed cassava leaves and served with dried fish.[200] TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5165 laptop keyboard

Lunch is usually a buffet known as mélange, consist

ing of the above staples and sometimes meat.[202] Brochettes are the most popular food when eating out in the evening, usually made from goat but sometimes tripe, beef, or fish.[202] In rural areas, many bars have a brochette seller responsible for tending and slaughtering the goats, skewering andbarbecuing the meat, and serving it with grilled bananas.[203] HP Pavilion dv6138TX laptop keyboard

Milk, particularly in a fermented yoghurt form called ikivuguto, is a common drink throughout the country.[204] Other drinks include a traditional beer called urwagwa, made from sorghum or bananas, which features in traditional rituals and ceremonies.[200]Commercial beers brewed in Rwanda include Primus, Mützig, and Amstel.[201] Lenovo 04W2236 laptop keyboard

Traditional arts and crafts are produced throughout the country, although most originated as functional items rather than purely for decoration. Woven baskets and bowls are especially common.[205] Imigongo, a unique cow dung art, is produced in the southeast of Rwanda, with a history dating back to when the region was part of the independent Gisaka kingdom. TOSHIBA PK130260100 laptop keyboard

The dung is mixed with natural soils of various colours and painted into patterned ridges to form geometric shapes.[206] Other crafts include pottery and wood carving.[207] Traditional housing styles make use of locally available materials; circular or rectangular mud homes with grass-thatched roofs (known as nyakatsi) are the most common.  HP Mini 110-1150LA Laptop Keyboard

The government has initiated a programme to replace these with more modern materials such as corrugated iron.[208][209]

Rwanda does not have a long history of written literature, but there is a strong oral tradition ranging from poetry to folk stories. Many of the country's moral values and details of history have been passed down through the generations.  APPLE 607-3241-A Laptop Keyboard

The most famous Rwandan literary figure was Alexis Kagame (1912–1981), who carried out and published research into oral traditions as well as writing his own poetry.[210] The Rwandan Genocide resulted in the emergence a literature of witness accounts, essays and fiction by a new generation of writers such as Benjamin Sehene. SONY VAIO VGN-N21S/W Laptop Keyboard

A number of films have been produced about the Rwandan Genocide, including the Golden Globe-nominated Hotel Rwanda, Shake Hands with the Devil, Sometimes in April, and Shooting Dogs, the last two having been filmed in Rwanda and having featured survivors as cast members.[211] HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard

Eleven regular national holidays are observed throughout the year, with others occasionally inserted by the government.[212] The week following Genocide Memorial Day on 7 April is designated an official week of mourning.[213] The victory for the RPF over the Hutu extremists is celebrated as Liberation Day on 4 July. The last Saturday of each month is umuganda, a national day of community service, during which most normal services close down from 07:00 in the morning until 12:00 noon.[214] SONY VAIO VGN-N21S/W laptop keyboard

The Rwandan government provides free education in state-run schools for nine years: six years in primary and three years following a common secondary programme.[216] President Kagame announced during his 2010 re-election campaign that he plans to extend this free education to cover the final three secondary years.[217] HP G42-265LA laptop keyboard

Many poorer children still fail to attend school because of the necessity of purchasing uniforms and books and commitments at home.[218] There are many private schools across the country, some church-run, which follow the same syllabus but charge fees.[218] A very small number offer international qualifications. From 1994 until 2009, Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

secondary education was offered in either French or English; because of the country's increasing ties with the East African Community and the Commonwealth, only the English syllabi are now offered.[219] The country has a number of institutions of tertiary education, with the National University of Rwanda (UNR), Kigali Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Compaq Presario CQ42 laptop keyboard

and Kigali Institute of Education (KIE) being the most prominent.[218] In 2011, the gross enrolment ratio for tertiary education in Rwanda was 7%, from 4% in 2008.[220] The country's literacy rate, defined as those aged 15 or over who can read and write, was 71% in 2009, up from 38% in 1978 and 58% in 1991.[221]  HP G62-b12SA laptop keyboard

The quality of healthcare is generally low, but improving. In 2010, 91 children died before their fifth birthday for every 1000 live births,[222] often from diarrhoea, malaria or pneumonia.[223] However, this figure is improving steadily; in 1990 there were 163 under five deaths for every 1000 live births.[222] TOSHIBA Satellite l25-s1196 laptop keyboard

There is a shortage of qualified medical professionals in the country, and some medicines are in short supply or unavailable.[224] 87% have access to healthcare but there are only two doctors and two paramedics per 100,000 people.[225] Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

The government is seeking to improve the situation as part of the Vision 2020 development programme. In 2008, the government spent 9.7% of national expenditure on healthcare, compared with 3.2% in 1996.[224] It also set up training institutes including the Kigali Health Institute (KHI).[226] Health insurance became mandatory for all individuals in 2008;[227] in 2010 over 90% of the population was covered.[228]  Lenovo 3000 Y500 laptop keyboard

Prevalence of some diseases is declining, including the elimination of maternal and neonatal tetanus[229]and a sharp reduction in malaria morbidity, mortality rate, and specific lethality,[230] but Rwanda's health profile remains dominated by communicable diseases.[229] DELL NSK-DB301 laptop keyboard

HIV/AIDS seroprevalence in the country is classified by the World Health Organization as a generalized epidemic; an estimated 7.3% of urban dwellers and 2.2% of rural dwellers, aged between 15 and 49, are HIV positive.[230] HP Mini 110-1150LA laptop keyboard

Paul Kagame (/kəˈɡɑːmeɪ/ kə-GAH-may; born 23 October 1957) is the sixth and current President of Rwanda, having taken office in 2000 when his predecessor, Pasteur Bizimungu, resigned. Kagame previously commanded the rebel force that ended the 1994 Rwandan Genocide, and was considered Rwanda's de facto leader when he served as Vice President and Minister of Defence from 1994 to 2000. APPLE 607-3241-A laptop keyboard

Kagame was born to a Tutsi family in southern Rwanda. When he was two years old, the Rwandan Revolution ended centuries of Tutsi political dominance; his family fled to Uganda, where he spent the rest of his childhood. In the 1980s, Kagame fought in Yoweri Museveni's rebel army, becoming a senior Ugandan army officer after Museveni's military victories carried him to the Ugandan presidency. Kagame joined the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), SONY VAIO VGN-CR31/P laptop keyboard

which invaded Rwanda in 1990; leader Fred Rwigyema died early in the war and Kagame took control. By 1993, the RPF controlled significant territory in Rwanda and a ceasefire was negotiated. The assassination of Rwandan President Habyarimana was the starting point of the genocide, in which Hutu extremists killed an estimated 500,000 to 1 million Tutsi and moderate Hutu. Kagame resumed the civil war, and ended the genocide with a military victory. TOSHIBA Satellite M30X-214 laptop keyboard

During his vice presidency, Kagame controlled the national army and maintained law and order, while other officials began rebuilding the country. Many RPF soldiers carried out retribution killings; it is disputed whether Kagame organised these, or was merely powerless to stop them. Hutu refugee camps formed in Zaire and other countries,  Lenovo 04W0872 laptop keyboard

which were controlled by the genocidaires (participants in the genocide) and threatened Rwanda's security. The RPF attacked and disbanded the camps in 1996, forcing many refugees to return home, but insurgents continued to attack Rwanda. As part of the counterinsurgency, Kagame sponsored two controversial rebel wars in Zaire. HP Pavilion dv5-1215ca laptop keyboard

The Rwandan- and Ugandan-backed rebels won the first war (1996–97), installing Laurent-Desire Kabila as president in place of dictator Mobutu and renaming the country as the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard

The second war was launched in 1998 against Kabila, and later his son Joseph, following the DRC government's expulsion of Rwandan and Ugandan military forces from the country. The war escalated into a continent-wide conflict which lasted until a 2003 peace deal and ceasefire. HP 640208-001 Laptop Keyboard

As president, Kagame has prioritised national development, launching a programme which aims to transform Rwanda into amiddle income country by 2020. As of 2013, the country is developing strongly on key indicators including health care and education; annual growth between 2004 and 2010 averaged 8% per year. HP Probook 4710S Laptop Keyboard

Kagame has had mostly good relations with the East African Community and the United States, while his relations with France were poor until 2009. Relations with the DRC remain tense despite the 2003 ceasefire; human rights groups and a leaked United Nations report allege Rwandan support for two insurgencies in the country, TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard

a charge Kagame denies. Several countries suspended aid payments in 2012 following these allegations. Kagame is popular in Rwanda and with some foreign observers; however, human rights groups accuse him of political repression. He won an election in 2003, under a new constitution adopted that year, and was elected for a second term in 2010. TOSHIBA Satellite M305 Laptop Keyboard

Kagame was born in October 1957, the youngest of six children,[2] in Tambwe, Rwanda-Urundi, a village located in the modern Southern Province of Rwanda.[3] His father, Deogratias, was a member of the Tutsi ethnic group, from which the royal family had been derived since the eighteenth century or earlier.[4] SONY KFRMBA221A Laptop Keyboard

Deogratias had family ties to King Mutara III, but he chose to pursue an independent business career rather than maintain a close connection to the royal court.[2] Kagame's mother, Asteria Rutagambwa, was also a Tutsi from the family of the last Rwandan queen, Rosalie Gicanda.[2] HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard

At the time of Kagame's birth, Rwanda was a United Nations Trust Territory; long-time colonial power Belgium still ruled the territory, but with a mandate to oversee independence.[5][6] Rwandans formed three distinct groups: the minority Tutsi were the traditional ruling class, and the Belgians had long promoted their supremacy,[7] GATEWAY V030946FS1 US Laptop Keyboard

while the majority Hutu were agriculturalists.[8] The third group, the Twa, were a forest-dwelling pygmy people who descended from Rwanda's earliest inhabitants and formed less than 1% of the population.[9] Tension between Tutsi and Hutu had been escalating through the 1950s, and culminated in the 1959 Rwandan Revolution. HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard

Hutu activists began killing Tutsi, forcing more than 100,000 to seek refuge in neighbouring countries.[10][11] Kagame's family abandoned their home, living for two years in the far north-east of Rwanda and eventually crossing the border into Uganda. They moved gradually north, and settled in the Nshungerezi refugee camp in the Toro sub-region in 1962.[2] HP AELX6U00210 Laptop Keyboard

It was around this time that, as young boys, Kagame and his future comrade, Fred Rwigyema, first met one another.[12]

Kagame began his primary education in a school near the refugee camp, where he and other Rwandan refugees learned English and began to integrate into Ugandan culture.[13] At the age of nine he moved to the respected Rwengoro Primary School, SONY VAIO VGN-FS515B Laptop Keyboard

around 16 kilometres (10 mi) away, graduating with the best grades in the district.[14] He subsequently attended Ntare School, one of the best schools in Uganda, and also the alma mater of future Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni.[14]The death of Kagame's father in the early 1970s, HP COMPAQ NC6320 Laptop Keyboard

and the departure of Rwigyema to an unknown location, led to a decline in his academic performance and an increased tendency to fight those who belittled the Rwandan population.[15] He was eventually suspended from Ntare and completed his studies without distinction at Old Kampala Secondary School.[16] SAMSUNG N145 Laptop Keyboard

After finishing his schooling Kagame made two visits to Rwanda, in 1977 and 1978. He was initially hosted by family members of his former classmates, but upon arrival in Kigali he made contact with members of his own family.[17] HP Mini 210-2032tu laptop keyboard

 He kept a low profile on these visits, believing that his status as a well-connected Tutsi exile could lead to arrest; on his second visit he entered the country through Zaire rather than Uganda to avoid suspicion.[17] Kagame used his time in Rwanda to explore the country, familiarise himself with the political and social situation and make connections that would prove useful to him in his later activities.[17] TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5102CL Laptop Keyboard

In 1978, Fred Rwigyema returned to western Uganda and reunited with Kagame.[18] During his absence, Rwigyema had joined the rebel army of Yoweri Museveni, which was based in Tanzania and aimed to overthrow the government of Idi Amin.[18] Rwigyema then returned to Tanzania and fought in the 1979 war in which Museveni's army, DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard

allied with the Tanzanian army and other Ugandan exiles, defeated Amin.[19] Following Amin's defeat, and inspired by Rwigyema, Kagame and other Rwandan refugees pledged allegiance to Museveni, who was a cabinet member in the transition government. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard [21]

In late 1980 a general election was held in Uganda, which was won by former incumbent Milton Obote. Museveni disputed the result, and he and his followers withdrew from the new government in protest. In 1981, Museveni formed the rebel National Resistance Army (NRA); Kagame and Rwigyema joined as founding soldiers, SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W Laptop Keyboard

along with thirty eight Ugandans.[22][23] The army's goal was to overthrow Obote's government, in what became known as the Ugandan Bush War.[23][24] Kagame and Rwigyema joined the NRA primarily to ease conditions for Rwandan refugees persecuted by Obote. However, they also had a long term goal of returning with other Tutsi refugees to Rwanda; Compaq 6720s Laptop Keyboard

military experience would enable them to potentially fight the Hutu-dominated Rwandan army.[25] In the NRA, Kagame specialised in intelligence gathering and he rose to a position close to Museveni.[26]  DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard

The NRA, based in the Luwero triangle, fought the Ugandan army for the next five years and continued the war despite Obote's deposition in a 1985 coup d'état and subsequent peace talks.[27] In 1986, the NRA captured Kampala with a force of 14,000 soldiers, including 500 Rwandans, and formed a new government.[28] TOSHIBA Satellite P300 Laptop Keyboard

After Museveni's inauguration as president, he appointed Kagame and Rwigyema as senior officers in the new Ugandan army; Kagame was the head of military intelligence.[29][30] As well as fulfilling their army duties, Kagame and Rwigyema began building a covert network of Rwandan Tutsi refugees within the army's ranks, DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard

intended as the nucleus for a putative attack on Rwanda.[31] In 1989 Rwanda's President Habyarimana and many Ugandans in the army began to criticise Museveni over his appointment of Rwandan refugees to senior positions,[32] which led him to demote Kagame and Rwigyema.[33] They remained de facto senior officers, HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard

but the change caused them to accelerate their plans to invade Rwanda.[34] They joined an organisation called the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), a refugee association which had been operating under various names since 1979.[35] Rwigyema became the RPF leader shortly after joining and, while still working for the Ugandan army, he and Kagame finalised their invasion plans.[36]TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

In October 1990, Rwigyema led a force of over 4,000[37] RPF rebels into Rwanda at the Kagitumba border post, advancing 60 km (37 mi) south to the town of Gabiro.[38] Paul Kagame was not present at the initial raids, as he was attending a course at the Command and General Staff College in Fort Leavenworth, United States. HP COMPAQ NX6325 Laptop Keyboard

Rwigyema was killed on the third day of the attack,[39] throwing the RPF into confusion. France and Zaire then deployed forces in support of the Rwandan army, and by the end of October the RPF had been pushed back into the far northeast corner of the country.[40] Kagame returned to Africa following Rwigyema's death and took command of the RPF forces,  IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X301 2779 Laptop Keyboard

which had been reduced to fewer than 2,000 troops.[41] Kagame and his soldiers moved west, through Uganda, to the Virunga mountains, a rugged high altitude area where they were protected from attacks by the Rwandan army.[42] SONY N860-7676-T101 Laptop Keyboard

From there he rearmed and reorganised the army, and carried out fundraising and recruitment from the Tutsi diaspora.[43] Kagame restarted the war in January 1991, with a surprise attack on the northern town of Ruhengeri. The RPF captured the town, benefiting from the element of surprise, and held it for one day before retreating back to the forests.[44]  TOSHIBA Tecra M10-S3454 Laptop Keyboard

For the next year, the RPF waged a classic hit and run style guerrilla war, capturing some border areas but not making significant gains in the war against the Rwandan army.[45] In June 1992, following the formation of a multiparty coalition government in Kigali, Kagame announced a ceasefire and began negotiations with the Rwandan government in Arusha, TOSHIBA NB100-11G Laptop Keyboard

  Tanzania.[46] In early 1993, several extremist Hutu groups formed and began campaigns of large scale violence against the Tutsi.[47] Kagame responded by suspending peace talks and launching a major attack, gaining a large swathe of land across the north of the country.[48] Peace negotiations eventually resumed in Arusha; the resulting set of agreements, ACER PK1301K0200 laptop keyboard

known as the Arusha Accords, were signed in August 1993 and gave the RPF positions in a Broad-Based Transitional Government (BBTG) and in the national army.[49][50] The United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR), a peacekeeping force, arrived in the country and the RPF were given a base in the national parliament building in Kigali, for use during the setting up of the BBTG.[51] TOSHIBA Tecra M10-S3454 laptop keyboard

On 6 April 1994, Rwandan President Habyarimana's plane was shot down near Kigali Airport, killing Habyarimana and the President of Burundi, Cyprien Ntaryamira, as well as their entourage and three French crew members.[52][53] SONY VAIO VGN-N38Z/W laptop keyboard

It is unknown who carried out the attack. Historian Gérard Prunier, in his book written shortly after the incident, concluded that the shooting of the plane was most likely a coup d'etat by extreme Hutu members of Habyarimana's government and was planned as part of the genocide;[54] this theory was contradicted in 2006 by French judge Jean-Louis Bruguière, who alleged that Kagame and the RPF were responsible.[55] DELL NSK-DB301 laptop keyboard

The French government later ordered a more thorough judicial inquiry, which employed ballistics experts and concluded in 2012 that the shots emanated from Camp Kanombe, an area controlled at the time by the Rwandan army; this report reaffirmed the initial theory that Hutu extremists assassinated Habyarimana.[56]Following Habyarimana's death, SONY KFRMBA221A laptop keyboard

a military committee led by Colonel Theoneste Bagosora took immediate control of the country.[57] Under the committee's direction, the Hutu paramilitary group Interahamwe and the presidential guard began to kill Hutu and Tutsi opposition politicians and other prominent Tutsi figures;[58]within 24 hours all moderate leaders had been killed,[59] GATEWAY V030946FS1 US laptop keyboard

including prime minister Agathe Uwilingiyimana.[60] The killers then began targeting the entire Tutsi population, as well as moderate Hutu,[61] beginning the Rwandan Genocide.[62]

On 7 April, Kagame warned the committee and UNAMIR that he would resume the civil war if the killing did not stop.[63] The next day, the Rwandan government forces attacked the national parliament building from several directions, HP Pavilion DV7-3183cl laptop keyboard

but the RPF troops stationed there successfully fought back;[64] Kagame then began an attack from the north on three fronts, seeking to link up quickly with the isolated troops in Kigali.[65] An interim government was set up but Kagame refused to talk to it, believing that it was just a cover for Bagosora's rule.[66] Over the next few days, SONY VAIO VGN-AR320E laptop keyboard

the RPF advanced steadily south, capturing Gabiro and large areas of countryside to the north and east of Kigali.[67] They avoided attacking Kigali or Byumba at this stage, but conducted maneouvres designed to encircle the cities and cut off supply routes.[68] The RPF also allowed Tutsi refugees from Uganda to settle behind the front line in the RPF controlled areas.[68] SONY VAIO VGN-FS515B laptop keyboard

Throughout April there were numerous attempts by UNAMIR to establish a ceasefire, but Kagame insisted each time that the RPF would not stop fighting unless the killings stopped.[69] In late April the RPF secured the whole of the Tanzanian border area and began to move west from Kibungo, to the south of Kigali.[70]  SONY KFRMBA220A laptop keyboard

They encountered little resistance, except around Kigali and Ruhengeri.[66] By 16 May, they had cut the road between Kigali and Gitarama, the temporary home of the interim government, and by 13 June, they had taken Gitarama itself, following an unsuccessful attempt by the Rwandan government forces to reopen the road;  ASUS F83 laptop keyboard

the interim government was forced to relocate to Gisenyi in the far north west.[71] As well as fighting the war, Kagame was recruiting heavily to expand the army. The new recruits included Tutsi survivors of the genocide and refugees from Burundi, but were less well trained and disciplined than the earlier recruits.[72] HP Pavilion G6-1227TU laptop keyboard

Having completed the encirclement of Kigali, Kagame spent the latter half of June fighting for the city itself.[73] The government forces had superior manpower and weapons, but the RPF nonetheless steadily gained territory as well as conducting raids to rescue civilians from behind enemy lines.[73] According to Roméo Dallaire, the force commander of UNAMIR, this success was due to Kagame being a "master of psychological warfare";[73]  TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7335 laptop keyboard

he exploited the fact that the government forces were concentrating on the genocide rather than the fight for Kigali, and capitalised on the government's loss of morale as it lost territory.[73] The RPF finally defeated the Rwandan government forces in Kigali on 4 July,[74] and on 18 July took Gisenyi and the rest of the north west,  Lenovo 45N2240 Laptop Keyboard

 forcing the interim government into Zaire and ending the genocide.[75] At the end of July 1994, Kagame's forces held the whole of Rwanda except for a zone in the south west which had been occupied by a French led United Nations force as part of Opération Turquoise.[76] SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W laptop keyboard

SONY VAIO VGN-FS215Z laptop keyboard

Partager cet article

Repost 0
Published by batterys
commenter cet article