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18 juin 2013 2 18 /06 /juin /2013 06:24

The Song Dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝; 960–1279 CE) provided some of the most significant technological advances in Chinese history, many of which came from talented statesmen drafted by the government through imperial examinations.

The ingenuity of advanced mechanical engineering had a long tradition in China. Sony  VAIO VGN-FZ31M Battery

The Song Dynasty engineer Su Song admitted that he and his contemporaries were building upon the achievements of the ancients such as Zhang Heng (78–139), an astronomer, inventor, and early master of mechanical gears.[1] The application of movable type printing advanced the already widespread use of woodblock printing to educate and amuse Confucian students and the masses. Sony Vaio VGN-FZ19VN Battery

The application of new weapons employing the use of gunpowder enabled the Song Dynasty to ward off its militant enemies—the Liao, Western Xia, and Jin with weapons such as cannons—until its collapse to the Mongol forces of Kublai Khan in the late 13th century.

Notable advances in civil engineering, nautics, and metallurgy were made in Song China, as well as the introduction of thewindmill to China during the thirteenth century. Sony Vaio VGN-FZ39VN Battery

These advances, along with the introduction of paper-printed money, helped revolutionize and sustain the economy of the Song Dynasty.Polymath personalities – that is, people knowledgeable across an encyclopaedic range of topics – such as Shen Kuo (1031–1095) and Su Song (1020–1101) embodied the spirit of early empiricalscience and technology in the age of the Song Dynasty. Sony Vaio VGN-FZ39VN Battery

Shen is famous for discovering the concept of true north and magnetic declination towards the North Pole by calculating a more accurate measurement of theastronomical meridian, and fixed the calculated position of the pole star that had shifted over the centuries.[3] This allowed sailors to navigate the seas more accurately with the magnetic needle compass, Sony Vaio VGN-FZ31ZR Battery

also first described by Shen.[3] Shen was made famous for his written description of Bi Sheng, the inventor of movable type printing. Shen was also interested ingeology, as he formulated a theory of geomorphology and climate change over time after making observations of strange natural phenomena. Sony Vaio VGN-FZ31SR Battery

Using contemporary knowledge of solar eclipses and lunar eclipses, he theorized that the sun and moon were spherical in shape, not flat, while expanding upon the reasoning of earlier Chinese astronomical theorists.Along with his colleague Wei Pu in the Bureau of Astronomy, Shen used cosmological hypotheses when describing the variations of planetary motion, Sony Vaio VGN-FZ31ER Battery

including retrogradation.[7][8] One of Shen's greatest achievements, aided by Wei Pu, was correcting the lunar error by diligently recording and plotting the moon's orbital path three times a night over a period of five years.[9]Unfortunately Shen had many political rivals at court who were determined to sabotage his work. Sony Vaio VGN-NR31E/S Battery

The court fully accepted their corrections to lunar and solar error, but only partially adopted Shen and Wei's corrected plotting of the planetaryorbital paths and various speeds.[9] Su Song, one of Shen Kuo's political rivals at court, wrote a famous pharmaceuticaltreatise in 1070 known as the Bencao Tujing, which included related subjects on botany, zoology, metallurgy, andmineralogy. Sony Vaio VGN-NR31ER/S Battery

This treatise included many medicinal applications, including the use of ephedrin as a pharmaceutical drug.[12] He also was the author of a large celestial atlas of five different star maps,[13] and his extensive written and illustrative work in cartography helped solve a heated border dispute between the Song Dynasty and its Khitan neighbor of theLiao Dynasty. Sony Vaio VGN-NR31J/S Battery

However, Su was most famous for his hydraulic-powered astronomical clock tower, crowned with a mechanically driven armillary sphere, which was erected in the capital city of Kaifeng in the year 1088.[15] Su's clock tower employed theescapement mechanism two centuries before it was applied in clocks of Europe. Sony Vaio VGN-NR31MR/S Battery

Su's clock tower also featured the earliest known endless power-transmitting chain drive in the world, as outlined in his horological treatise of 1092.[18] The cases of these two men display the eagerness of the Song in drafting highly skilled officials who were knowledgeable in the various sciences which could ultimately benefit the administration, the military, the economy, and the people. Sony Vaio VGN-NR31S/S Battery

Intellectual men of letters like the versatile Shen Kuo dabbled in subjects as diverse as mathematics, geography, geology,economics, engineering, medicine, art criticism, archaeology, military strategy, and diplomacy, among others.[19][20] On a court mission to inspect a frontier region, Shen Kuo once made a raised-relief map of wood and glue-soaked sawdust to show the mountains, roads, rivers, and passes to other officials.[19] Sony Vaio VGN-NR31SR/S Battery

He once computed the total number of possible situations on a game board, another time the longest possible military campaign given the limits of human carriers who would bring their own food and food for other soldiers.[19] Shen Kuo is also noted for improving the designs of the inflow clepsydra clock for a more efficient higher-order interpolation, Sony Vaio VGN-NR31Z/S Battery

the armillary sphere, the gnomon, and the astronomical sighting tube; increasing its width for better observation of the pole star and other celestial bodies.[21] Shen Kuo also experimented with camera obscura, only a few decades after the first to do so, Ibn al-Haytham (965–1039). Sony Vaio VGN-NR31Z/T Battery

There were many other important figures in the Song era besides Shen Kuo and Su Song, many of whom contributed greatly to the technological innovations of the time period. Although the mechanically driven mile-marking device of the carriage-drawnodometer had been known in China since the ancient Han Dynasty, the Song Shi (compiled in 1345) provides a much greater description and more in-depth view of the device than earlier Chinese sources. Sony Vaio VGN-NR31ZR/S Battery

The Song Shi states:

The odometer. [The mile-measuring carriage] is painted red, with pictures of flowers and birds on the four sides, and constructed in two storeys, handsomely adorned with carvings. At the completion of every li, the wooden figure of a man in the lower storey strikes a drum; Sony Vaio VGN-NR38E/S Battery

at the completion of every ten li, the wooden figure in the upper storey strikes a bell. The carriage-pole ends in a phoenix-head, and the carriage is drawn by four horses. The escort was formerly of 18 men, but in the 4th year of the Yongxi reign period (987) the emperor Taizong increased it to 30. Sony Vaio VGN-NR38M/S Battery

In the 5th year of the Tian-Sheng reign-period (1027) the Chief Chamberlain Lu Daolong presented specifications for the construction of odometers as follows:

What follows is a long dissertation made by the Chief Chamberlain Lu Daolong on the ranging measurements and sizes of wheels and gears. However, the concluding paragraph provides description at the end of how the device ultimately functions:Sony Vaio VGN-NR38S/S Battery

When the middle horizontal wheel has made 1 revolution, the carriage will have gone 1 li and the wooden figure in the lower story will strike the drum. When the upper horizontal wheel has made 1 revolution, the carriage will have gone 10 li and the figure in the upper storey will strike the bell. Sony Vaio VGN-NR38Z/S Battery

The number of wheels used, great and small, is 8 inches (200 mm) in all, with a total of 285 teeth. Thus the motion is transmitted as if by the links of a chain, the "dog-teeth" mutually engaging with each other, so that by due revolution everything comes back to its original starting point.[24] Sony Vaio VGN-NR38Z/T Battery

In the Song period (and once during the earlier Tang period), the odometer device was combined with the south-pointing chariot device, which was probably first invented by the ancient Chinese mechanical engineer Ma Jun (200–265). The south-pointing chariot was a wheeled vehicle that may, in some cases, have incorporated complex differential gears. Sony Vaio VGN-NR31E/S Battery

(These are used now in nearly all modern automobiles to apply equal amounts of torque to wheels rotating at different speeds while turning.) The differential gears could have been used to keep a mechanically-operated pointer aiming in a fixed direction, to the south, compensating for whatever turns the chariot made. Sony VPCW11S1E/P Battery

Other arrangements of gears could also have been used for the same purpose. The device used mechanical dead reckoning, rather than the magnetism of a compass, in order to navigate and find one's directional bearings. Yan Su (燕肃; c. 961–1040), the Divisional Director in the Ministry of Works, Sony VPCW11S1E/P Battery

recreated a south-pointing chariot device in 1027, and his specifications for creating the device were provided in the Song Shi.[25]This is of little surprise, as Yan was somewhat of a polymath like Shen Kuo and Su Song, improving the design of the clepsydra clock, writing on mathematicalharmonics, theory about tides, etc. Sony VPCW11S1E/T Battery

The Song Shi text records that it was the engineer Wu Deren who combined the south-pointing chariot and odometer in the year 1107:

In the first year of the Da-Guan reign period (1107), the Chamberlain Wu Deren presented specifications of the south-pointing carriage and the carriage with the li-recording drum (odometer). Sony VPCW11S1E/W Battery

The two vehicles were made, and were first used that year at the great ceremony of the ancestral sacrifice.The text then went on to describe in full detail the intricate mechanical design for the two devices combined into one. (See the article on the south-pointing chariot). Sony VPCW12S1E/P Battery

Besides clockwork, hydraulic-powered armillary spheres, odometers, and mechanical compass vehicles, there were other impressive devices of mechanical engineering found during the Song Dynasty. Although literary references for mechanical revolving repositories and book cases of Buddhist temples trace back to at least 823 during the Tang Dynasty, they came to prominence during the Song Dynasty. Sony VPCW12S1E/T Battery

The invention of the revolving book case is considered to have happened earlier, and is credited to the layman Fu Xi in 544.[28]Revolving bookcases were popularized in Buddhist monasteries during the Song Dynastyunder the reign of Emperor Taizu, who ordered the mass printing of the Buddhist Tripiṭakascriptures. Sony VAIO VGN-NR21E/S Battery

Furthermore, the oldest surviving rotating book case dates to the Song period (12th century), found at the Longxing Monastery of Zhengding, Hebeiprovince. However, there were nine prominently known revolving repositories during the Song period, and one of them was even featured in an illustration of Li Jie's bookYingzao Fashi ('Treatise on Architectural Methods') of 1103.Sony VAIO VGN-NR21J/S Battery

The rotating repository of 1119 in Kaifu Temple near Changsha had five wheels which all turned together,[31] and the revolving repository at Nanchan Temple of Suzhou featured a brake system of some sort (sinologists are still uncertain how this operated, since the earliest known curve brake bands appear in the time of Leonardo da Vinci in Europe). Sony VAIO VGN-NR21S/S Battery

A later Muslim traveler Shah Rukh (son of the Turco-Mongol warlord Timur) came to Ming Dynasty China in 1420 during the reign of the Yongle Emperor, and described a revolving repository in Ganzhou of Gansu province that he called a 'kiosque':

In another temple there is an octagonal kiosque, having from the top to the bottom fifteen stories. Sony VAIO VGN-NR21S/T Battery

Each story contains apartments decorated withlacquer in the Cathayan manner, with ante-rooms and verandahs…It is entirely made of polished wood, and this again gilded so admirably that it seems to be of solid gold. There is a vault below it. An iron shaft fixed in the center of the kiosque traverses it from bottom to top, and the lower end of this works in an iron plate, Sony VAIO VGN-NR11Z/T Battery

whilst the upper end bears on strong supports in the roof of the edifice which contains this pavilion. Thus a person in the vault can with a trifling exertion cause this great kiosque to revolve. All the carpenters, smiths, and painters in the world would learn something in their trades by coming here! Sony VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Battery

In the field of manufacturing textiles, Joseph Needham (1900–1995) wrote that the Chinese invented the quilling-wheel by the 12th century,[33] and wrote the mechanical belt drive was known since the 11th century. Qin Guan's book Can Shu (Book ofSericulture) of 1090 described a silk-reeling machine with an oscillating 'proto-flyer', as the apparatus of the main reel of which the silk is bound is wound and powered by treadle motion. Sony VAIO VGN-NR11S/S Battery

In this device the ramping arm of the flyer was activated simultaneously by a subsidiary belt drive.[33] This machine was portrayed in an illustration of the Geng Zhi Tu book of 1237,[35] and again a more elaborate illustration was provided in a 17th-century book.[33] Qin Guan's 1090 book stated that: Sony VAIO VGN-NR11M/S Battery

The pulley (bearing the eccentric lug) is provided with a groove for the reception of the driving belt, an endless band which responds to the movement of the machine by continuously rotating the pulley.

An endless rope or cord may have been used in Du Shi's device of waterwheels that powered bellows of the blast furnace in the 1st century (see Wind Power below). Sony VAIO VGN-SR11M Battery

Printing technology in the form of movable type was invented by Bi Sheng (毕升; 990–1051) in the 11th century. The work of Bi Sheng was written of by Shen Kuo in his Dream Pool Essays (Mengxi Bitan).[36] Movable type, alongside woodblock printing, increased literacy with the mass production of printed materials. Sony VAIO VGN-SR11MR Battery

This meant that parents could encourage sons to learn to read and write and therefore be able to take the imperial examination and become part of the growing learned bureaucracy. Movable type printing was further advanced in Joseon era Korea, where Bi Sheng's baked clay characters were scrapped for metal type characters in 1234.[37] Sony VAIO VGN-SR19VN Battery

The movable type of Bi Sheng was later improved upon by Wang Zhen (1290–1333), who invented wooden movable type c. 1298, andHua Sui (1439–1513), who invented bronze movable type in China in 1490; yet the Koreans had metal movable type before Hua Sui, and even Wang Zhen had experimented with tin-metal movable type.[38] Sony  VGP-BPS13 Battery

Although movable type and woodblock printing would remain the dominant types of printing methods for centuries, the European printing press (employing the Hellenistic screw-press) was eventually adopted by East Asian countries.

For printing, the mass production of paper for writing was already well established in China. Sony  VAIO VGP-BPS13A/B Battery

The papermaking process had been perfected and standardized by the Han Dynasty court eunuch Cai Lun (50–121) in 105, and was in widespread use for writing even by the 3rd century.[39] The Song Dynasty was the world's first government in history to issue paper-printed money—the banknote (see Jiaozi and Huizi).[40] Sony  VAIO VGP-BPS13B/B Battery

Toilet paper had been in general use in China since the 6th century,[41] paper bags for preserving the flavor of tea leaves by the 7th century,[41] and by the Song Dynasty government officials who had done a great service were rewarded by the court with gifts of paper-printed money wrapped in paper envelopes. Sony  VAIO VGP-BPS13/S Battery

During the Song Dynasty, independent and government sponsored industries were developed to meet the needs of a growing population that had reached over 100 million. For example, for the printing of paper money alone, the Song court established several government-run mints and factories in the cities of Huizhou, Chengdu, Hangzhou, and Anqi. Sony  VAIO VGP-BPS13A/S Battery

The size of the workforce employed in these paper money factories was quite large, as it was recorded in 1175 that the factory at Hangzhou alone employed more than a thousand workers a day.

Advances in military technology aided the Song Dynasty in its defense against hostile neighbors to the north. Sony  VAIO VGP-BPS13B/S Battery

Theflamethrower found its origins in Byzantine-era Greece, employing Greek fire (a chemically complex, highly flammable petrol fluid) in a device with a siphon hose by the 7th century.[45] The earliest reference to Greek Fire in China was made in 917, written by the author Wu Renchen in his Shiguo Chunqiu. Sony  VAIO VGP-BPS13/Q Battery

In 919, the siphon projector-pump was used to spread the 'fierce fire oil' that could not be doused with water, as recorded by Lin Yu in his Wuyue Beishi, hence the first credible Chinese reference to the flamethrower employing the chemical solution of Greek fire (see also Pen Huo Qi). Lin Yu mentioned also that the 'fierce fire oil' derived ultimately from one of China's maritime contacts in the 'southern seas', Arabia(Dashiguo). Sony  VAIO VGP-BPS13A/Q Battery

In the Battle of Langshan Jiang (Wolf Mountain River) in 932, the naval fleet of the Wenmu King from Wuyuedefeated a Huainan army from the Wu state; Wenmu's success was facilitated by the use of 'fire oil' ('huo you') to burn their fleet, signifying the first Chinese use of gunpowder in a battle.[49] Sony  VAIO VGP-BPS13B/Q Battery

The Chinese applied the use of double-piston bellows to pump petrol out of a single cylinder (with an upstroke and downstroke), lit at the end by a slow-burning gunpowder match to fire a continuous stream of flame.[48] This device was featured in description and illustration of the Wujing Zongyaomilitary manuscript of 1044.[48] Sony  VGP-BPS21 Battery

In the suppression of the Southern Tang state by 976, early Song naval forces confronted them on the Yangtze River in 975. Southern Tang forces attempted to use flamethrowers against the Song navy, but were accidentally consumed by their own fire when violent winds swept in their direction. Sony  VGP-BPS21A Battery

Although the destructive effects of gunpowder were described in the earlier Tang Dynasty by a Daoist alchemist, the earliest-known existent written formulas for gunpowder come from the Wujing Zongyao text of 1044, which described explosive bombs hurled from catapults. The earliest developments of the gun barrel and the projectile-fire cannon were found in late Song China.Sony  VGP-BPS21B Battery

The first art depiction of the Chinese 'fire lance' (a combination of a temporary-fire flamethrower and gun) was from a Buddhist mural painting of Dunhuang, dated circa 950.[52] These 'fire-lances' were widespread in use by the early 12th century, featuring hollowed bamboo poles as tubes to fire sand particles (to blind and choke), Sony  VGP-BPS21/S Battery

lead pellets, bits of sharp metal and pottery shards, and finally large gunpowder-propelled arrows and rocket weaponry.[53] Eventually, perishable bamboo was replaced with hollow tubes of cast iron, and so too did the terminology of this new weapon change, from 'fire-spear' ('huo qiang') to 'fire-tube' ('huo tong').[54] Sony  VGP-BPS21A/b Battery

This ancestor to the gun was complemented by the ancestor to the cannon, what the Chinese referred to since the 13th century as the 'multiple bullets magazine erupter' ('bai zu lian zhu pao'), a tube of bronze or cast iron that was filled with about 100 lead balls.[55]

The earliest known depiction of a gun is a sculpture from a cave in Sichuan, Sony VGP-BPS26 Battery

dating to 1128, that portrays a figure carrying a vase-shaped bombard, firing flames and a cannonball.[56] However, the oldest existent archaeological discovery of a metal barrel handgun is from the Chinese Heilongjiang excavation, dated to 1288.[57] The Chinese also discovered the explosive potential of packing hollowed cannonball shells with gunpowder. Sony VGP-BPL26 Battery

Written later by Jiao Yu in his Huolongjing (mid 14th century), this manuscript recorded an earlier Song-era cast iron cannon known as the 'flying-cloud thunderclap eruptor' (fei yun pi-li pao). The manuscript stated that:

The shells are made of cast iron, as large as a bowl and shaped like a ball. Sony VGP-BPS26A Battery

Inside they contain half a pound of 'magic' gunpowder. They are sent flying towards the enemy camp from an eruptor; and when they get there a sound like a thunder-clap is heard, and flashes of light appear. If ten of these shells are fired successfully into the enemy camp, the whole place will be set ablaze…Sony VGP-BPS22 Battery

As noted before, the change in terminology for these new weapons during the Song period were gradual. The early Song Dynasty cannons were at first termed the same way as the Chinese trebuchet catapult. A later Ming Dynasty scholar known as Mao Yuanyiwould explain this use of terminology and true origins of the cannon in his text of the Wubei Zhi, written in 1628:Sony VGP-BPL22 Battery

The Song people used the turntable trebuchet, the single-pole trebuchet and the squatting-tiger trebuchet. They were all called 'fire trebuchets' because they were used to project fire-weapons like the (fire-)ball, (fire-)falcon, and (fire-)lance. They were the ancestors of the cannon. Sony VGP-BPS22A Battery

The 14th century Huolongjing was also one of the first Chinese texts to carefully describe to the use of explosive land mines, which had been used by the late Song Chinese against the Mongols in 1277, and employed by the Yuan Dynastyafterwards.The innovation of the detonated land mine was accredited to one Luo Qianxia in the campaign of defense against the Mongol invasion by Kublai Khan, Sony VAIO PCG-3B1M Battery

Later Chinese texts revealed that the Chinese land mine employed either a rip cord or a motion booby trap of a pin releasing falling weights that rotated a steel flint wheel, which in turn created sparks that ignited the train of fuses for the land mines. Furthermore, the Song Dynasty employed the use of the earliest known gunpowder-propelled rockets in warfare during the late 13th century, Sony VAIO PCG-3D1M Battery

its earliest form being the archaic Fire Arrow. When the Northern Song Dynasty capital of Kaifeng fell to the Jurchens in 1126, it was written by Xia Shaozeng that 20000 fire arrows were handed over to the Jurchens in their conquest.[63] An even earlier Chinese text of the Wujing Zongyao("Collection of the Most Important Military Techniques"), Sony VAIO PCG-3G2M Battery

written in 1044 by the Song scholars Zeng Kongliang and Yang Weide, described the use of three spring or triple bow arcuballista that fired arrow bolts holding gunpowder packets near the head of the arrow.[63] Going back yet even farther, the Wu Li Xiao Shi (1630, second edition 1664) of Fang Yizhi stated that fire arrows were presented to Emperor Taizu of Song (r. 960–976) in 960. Sony VAIO PCG-5R1M Battery

In ancient China, the sluice gate, the canal lock, and flash lock had been known since at least the 1st century BCE (as sources then alluded that they were not new innovations), during the ancient Han Dynasty (202 BCE–220 CE).[65] During the Song Dynasty that the pound lock was first invented in 984 by the Assistant Commissioner of Transport for Huainan, Sony VAIO PCG-7162M Battery

the engineer Qiao Weiyo.[66] During his day, the Chinese became concerned with a barge traffic problem at the Shanyang Yundao section of the Grand Canal, as ships often became wrecked while passing the double slipways and were robbed of the tax grain by local bandits. The historical text of the Song Shi (compiled in 1345) stated that in 984: Sony VAIO PCG-7181M Battery

Qiao Weiyo also built five double slipways (lit. dams) between Anbei and Huaishi (or, the quays on the Huai waterfront). Each of these had ten lanes for the barges to go up and down. Their cargoes of imperial tax-grain were heavy, and as they were passing over they often came to grief and were damaged or wrecked, with loss of the grain and peculation by a cabal of the workers in league with local bandits hidden nearby. Sony VAIO PCG-41112M Battery

Qiao Weiyo therefore first ordered the construction of two gates at the third dam along the West River (near Huaiyin). The distance between the two gates was rather more than 50 paces (250 ft) and the whole space was covered over with a great roof like a shed. The gates were 'hanging gates'; Sony VAIO PCG-7153M Battery

(when they were closed) the water accumulated like a tide until the required level was reached, and then when the time came it was allowed to flow out. He also built a horizontal bridge to protect their foundations. After this was done (to all the double slipways) the previous corruption was completely eliminated, Sony VAIO PCG-71312M Battery

and the passage of the boats went on without the slightest impediment.

This practice became widespread, and was even written of by the Chinese polymath scientist Shen Kuo in his Dream Pool Essays(1088).[68] Shen Kuo wrote that the establishment of pound lock gates at Zhenzhou (presumably Kuozhou along the Yangtze) during the Tian Sheng reign period (1023–1031) freed up the use of five hundred working laborers at the canal each year, Sony VAIO PCG-7144M Battery

amounting to the saving of up to 1,250,000 strings of cash annually.[69] He wrote that the old method of hauling boats over limited the size of the cargo to 300 tan of rice per vessel (roughly 21 long tons/21,000 kg), but after the pound locks were introduced, boats carrying 400 tan (roughly 28 long tons/28,000 kg) could then be used.[69] Sony VAIO PCG-7191L Battery

Shen wrote that by his time (c. 1080) government boats could carry cargo weights of up to 700 tan (49.5 long tons/50,300 kg), while private boats could hold as much as 800 bags, each weighing 2 tan (i.e. 113 long tons/115,000 kg).[69] Shen Kuo also noted that proper use of sluice gates at irrigation canals was the best means of achieving success in the silt fertilization method.Sony VAIO PCG-3C1M Battery

] However, agricultural and transportation needs had the potential to conflict with one another. This is best represented in the Dongpo Zhilin of the governmental official and famous poet Su Shi (1037–1101), who wrote about two decades before Shen Kuo in 1060:

Several years ago the government built sluice gates for the silt fertilization method, though many people disagreed with the plan. Sony VAIO PCG-3F1M Battery

In spite of all opposition it was carried through, yet it had little success. When the torrents on Fan Shan were abundant, the gates were kept closed, and this caused damage (by flooding) of fields, tombs, and houses. When the torrents subsided in the late autumn the sluices were opened, and thus the fields were irrigated with silt-bearing water, but the deposit was not as thick as what the peasants call 'steamed cake silt' (so they were not satisfied). Sony VAIO PCG-3H1M Battery

Finally the government got tired of it and stopped. In this connection I remember reading the Jiayipan of Bai Juyi (the poet) in which he says that he once had a position as Traffic Commissioner. Sony VAIO PCG-3J1M Battery

As the Bian River was getting so shallow that it hindered the passage of boats he suggested that the sluice gates along the river and canal should be closed, but the Military Governor pointed out that the river was bordered on both sides by fields which supplied army grain, and if these were denied irrigation (water and silt) because of the closing of the sluice gates, Sony VAIO PCG-8141M Battery

it would lead to shortages in army grain supplies. From this I learnt that in the Tang period there were government fields and sluice gates on both sides of the river, and that irrigation was carried on (continuously) even when the water was high. If this could be done (successfully) in old times, why can it not be done now? I should like to enquire further about the matter from experts. Sony VAIO PCG-8161M Battery

Although the drydock had been known in Ptolemaic Egypt since the late 3rd century BCE (by a Phoenician; not used again until Henry VII of England in 1495), the scientist and statesman Shen Kuo wrote of its use in China to repair boats during the 11th century. In his Dream Pool Essays (1088), Shen Kuo wrote: Sony VAIO PCG-3C2M Battery

At the beginning of the dynasty (c. 965) the two Zhe provinces (now Zhejiang and southern Jiangsu) presented (to the throne) two dragon ships each more than (60.00 m/200 ft) in length.[72] The upper works included several decks with palatial cabins and saloons, containing thrones and couches all ready for imperial tours of inspection. Sony VAIO PCG-5N2M Battery

After many years, their hulls decayed and needed repairs, but the work was impossible as long as they were afloat. So in the Xi-Ning reign period (1068 to 1077) a palace official Huang Huaixin suggested a plan. A large basin was excavated at the north end of the Jinming Lake capable of containing the dragon ships, Sony VAIO PCG-5P1M Battery

and in it heavy crosswise beams were laid down upon a foundation of pillars. Then (a breach was made) so that the basin quickly filled with water, after which the ships were towed in above the beams. The (breach now being closed) the water was pumped out by wheels so that the ships rested quite in the air. Sony PCG-31211T Battery

When the repairs were complete, the water was let in again, so that the ships were afloat once more (and could leave the dock). Finally the beams and pillars were taken away, and the whole basin covered over with a great roof so as to form a hangar in which the ships could be protected from the elements and avoid the damage caused by undue exposure. Sony PCG-31311T Battery

The Chinese of the Song Dynasty were adept sailors who traveled to ports of call as far away as Fatimid Egypt. They were well equipped for their journeys abroad, in large seagoing vessels steered by stern-post rudders and guided by the directionalcompass. Even before Shen Kuo and Zhu Yu had described the mariner's magnetic needle compass, Sony PCG-51111T Battery

the earlier military treatise of the Wujing Zongyao in 1044 had also described a thermoremanence compass. This was a simple iron or steel needle that was heated, cooled, and placed in a bowl of water, producing the effect of weak magnetization, although its use was described only for navigation on land and not at sea. Sony PCG-81111T Battery

There were plenty of descriptions in Chinese literature of the time on the operations and aspects of seaports, maritime merchant shipping, overseas trade, and the sailing ships themselves. In 1117, the author Zhu Yu wrote not only of the magnetic compass for navigation, but also a hundred foot line with a hook that was cast over the deck of the ship, Sony PCG-81311T Battery

used to collect mud samples at the bottom of the sea in order for the crew to determine their whereabouts by the smell and appearance of the mud.[76] In addition, Zhu Yu wrote of watertight bulkhead compartments in the hulls of ships to prevent sinking if damaged, the for-and-aft lug, taut mat sails, and the practice of beating-to-windward. Sony VPCF138FC Battery

Confirming Zhu Yu's writing on Song Dynasty ships with bulkhead hull compartments, in 1973 a 78-foot (24 m) long, 29-foot (8.8 m) wide Song Dynasty trade ship from c. 1277 was dredged from the water near the southern coast of China that contained 12 bulkhead compartment rooms in its hull.[ Sony VPCF219FC Battery

Maritime culture during the Song period was enhanced by these new technologies, along with the allowance of greater river and canal traffic. All around there was a bustling display of government run grain-tax transport ships, tribute vessels and barges, private shipping vessels, a multitude of busy fishers in small fishing boats, along with the rich enjoying the comforts of their luxurious private yachts. Sony VPCS135EC Battery

Besides Zhu Yu there were other prominent Chinese authors of maritime interests as well. In 1178, the Guangzhoucustoms officer Zhou Qufei, who wrote about the Arab slave trade of Africans as far as Madagascar,[80] stated this about Chinese seagoing ships, their sizes, durability at sea, and the lives of those on board: Sony VPCS136EC Battery

The ships which sail the southern sea and south of it are like houses. When their sails are spread they are like great clouds in the sky. Their rudders are several tens of feet long. A single ship carries several hundred men, and has in the stores a year's supply of grain. Pigs are fed and wine fermented on board. Sony VPCS138EC Battery

There is no account of dead or living, no going back to the mainland when once the people have set forth upon the caerulean sea. At daybreak, when the gong sounds aboard the ship, the animals can drink their fill, and crew and passengers alike forget all dangers. To those on board everything is hidden and lost in space, mountains, landmarks, and the countries of foreigners.Sony VPCS139GC Battery

The shipmaster may say 'To make such and such a country, with a favourable wind, in so many days, we should sight such and such a mountain, (then) the ship must steer in such and such a direction'. But suddenly the wind may fall, and may not be strong enough to allow of the sighting of the mountain on the given day; in such a case, bearings may have to be changed. Sony VPCYA15EC Battery

And the ship (on the other hand) may be carried far beyond (the landmark) and may lose its bearings. A gale may spring up, the ship may be blown hither and thither, it may meet with shoals or be driven upon hidden rocks, then it may be broken to the very roofs (of its deckhouses). A great ship with heavy cargo has nothing to fear from the high seas, but rather in shallow water it will come to grief. Sony VPCYA16EC Battery

The later Muslim Moroccan Berber traveler Ibn Batutta (1304–1377) wrote in greater detail about Chinese sailing vessels than Zhou Qufei. He noted that in and around the seas of China, only the distinct Chinese junk ships were used to sail the waters.[82] He noted that the largest type of Chinese ships boasted a total of twelve sailingmasts, while the smaller ones had three. Sony VPCYA25EC Battery

On Chinese ships and their crews, Ibn Batutta stated:

The sails of these vessels are made of strips of bamboo, woven into the form of matting. The sailors never lower them (while sailing, but simply) change the direction of them according to whether the wind is blowing from one side or the other. Sony VPCYA26EC Battery

When the ships cast anchor, the sails are left standing in the wind. Each of these ships is worked by 1,000 men, 600 sailors and 400 marines, among whom there are archers andcrossbowmen furnished with shields, and men who throw (pots of) naptha. Each great vessel is followed by three others, a 'nisfi', Sony VPCYB15JC Battery

a 'thoulthi' and a 'roubi' (f endnote: a pinnace, a small boat fitted with a rudder, and a rowing boat). These vessels are nowhere made except in the city of Zayton (Quanzhou) in China, or at Sin-Kilan, which is the same as Sin al-Sin (Guangzhou).

Ibn Batutta then went on describing the means of their construction, and accurate depictions of separate bulkhead compartments in the hulls of the ships: Sony VPCYA17GH/R Battery

This is the manner in which they are made; two (parallel) walls of very thick wooden (planking) are raised, and across the space between them are placed very thick planks (the bulkheads) secured longitudinally and transversely by means of large nails, each three ells in length. When these walls have thus been built, Sony VPCCW2S8E/W Battery

the lower deck is fitted in, and the ship is launched before the upper works are finished. The pieces of wood, and those parts of the hull, near the water(-line) serve for the crew to wash and to accomplish their natural necessities. On the sides of these pieces of wood also the oars are found; they are as big as masts, and are worked by 10 or 15 men (each), who row standing up. Sony VPCCW2Z1E/B Battery

Although Ibn Batutta had mentioned the size of the sailing crew, he described the sizes of the vessels further, as well as the lavish merchant cabins on board:

The vessels have four decks, upon which there are cabins and saloons for merchants. Several of these 'mysria' contain cupboards and other conveniences; they have doors which can be locked, and keys for their occupiers. Sony VPCY11S1E Battery

characters that cannot be attributed to ink spread or type wear under the pressure of the press. Sony Vaio VGN-AW31ZS/B Battery

Scholars conjecture that the type pieces may have been cast from a series of matrices made with a series of individual stroke punches, producing many different versions of the same glyph. It has also been suggested that the method used by Gutenberg involved using a single punch to make a mould, Sony Vaio VGN-AW31ZJ/B Battery

but the mould was such that the process of taking the type out disturbed the casting, creating variants and anomalies, and that the punch-matrix system came into use possibly around the 1470s.[33] This raises the possibility that the development of movable type in the West may have been progressive rather than a single innovation. Sony Vaio VGN-CS31S/W Battery

Gutenberg's movable-type printing system spread rapidly across Europe, from the single Mainz printing press in 1457 to 110 presses by 1480, of which 50 were inItaly. Venice quickly became the center of typographic and printing activity. Significant were the contributions of Nicolas Jenson, Sony Vaio VGN-CS31S/T Battery

Francesco Griffo, Aldus Manutius, and other printers of late fifteenth-century Europe. Despite some conjectures (see[18]), there is no evidence that movable type from the East ever reached Europe. Sony Vaio VGN-CS31S/P Battery,Sony Vaio VGN-CS31S/V Battery,Sony Vaio VGN-CS31Z/Q Battery

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