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6 septembre 2013 5 06 /09 /septembre /2013 08:44

Assyria (Akkadian: Aššur), was a Semitic Akkadian kingdom, existing as a nation state from the late 25th or early–24th century BC until 605 BC.[1]

Assyria was centered on the Upper Tigris river, in northern Mesopotamia (present day Northern Iraq). HP G62-367DX Laptop Keyboard

The Assyrians came to rule powerful empires at several times. It was named for its original capital, the ancient city of Aššur (Akkadian: 𒀸𒋗𒁺𐎹 Aššūrāyu;Aramaic: אתור Aur; Hebrew: אַשּׁוּר Aššûr; Arabic: آشور Āšūr). DELL V119525BS1 Laptop Keyboard

As part of the greater Mesopotamian civilization, Assyria was, at its height, a highly advanced nation for its time in terms ofarchitecture, engineering, agriculture, economics, civil service, mathematics, medicine, literature, military technology, law,astronomy and libraries/record keeping.  SONY Vaio PCG-K33 Laptop Keyboard

A number of Assyrian kings showed an early interest in botany and zoology also.[1]

Assyria was also sometimes known as Subartu prior to the rise of the city state of Ashur and, after its fall, from 605 BC through to the late 7th century AD variously as Athura and also referenced as Atouria[2] according to Strabo,  DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard

Syria (Greek), Assyria (Latin) andAssuristan. The term Assyria can also refer to the geographic region or heartland where Assyria, its empires and the Assyrian people were and still are centred. The modern Assyrian Christian minority in northern Iraq, north east Syria, DELL XPS 15 L502X Laptop Keyboard

south east Turkey and north westIran are the descendants of the ancient Assyrians (see Assyrian continuity).[3][4]

Assyria was originally one of a number of Akkadian city states in Mesopotamia. In the late 24th century BC, DELL Vostro 1015 Laptop Keyboard

Assyrian kings were regional leaders only, and subject to Sargon of Akkad, who united all the Akkadian Semites and Sumerian-speaking peoples of Mesopotamia under the Akkadian Empire, which lasted from c. 2334 BC to 2154 BC. Following the fall of the Akkadian Empire c. 2154 BC,[5] HP 643263-001 Laptop Keyboard

 and the succeeding Sumerian Third Dynasty of Ur, there were a number of other competing Amorite states, such as Isin and Larsa, but Mesopotamia eventually coalesced into two distinct nations: Assyria in the north, and Babylonia in the south. SAMSUNG N140 Laptop Keyboard

In the Old Assyrian period of the Early Bronze Age, Assyria had been a kingdom of northern Mesopotamia, initially competing with their fellow Sumero-Akkadian states in southern Mesopotamia for dominance of the region, and also with the Hattians and Hurrians to the north in Asia Minor, TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

the Gutians to the east in the Zagros Mountains and the Eblaites and later Amorites in the Levant to the west.

During the 20th century BC, it established colonies in Asia Minor and, under king Ilushuma, it asserted itself over southern Mesopotamia. IBM 42T4026 laptop keyboard

From the late 19th century BC, Assyria came into conflict with the newly created state of Babylonia, which eventually eclipsed the older Sumero-Akkadian states in the south. Assyria experienced fluctuating fortunes in the Middle Assyrian period. Assyria had a period of empire under Shamshi-Adad I and Ishme-Dagan in the 19th and 18th centuries BC. Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 laptop keyboard

Following this, it found itself under Babylonian and Mitanni-Hurrian domination for short periods in the 18th and 15th centuries BC respectively, and another period of great power occurred with the rise of the Middle Assyrian Empire (from 1365 BC to 1056 BC), SONY VAIO VGN-N21E/W laptop keyboard

which included the reigns of great kings, such asAshur-uballit I, Arik-den-ili, Tukulti-Ninurta I and Tiglath-Pileser I. During this period, Assyria overthrew the Mitanni and eclipsed both the Hittite Empire and Egyptian Empire in the Near East. HP Pavilion DV7T-4100 laptop keyboard

Beginning with the campaigns of Adad-nirari II from 911 BC,[1] it again became a great power over the next three centuries, overthrowing the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt and conquering Egypt,[1] Babylonia, Elam, Urartu/Armenia, Media, Persia, Mannea, SONY VAIO VGN-FS215E laptop keyboard

Gutium, Phoenicia/Canaan, Aramea(Syria), Arabia, Israel, Judah, Edom, Moab, Samarra, Cilicia, Cyprus, Chaldea, Nabatea, Commagene, Dilmun and the Hurrians, Sutu and Neo-Hittites, driving theEthiopians and Nubians from Egypt,[1] defeating the Cimmerians and Scythians and exacting tribute from Phrygia, Magan and Punt among others.[1] SONY Vaio PCG-K23 laptop keyboard

 After its fall (between 612 BC and 605 BC), Assyria remained a province and Geo-political entity under the Babylonian, Median, Achaemenid, Seleucid, Parthian, Roman andSassanid empires until the Arab Islamic invasion and conquest of Mesopotamia in the mid-7th century, DELL NSK-DB301 laptop keyboard

when it was finally dissolved, after which the remnants of the Assyrian people (by now Christians) gradually became a minority in their homeland.

In prehistoric times, the region that was to become known as Assyria (and Subartu) was home to a Neanderthal culture such as has been found at the Shanidar Cave. TOSHIBA P205-S7469 laptop keyboard

The earliest Neolithic sites in Assyria were the Jarmo culture c. 7100 BC and Tell Hassuna, the centre of the Hassuna culture, c. 6000 BC.

During the 3rd millennium BC, a very intimate cultural symbiosis developed between the Sumerians and the Semitic Akkadians throughout Mesopotamia, which included widespread bilingualism.[7] HP 6730S laptop keyboard

The influence of Sumerian (which was a language isolate and thus not related to any other language) on Akkadian (and vice versa) is evident in all areas, from lexical borrowing on a massive scale, to syntactic, morphological, and phonological convergence.[7] SONY VAIO VGN-NW110D laptop keyboard

This has prompted scholars to refer to Sumerian and Akkadian in the 3rd millennium BC as a sprachbund.

Akkadian gradually replaced Sumerian as the spoken language of Mesopotamia somewhere after the turn of the 3rd and the 2nd millennium BC (the exact dating being a matter of debate),[8] SONY VAIO VGN-N250E/B laptop keyboard

but Sumerian continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific language in Mesopotamia until the 1st century AD.

The cities of Assur (Ashur) and Nineveh, together with a number of other towns and cities, existed since at least before the middle of the 3rd millennium BC HP G42-475TU laptop keyboard

(c. 2600 BC), although they appear to have been Sumerian ruled administrative centres at this time rather than independent states.

According to some Judaeo-Christian theological traditions, the city of Ashur (also spelled Assur or Aššur) was founded byAshur the son of Shem, who was deified by later generations as the city's patron god. HP G62-a25SI laptop keyboard

However, there is absolutely no historical basis whatsoever for this tradition in the far older and more detailed annals of the Mesopotamians themselves; Assyrian tradition itself lists an early Assyrian king named Ushpia as having dedicated the first temple to the god Ashur in the city in the 21st century BC. IBM Thinkpad R40 laptop keyboard

It is highly likely that the city was named in honour of the Assyrian god of the same name.

George Syncellus in his Chronographia quotes a fragment from Julius Africanus which dates the founding of Assyria to 2284 BC.[9] HP Pavilion DV7-3186cl laptop keyboard

The Roman historian Velleius Paterculus citing Aemilius Sura states that Assyria was founded 1995 years before Philip V was defeated in 197 BC (at the Battle of Cynoscephalae) by the Romans.[10] The sum therefore 197 + 1995 = 2192 BC for the foundation of Assyria. SONY VAIO VGN-N320E/W laptop keyboard

Diodorus Siculus recorded another tradition from Ctesias, that dates Assyria 1,306 years before 883 BC (the starting date of the reign of Ashurnasirpal II) and so the sum 883 + 1306 = 2189 BC.[11] The Chronicle of Eusebius provides yet another date for the founding of Assyria, with the accession of Ninus, dating to 2057 BC, Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 laptop keyboard

but the Armenian translation of the Chronicle puts this figure back slightly to 2116 BC. Another classical dating tradition found in the Excerpta Latina Barbari dates the foundation of Assyria, under Belus, to 2206 BC.

The city of Ashur, together with a number of other Assyrian cities, seem to have been established by 2600 BC, HP Pavilion dv6-2170eo laptop keyboard

however it is likely that they were initially Sumerian dominated administrative centres. In ca. the late 26th century BC, Eannatum of Lagash, then the dominant Sumer ruler in Mesopotamia, mentions "smitingSubartu" (Subartu being the Sumerian name for Assyria).  TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5153 laptop keyboard

Similarly, in ca. the early 25th century BC, Lugal-Anne-Mundu the king of the Sumerian state of Adablists Subartu as paying tribute to him.

Of the early history of the kingdom of Assyria, little is positively known. In the Assyrian King List, the earliest king recorded was Tudiya. HP Pavilion DV7-3067cl laptop keyboard

He was a contemporary of Ibrium of Ebla, who appears to have lived in the late 25th century BC. Tudiya concluded a treaty with Ibrium for the use of a trading post inThe Levant officially controlled by Ebla. Apart from this reference to trading activity, nothing further has yet been discovered about Tudiya. HP Pavilion DV7-3180us laptop keyboard

He was succeeded by Adamu and then a further thirteen rulers (Yangi, Suhlamu, Harharu, Mandaru, Imshu, Harshu, Didanu, Hanu, Zuabu, Nuabu, Abazu, Belu and Azarah). Nothing concrete is yet known about these kings, although there is some evidence of both trade and warfare with the Hurrian and Hattian peoples of Anatolia and theEblaites of the Levant. SONY VAIO VGN-FW11S laptop keyboard

The earliest kings, such as Tudiya, who are recorded as kings who lived in tents were likely to have been independent Akkadian semi nomadic pasturalist rulers.[1] These kings, who dominated the region, at some point during this period became fully urbanised and founded the city state of Ashur. HP Pavilion dv6-2170ee laptop keyboard

During the Akkadian Empire (2334–2154 BC) the Assyrians, like all the Akkadian Semites (and also the Sumerians), became subject to the dynasty of the city state of Akkad, centered in central Mesopotamia. The Akkadian Empire founded by Sargon the Great, claimed to encompass the surrounding "four quarters". HP Pavilion DV6-1122us laptop keyboard

The region of Assyria, north of the seat of the empire in central Mesopotamia had also been known as Subartu by the Sumerians, and the name Azuhinum in Akkadian records also seems to refer to Assyria proper.

Assyrian rulers were subject to Sargon and his successors, SONY VAIO VGN-FS315M laptop keyboard

and the city of Ashur became a regional administrative center of the Empire, implicated by the Nuzi tablets.[13]

During this period, the Akkadian-speaking Semites of Mesopotamia came to rule an empire encompassing not only Mesopotamia itself but large swathes of Asia Minor,  DELL PK130801B00 laptop keyboard

ancient Iran, Elam, the Arabian Peninsula, Canaan and the Levant (modern Syria and Lebanon).

Assyria seems to have already been firmly involved in trade in Asia Minor by this time; the earliest known reference to Anatolia as "Land of the Hatti", TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5163 laptop keyboard

was found on Mesopotamian cuneiform tablets from the early period of the Akkadian Empire (circa 2350 BC). On those tablets, Assyrian traders implored the help of their ruler, Sargon the Great. This appellation continued to exist throughout the Assyrian Empire for about 1,700 years. HP Pavilion dv5t-1200se CTO laptop keyboard

However, towards the end of the reign of Sargon the Great, the Assyrian faction rebelled against him; "the tribes of Assyria of the upper country—in their turn attacked, but they submitted to his arms, and Sargon settled their habitations, and he smote them grievously".[ COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard

The Akkadian Empire was destroyed by economic decline and internal civil war, followed by attacks from barbarian Gutian people in 2154 BC.

The rulers of Assyria during the period between 2154 BC and 2112 BC once again became fully independent, as the Gutians are only known to have administered southern Mesopotamia.  HP G72-b60US Laptop Keyboard

However, the king list is the only information from Assyria for this period. Assyria became part of the Empire of the Sumerian 3rd dynasty of Ur founded in 2112 BC. One ruler named Zāriqum is listed as paying tribute to Ur.[ Its rulers appear to have remained largely under Sumerian domination until the mid-21st century BC, HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard

although this is not certain, as the king list names Assyrian rulers for this period.

The main rivals to early Assyrian kings during the 22nd, 21st and 20th centuries BC would have been the Hattians and Hurrians to the north in Asia Minor, theGutians to the east in the Zagros Mountains of north west Iran, COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard

the Elamites to the south east in what is now south central Iran, the Amorites to the west in what is today Syria, and their fellow Sumero-Akkadian City-States of southern Mesopotamia such as Isin, Kish, Ur and Larsa.[1]

Assyria had extensive contact with Hattian, Hittite and Hurrian cities on the Anatolian plateau in Asia Minor. Lenovo Thinkpad T420 Laptop Keyboard

The Assyrians who had long traded in the region, and possibly ruled small areas bordering Assyria, now established significant colonies in Cappadocia, (e.g., at Kanesh (modern Kültepe) from 1945 BC to 1740 BC. These colonies, called karumTOSHIBA Satellite A305 Laptop Keyboard

the Akkadian word for 'port', were attached to Hattian and Hurrian cities in Anatolia, but physically separate, and had special tax status. They must have arisen from a long tradition of trade between Assyria and the Anatolian cities, but no archaeological or written records show this. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard

The trade consisted of metal (perhaps lead or tin; the terminology here is not entirely clear) and textiles from Assyria, that were traded for precious metals in Anatolia.

Like many city-states in Mesopotamian history, Ashur was, to a great extent, an oligarchy rather than a monarchy.  Lenovo 39T7417 Laptop Keyboard

Authority was considered to lie with "the City", and the polity had three main centres of power — an assembly of elders, a hereditary ruler, and an eponym. The ruler presided over the assembly and carried out its decisions. He was not referred to with the usual Akkadian term for "king", šarrumDELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard

that was instead reserved for the city's patron deity Assur, of whom the ruler was the high priest. The ruler himself was only designated as "the steward of Assur" (iššiak Assur), where the term for steward is a borrowing from Sumerians ensi(k)HP Mini 210-1014TU Laptop Keyboard

The third centre of power was the eponym (limmum), who gave the year his name, similarly to the later archons and consuls of Classical Antiquity. He was annually elected by lot and was responsible for the economic administration of the city, which included the power to detain people and confiscate property. HP Pavilion DV6-1002tx Laptop Keyboard

The institution of the eponym as well as the formula iššiak Assur lingered on as ceremonial vestiges of this early system throughout the history of the Assyrian monarchy.[14]

The first written inscriptions by 'urbanised' Assyrian kings appear in the mid-21st century BC, after they had shrugged off Sumerian domination. HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard

The land of Assyria as a whole then consisted of a number of city states and small Semitic Akkadian kingdoms, some of which were initially independent of Assyria. The foundation of the first true urbanised Assyrian monarchy was traditionally ascribed to king Ushpia, a contemporary of Ishbi-Erra of Isin and Naplanum ofLarsa.[15] DELL Precision M4500 Laptop Keyboard

c. 2030 BC. Assyria began to expand into Anatolia (Asia Minor) at this time, founding trading colonies in the south east of the region. He was succeeded by kings named Apiashal, Sulili, Kikkiya and Akiya (died 1976 BC) of whom little known apart from a record of Kikkiya conducting fortifications on the city walls, and building work on temples in Ashur. DELL PK130801B00 Laptop Keyboard

In approximately 1975 BC, Puzur-Ashur I (a contemporary of Shu-ilishu of Larsa and Samium of Isin) overthrew Kikkiya and founded a new dynasty which was to survive for over 160 years. He left inscriptions regarding the building of temples to gods such as Ashur, Adad and Ishtar in Assyria. The length of his reign is unknown. HP Pavilion DV6-1030us Laptop Keyboard

Shalim-ahum (died 1946 BC) succeeded the throne at a currently unknown date. He left inscriptions in archaic Old Assyrian' regarding the construction of a temple dedicated to the god Ashur, and the placement of Beer vats within it. HP Probook 4520S Laptop Keyboard

Ilushuma (1945–1906 BC) took the throne in 1945 BC, and appears to have been a powerful king, and the dominant ruler in the region. He made many raids intoSouthern Mesopotamia between 1945 BC and 1906 BC, invading the independent SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard

Sumero-Akkadian city states of the region, such as Isin and Larsa, many of which were now under severe pressure from migrating Amorites and the Elamites to the east.

The Amorites, were a Semitic people hailing from the north eastern Levant, SONY 147963021 Laptop Keyboard

who came to dominate the Levant (modern Syria) and Canaan, including overrunning Eblaand Mari, and continued to do the same to southern Mesopotamia from the mid-20th century BC, deposing native Sumero-Akkadian dynasties and setting up their own kingdoms, before themselves becoming Akkadianised HP 405963-001 laptop keyboard

Ilushu-ma's invasion of southern Mesopotamia appears to have been as much about freeing his fellow Akkadians from being over run by the Elamites and Amorites as asserting Assyrian domination over all of Mesopotamia.  HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard

He describes his exploits in aiding his fellow Akkadian states by defeating the invading Amorites and Elamites in the south of Mesopotamia as follows; "The freedom[nb 1] of the Akkadians and their children I established. I purified their copper. I established their freedom from the border of the marshes and Ur and Nippur, SONY VAIO VGN-FS315M Laptop Keyboard

 Awal, and Kish, Der of the goddess Ishtar, as far as the City of (Ashur)."[16]

Ilushuma also expanded northwards, founding colonies at the expense of the Hattians and Hurrians in Asia Minor, and to the north west into the Levant. TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard

The conflict between Assyria and its fellow Akkadian speaking states of the south was to become a pattern throughout the history of ancient Mesopotamia, with the future rivalry between Assyria and Babylonia.

Erishum I (1905–1877 BC) vigorously expanded Assyrian colonies in Asia Minor during his long reign, ASUS F3M Laptop Keyboard

the major ones appearing to be at Kanesh (Kültepe), Ḫattuša(Boğazköy) and Amkuwa (Alisar Höyük), together with a further eighteen smaller colonies. He created some of the earliest examples of Written Law, conducted extensive building work in the form of fortifying the walls of major Assyrian cities and the erection of temples dedicated to Ashur and Ishtar. Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard

It was during his reign that the limmum lists were introduced in Assyria. At some point he appears to have withdrawn Assyrian aid to southern Mesopotamia. It was during his reign in Assyria that the initially minor City State of Babylon was founded in 1894 BC by an Amorite Malka (prince) named Sumuabum.  HP Pavilion dv6-3107ax Laptop Keyboard

Ikunum (1877-1870 BC) built a major temple for the god Ninkigal. He further strengthened the fortifications of the city of Assur and maintained Assyria's colonies in Asia Minor.

Sargon I (1869-1830 BC) succeeded him in 1859 BC, and had an unusually long reign of 39 years. SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard

It is likely he was named after his illustrious fellow Mesopotamian predecessor Sargon of Akkad. He is known to have refortified the defences of major Assyrian cities, and maintained Assyrian colonies in Asia Minor during his reign. Apart from this, little has yet been unearthed about him. HP 488590-001 Laptop Keyboard

Puzur-Ashur II (1829-1822 BC) came to the throne as an already older man due to his fathers long reign. Little is known about his rule, but it appears to have been uneventful.

Naram-Suen[disambiguation needed] (1821 - 1819 BC) ascended to the throne in 1821 BC, TOSHIBA P000482730 Laptop Keyboard

and is possibly named after his predecessor Naram-Sin of the Akkadian Empire. As with his father, little is known of his short reign.

Erishum II (1819 - 1813 BC) was to be the last king of the dynasty of Puzur-Ashur I, founded circa 1975 BC.  SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard

After only five or six years in power he was overthrown by Shamshi-Adad I, an Amorite usurper who claimed legitimacy by asserting descent from the 21st Century BC Assyrian king, Ushpia.

The Amorites were successfully repelled by the Assyrian kings of the 20th and 19th centuries BC. TOSHIBA Tecra M9-S5514 Laptop Keyboard

However, in 1813 BC the native Akkadian king of Assyria Erishum II (1819–1813 BC) was deposed, and the throne of Assyria was usurped by Shamshi-Adad I (1813 BC – 1791 BC) in the expansion of Semitic Amorite tribes from theKhabur River delta.  GATEWAY NV-54 Laptop Keyboard

Although regarded as an Amorite by later Assyrian tradition, Shamshi-Adad is also credited with descent from the native Akkadian speaking ruler Ushpia in theAssyrian King List. He put his son Ishme-Dagan on the throne of a nearby Assyrian city, FUJITSU Lifebook P1510 Laptop Keyboard

Ekallatum, and maintained Assyria's Anatolian colonies. Shamshi-Adad I then went on to conquer the kingdom of Mari (in modern Syria) on the Euphrates putting another of his sons, Yasmah-Adad on the throne there. Shamshi-Adad's Assyria now encompassed the whole of northern Mesopotamia and included territory in central Mesopotamia,  FUJITSU Lifebook P1610 Laptop Keyboard

Asia Minor and northern Syria. He himself resided in a new capital city founded in the Khabur valley in northern Mesopotamia, called Shubat-Enlil.

Ishme-Dagan(1790 - 1751 BC) inherited Assyria, but Yasmah-Adad was overthrown by a new king called Zimrilim in Mari.  DELL Precision M4500 Laptop Keyboard

The new king of Mari allied himself with the Amorite king Hammurabi of Babylon, who had made the recently created, and originally minor state of Babylon into a major power.

Assyria now faced the rising power of Babylon in the south. Ishme-Dagan responded by making an alliance with the enemies of Babylon,  SONY VAIO VGN-N325QE/W Laptop Keyboard

and the power struggle continued without resolution for decades. Ishme-Dagan, like his father was a great warrior, and in addition to repelling Babylonian attacks, campaigned successfully against the Turukku and Lullubi of the Zagros Mountains (in modern Iran) who had attacked the Assyrian city of Ekallatum,  TOSHIBA Satellite A205-S4618 Laptop Keyboard

and against Dadusha, king of Eshnunna, and the state of Iamhad (modern Aleppo).

Hammurabi, after first conquering Mari, Larsa, and Eshnunna, quickly prevailed over Mut-Ashkur, (1751 - 1740 BC) who was Ishme-Dagan's successor, and subjected him to Babylon circa 1750 BC. With Hammurabi, HP G61-424CA laptop keyboard

the various karum colonies in Anatolia ceased trade activity — probably because the goods of Assyria were now being traded with the Babylonians. The Assyrian monarchy survived, however the three Amorite kings succeeding Ishme-Dagan;HP G61-424CA laptop keyboard

 Mut-Ashkur (who was the son of Ishme-Dagan and married to a Hurrian queen), Rimush (1739 - 1733 BC) and Asinum (1732 BC) were vassals, dependent on the Babylonians during the reign of Hammurabi, and for a short time, of his successor Samsu-iluna. Compaq Presario CQ56-102SE laptop keyboard

The short lived Babylonian Empire quickly began to unravel upon the death of Hammurabi, and Babylonia lost control over Assyria during the reign of Hammurabi's successor Samsu-iluna (1750 - 1712 BC). A period of civil war ensued after the deposition of the Amorite king of Assyria Asinum, HP G42-265LA laptop keyboard

 (a grandson of Shamshi-Adad I) in approximately 1732 BC by a powerful native Akkadian vice regent named Puzur-Sin, who regarded Asinum as both a foreigner and a former lackey of Babylon. A native king named Ashur-dugul seized the throne in 1732 BC, probably with the help of Puzur-Sin. TOSHIBA Satellite A305-S6841 laptop keyboard

However he was unable to retain control for long, and was soon deposed by a rival claimant, Ashur-apla-idi. Internal instability ensued with four further kings (Nasir-Sin, Sin-namir, Ipqi-Ishtar and Adad-salulu) all reigning in quick succession over a period of approximately six years between 1732 and 1727 BC. HP Mini 210-1081NR laptop keyboard

Babylonia seems to have been too powerless to intervene or take advantage of this situation.

Finally, a king named Adasi (1726 - 1701 BC) came to the fore c. 1726 BC and managed to quell the civil unrest and stabilise the situation in Assyria. HP G42-265LA laptop keyboard

Adasi drove the Babylonians and Amorites from the Assyrian sphere of influence during his reign, and Babylonian power began to quickly wane in Mesopotamia as a whole, also losing the far south of Mesopotamia to the Sealand Dynasty, TOSHIBA Satellite A305-S6829 laptop keyboard

although the Amorites would retain control over a much reduced and weak Babylonia itself until 1595 BC, when they were overthrown by the Kassites, a people from the Zagros Mountains who spoke a language isolate and were neither Semites nor Indo-Europeans. TOSHIBA PK13AT10600 laptop keyboard

Adasi was succeeded by Bel-bani (1700–1691 BC) who is credited in Assyrian annals with inflicting further defeats on the Babylonians and Amorites, and further strengthening and stabilising the kingdom.

Little is currently known of many of the kings that followed such as; Libaya (1690–1674 BC), SONY VGN-FE21B laptop keyboard

 Sharma-Adad I (1673–1662 BC), Iptar-Sin(1661–1650 BC), Bazaya (1649–1622 BC) (a contemporary of Peshgaldaramesh of the Sealand Dynasty), Lullaya (1621–1618 BC) (who usurperped the throne from Bazaya), COMPAQ Presario CQ50-210US laptop keyboard

Shu-Ninua (1615–1602 BC) and Sharma-Adad II (1601–1599 BC). However, Assyria seems to have been a relatively strong and stable nation, existing undisturbed by its neighbours such as the Hatti, Hittites, Hurrians, Amorites, Babylonians,Elamites or Mitanni for well over 200 years. DELL V119525BS1 laptop keyboard

Assyria appears to have remained strong and secure; when Babylon was sacked by the Hittites and subsequently fell to the Kassites in 1595 BC, both powers were unable to make any inroads into Assyria, and there seems to have been no trouble between the first Kassite ruler of Babylon,  TOSHIBA 9J.N9282.W01 laptop keyboard

Agum II and Erishum III (1598–1586 BC) of Assyria, and a mutually beneficial treaty was signed between the two rulers.

Shamshi-Adad II (1585–1580 BC), Ishme-Dagan II (1579 - 1562 BC) and Shamshi-Adad III (1562 - 1548 BC) seem also to have had peaceful tenures, SONY KFRMBA151B laptop keyboard

although few records have thus far been discovered about their reigns. Similarly, Ashur-nirari I (1547–1522 BC) seems not to have been troubled by the newly founded Mitanni Empire in Asia Minor, the Hittite empire, or Babylon during his 25-year reign. TOSHIBA Satellite l25-s1196 laptop keyboard

He is known to have been an active king, improving the infrastructure, dedicating temples and conducting various building projects throughout the kingdom.

Puzur-Ashur III (1521–1498 BC) proved to be a strong and energetic ruler.  HP Pavilion DV6-1205ee laptop keyboard

He undertook much rebuilding work in Assur, the city was refortified and the southern quarters incorporated into the main city defences. Temples to the moon god Sin (Nanna) and the sun god Shamash were erected during his reign. SAMSUNG Q320 laptop keyboard

He signed a treaty with Burna-Buriash I the Kassite king of Babylon, defining the borders of the two nations in the late 16th century BC. He was succeeded by Enlil-nasir I (1497–1483 BC) who appears to have had a peaceful an uneventful reign, as does his successor Nur-ili (1482–1471 BC). TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4070 Laptop Keyboard

The son of Nur-ili, Ashur-shaduni (1470 BC) was deposed by his uncle Ashur-rabi I (1470-1451 BC) in his first year of rule. Little is known about his nineteen-year reign, but it appears to have been largely uneventful.

The emergence of the Mitanni Empire in the 16th century BC did eventually lead to  HP Probook 4515S Laptop Keyboard

a period of sporadic Mitanni-Hurrian domination in the latter half of the 15th century. The Mitanni were an Indo-European people who conquered and formed the ruling class over the indigenous Hurrians of Asia Minor/Anatolia. The Hurrians were a Caucasoid people who spoke a language isolate and were neither Semites nor Indo-Europeans. SONY VAIO VGN-AR630E Laptop Keyboard

Ashur-nadin-ahhe I (1450-1431 BC) was courted by the Egyptians, who were rivals of the Mitanni, and attempting to gain a foothold in the Near East. Amenhotep IIsent him a tribute of gold to seal an alliance. It is likely that this alliance prompted Saushtatar, SONY VAIO PCG-FR315M Laptop Keyboard

the Mitanni emperor, to invade Assyria, and sack the city of Ashur, after which Assyria became a sometime vassal state, with Ashur-nadin-ahhe I being forced to pay tribute to Saushtatar. He was deposed by his own brother Enlil-nasir II (1430-1425 BC) in 1430 BC, DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard

possibly with the aid of the Mitanni, who received tribute from the new king. Ashur-nirari II (1424-1418 BC) had an uneventful reign, and appears to have also paid tribute to the Mitanni Empire.[1]

The Assyrian monarchy survived, and the Mitanni influence appears to have been sporadic. DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard

They appear not to have been always willing or able to interfere in Assyrian internal and international affairs.

Ashur-bel-nisheshu (1417–1409 BC) seems to have been largely independent of Mitanni influence, as evidenced by his signing a mutually beneficial treaty withKaraindash, SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard

the Kassite king of Babylonia in the late 15th century. He also undertook extensive rebuilding work in Ashur itself, and Assyria appears to have redeveloped a sophisticated financial system during his reign.

Ashur-rim-nisheshu (1408–1401 BC) also undertook building work, strengthening the city walls of the capital, however it is likely that he paid tribute to Mitanni. HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard

Ashur-nadin-ahhe II (1400–1393 BC) also received a tribute of gold and diplomatic overtures from Egypt, possibly in an attempt to gain Assyrian support against Egypt's Mitanni and Hittite rivals in the region. However the Assyrian king appears not to have been in a strong enough position to challenge the Mitanni. TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5107 laptop keyboard

Eriba-Adad I (1392-1366 BC), a son of Ashur-bel-nisheshu, ascended the throne in 1392 BC and finally broke the ties to the Mitanni Empire.

There are dozens of Mesopotamian cuneiform texts from this period, with precise observations of solar and lunar eclipses, HP Pavilion DV6z artist edition 2 laptop keyboard

that have been used as 'anchors' in the various attempts to define the chronology of Babylonia and Assyria for the early 2nd millennium BC (i.e., the "high", "middle", and "low" chronologies.)

By the reign of Eriba-Adad I (1392 BC - 1366 BC) Mitanni influence over Assyria was on the wane. SONY VAIO VGN-N250E/B laptop keyboard

Eriba-Adad I became involved in a dynastic battle between Tushratta and his brother Artatama II and after this his son Shuttarna II, who called himself king of the Hurri while seeking support from the Assyrians. A pro-Assyria faction appeared at the royal Mitanni court. HP Pavilion DV7-3067nr laptop keyboard

Eriba-Adad I had thus finally broken Mitanni influence over Assyria, and in turn had now made Assyria an influence over Mitanni affairs.

Ashur-uballit I (1365 BC – 1330 BC) succeeded the throne of Assyria in 1365 BC, and proved to be a fierce, ambitious and powerful ruler. SONY Vaio PCG-K315S laptop keyboard

Assyrian pressure from the south-east and Hittite pressure from the north-west, enabled Ashur-uballit I to break Mitanni power. He met and decisively defeated Shuttarna II the Mitanni king in battle, making Assyria once more an imperial power at the expense of not only the Mitanni themselves, TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5216 laptop keyboard

but also Kassite Babylonia, the Hurrians and the Hittites; and a time came when the Kassite king in Babylon was glad to marry Muballiṭat-Šērūa, the daughter of Ashur-uballit, whose letters to Akhenaten of Egypt form part of the Amarna letters.  HP Pavilion DV6z artist edition 2 laptop keyboard

This marriage led to disastrous results for Babylonia, as the Kassite faction at court murdered the half Assyrian Babylonian king and placed a pretender on the throne. Assur-uballit I promptly invaded Babylonia to avenge his son-in-law, entering Babylon, deposing the king and installing Kurigalzu II of the royal line king there.  HP Pavilion dv6-3142se laptop keyboard

Ashur-uballit I then attacked and defeated Mattiwaza the Mitanni king despite attempts by the Hittite kingSuppiluliumas, now fearful of growing Assyrian power, to help the Mitanni. The lands of the Mitanni and Hurrians were duly appropriated by Assyria, making it a large and powerful empire. TOSHIBA Satellite P300-ST3712 laptop keyboard

Enlil-nirari (1329–1308 BC) succeeded Ashur-uballit I. He described himself as a "Great-King" (Sharru rabû) in letters to the Hittite kings. He was immediately attacked by Kurigalzu II of Babylon who had been installed by his father, but succeeded in defeating him, HP G42-265LA laptop keyboard

repelling Babylonian attempts to invade Assyria, counterattacking and appropriating Babylonian territory in the process, thus further expanding Assyria.

The successor of Enlil-nirari, Arik-den-ili (c. 1307–1296 BC), consolidated Assyrian power, SONY VAIO VGN-FS620 laptop keyboard

and successfully campaigned in the Zagros Mountains to the east, subjugating the Lullubi and Gutians. In the Levant, he defeatedSemitic tribes of the so-called Ahlamu group, who were possibly predecessors of the Arameans or an Aramean tribe. HP Pavilion dv3-2155mx laptop keyboard

He was followed by Adad-nirari I (1295–1275 BC) who made Kalhu (Biblical Calah/Nimrud) his capital, and continued expansion to the northwest, mainly at the expense of the Hittites and Hurrians, conquering Hittite territories such as Carchemish and beyond. TOSHIBA PK130BH2A00 laptop keyboard

Adad-nirari I made further gains to the south, annexing Babylonian territory and forcing the Kassite rulers of Babylon into accepting a new frontier agreement in Assyria's favour. Adad-nirari's inscriptions are more detailed than any of his predecessors. SONY VAIO VGN-CR123E laptop keyboard

He declares that the gods of Mesopotamia called him to war, a statement used by most subsequent Assyrian kings. He referred to himself again as Sharru Rabi ( meaning "The Great King"in the Akkadian language) and conducted extensive building projects in Ashur and the provinces. Lenovo ThinkPad T510-4339 laptop keyboard

In 1274 BC Shalmaneser I (1274-1244 BC) ascended the throne. He proved to be a great warrior king. During his reign he conquered the powerful Hurrian kingdom ofUrartu that had encompassed most of Eastern Anatolia and the Caucasus Mountains, and the fierce Gutians of the Zagros Mountains in modern Iran. HP Pavilion dv6-2130ca laptop keyboard

He then attacked the Mitanni-Hurrians, defeating both King Shattuara and his Hittite and Aramean allies, finally completely destroying the Hurri-Mitanni kingdom in the process.

During the campaign against the Hittites, Shattuara cut off the Assyrian army from their supply of food and water .DELL Inspiron 1750 Laptop Keyboard

but the Assyrians broke free in a desperate battle, counterattacked, and conquered and annexed what remained of the Mitanni kingdom. Shalmaneser I installed an Assyrian prince, Ilu-ippada as ruler of Mitanni, with Assyrian governors such as Meli-sah, installed to rule individual cities. HP Pavilion DV6z artist edition 2 Laptop Keyboard

The Hittites tried unsuccessfully to save Mitanni. In alliance with Babylon, they fought an economic war against Assyria for many years. Assyria was now a large and powerful empire, and a major threat to Egyptian and Hittite interests in the region, HP G42-364LA Laptop Keyboard

and was perhaps the reason that these two powers, fearful of Assyrian might, made peace with one another.[17] Like his father, Shalmaneser was a great builder and he further expanded the city of Kalhu (the biblical Calah/Nimrud) at the juncture of the Tigris and Zab Rivers.  DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard

Shalmaneser's son and successor, Tukulti-Ninurta I (1244 BC -1207 BC), won a major victory against the Hittites and their king Tudhaliya IV at the Battle of Nihriya and took thousands of prisoners. He then conquered Babylonia, taking Kashtiliash IV as a captive and ruled there himself as king for seven years, HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard

taking on the old title "King of Sumer and Akkad" first used by Sargon of Akkad. Tukulti-Ninurta I thus became the first native Akkadian speaking Mesopotamian to rule the state of Babylonia, its founders having been Amorites, succeeded by Kassites. HP G42-364LA Laptop Keyboard

Tukulti-Ninurta petitioned the god Shamash before beginning his counter offensive.[18] Kashtiliash IV was captured, single-handed by Tukulti-Ninurta according to his account, who "trod with my feet upon his lordly neck as though it were a footstool"[19] and deported him ignominiously in chains to Assyria.  TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 Laptop Keyboard

The victorious Assyrian demolished the walls of Babylon, massacred many of the inhabitants, pillaged and plundered his way across the city to the Esagila temple, where he made off with the statue of Marduk.[20] He then proclaimed himself "king of Karduniash, HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard

king of Sumer and Akkad, king of Sippar and Babylon, king of Tilmun and Meluhha."[18] Middle Assyrian texts recovered at ancient Dūr-Katlimmu, include a letter from Tukulti-Ninurta to his sukkal rabi'u, or grand vizier, Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard

Ashur-iddin advising him of the approach of his general Shulman-mushabshuescorting the captive Kashtiliash, his wife, and his retinue which incorporated a large number of women,[21] on his way to exile after his defeat. In the process he defeated the Elamites, who had themselves coveted Babylon. DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard

He also wrote an epic poem documenting his wars against Babylon and Elam. After a Babylonian revolt, he raided and plundered the temples in Babylon, regarded as an act of sacrilege. As relations with the priesthood in Ashur began deteriorating, Tukulti-Ninurta built a new capital city; Kar-Tukulti-Ninurta.[22] Lenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard

A number of historians, including Julian Jaynes, identify Tukulti-Ninurta I and his deeds as the historical origin for the biblical character Nimrod in the Old Testament.

However, Tukulti-Ninurta's sons rebelled and besieged the ageing king in his capital.  HP Pavilion zv6223ea Laptop Keyboard

He was murdered and then succeeded by Ashur-nadin-apli (1206-1203 BC) who left the running of his empire to Assyrian regional governors such as Adad-bēl-gabbe. Another unstable period for Assyria followed, it was riven by periods of internal strife and the new king only made token and unsuccessful attempts to recapture Babylon,  Lenovo Thinkpad T520 Laptop Keyboard

whose Kassite kings had taken advantage of the upheavals in Assyria and freed themselves from Assyrian rule. However, Assyria itself was not threatened by foreign powers during the reigns of Ashur-nirari III (1202-1197 BC), ACER Aspire 4736Z laptop keyboard

Enlil-kudurri-usur (1196-1193 BC) and Ninurta-apal-Ekur (1192–1180 BC), although Ninurta-apal-Ekur usurped the throne from Enlil-kudurri-usur.

Ashur-Dan I (1179–1133 BC) stabilised the internal unrest in Assyria during his unusually long reign, quelling instability.  HP Pavilion DV7t-3100 laptop keyboard

During the twilight years of the Kassite dynasty in Babylonia, he [23] records that he seized northern Babylonia, including the cities of Zaban, Irriya and Ugar-sallu during the reigns ofMarduk-apla-iddina I and Zababa-shuma-iddin, HP Pavilion dv6-2150es laptop keyboard

plundering them and "taking their vast booty to Assyria." However, the conquest of northern Babylonia brought Assyria into direct conflict with Elam which had taken the remainder of Babylonia. The powerful Elamites, under king Shutruk-Nahhunte, fresh from sacking Babylon, entered into a protracted war with Assyria, HP Pavilion dv6-3107ax laptop keyboard

they briefly took the Assyrian city of Arrapkha, which Ashur-Dan I then retook, eventually defeating the Elamites and forcing a treaty upon them in the process.

Another very brief period of internal upheaval followed the death of Ashur-Dan I when his son and successor Ninurta-tukulti-Ashur (1133 BC)  SONY VAIO VGN-FS415E laptop keyboard

was deposed in his first year of rule by his own brother Mutakkil-Nusku and forced to flee to Babylonia. Mutakkil-Nusku himself died in the same year (1133 BC).

A third brother, Ashur-resh-ishi I (1133–1116 BC) took the throne. This was to lead to a renewed period of Assyrian expansion and empire. HP Pavilion DV7-3165dx laptop keyboard

As the Hittite empire collapsed from the onslaught of the Indo-European Phrygians (called Mushki in Assyrian annals), Babylon and Assyria began to vie for Aramean regions (in modernSyria), formerly under firm Hittite control. When their forces encountered one another in this region, the Assyrian king Ashur-resh-ishi I met and defeatedNebuchadnezzar SONY VAIO VGN-NW25GF laptop keyboard

I of Babylon on a number of occasions. Assyria then invaded and annexed Hittite controlled lands in Asia Minor, Aram (Syria) and Gutians andKassite regions in the Zagros Mountains to the east, marking an upsurge in imperian expansion. Compaq Presario CQ71-317EA laptop keyboard

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