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Search engine marketing, or SEM, is a form of Internet marketing that seeks to promote websites by increasing their visibility in search engine result pages (SERPs) through the use of search engine optimization, paid placement, contextual advertising, and paid inclusion (Dell XPS M1210 Batteryhttp://www.hdd-shop.co.uk .

Market structure

In 2008, North American advertisers spent US$13.5 billion on search engine marketing. The largest SEM vendors are Google AdWords, Yahoo! Search Marketing andMicrosoft adCenter (Dell Studio XPS 1340 Battery) .

As of 2006, SEM was growing much faster than traditional advertising and even other channels of online marketing. Because of the complex technology, a secondary "search marketing agency" market has evolved. Some marketers have difficulty understanding the intricacies of search engine marketing and choose to rely on third party agencies to manage their search marketing  (Dell Studio XPS 1640 Battery)       .


As the number of sites on the Web increased in the mid-to-late 90s, search engines started appearing to help people find information quickly. Search engines developed business models to finance their services, such as pay per click programs offered by Open Text in 1996 and then Goto.com in 1998    (Dell Vostro 1710 Battery)   .

Goto.com later changed its name to Overture in 2001, and was purchased by Yahoo! in 2003, and now offers paid search opportunities for advertisers through Yahoo! Search Marketing. Google also began to offer advertisements on search results pages in 2000 through the Google AdWords program     (Dell KM958 battery)   .

By 2007, pay-per-click programs proved to be primary money-makers for search engines. In a market dominated by Google, in 2009 Yahoo! and Microsoft announced the intention to forge an alliance. The Yahoo! & Microsoft Search Alliance eventually received approval from regulators in the US and Europe in February 2010     (Sony VGP-BPS13 battery)    .

Search engine optimization consultants expanded their offerings to help businesses learn about and use the advertising opportunities offered by search engines, and new agencies focusing primarily upon marketing and advertising through search engines emerged  (Sony VGP-BPS13/B battery)      .

The term "Search Engine Marketing" was proposed by Danny Sullivan in 2001 to cover the spectrum of activities involved in performing SEO, managing paid listings at the search engines, submitting sites to directories, and developing online marketing strategies for businesses, organizations, and individuals   (Sony VGP-BPS13/S battery)      .

Some of the latest theoretical advances include Search Engine Marketing Management (SEMM). SEMM relates to activities including SEO but focuses on return on investment (ROI) management instead of relevant traffic building (as is the case of mainstream SEO) (Sony VGP-BPS13A/B battery)    .

SEMM also integrates organic SEO, trying to achieve top ranking without using paid means of achieving top in search engines, and PayPerClick SEO. For example some of the attention is placed on the web page layout design and how content and information is displayed to the website visitor  (Sony VGP-BPS13B/B battery)     .

Ethical questions

Paid search advertising has not been without controversy, and the issue of how search engines present advertising on their search result pages has been the target of a series of studies and reports by Consumer Reports WebWatch  (Sony VGP-BPL9 battery)  .

The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) also issued a letter in 2002 about the importance of disclosure of paid advertising on search engines, in response to a complaint from Commercial Alert, a consumer advocacy group with ties to Ralph Nader (Sony VGP-BPS13B/B battery)    .

Vested interests appear to use the expression SEM to mean exclusively Pay per click advertising to the extent that the wider advertising and marketing community have accepted this narrow definition. Such usage excludes the wider search marketing community that is engaged in other forms of SEM such as Search Engine Optimization and Search Retargeting (Sony VGP-BPL11 battery)    .

Another ethical controversy associated with search marketing has been the issue of trademark infringement. The debate as to whether third parties should have the right to bid on their competitors' brand names has been underway for years  (Sony VGP-BPL15 battery)  .

In 2009 Google changed their policy, which formerly prohibited these tactics, allowing 3rd parties to bid on branded terms as long as their landing page in fact provides information on the trademarked term. Though the policy has been changed this continues to be a source of heated debate  (Dell Inspiron E1505 battery)    .

Search advertising

In Internet Marketing, Search Advertising is a method of placing online advertisements on Web pages that show results from search engine queries. Through the same search-engine advertising services, ads can also be placed on Web pages with other published    (Dell Latitude E6400 battery)     .

Search advertisements are targeted to match key search terms (called keywords) entered on search engines. This targeting ability has contributed to the attractiveness of search advertising for advertisers. Consumers will often use a search engine to identify and compare purchasing options immediately before making a purchasing decision (HP Pavilion dv6000 Battery)   .

The opportunity to present consumers with advertisements tailored to their immediate buying interests encourages consumers to click on search ads instead of unpaid search results, which are often less relevant. Unpaid search results are also called organic results  (SONY VAIO VGN-FZ Battery)     .


Its believed that Yahoo! first introduced a stand-alone search advertising buy. In 1996, Chip Royce, marketing manager for InterZine Productions of Boca Raton, Florida, approached Yahoo!'s sales agent (Flycast Communications) seeking more effective, targeted advertising within Yahoo!'s search results  (SONY VAIO VGN-FZ18 Battery)   .

Yahoo! obliged placing targeted ad banners when the keyword "Golf" was searched by Yahoo! users. Yahoo! later turned this opportunity into a formal marketing program for its entire customer base and promoted this in a July 1996 article in the now defunct   magazine      (SONY VAIO VGN-FZ180E Battery)  .


Search advertising is sold and delivered on the basis of keywords. The user of a search engine enters keywords to make queries. A keyword may consist of more than one word     (SONY VAIO VGN-FZ220E Battery)   .

Search engines conduct running auctions to sell ads according to bids received for keywords and relative relevance of user keywords to ads in the inventory. The keyword “home mortgage refinancing" is more expensive than one that is in less demand, such as “used bicycle tires     (SONY VAIO VGN-FZ340E Battery)    .”

Profit potential of the keywords also plays into bids for ads that advertisers want displayed when the keywords are searched by the user. For example, "used book" may be a popular keyword but may have low profit potential and the advertiser bids will reflect that.

Search engines build indexes of Web pages using a web Crawler  (SONY VAIO VGN-FZ430E Battery)     .

When the publisher of a Web page arranges with a search engine firm to have ads served up on that page, the search engine applies their indexing technology to associate the content of that page with keywords. Those keywords are then fed into the same auctioning system that is used by advertisers to buy ads on both search engine results pages  (SONY VAIO VGN-FZ460E Battery)    .

Advertising based on keywords in the surrounding content or context is referred to as Contextual advertising. This is usually less profitable than search advertising which is based on user intent expressed through their keywords  (SONY VAIO VGN-FZ480E Battery)      .

Advertisers can choose whether to buy ads on search result pages (search advertising), published content pages (contextual advertising), or both. Bids on the same keywords are usually higher in search advertising than in contextual advertising (SONY VAIO VGN-FZ4000 Battery)    .

Search Advertising Metrics

Search advertising activities can be measured in five ways:

CPM: Cost per thousand viewers was the original method used for pricing online advertisements. CPM remains the most common method for pricing banner ads  (SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31E Battery)     .

CTR: Click-through rates measure the number of times an ad is clicked as a percentage of views of the Web page on which the ad appears. Banner ads have CTRs that are generally 0.5 percent or less. In comparison, individual search engine ads can have CTRs of 10 percent, even though they appear alongside organic search results and competing paid search advertisements  (SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31B Battery)      .

CPA: Cost per action quantifies costs for completing specified activities such as attracting a new customer or making a sale. Affiliate networks operate on a CPA basis. CPA systems function most effectively when sales cycles are short and easily tracked  (SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31J Battery)    .

Longer sales cycles rely on exposure to multiple types of ads to create brand awareness and purchasing interest before a sale is made. Longer sales cycles and sales requiring multiple customer contacts can be difficult to track, leading to a reluctance by publishers to participate in CPA programs beyond initial lead generation  (SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31M Battery)   .

CPC: Cost per click tracks the cost of interacting with a client or potential client. In traditional marketing, CPC is viewed as a one-way process of reaching target audiences through means such as direct mail, radio ads and television ads. Search advertising provides opportunities for two-way contacts through web-based chat, Internet-based calls, call-back requests or mailing list signups (SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31S Battery)   .

TM: Total minutes is a metric being used by Nielsen/NetRatings to measure total time spent on a Web page rather than the number of Web page views. On July 10, 2007, Nielsen announced that they would be relying on TM as their primary metric for measuring Web page popularity  (SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31Z Battery)

due to changes in the way Web pages provide content through audio and video streaming and by refreshing the same page without totally reloading it. Page refreshes are one aspect of Rich Internet Applications (RIA). RIA technologies include AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) and Microsoft Silverlight     (SONY VAIO VGN-FZ38M Battery)     .

Methodological questions regarding the use of total minutes for search advertising include how to account for Internet users that keep several browser windows open simultaneously, or who simply leave one window open unattended for long periods of time. Another question involves tracking total minutes on HTML pages that are stateless and do therefore do not generate server-side data on the length of time that they are viewed  (SONY VGP-BPS8 Battery)  .

Campaign Management

Search engine advertisements are purchased on the basis of keywords. Ad buyers engage in running actions for keywords, with popular keywords costing several dollars per click through  (SONY VGP-BPS13 Battery)     .

Search engines use algorithms to determine the position of ads according to click through rates. Ads with poor click through rates can be pushed down to the bottom of the first page of search results or onto subsequent pages. Even though advertisers are only paying for click throughs    SONY VGP-BPS13/S Battery

the algorithms assigning ad positions based on ad popularity provide incentives for optimizing keyword selection and other cost control measures. Without cost control measures, it is possible for ad buyers to spend twenty five to fifty percent of their ad budget ineffectively  SONY VGP-BPS13A/B Battery .

Cost control measures can include:

  • Campaigns can begin slowly, so as to test the effectiveness of keywords and ad texts. It can take three months of testing before a campaign is ready to scale up. Beginning campaigns can spend US$20-$40 per day, whereas major campaigns can exceed US$1000 per day. Multiple campaigns can be run alongside each other  SONY VGP-BPS13B/B Battery .
  • Negative keywords can be used to exclude search queries that do not relate to the ads to be shown. A seller of replacement windows for buildings, for example, could use the negative keywords ‘software’ or ‘programs’ to avoid their ads appearing in response to search queries for information about Microsoft Windows software  SONY VGP-BPS13A/S Battery .
  • Word order within keyword combinations can have an effect on click through rates. Word order in buying ads according to keywords can be controlled through the use of quotation marks  SONY VGP-BPS13AS Battery .
  • Continuing the above example from the perspective of a seller of replacement windows, the keyword “replacement window” may have a higher click through rate than “windows replacement” or for related keyword combinations where syntax is not specified and that could be associated with Microsoft Windows software rather than windows for buildings (Dell Inspiron 1320 Battery)   .
  • Broad search means that an ad is served up in response to any search query that contains the keyword, regardless of any other words that may have been used in the search query. Eliminating broad search can be helpful in cases where there are a large number of potential keywords or where the advertiser seeks to keep ad spending at a minimum  (Dell Inspiron 1320n Battery) .
  • A replacement window company located in Trenton, New Jersey could eliminate broad search in favor of location-specific keywords such as “replacement windows Trenton” and other locations within their market area. Each search engine has its own procedures for controlling broad search options for individual keywords  (Dell Inspiron 1464 Battery)  .
  • It takes time to identify and select potential keywords. Rather than bidding on a small number of popular keywords, advertisers can expand their keyword lists to more than 200 and seek to include keywords that their competitors are not utilizing  (Dell Inspiron 1564 Battery)   .
  • Keywords that are less sought after are cheaper. To identify keyword options, enter ‘keyword tool’ into a search engine.
  • Search advertising campaigns can produce immediate results--but they often need immediate attention (Dell Inspiron 1764 Battery) .
  • Poorly performing ads need to be pulled, keyword lists adjusted, and bid amounts modified to prevent over-spending. Search advertising campaigns that are set up and allowed to run on autopilot can produce less return on investment than campaigns that are monitored more than once a week  (Dell Studio 1450 Battery)   .
  • Perform market research with search analytics services in order to identify market trends and opportunities. These services often reveal what keywords are profitable for other websites in your target market. In addition, they show seasonal and emerging keywords allowing you to plan a more timely marketing campaign (Dell Studio 1457 Battery)    .

Reputation management , also known as directory management, is the process of tracking an entity's actions and other entities' opinions about those actions; reporting on those actions and opinions; and reacting to that report creating a feedback loop  (Dell Latitude D610 Battery)   .

All entities involved are generally people, but that need not always be the case. Other examples of entities include animals, businesses, or even locations or materials. The tracking and reporting may range from word-of-mouth to statistical analysis of thousands of data points  (Toshiba NB100 Battery)   .

Reputation management has come into wide use with the advent of widespread computing. This is evidenced by a front page story in the Washington Post. featuring several online reputation management firms. Reputation management systems use various predefined criteria for processing complex data to report reputation  (Toshiba Satellite M65 battery)  .

However, these systems only facilitate and automate the process of determining trustworthiness. This process is central to all kinds of human interaction, including interpersonal relationships, international diplomacy, stock markets, communication through marketing and public relations and sports  (Toshiba Satellite M60 battery)      .

A number of enterprise reputation management software solutions exist in the international market. These software services are typically designed to connect organizations to their stakeholders, track the orchestration of stakeholder engagement and analyse, measure and manage the results  (Dell Latitude D830 Battery)     .

Real-world communities

Small town

The classic example of reputation management is the small town  (Dell Latitude D620 Battery)   .

Population is small and interactions between members frequent; most interactions are face-to-face and positively identified -- that is, there is no question who said or did what. Reputation accrues not only throughout one's lifetime, but is passed down to one's offspring; one's individual reputation depends both on one's own actions and one's inherited reputation (Dell Inspiron Mini 10 Battery) .

There are generally few formal mechanisms to manage this implicit reputation. Implicit Reputation is the accumulated reputation one gets in a small town from previous actions  (Sony VGN-FW11S Battery)   .

The town diner and barber shop serve as forums for exchange of gossip, in which community members' reputations are discussed (implicit reputation), often in frank terms. Outstanding members may receive small, symbolic awards or titles, but these are mere confirmations of general knowledge  (Sony VGN-FW11M Battery)     .

There is exceedingly little deviation from community norms in a small town. This may be seen as either good or bad; there is little crime, but also little room for dissent or change. The small-town model scales poorly; it depends on each member having enough experience of a large number of other members, and this is only possible up to a point  (Sony VGN-FW139E/H battery)  .

Big city

The large metropolitan area is at the other end of the spectrum from the small rural town. Community members come and go daily, and most members are only personally acquainted with a small fraction of the whole. Implicit reputation management continues to work within subcommunities, but for the city as a whole, it cannot (Dell Latitude E5400 Battery)      .

Big cities have developed a large array of formal reputation management methods. Some apply only to subcommunities, such as, say, an association of local dentists. There are four methods (among others) which apply quite generally to the entire population: electionsappointments, the criminal justice system, and racial or ethnic prejudice (Dell Latitude E4200 Battery)   .

  • The city is governed in part by elected officials -- persons who are given special powers by popular vote at regular intervals. Campaigns are often well-financed efforts to force a positive image of a candidate's reputation upon the electorate; television is often decisive   (Dell Vostro A840 Battery)     .
  • Elected officials are primarily concerned with preserving this good reputation, which concern dictates their every public action. Failure to preserve a good reputation, not to mention failure to avoid a bad one, is often cause for removal from office, sometimes prematurely  (Dell Inspiron 300M Battery)   .
  • Candidates and officials frequently concentrate on damaging the reputations of their opponents.
  • Appointed officials are not elected; they are granted special powers, usually by elected officials, without public deliberation. Persons wishing to be appointed to office also campaign to increase their perceived reputation, but the audience is much smaller (Dell Studio 1737 battery)  .
  • Effective actions and demonstrated merit are often important factors in gaining a positive reputation, but the definition of this merit is made by the elected, appointing officials, who tend to evaluate merit as it applies to them, personally. Thus persons who work hard to increase an elected official's reputation increase their own, at least in their patron's eyes (Dell Inspiron E1505 battery)  .
  • Some appointees have no other qualification beyond the fact that they may be depended on at all times to support their patrons.
  • The stresses of big city life lead to much crime, which demands punishment, on several grounds  (Dell RM791 battery)  .
  • The severity of this punishment and of the efforts of the system to inflict it upon a community member depends in no small part on that individual's prior experiences within the system. Elaborate records are kept of every infraction, even of the suspicion of infractions, and these records are consulted before any decision is made, no matter how trivial  (Dell XPS M1530 battery) .
  • Great effort is expended to positively identify members—driver's licenses and fingerprints, for example—and any use of an alias is carefully recorded. Some small punishments are meted out informally, but most punishments, especially severe ones, are given only after a long, detailed, and formal process: a trial, which must result in a conviction, or finding of guilt, before a punishment is ordered  (Dell XPS M2010 battery)    .

Although it is sometimes said that serving one's punishment is sufficient penalty for the commission of a crime, in truth the damage to one's reputation may be the greater penalty -- damage both within the system itself and within other systems of urban reputation management, such as that of elections to office  (Dell Vostro 1000 battery)     .

Between the explicit punishment and the damage to one's reputation, the total effect of a conviction in the criminal justice system so damages a person's ability to lead a normal life that the process, at least ostensibly, is meticulous in determining guilt or lack there of (Acer Aspire One battery)      .

In case of "reasonable" doubt, a suspected malefactor is freed -- though the mere fact of the trial is recorded, and affects his future reputation.

  • The ordinary citizen, meeting a stranger, another citizen unknown to the first, is rarely concerned that the second may be an official, elected or otherwise  (Toshiba Satellite P10 Battery)     ;
  • even so, he may be aware of the relative failure of reputation management in this regard. He does not have easy access to the database of the criminal justice system, and portions are not publicly available at all. Lacking other means, he often turns to the mock-system of racial or ethnic prejudice (SONY VGN-FZ210CE Battery)   .
  • This attempts to extend the small-town model to large communities by grouping individuals who look alike, dress alike, or talk alike. One reputation serves for all. Each individual is free to compose his personal measure of a group's reputation, and actions of strangers raise or lower that reputation for all group members  (Dell Precision M70 Battery)    .

The high incidence of crime, the proverbial incompetence of officials, and constant wars between rival, self-identified groups speaks poorly of all systems of urban reputation management. Together, they do not function as well as that of the small town, with no formal system at all  (Toshiba Satellite L305 Battery)    .

Online communities


eBay is an online marketplace, a forum for the exchange of goods. The feedback system on eBay asks each user to post his opinion (positive or negative) on the person with whom he transacted. Every place a user's system handle ("ID") is displayed, his feedback is displayed with it     (Toshiba Satellite T4900 Battery)     .

Since having primarily positive feedback will improve a user's reputation and therefore make other users more comfortable in dealing with him, users are encouraged to behave in acceptable ways—that is, by dealing squarely with other users, both as buyers and as sellers  (Toshiba PA3399U-2BRS battery)      .

Most users are extremely averse to negative feedback and will go to great lengths to avoid it. There is even such a thing as feedback blackmail, in which a party to a transaction threatens negative feedback to gain an unfair concession  (Toshiba Satellite A200 Battery) .

The fear of getting negative feedback is so great that many users automatically leave positive feedback, with strongly worded comments, in hopes of getting the same in return. Thus, research has shown that a very large number (greater than 98%) of all transactions result in positive feedback  (Toshiba Satellite 1200 Battery)   .

Academic researchers have called the entire eBay system into question based on these results.

The main result of the eBay reputation management system is that buyers and sellers are generally honest. There are abuses, but not to the extent that there might be in a completely open or unregulated marketplace  (Toshiba Satellite M300 Battery)     .


Everything2 is a general knowledge base. E2 manages both user and article reputation strongly; one might say it is central to the project's paradigm. Users submit articles, called "writeups", that are published immediately. For each article, each user may cast one vote, positive or negative  WD passport essential (500GB/640GB) .

Voting is anonymous and each vote cast is final. The article keeps track of its total of positive and negative votes (and the resulting score), all of which can be seen by the submitting user and any user who has already cast their vote on that particular article. Articles with strong positive scores may also be featured on the site's main page, propelling them to even higher scores  WD passport essential (250GB/320GB) .

Articles with low or negative scores are deleted, hopefully to make way for better articles.

Users themselves are explicitly ranked, using a complicated "level" system loosely based on number of articles submitted (and not deleted) and the overall average article score  WD  passport essential SE (750GB/1TB)   .

Users of higher levels gain various privileges, the first being the ability to cast votes; any user may submit an article, but only users who have a minimum number of "good" articles may vote.

E2's system has a number of detrimental effects  WD  passport elite(250GB/320GB) .

Many new users leave the site after their first article gets multiple negative votes, and is sometimes then also deleted, all without any explanation required. Even experienced users hesitate to submit less than perfect articles since negative votes cannot be retracted. There are also more direct rewards for users submitting new articles than for revising and improving their existing ones WD passport elite(500GB/640GB) .

Finally, many users focus heavily on their position in the hierarchy and pander for positive votes. Fiction and amusing essay-style articles tend dominate over long, difficult, boring, less well-written, or controversial ones. Excellent contributions are still rewarded, but so are merely decent ones and the difference in reward is not proportional to the additional effort  WD  passport studio for Mac(320GB/500GB) .


Slashdot contains little original content, instead revolving around short reviews of content exterior to the site. "Karma" is Slashdot's name for reputation management. "Moderators" are able to vote on both reviews themselves and comments on those reviews in a system not too dissimilar from E2's  WD  passport studio for Mac(500GB/640GB) .

In a novel twist, votes are not merely "+1 point" or "-1 point"; moderators also attach one of a list of predefined labels, such as Flamebait or Informative.

Score is displayed next to each comment  WD  Elements series(250GB/320GB) .

Additionally, any user may set a personal preference to exclude the display of comments with low scores. Users acquire "karma" based, among other things, on the scores of their comments, and karma affects a user's powers. Almost any user may become a moderator, although this status is temporary; thus the average user is not able to vote on any comment  WD  Elements SE(500GB/640GB) .

Once a moderator uses up his votes, he returns to the status of ordinary user.

Slashdot has become extremely popular and well-read; used as a verb, it refers to the fact that a website mentioned in Slashdot is often overwhelmed with visitors  WD Elements SE(750GB/1TB) .

There is frequent criticism of Slashdot, on many grounds; the karma system is intentionally not transparent and trolling is quite common. Anonymous cowards are permitted and range freely, as do sock puppets.

Nonetheless, Slashdot's karma system may account for at least part of its endurance and popularity  WD  Elements desktop(500GB/640GB) .

Meatball Wiki

Meatball is a wiki devoted to discussion of online communities, including wikis themselves. Its membership is not large. Meatball permits anonymous users, but relegates them to an inferior status: "If you choose not to introduce yourself, it's assumed you aren't here to participate in exchanging help, but just to 'hang out    WD  Elements desktop(750GB/1TB) .'"

While anonymous posters are tolerated, pseudonymous users are not. Thus online handles are supposed to mirror users' real names – their names in the outside world, on their birth certificates. The control on this is not rigorous – users are not required to fax in their passports in order to verify their identities – but the convention is supposed to be generally followed WD  Elements desktop(1.5 TB/2TB) ;

at least it is not openly mocked.

Thus identified, Meatball's users' reputations are managed much as they are in the small town. That is, there is little formal management, but every user carries in his head his own "score", according to his own rating system, based on his personal evaluation of a given other user's character WD  passport essential SE (750GB/1TB)--USB 3.0)   .

This implicit reputation system is, of course, a part of every online community in which handles or names of any kind are used; but in Meatball, it is the whole.

Despite (or because of?) this lack of formal method, Meatball has discussed the problems of reputation management extensively. We will not attempt to link to every relevant page, but one might begin to explore that discussion here  WD  passport essential (500GB/640GB) .


Wikipedia is an encyclopedia-content wiki; it includes a very wide range of topics, and exclusion of almost any topic is disputed. There is a large number of community members. Anonymous users are welcomed, and most users are pseudonymous, though many do use real names  WD  passport for Mac(320GB/500GB) .

As in many online communities, some users are sock puppets, although these are discouraged.

Wikipedia, like Meatball or the small town, has no formal method for managing reputation. Barnstars may be awarded for merit, but any user may make such an award. There is a hierarchy of privileges, such as in Slashdot or Everything2  WD  passport for Mac(640GB/1TB) .

As in most wikis, there is an elaborate history feature, which may be explored by any user to determine which contributions were made by which users. Any user may examine a list of another user's contributions. Edits may be discussed in a variety of forums, but there is no particular grading or rating system, either for edits or community members  My book essential 4 generation  (640GB/1TB).

Search Engine Reputation Management

Search Engine Reputation Management (or SERM) tactics are often employed by companies and increasingly by individuals who seek to proactively shield their brands or reputations from damaging content brought to light through search engine queries WD  My book essential 4 generation( 1.5TB/2TB) .

Some use these same tactics reactively, in attempts to minimize damage inflicted by inflammatory (or "flame") websites (and weblogs) launched by consumers and, as some believe, competitors  WD  My book elite( 1TB/1.5TB) .

Given the increasing popularity and development of search engines, these tactics have become more important than ever. Consumer generated media (like blogs) has amplified the public's voice, making points of view - good or bad - easily expressed. This is further explained in this front page article in the Washington Post  WD  My book studio(1TB/2TB) .

Search Engine Reputation Management strategies include Search engine optimization (SEO) and Online Content Management. Because search engines are dynamic and in constant states of change and revision, it is essential that results are constantly monitored   WD  My book essential 4 generation( 1.5TB/2TB) .

Social networking giant Facebook has been known to practice this form of reputation management. When they released their Polls service in Spring 2007, the popular blog TechCrunch found that it could not use competitors' names in Polls. Due largely to TechCrunch's authority in Google's algorithms, its post ranked for Facebook polls WD  My book elite(640GB/2TB) .

A Facebook rep joined the comments, explained the situation and that the bugs in the old code had been updated so that it was now possible.

Also until social sites like Facebook allow Google to fully spider their site then they won't really have a massive effect on reputation management results in the search engine  Seagate  expansion portable (320GB/500GB) .

The only way to take advantage of such site is to make sure you make your pages public.

It is suggested that if a company website has a negative result directly below it then up to 70% of surfers will click on the negative result first rather than the company website  Seagate  expansion (1.5TB/2TB) .

Search Engine Image Protection (SEIP), also known as search engine reputation management, combines the expertise of Search Engine Marketing (SEM) and PR, and is designed to protect a company or brand against incorrect negative publicity via the Internet  Seagate  Freeagent Desktop (500GB/1TB) .

By using SEIP strategies to push potentially damaging information out of the top search engine rankings, marketers hope to protect their brand image and make a good impression on Internet users who may be researching a future purchase  Seagate  Freeagent Go(250GB/320GB) .

Basic Strategy

SEIP draws on a combination of SEM and public relations strategies to supplant unflattering online content with brand-friendly content  Seagate  Freeagent Go(500GB/640GB) .

Typically this involves regular monitoring of search pages, blogs, news sites and discussion pages for negative, false or out-dated information on a company or brand.

Marketers produce web releases, blog entries, articles and other fresh content for online submission  Seagate  Freeagent Go(750GB/1TB) .

If well designed and distributed, this content will be picked up by the search engines, pushing the older, less desirable information out of the top rankings on the search engine results pages (SERP) and out of the view of most search engine users.

This process takes advantage of the natural turnover of Internet content  Seagate  Freeagent Goflex(250GB/320GB) .

If out-dated information is ranking highly on the search engines, it may not be replaced until newer content is introduced. In addition to protecting their brand, marketers are helping consumers by providing relevant product information and assisting Website administrators by offering fresh content  Seagate Freeagent Goflex(500GB/640GB) .

SEIP's Relationship with other Online Marketing Activities

With its emphasis on influencing search engine results to protect a corporate or brand image, SEIP can be thought of relating to other areas of online marketing, such as Word of Mouth Marketing andSearch Engine Optimization. The strategy also has strong ties to public relations   Seagate  Freeagent Goflex(750GB/1TB) .

Enterprise Search Marketing, also known as Enterprise Search Engine Marketing, is a subset of Search Engine Marketing (SEM) that relates specifically to the implementation, management and measurement of SEM programs at scale–across a variety of business units, geographies, budgets, local languages, search engines and target audiences Seagate  Freeagent Goflex Pro(500GB/750GB) .

As with Search Engine Marketing, there are three main methods: Search Engine Optimization (SEO), paid search engine advertising or pay per click Search advertising and paid inclusion  Seagate  Freeagent Goflex desktop(1TB/2TB) .

There are several differences between SEM and Enterprise Search Engine Marketing (ESEM), one being the requirement for enterprise-class SEM tools and SEM software solutions to enable organic optimization, search campaign management and ROI analysis at scale    Seagate  Freeagent go for Mac(320GB/640GB) .

Second, the increased need for well-documented business process, communication and coordination across diverse and disparate teams and stakeholders. Third, a unified education plan to ensure consistent and ongoing application of search best practices at the enterprise level Samsung  G2 protable (500GB/640GB) .

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