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officially the Republic of Senegal (République du Sénégal,IPA: [ʁepyblik dy seneɡal]), is a country in West Africa. It owes its name to the Sénégal River that borders it to the east and north. Senegal is externally bounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Mauritania to the north, Malito the east, and Guinea and Guinea-Bissau to the south; internally it almost completely surrounds the Gambia, SONY VAIO VPCF126FM Laptop Keyboard

namely on the north, east and south, except for Gambia's short Atlantic coastline. Senegal covers a land area of almost 197,000 square kilometres (76,000 sq mi), and has an estimated population of about 13 million. The climate is tropical with two seasons: the dry season and the rainy season. ACER Aspire 5610Z Laptop Keyboard

Dakar, the capital city of Senegal, is located at the westernmost tip of the country on the Cap-Vert peninsula. About 500 kilometres (300 mi) off the coast lie the Cape Verde Islands. During the 17th and 18th centuries, numerous trading posts belonging to various colonial empires, were established along the coast. HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard

The town of St. Louis became the capital of French West Africa (Afrique occidentale française, or AOF) before it was moved to Dakar in 1902. Dakar became its capital in 1960 at the time of independence from France. The country is part of The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5112WH Laptop Keyboard

Integrated with the main bodies of the international community, Senegal is also a member of the African Union (AU) and the Community of Sahel-Saharan States. Since 2 April 2012, the country's president has been Macky Sall. COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard

The country is named after the Sénégal River, the etymology of which is contested. One popular theory (proposed by David Boilat in 1853) is that it stems from the Wolof phrase sunu gaal, which means "our canoe" (or pirogue), resulting from a miscommunication between 15th-century Portuguese sailors and Wolof fishermen. Modern historians believe its name is probably a reference to the Berber Zenaga people who lived on the northern side of the river. DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard

A competing theory is that it derives from the Medieval town of "Sanghana" (also given as Isenghan, Asengan, Singhanah), described by the Arab geographer al-Bakri in 1068 as located by the mouth of the river. Nonetheless, the "our canoe" theory has been popularly embraced in modern Senegal for its charm and its use in appeals to national solidarity (e.g. "we're all in the same canoe") are frequently heard in the media.[citation needed]  ACER AEZU2R00010 Laptop Keyboard

Some Serer people from the south believe the river's name is originally derived from the compound of the Sererterm "Sene" (from Roge Sene, Supreme Deity in Serer religion) and "O Gal" (meaning "body of water"). ACER TravelMate 6292 Laptop Keyboard

Archaeological findings throughout the area indicate that Senegal was inhabited in prehistoric times and has always been occupied by various ethnic groups.  Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard

Some kingdoms were created around the 7th century: the Tekrour, the Namandirou kingdom and then the Djolof with distant ties to the Ghana empire. Eastern Senegal was once part of the Empire of Ghana.

Senegal was part of the kingdom of Takrur in the 9th century and the Jolof kingdom, during the 13th and 14th centuries.  DELL Precision M4500 Laptop Keyboard

Islam was introduced in Senegal during the 8th and 9th centuries by Berber merchants[citation needed][dubious – discuss]. They peacefully converted the Toucouleurs and Sarakholles[dubious – discuss] who in turn propagated it. DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard

Later on, in the 11th century, the Almoravids, with the help of the Toucouleurs used Jihad as a mean of conversion. This movement faced resistance from ethnicities of traditional religion, the Serers in particular.[5][6] Eventually, Berbers won a peaceful conversion among the Wolofs with the intervention of leaders like Cheikh Ahmadou Bamba, HP Pavilion dv5-1104tu Laptop Keyboard

El Hadj Malick Sy, and Seydina Limamou Laye who were able to convince their followers[citation needed]. They saw Islam as a way to unite and fight against colonial power[dubious – discuss]. The populations were getting weary of repeated jihads and forced colonization.  DELL 454RX Laptop Keyboard

In the 13th and 14th centuries, the area came under the influence of the empires to the east; the Jolof Empire of Senegal was also founded during this time. In the Senegambia region, between 1300 and 1900, close to one-third of the population was enslaved.[7]  TOSHIBA PK130260100 Laptop Keyboard

In the 14th century the Djolof kingdom became a powerful empire having united Cayor, and the kingdoms of Baol, Sine, Saloum, Waalo, Fouta-Toro and Bambouk. The empire was a voluntary confederacy of various states rather than an empire built on military conquest.[8][9] The empire was founded by Ndiadiane Ndiaye, ACER AEZU2R00010 laptop keyboard

a partSerer[10][11] and part Toucouleur, who was able to form a coalition with many ethnicities, but collapsed around 1549 with the defeat and killing of Lele Fouli Fak by Amari Ngone Sobel Fall.

French colonialists progressively invaded and took over all kingdoms except Sine and Saloum under governor Louis Faidherbe.[8][15] ACER TravelMate 6292 laptop keyboard

European missionaries introduced Christianity to Senegal and the Casamance in the 19th century. An emblematic figure of Casamance isAline Sitoe Diatta, a woman who led the resistance movement against European colonialists.[16] SONY VGN-FE11M laptop keyboard

It was only in the 1850s that the French began to expand onto the Senegalese mainland (by now rid of slavery and promotingabolitionist doctrine),[17] adding native chiefdoms such as Waalo, Cayor, Baol, and Jolof. Senegalese chiefs' resistance to the French expansion and curtailing of their lucrative slave trade was led in part by Lat-Dior, Damel of Cayor, TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5165 laptop keyboard

and Maad a Sinig Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof, the Maad a Sinig of Sine, resulting in the Battle of Logandème.

In 1980, President Senghor decided to retire from politics, and he handed power over in 1981 to his handpicked successor,Abdou Diouf. Mamadou Dia ran for reelection in 1983 against Diouf but lost. Senghor moved to France where he later died at the age of 96. HP Pavilion dv6138TX laptop keyboard

Senegal joined with the Gambia to form the nominal confederation of Senegambia on 1 February 1982. However, the union was dissolved in 1989. Despite peace talks, a southern separatist group (The MFDC) in the Casamance region has clashed sporadically with government forces since 1982 in the Casamance conflict however in recent years violence has subsided and President Macky Sall held talks with rebels in Rome in December 2012.[19] Lenovo 04W2236 laptop keyboard

Senegal has had a long history of participating in international peacekeeping.[1]

Abdou Diouf was president between 1981 and 2000. He encouraged broader political participation, reduced government involvement in the economy, and widened Senegal's diplomatic engagements, particularly with other developing nations. Domestic politics on occasion spilled over into street violence, border tensions, TOSHIBA PK130260100 laptop keyboard

and a violent separatist movement in the southern region of the Casamance. Nevertheless, Senegal's commitment to democracy and human rights strengthened. Abdou Diouf served four terms as president.  HP Mini 110-1150LA Laptop Keyboard

In the presidential election of 1999, opposition leader Abdoulaye Wade defeated Diouf in an election deemed free and fair by international observers. Senegal experienced its second peaceful transition of power, and its first from one political party to another.  APPLE 607-3241-A Laptop Keyboard

On 30 December 2004 President Wade announced that he would sign a peace treaty with the separatist group in the Casamance region. This, however, has yet to be implemented. There was a round of talks in 2005, but the results have not yet[when?] yielded a resolution. SONY VAIO VGN-N21S/W Laptop Keyboard

On 4 April 1959 Senegal and the French Sudan merged to form the Mali Federation, which became fully independent on 20 June 1960, as a result of the independence and the transfer of power agreement signed with France on 4 April 1960. Due to internal political difficulties, the Federation broke up on 20 August, when Senegal and French Sudan (renamed the Republic of Mali) proclaimed independence. HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard

Léopold Senghor was proclaimed Senegal's first president in September 1960. Senghor was a very well read man, educated in France. He was a poet, a philosopher and personally drafted the Senegalese national anthem, "Pincez tous vos koras, frappez les balafons". He was very pro-African, and also advocated a brand of African socialism.[18] TOSHIBA NSK-TAE01 Laptop Keyboard

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Senegal is a republic with a presidency; the president is elected every five years as of 2001, previously being seven years, by adult voters. The first president, Léopold Sédar Senghor, was a poet and writer, and was the first African elected to the Academie Francaise. Senegal's second president, Abdou Diouf is the current general secretary of the Organisation de la Francophonie. The third president was Abdoulaye Wade, a lawyer. The current president is Macky Sall, elected in March 2012. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

Senegal has more than 80 political parties. The bicameral parliament consists of the National Assembly, which has 120 seats, and the Senate, which has 100 seats and was reinstituted in 2007.[1] An independent judiciary also exists in Senegal. The nation's highest courts that deal with business issues are the constitutional council and the court of justice, members of which are named by the president.  Lenovo 04W0872 Laptop Keyboard

Currently, Senegal has a quasi-democratic political culture, trying to be one of the more successful post-colonial democratic transitions in Africa. Local administrators are appointed by, and responsible to, the president. The marabouts, Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

religious leaders of the various Senegalese Muslim brotherhoods, also exercise a strong political influence in the country especially during Wade's presidency. In 2009, however, Freedom House downgraded Senegal's status from 'Free' to 'Partially Free', based on increased centralisation of power in the executive. TOSHIBA Satellite l25-s1196 laptop keyboard

In 2008, Senegal finished in 12th position on the Ibrahim Index of African Governance.[20] The Ibrahim Index is a comprehensive measure of African governance (limited to sub-Saharan Africa until 2008), based on a number of different variables which reflect the success with which governments deliver essential political goods to their citizens. Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

When the Northern African countries were added to the index in 2009, Senegal's 2008 position was retroactively downgraded to 15th place (with Tunisia, Egypt and Morocco placing themselves ahead of Senegal). As of 2012, Senegal's rank in the Ibrahim Index has decreased another point to 16 out of 52 African countries.  Lenovo 3000 Y500 laptop keyboard

On 22 February 2011, it was reported that Senegal has severed diplomatic ties with Iran, saying Tehran supplied rebels with weapons which killed Senegalese troops in the Casamance conflict.

On 26 February 2012, Senegal held presidential elections which were perceived as controversial due to President Wade's candidacy. DELL NSK-DB301 laptop keyboard

The controversy stemmed from the fact that although the Senegalese constitution did not allow a president to serve more than two terms, President Wade amended the constitution last year which allowed him to run for a third term. Several youth opposition movements, including M23 and Y'en a Marre, HP Mini 110-1150LA laptop keyboard

emerged in June 2011 to contest the amendment. In the end, Macky Sall of the Alliance for the Republic won, and Wade conceded the election to Sall. This peaceful and democratic transition was hailed by many foreign observers, such as the EU[21] as a show of "maturity".

On 19 September 2012, lawmakers voted to do away with the senate to save an estimated $15 million dollars.[22APPLE 607-3241-A laptop keyboard

The Senegalese landscape consists mainly of the rolling sandy plains of the western Sahel which rise to foothills in the southeast. Here is also found Senegal's highest point, an otherwise unnamed feature near Nepen Diakha at 584 m (1,916 ft). The northern border is formed by the Senegal River, other rivers include the Gambia and Casamance Rivers. The capital Dakar lies on the Cap-Vert peninsula, the westernmost point of continental Africa. SONY VAIO VGN-CR31/P laptop keyboard

The Cape Verde islands lie some 560 kilometres (350 mi) off the Senegalese coast, but Cap-Vert ("Cape Green") is a maritime placemark, set at the foot of "Les Mammelles", a 105-metre (344 ft) cliff resting at one end of the Cap-Vert peninsula onto which is settled Senegal's capital Dakar, and 1 kilometre (0.6 mi) south of the "Pointe des Almadies",TOSHIBA Satellite M30X-214 laptop keyboard

the westernmost point in Africa.

The local climate is tropical with well-defined dry and humid seasons that result from northeast winter winds and southwest summer winds. The dry season (December to April) is dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind.[1] Dakar's annual rainfall of about 600 mm (24 in) occurs between June and October when maximum temperatures average 30 °C (86.0 °F) and minimums 24.2 °C (75.6 °F);  Lenovo 04W0872 laptop keyboard

December to February maximum temperatures average 25.7 °C (78.3 °F) and minimums18 °C (64.4 °F).[23] Interior temperatures are higher than along the coast (for example, average daily temperatures in Kaolack and Tambacounda for May are30 °C (86.0 °F) and 32.7 °C (90.9 °F) respectively, HP Pavilion dv5-1215ca laptop keyboard

compared to Dakar's 23.2 °C (73.8 °F) ),[24] and rainfall increases substantially farther south, exceeding 1,500 mm (59.1 in) annually in some areas. In the far interior of the country, in the region of Tambacounda, particularly on the border of Mali, temperatures can reach as high as 54 °C (129.2 °F).  HP Mini 210-1140LA laptop keyboard

The main industries include food processing, mining, cement, artificial fertilizer, chemicals, textiles, refining imported petroleum, and tourism. Exports include fish, chemicals, cotton, fabrics, groundnuts, and calcium phosphate. The principal foreign market is India at 26.7 percent of exports (as of 1998). Other foreign markets include the United States, Italy and the United Kingdom. Packard Bell Easynote TM81 laptop keyboard

As a member of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU), Senegal is working toward greater regional integration with a unified external tariff. Senegal is also a member of the Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa(OHADA).[29] TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7222 laptop keyboard

Senegal realized full Internet connectivity in 1996, creating a mini-boom in information technology-based services. Private activity now accounts for 82 percent of its GDP.[citation needed] On the negative side, Senegal faces deep-seated[citation needed]urban problems of chronic high unemployment, Packard Bell NEW95 laptop keyboard

 socioeconomic disparity, and juvenile delinquency[citation needed].

Senegal is a major recipient of international development assistance. Donors include USAID, Japan, France and China. Over 3000 Peace Corps Volunteers have served in Senegal since 1963.[30] HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard

Senegal has a population of over 12.5 million,[2] about 42 percent of whom live in rural areas. Density in these areas varies from about 77 inhabitants per square kilometre (200 /sq mi) in the west-central region to 2 per square kilometre (5.2 /sq mi) in the arid eastern section.

According to the World Refugee Survey 2008, GATEWAY V030946FS1 US Laptop Keyboard

published by the U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, Senegal has a population of refugees and asylum seekers numbering approximately 23,800 in 2007. The majority of this population (20,200) is fromMauritania. Refugees live in N'dioum, Dodel, and small settlements along the Senegal River valley.[31] HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard

Senegal has a wide variety of ethnic groups and, as in most West African countries, several languages are widely spoken. The Wolof are the largest single ethnic group in Senegal at 43 percent; the Fula[32] SONY VAIO VGN-FS515B Laptop Keyboard

and Toucouleur (also known as Halpulaar'en, literally "Pulaar-speakers") (24%) are the second biggest group, followed by the Serer (14.7%),[33] then others such as Jola (4%), Mandinka (3%), Maures or (Naarkajors), Soninke, Bassari and many smaller communities (9%). (See also the Bedick ethnic group.) HP AELX6U00210 Laptop Keyboard

About 50,000  Europeans (mostly French) and Lebanese[34] as well as smaller numbers of Mauritanians and Moroccans[citation needed] reside in Senegal, mainly in the cities. The majority of Lebanese work in commerce.[35] Also located primarily in urban settings are small Vietnamese communities as well as a growing number ofChinese immigrant traders, each numbering perhaps a few hundred people.[36][37] HP COMPAQ NC6320 Laptop Keyboard

There are also tens of thousands of Mauritanian refugees in Senegal, primarily in the country's north.[38]

French is the official language, used regularly by a minority of Senegalese educated in a system styled upon the colonial-era schools of French origin (Koranic schools are even more popular, but Arabic is not widely spoken outside of this context of recitation). SAMSUNG N145 Laptop Keyboard

Most people also speak their own ethnic language while, especially in Dakar, Wolof is the lingua franca[citation needed]. Pulaar is spoken by the Fulas and Toucouleur. The Serer language is widely spoken by both Serers and non-Serers (including president Sall, whose mother and wife are Serers); so are the Cangin languages, whose speakers are ethnically Serers. HP Mini 210-2032tu laptop keyboard

Portuguese Creole is a prominent minority language in Ziguinchor, regional capital of the Casamance, where some residents speak Kriol, primarily spoken inGuinea-Bissau. Cape Verdeans speak their native creole, Cape Verdean Creole, and standard Portuguese. SONY VAIO VGN-N21S/W laptop keyboard

French, the only official language in the country, is facing a backlash as a consequence of a rising Senegalese linguistic nationalist movement, which supports the integration of Wolof, the common vernacular language of the country, into the national constitution.[39] HP G42-265LA laptop keyboard

Public expenditure on health was at 2.4 percent of the GDP in 2004, whereas private expenditure was at 3.5 percent.[40] Health expenditure was at US$72 (PPP) per capita in 2004.[40] The fertility rate was at about 5.2 in the early 2000s (decade).[40] Compaq Presario CQ42 laptop keyboard

There were 6 physicians per 100,000 persons in the early 2000s (decade).[40] Infant mortality was at 77 per 1,000 live births in 2005.[40] Malaria is the largest cause of infant mortality, but rates are dropping, thanks to the support of the President's Malaria Initiative. Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

Islamic communities in Senegal are generally organized around one of several Islamic Sufiorders or brotherhoods, headed by a khalif (xaliifa in Wolof, from Arabic khalīfa), who is usually a direct descendant of the group’s founder. The two largest and most prominent Sufi orders in Senegal are the Tijaniyya, whose largest sub-groups are based in the cities of Tivaouane and Kaolack, and the Murīdiyya (Murid), based in the city ofTouba.  HP G62-b12SA laptop keyboard

The Halpulaar (Pulaar-speakers), composed of Fula people, a widespread group found along the Sahel from Chad to Senegal, and Toucouleurs, represent 23.8 percent of the population.[1] Historically, they were the first to become Muslim. HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard

Many of theToucouleurs, or sedentary Halpulaar of the Senegal River Valley in the north, converted to Islam around a millennium ago and later contributed to Islam's propagation throughout Senegal. Success was gained among the Wolofs, but repulsed by the Serers. TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

Most communities south of the Senegal River Valley, however, were not thoroughly Islamized. The Serer people stood out as one of this group, who spend over one thousand years resisting Islamization (see Serer history (medieval era to present)). HP COMPAQ NX6325 Laptop Keyboard

Although many Serers are Christians or Muslim, their conversion to Islam in particular is very recent, who converted on their own free will rather than by force, although force had been tried centuries earlier unsuccessfully (see the Battle of Fandane-Thiouthioune).[43]  IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X301 2779 Laptop Keyboard

The spread of formal Quranic school (called daara in Wolof) during the colonial period increased largely through the effort of the Tijaniyya. In Murid communities, which place more emphasis on the work ethic than on literary Quranic studies, the term daara often applies to work groups devoted to working for a religious leader. SONY N860-7676-T101 Laptop Keyboard

Other Islamic groups include the much older Qādiriyya order and the Senegalese Laayeen order, which is prominent among the coastal Lebu. Today, most Senegalese children study at daaras for several years, memorizing as much of the Qur'an as they can.  TOSHIBA Tecra M10-S3454 Laptop Keyboard

Some of them continue their religious studies at informal Arabic schools (majlis) or at the growing number of private Arabic schools and publicly funded Franco-Arabic schools. A modern messianic sect in Islam, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community is also present in the country. TOSHIBA NB100-11G Laptop Keyboard

Small Roman Catholic communities are mainly found in coastal Serer, Jola, Mankanya and Balant populations, and in eastern Senegal among the Bassari and Coniagui. The Protestant churches are mainly attended by immigrants but during the second half of the 20th century Protestant churches led by Senegalese leaders from different ethnic groups have evolved. TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard

In Dakar Catholic and Protestant rites are practiced by the Lebanese, Cape Verdean, European, and American immigrant populations, and among certain Africans of other countries as well as by the Senegalese themselves. Although Islam is Senegal's majority religion, Senegal's first president, Léopold Sédar Senghor, was a Catholic Serer. HP 640208-001 Laptop Keyboard

Serer religion encompasses a belief in a supreme deity called Roog (Koox among the Cangin), Serer cosmogony, cosmology and divination ceremonies such as the annual Xoy (or Khoye) ceremony precided over by the Serer Saltigues (high priests and priestesses). TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard

Senegambian (both Senegal and the Gambia) Muslim festivals such as Tobaski, Gamo, Koriteh, Weri Kor, etc., are all borrowed words from the Serer religion.[44] They were ancient Serer festivals rooted in Serer religion, not Islam.[44] HP Probook 4710S Laptop Keyboard

The Boukout is one of the Jola's religious ceremonies.

There are small numbers of adherents of Judaism and Buddhism. Judaism is followed by members of several ethnic groups[who?], SONY KFRMBA221A Laptop Keyboard

while Buddhism is followed by a number of Vietnamese.[citation needed] The Bahá'í Faith in Senegal was established after `Abdu'l-Bahá, the son of the founder of the religion, mentioned Africa as a place that should be more broadly visited by Bahá'ís.[45] TOSHIBA Satellite M305 Laptop Keyboard

The first Bahá'is to set foot in the territory of French West Africa that would become Senegal arrived in 1953.[46] The first Bahá'í Local Spiritual Assembly of Senegal was elected in 1966 in Dakar.[47] In 1975 the Bahá'í community elected the firstNational Spiritual Assembly of Senegal. The most recent estimate, by the Association of Religion Data Archives in a 2005 report details the population of Senegalese Bahá'ís at 22,000.[48] SONY VAIO VGN-AR320E laptop keyboard

Senegal is known across Africa for its musical heritage, due to the popularity of mbalax, which originated from the Serer percussive tradition especially theNjuup, it has been popularized by Youssou N'Dour and others. Sabar drumming is especially popular. The sabar is mostly used in special celebrations like weddings. SONY VAIO VGN-FS515B laptop keyboard

Another instrument, the tama, is used in more ethnic groups. Other popular international renown Senegalese musicians are Ismael Lô, Cheikh Lô,Orchestra Baobab, Baaba Maal, Akon Thione Seck, Viviane, Titi, Papiss Cisse, and Pape Diouf.  SONY KFRMBA220A laptop keyboard

Senegal is well known for the West African tradition of storytelling, which is done by griots, who have kept West African history alive for thousands of years through words and music. The griot profession is passed down generation to generation and requires years of training and apprenticeship in genealogy, history and music. Griots give voice to generations of West African society.[12]  ASUS F83 laptop keyboard

Articles 21 and 22 of the Constitution adopted in January 2001 guarantee access to education for all children.[49] Education is compulsory and free up to the age of 16.[49] The Ministry of Labor has indicated that the public school system is unable to cope with the number of children that must enroll each year.[49]  TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7335 laptop keyboard

Illiteracy is high, particularly among women.[40] The net primary enrollment rate was 69 percent in 2005. Public expenditure on education was 5.4 percent of the 2002–2005 GDP. HP Pavilion G6-1227TU laptop keyboard

In recent times, the national team’s best played football tournaments were witnessed in 2002. The Lions of Teranga (Les Lions de la Teranga) kicked off their near-successful run at the African Cup of Nations on 20 January 2002 when beating Egypt 1-0 and subsequently leading their group overall with 7 points by 31 January 2002. Following a successful knockout round beating Congo in the quarter-finals (2-0) and Nigeria in the semi-finals (2-1),  Lenovo 45N2240 Laptop Keyboard

The Lions went on to face Cameroon in the finals on 10 February 2002. Marking their first time in the finals of an African Cup tournament, Senegal lost in the penalty shoot-out round 3-2 making them the tournament’s runners-up (Copnall, 2002). Tony Sylva, Senegal’s then goal-keeper won the Goalkeeper of the Tournament award, and El-Hadji Diouf was one of two who won the Forward of the Tournament award. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5102CL Laptop Keyboard

Senegal entered their first World Cup tournament the summer of the same year when it was held in South Korea and Japan between 31 May 2002 to 30 June 2002. Their first match (which was also the opening game of the World Cup tournament) shocked the world when defender Pape Bouba Diop scored Senegal’s only and winning goal beating the defending champions, France, DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard

1-0 (BBC, 2002). After ending up placing second in their group overall in 11 June 2002 with 5 points (Denmark being the first with 7 points), Senegal went on to face and subsequently beat Sweden 2-1 on 16 June (Murray, 2002). This led the team to the quarter-finals of the World Cup in 22 June 2002, the furthest point reached by Senegal’s national team. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

They faced and lost to Turkey in the match’s extra-time due to İlhan Mansız’ golden goal (BBC, 2002). Senegal became one of only three African nations to have reached the quarter-finals at the World Cup (the first being Cameroon in 1990, and Ghana subsequently followed in 2010; the quarter-finals being the best stage reached by any African football team). SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W Laptop Keyboard

Dakar (French pronunciation: [da.kaʁ])[4] is the capital and largest city of Senegal. It is located on theCap-Vert Peninsula on the Atlantic coast and is the westernmost city on the African mainland. Its position, on the western edge of Africa, is an advantageous departure point for trans-Atlantic and European trade; this fact aided its growth into a major regional port. Compaq 6720s Laptop Keyboard

According to December 31, 2005 official estimates, the city of Dakar proper has a population of 1,030,594, whereas the population of the Dakar metropolitan area is estimated at 2.45 million people.[3]

Dakar is a major administrative centre, home to the National Assembly of Senegal and Senegal's President's Palace.  DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard

The Cape Vert peninsula was settled, no later than the 15th century, by the Lebou people, an aquacultural ethnic group related to the neighboring Wolof and Sereer. The original villages: Ouakam, Ngor, Yoff and Hann, still constitute distinctively Lebou neighborhoods of the city today. In 1444, the Portuguese reached the Bay of Dakar, TOSHIBA Satellite P300 Laptop Keyboard

initially as slave-raiders, but were repulsed by the natives on the shores.[5][6][7]Peaceful contact was finally opened in 1456 by Diogo Gomes, and the bay was subsequently referred to as the "Angra de Bezeguiche" (after the name of the local ruler).[8] The bay of "Bezeguiche" would serve as a critical stop for the Portuguese India Armadas of the early 16th century, where large fleets would routinely put in, DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard

 both on their outward and return journeys from India, to repair, collect fresh water from the rivulets and wells along the Cape Vert shore and trade for provisions with the local people for their remaining voyage.[8] (It was famously during one of these stops, in 1501, where the Florentine navigatorAmerigo Vespucci began to construct his "New World" hypothesis about America.[9]) SONY VAIO VGN-N31Z/W laptop keyboard

The Portuguese eventually founded a settlement on the island of Gorée (then known as the island of Bezeguiche or Palma), which by 1536 they began to use as a base for the export of slaves. Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

The mainland of Cape Vert, however, was under control of the Jolof Empire, as part of the western province of Cayor which seceded from Jolof in its own right in 1549. A new Lebou village, called Ndakaaru, was established directly across from Gorée in the 17th century to service the European trading factory with food and drinking water. Gorée was captured by the United Netherlands in 1588, which gave it its present name (spelled Goeree, SONY VAIO VGN-NW240F laptop keyboard

afterGoeree-Overflakkee in Holland). The island was to switch hands between the Portuguese and Dutch several more times before falling to the English under Admiral Robert Holmes on January 23, 1664, and finally to the French in 1677. Though under continuous French administration since, métis families, descended from Dutch and French traders and African wives, dominated the slave trade. The infamous "House of Slaves" was built here in 1776. ASUS X71 laptop keyboard

In 1795 the Lebou of Cape Verde revolted against Cayor rule. A new theocratic state, subsequently called the "Lebou Republic" by the French, was established under the leadership of the Diop, a Muslim clerical family originally from Koki in Cayor. The capital of the republic was established at Ndakaaru. HP Pavilion dv3-2320es laptop keyboard

In 1857 the French established a military post at Ndakaaru (which they called "Dakar") and annexed the Lebou Republic, though its institutions continued to function nominally. The Serigne (also spelled Sëriñ, "Lord") of Ndakaaru is still recognized as the traditional political authority of the Lebou by the Senegalese State today. SONY VAIO VGN-NR21E/S laptop keyboard

The slave trade was abolished by France in February 1794. However, Napoleon reinstated it in May 1802, then finally abolished it permanently in March 1815. Despite Napoleon's abolition, a clandestine slave trade continued at Gorée until 1848, when it was abolished throughout all French territories. To replace trade in slaves, SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W laptop keyboard

the French promoted peanut cultivation on the mainland. As the peanut trade boomed, tiny Gorée Island, whose population had grown to 6,000 residents, proved ineffectual as a port. Traders from Gorée decided to move to the mainland and a "factory" with warehouses was established in Rufisque in 1840. SONY VAIO VGN-FS215Z laptop keyboard

Large public expenditure for infrastructure was allocated by the colonial authorities to Dakar's development. The port facilities were improved with jetties, a telegraph line was established along the coast to Saint-Louis and theDakar-Saint-Louis railway was completed in 1885, at which point the city became an important base for the conquest of the western Sudan. ACER PK1301K0200 laptop keyboard

Gorée, including Dakar, was recognised as a French commune in 1872. Dakar itself was split off from Gorée as a separate commune in 1887. The citizens of the city elected their own mayor and municipal council and helped send an elected representative to the National Assembly in Paris. Dakar replaced Saint-Louis as the capital of French West Africa in 1902. A second major railroad, the Dakar-Niger built from 1906–1923, TOSHIBA Tecra M10-S3454 laptop keyboard

linked Dakar to Bamako and consolidated the city's position at the head of France's West African empire. In 1929, the commune of Gorée Island, now with only a few hundred inhabitants, was merged into Dakar. SONY VAIO VGN-N38Z/W laptop keyboard

Urbanization during the colonial period was marked by forms of racial and social segregation—often expressed in terms of health and hygiene—which continue to structure the city today. Following a plague epidemic in 1914, the authorities forced most of the African population out of old neighborhoods, or "Plateau", and into a new quarter, DELL NSK-DB301 laptop keyboard

called Médina, separated from it by a "sanitary cordon". As first occupants of the land, the Lebou inhabitants of the city successfully resisted this expropriation. They were supported by Blaise Diagne, the first African to be elected Deputy to the National Assembly. Nonetheless, the Plateau thereafter became an administrative, commercial, SONY KFRMBA221A laptop keyboard

and residential district increasingly reserved for Europeans and served as model for similar exclusionary administrative enclaves in French Africa's other colonial capitals (Bamako, Conakry, Abidjan, Brazzaville). Meanwhile, the Layene Sufi order, GATEWAY V030946FS1 US laptop keyboard

established bySeydina Mouhammadou Limamou Laye, was thriving among the Lebou in Yoff and in a new village called Cambérène. Since independence, urbanization has sprawled eastward past Pikine, a commuter suburb whose population (2001 est. 1,200,000) is greater than that of Dakar proper, to Rufisque, creating a conurbation of almost 3 million (over a quarter of the national population). HP Pavilion G7-1167DX Laptop Keyboard

In its colonial heyday Dakar was one of the major cities of the French Empire, comparable to Hanoi or Beirut. French trading firms established branch offices there and industrial investments (mills, breweries, refineries, canneries) were attracted by its port and rail facilities. It was also strategically important to France, IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X301 2779 Laptop Keyboard

which maintained an important naval base and coaling station in its harbor and which integrated it into its earliest air force and airmail circuits, most notably with the legendary Mermoz airfield (no longer extant). HP Probook 4515S Laptop Keyboard

During the Battle of Dakar, which took place off the coast of Dakar on September 23–25, 1940, the British navy attempted to rally the colonial administration in Dakar to the Allied cause and detach it from Vichy. TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S2812 Laptop Keyboard

In November 1944 West African conscripts of the French army mutinied against poor conditions at the Thiaroye camp, on the outskirts of the city. The mutiny was seen as an indictment of the colonial system and constituted a watershed for the nationalist movement.

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The poet, philosopher and first President of Senegal Léopold Sédar Senghor tried to transform Dakar into the "Sub-Saharan African Athens" (l’Athènes de l’Afrique subsaharienne),[10] as his vision was for it. HP 535689-001 Laptop Keyboard

Dakar is a major financial center, home to a dozen national and regional banks (including the BCEAO which manages the unified West African CFA currency), and to numerous international organizations, NGOs and international research centers. Dakar has a large Lebanese community (concentrated in the import-export sector)  LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 Laptop Keyboard

that dates to the 1920s, a community of Moroccan business people, as well as Mauritanian, Cape Verdean, and Guinean communities. The city is home to as many as 20,000 French expatriates. France still maintains an air force base at Yoff and the French fleet is serviced in Dakar's port.

Beginning 1978, Dakar has frequently been the ending point of the Dakar Rally. The rally has brought worldwide attention to the poverty of Senegal and Dakar.[citation needed] HP Pavilion dv4-1050ee laptop keyboard

The Dakarian climate is generally warm. Dakar has semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSh), with a short rainy season and a lengthy dry season. Dakar's rainy season lasts from July to October while the dry season covers the remaining eight months. The city sees approximately 495 mm of precipitation per year. SONY VAIO VGN-N11M/W laptop keyboard

Dakar between December and May is usually pleasantly warm with daily temperatures around 24-27 degrees. Nights during this time of the year are comfortable, some 17-20 degrees. However, between May and November the city becomes decidedly warmer with daily highs reaching 29-31 degrees and night lows a little bit above 23-24 degrees. HP G42-475TU laptop keyboard

Notwithstanding this hotter season Dakar's weather is far from being as hot as that of African cities inland, such as Niamey and N'Djamena, where temperatures hover above 36 degrees for much of the year. It has presumably the best climate settings in all western Africa, as it is cooled year-round with sea breezes.  HP Pavilion dv6-2030ev laptop keyboard

The city of Dakar is a commune, (also sometimes known as commune de ville), one of the 67 communes of Senegal. The commune of Dakar was created by the French colonial administration on June 17, 1887 by detaching it from the commune of Gorée. The commune of Gorée, created in 1872, was itself one of the oldest Western-style municipalities in Africa (along with the municipalities of Algeria and South Africa). SONY 013-000A-8715-C laptop keyboard

The commune of Dakar has been in continuous existence since 1887, being preserved by the new state of Senegal after independence in 1960, although its limits have varied considerably over time. The limits of the commune of Dakar have been unchanged since 1983. The commune of Dakar is ruled by a democratically elected municipal council (conseil municipal) serving five years, SONY VAIO VGN-CS13S/W laptop keyboard

and a mayor elected by the municipal council. There have been 20 mayors in Dakar since 1887. The first black mayor was Blaise Diagne, mayor of Dakar from 1924 to 1934. The longest serving mayor was Mamadou Diop, mayor for 18 years between 1984 and 2002. SONY KFRMBA220A laptop keyboard

The commune of Dakar is also a département, one of the 34 départements of Senegal. This situation is quite similar to Paris, which is both a commune and a département. However, contrary to French départements, départements in Senegal have no political power (no departmental assembly), TOSHIBA Satellite l20-181 laptop keyboard

and are merely local administrative structures of the central state, in charge of carrying out some administrative services as well as controlling the activities of the communes within the département. SONY VAIO VGN-NW25GF laptop keyboard

The département of Dakar is divided into four arrondissements: Almadies, Grand Dakar, Parcelles Assainies (which literally means "drained lots"; this is the most populous arrondissement of Dakar), and Plateau/Gorée (downtown Dakar). These arrondissements are quite different from the arrondissements of Paris, being merely local administrative structures of the central state, like the Senegalese départements, and are thus more comparable to French departmental arrondissements. ACER TravelMate 6292 laptop keyboard

In 1996 a massive reform of the administrative and political divisions of Senegal was voted by the Parliament of Senegal. The commune of Dakar, whose population approached 1 million inhabitants, was deemed too large and too populated to be properly managed by a central municipality, and thus on August 30, ACER TravelMate 3020 laptop keyboard

1996 Dakar was divided into 19 communes d'arrondissement. Thesecommunes d'arrondissement were given extensive powers, and are very much like regular communes. They have more powers than the arrondissements of Paris, and are more akin to the London boroughs. The commune of Dakar was maintained above these 19 communes d'arrondissement,  TOSHIBA Satellite P300 Laptop Keyboard

and it coordinates the activities of the communes d'arrondissement, much as Greater Londoncoordinates the activities of the London boroughs. The 19 communes d'arrondissement belong to either of the four arrondissements of Dakar, and the sous-préfet of each arrondissement is in charge of controlling the activities of thecommunes d'arrondissement in his arrondissement.  Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

The commune d'arrondissement of Dakar-Plateau (34,626 inhabitants), in the arrondissement of Plateau/Gorée, is the historical heart of the city, and most ministries and public administrations are located there. The densest and most populous commune d'arrondissement is Médina (136,697 inhabitants), in the arrondissement of Plateau/Gorée. SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard

The commune d'arrondissement ofYoff (55,995 inhabitants), in the arrondissement of Almadies, is the largest one, while the smallest one is the commune d'arrondissement of Île de Gorée (1,034 inhabitants), in the arrondissement of Plateau/Gorée. HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard

Dakar is one of the 11 régions of Senegal. The Dakar région encompasses the city of Dakar and all its suburbs along the Cape Verde Peninsula. Its territory is thus roughly the same as the territory of the metropolitan area of Dakar. Since the administrative reforms of 1996, the régions of Senegal, which until then were merely local administrative structures of the central state, have been turned into full-fledged political units, Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard

with democratically elected regional councils, and regional presidents. They were given extensive powers, and manage economic development, transportation, or environmental protection issues at the regional level, thus coordinating the actions of the communes below them.

Abdoulaye Wade was re-elected in 2007. DELL Studio 1458 Laptop Keyboard

Gladstone returned to power aged over 82 after the 1892 general election. Victoria objected when Gladstone proposed appointing the Radical MP Henry Labouchere to the Cabinet, and so Gladstone agreed not to appoint him.[178] In 1894, Gladstone retired and, without consulting the outgoing prime minister, Victoria appointed Lord Rosebery as prime minister.[179] HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard

His government was weak, and the following year Lord Salisbury replaced him. Salisbury remained prime minister for the remainder of Victoria's reign.[180]

On 23 September 1896, Victoria surpassed her grandfather George III as the longest-reigning monarch in English, Scottish, and British history.  Compaq 6720s Laptop Keyboard

The Queen requested that any special celebrations be delayed until 1897, to coincide with her Diamond Jubilee,[181]which was made a festival of the British Empire at the suggestion of Colonial Secretary Joseph Chamberlain.[182] ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

The prime ministers of all the self-governing dominions were invited, and the Queen's Diamond Jubilee procession through London included troops from all over the empire. The parade paused for an open-air service of thanksgiving held outside St Paul's Cathedral, throughout which Victoria sat in her open carriage. The celebration was marked by great outpourings of affection for theseptuagenarian Queen.[183] DELL NSK-D8001 Laptop Keyboard

Victoria visited mainland Europe regularly for holidays. In 1889, during a stay in Biarritz, she became the first reigning monarch from Britain to set foot in Spain when she crossed the border for a brief visit.[184] By April 1900, the Boer War was so unpopular in mainland Europe that her annual trip to France seemed inadvisable. Instead, the Queen went to Ireland for the first time since 1861,  SONY Vaio PCG-K23 Laptop Keyboard

in part to acknowledge the contribution of Irish regiments to the South African war.[185] In July, her second son Alfred ("Affie") died; "Oh, God! My poor darling Affie gone too", she wrote in her journal. "It is a horrible year, nothing but sadness & horrors of one kind & another."[186]  HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard

Following a custom she maintained throughout her widowhood, Victoria spent the Christmas of 1900 atOsborne House on the Isle of Wight. Rheumatism in her legs had rendered her lame, and her eyesight was clouded by cataracts.[187]Through early January, she felt "weak and unwell",[188] and by mid-January she was "drowsy ... SAMSUNG P28 laptop keyboard

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dazed, [and] confused".[189] She died on Tuesday 22 January 1901 at half past six in the evening, at the age of 81.[190] Her son and successor King Edward VII, and her eldest grandson, Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany, were at her deathbed.[191] Her favourite pet Pomeranian, Turri, was laid upon her deathbed as a last request.[192] SONY VAIO VGN-CR420D laptop keyboard

In 1897, Victoria had written instructions for her funeral, which was to be military as befitting a soldier's daughter and the head of the army,[95] and white instead of black.[193] On 25 January, Edward VII, the Kaiser and Prince Arthur,  HP G61-110SA laptop keyboard

Duke of Connaught, helped lift her into the coffin.[194] She was dressed in a white dress and her wedding veil.[195] An array of mementos commemorating her extended family, friends and servants were laid in the coffin with her, at her request, by her doctor and dressers. One of Albert's dressing g

owns was placed by her side, SONY VAIO VGN-FS740W laptop keyboard

with a plaster cast of his hand, while a lock of John Brown's hair, along with a picture of him, were placed in her left hand concealed from the view of the family by a carefully positioned bunch of flowers.[95][196] Items of jewellery placed on Victoria included the wedding ring of John Brown's mother, given to her by Brown in 1883.[95]  ASUS X88S laptop keyboard

Her funeral was held on Saturday 2 February in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, and after two days of lying-in-state, she was interred beside Prince Albert in Frogmore Mausoleum at Windsor Great Park. As she was laid to rest at the mausoleum, it began to snow.[197] HP Pavilion dv6-2030ev laptop keyboard

With a reign of of 63 years, seven months and two days, Victoria is the longest-reigning British monarch and the longest-reigningqueen regnant in world history. She was the last monarch of Britain from the House of Hanover. Her son and heir Edward VII belonged to her husband's House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. ASUS A9R laptop keyboard

According to one of her biographers, Giles St Aubyn, Victoria wrote an average of 2500 words a day during her adult life.[202] From July 1832 until just before her death, she kept a detailed journal, which eventually encompassed 122 volumes.[203] After Victoria's death, her youngest daughter, Princess Beatrice, APPLE 922-6913 laptop keyboard

was appointed her literary executor. Beatrice transcribed and edited the diaries covering Victoria's accession onwards, and burned the originals in the process.[204] Despite this destruction, much of the diaries still exist. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E220s laptop keyboard

In addition to Beatrice's edited copy, Lord Esher transcribed the volumes from 1832 to 1861 before Beatrice destroyed them.[205] Part of Victoria's extensive correspondence has been published in volumes edited by A. C. Benson, Hector Bolitho, George Earle Buckle, Lord Esher, Roger Fulford, and Richard Hough among others.[206]  IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 laptop keyboard

Victoria was physically unprepossessing—she was stout, dowdy and no more than five feet tall—but she succeeded in projecting a grand image.[207] She experienced unpopularity during the first years of her widowhood, but was well liked during the 1880s and 1890s, when she embodied the empire as a benevolent matriarchal figure.[208] SONY VAIO PCG-FR315B laptop keyboard

 Only after the release of her diary and letters did the extent of her political influence become known to the wider public.[95][209] Biographies of Victoria written before much of the primary material became available, such as Lytton Strachey's Queen Victoria of 1921, are now considered out of date.[210] SONY VAIO PCG-FR315B laptop keyboard

 The biographies written by Elizabeth Longford and Cecil Woodham-Smith, in 1964 and 1972 respectively, are still widely admired.[211]They, and others, conclude that as a person Victoria was emotional, obstinate, honest, and straight-talking.[212] SONY VAIO VGN-FS115Z laptop keyboard

Through Victoria's reign, the gradual establishment of a modern constitutional monarchy in Britain continued. Reforms of the voting system increased the power of the House of Commons at the expense of the House of Lords and the monarch.[213] In 1867, Walter Bagehotwrote that the monarch only retained "the right to be consulted, SONY VAIO VGN-FS215M laptop keyboard

the right to encourage, and the right to warn".[214] As Victoria's monarchy became more symbolic than political, it placed a strong emphasis on morality and family values, in contrast to the sexual, financial and personal scandals that had been associated with previous members of the House of Hanover and which had discredited the monarchy. SONY VGN-FE890 laptop keyboard

The concept of the "family monarchy", with which the burgeoning middle classes could identify, was solidified.[215]

Victoria's links with Europe's royal families earned her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe".[216] Victoria and Albert had 42 grandchildren, of whom 34 survived to adulthood. Their descendants include Elizabeth II, ASUS X53S laptop keyboard

Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, Harald V of Norway, Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden, Margrethe II of Denmark, Juan Carlos I and Queen Sofía of Spain.

Victoria's youngest son, Leopold, was affected by the blood-clotting disease haemophilia B and two of her five daughters,Alice and Beatrice, were carriers. Royal haemophiliacs descended from Victoria included her great-grandsons, Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

Tsarevich Alexei of Russia, Alfonso, Prince of Asturias, and Infante Gonzalo of Spain.[217] The presence of the disease in Victoria's descendants, but not in her ancestors, led to modern speculation that her true father was not the Duke of Kent but a haemophiliac.[218] HP Pavilion dv5-1221tx laptop keyboard

There is no documentary evidence of a haemophiliac in connection with Victoria's mother, and as male carriers always suffer the disease, even if such a man had existed he would have been seriously ill.[219] It is more likely that the mutation arose spontaneously because Victoria's father was over 50 at the time of her conception and haemophilia arises more frequently in the children of older fathers.[220] Spontaneous mutations account for about 30% of cases.[221] HP G61-400SP laptop keyboard

Around the world, places and memorials are dedicated to her, especially in the Commonwealth nations. Places named after her, includethe capital of the Seychelles, Africa's largest lake, Victoria Falls, the capitals of British Columbia (Victoria) and Saskatchewan(Regina), and two Australian states (Victoria and Queensland). SONY VGN-FE890 laptop keyboard

The Victoria Cross was introduced in 1856 to reward acts of valour during the Crimean War, and it remains the highest British,Canadian, Australian, and New Zealand award for bravery. Victoria Day is a Canadian statutory holiday and a local public holiday in parts of Scotland celebrated on the last Monday before or on 24 May (Queen Victoria's birthday). SONY VGN-FE21B laptop keyboard

Football is by far the most popular sport in Sierra Leone. Children, youth and adult are frequently seen playing street football across Sierra Leone. There are organised youth and adult football tournaments across the country, and there are various primary and secondary schools with football teams across Sierra Leone. HP Pavilion dv6-2165es laptop keyboard

The Sierra Leone national football team, popularly known as the Leone Stars, represents the country in international competitions. It has never qualified for the FIFA World Cup but participated in the 1994 and 1996 African Cup of Nations. When the national football team, the Leone Stars, have a match, SONY VAIO VGN-FS285H laptop keyboard

Sierra Leoneans across the country come together united in support of the national team and people rush to their local radio and television stations to follow the live match. The country's national television network, Packard Bell Easynote TM99 laptop keyboard

The Sierra Leone Broadcasting Corporation (SLBC) broadcasts the national football team live match, along with many local radio stations across the country. When the Leone Stars win an important match, many youth across the county rush to the street to celebrate. Many of the Sierra Leone national team footballers play for teams based in Europe although virtually all of them started professional football in the Sierra Leone National Premier League. TOSHIBA Satellite L355-S7812 laptop keyboard

 Many of the national team footballers are celebrities across Sierra Leone and they are often well known by most of the country's general population. Some well known Sierra Leonean international footballers include Mohamed Kallon, Mohamed Bangura, Rodney Strasser, Ibrahim Teteh Bangura, Alhassan Bangura, Sheriff Suma, Mohamed Kamara, Umaru Bangura, Julius Wobay and Kei Kamara. HP Mini 110-3120se laptop keyboard

The Sierra Leone National Premier League is the top professional football league in Sierra Leone and is controlled by theSierra Leone Football Association. Fourteen clubs from across the country compete in the Sierra Leone Premier League. The two biggest and most successful football clubs are East End Lions and Mighty Blackpool. HP Mini 210-1066SB laptop keyboard

East End Lions and Mighty Blackpool have an intense rivalry and when they play each other the national stadium in Freetown is often sold out and supporters of both clubs often clash with each other before and after the game. There is a huge police presence inside and outside the national stadium during a match between the two great rivals to prevent a clash. Many Sierra Leonean youth follow the local football league.  SAMSUNG Q320 laptop keyboard

Many Sierra Leonean youth, children and adults follow the major football leagues in Europe, particularly the English Premier League, Italian Serie A, Spanish La Liga, German Bundesliga and French Ligue 1. The Sierra Leone cricket team represents Sierra Leone in international cricket competitions, and is among the best in West Africa. Packard Bell Easynote TM94 laptop keyboard

It became an affiliate member of theInternational Cricket Council in 2002. It made its international debut at the 2004 African Affiliates Championship, where it finished last of eight teams. But at the equivalent tournament in 2006, Division Three of the African region of the World Cricket League, it finished as runner-up to Mozambique, and just missed a promotion to Division Two.  ASUS 04GNER1KUS00 laptop keyboard

In 2009 the Sierra Leone Under-19 team finished second in the African Under-19 Championship in Zambia, thus qualifying for the Under-19 World Cup qualifying tournament with nine other teams.[125] However, the team was unable to obtain Canadian visas to play in the tournament, which was held in Toronto.[126] Lenovo 45N2036 laptop keyboard

Basketball is not a very popular sport in Sierra Leone. The Sierra Leone national basketball team represents Sierra Leone in international men's basketball competitions and is controlled by the Sierra Leone Basketball Federation.

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Sierra Leone Police was established by the British colony back in 1894 and is one of the oldest police forces in West Africa. The key mission of the Sierra Leone Police include to prevent crime, to protect life andproperty, to detect and prosecute offenders, to maintain public order, to ensure safety and security, to enhance access to justice. SONY VAIO VGN-FS550 laptop keyboard

Each one ofSierra Leone's 14 districts is headed by a district police commissioner who is the professional head of their respective district. The Districts' Police Commissioners report directly to the Inspector General of Police at the Sierra Leone Police headquarters in Freetown. The current Inspector General of Police isBrima Acha Kamara who was appointed to the position by former president Ahmad Tejan Kabbah. HP Pavilion dv2-1007ax laptop keyboard

There are a number of systems of transport in Sierra Leone, which has a road, air and water infrastructure, including a network of highways and several airports. There are 11,300 kilometres of highways in Sierra Leone, of which 904 km (562 mi)[15] are paved (about 8% of the roads). Sierra Leone highways are linked to Conakry, Guinea, and Monrovia, TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 laptop keyboard

Liberia. Sierra Leone has the largest natural harbour on the African continent, allowing international shipping through the Queen Elizabeth II Quay in the Cline Town area of eastern Freetown or through Government Wharf in central Freetown. There are 800 km (497 mi) of waterways in Sierra Leone, of which 600 km (373 mi) are navigable year-round. Major port cities areBonthe, Freetown, Sherbro Island and Pepel. SONY VAIO VGN-FS315M laptop keyboard

There are ten regional airports in Sierra Leone, and one international airport. The Lungi International Airport located in the coastal town of Lungi in Northern Sierra Leone is the primary airport for domestic and international travel to or from Sierra Leone. Passengers cross the river to Aberdeen Heliports in Freetown by hovercraft, SONY VAIO VGN-FW11S laptop keyboard

ferry or a helicopter. Helicopters are also available from the airport to other major cities in the country. The airport has paved runways longer than 3,047m. The other airports have unpaved runways, and seven have runways 914 to 1,523 metres long; the remaining two have shorter runways. This country appears on the E.U. HP G61-400SP laptop keyboard

list of prohibited countries with regard to the certification of airlines. This means that no airline which is Sierra Leone registered may operate services of any kind within the European Union. This is due to substandard safety standards.[116] SONY VAIO VGN-SZ470N/C laptop keyboard

organisations, access has not much improved since the end of the Sierra Leone Civil War in 2002, stagnating at about 50% and even declining in rural areas.[117]In the capital Freetown, taps often run dry. It is hoped that a new dam in Orugu, for which China committed financing in 2009, will alleviate water scarcity.[118] HP Pavilion dv4-1211tu laptop keyboard

According to a national survey (Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey) carried out in 2006, 84% of the urban population and 32% of the rural population had access to an improved water source. Those with access in rural areas were served almost exclusively by protected wells. The 68% of the rural population without access to an improved water source relied on surface water (50%), unprotected wells (9%) and unprotected springs (9%). DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard

Only 20% of the urban population and 1% of the rural population had access to piped drinking water in their home. Compared to the 2000 survey access has increased in urban areas, but has declined in rural areas, possibly because facilities have broken down because of a lack of maintenance.[117][119] DELL Vostro 1510 Laptop Keyboard

With a new decentralisation policy, embodied in the Local Government Act of 2004, responsibility for water supply in areas outside the capital was passed from the central government to local councils. In Freetown the Guma Valley Water Company remains in charge of water supply. HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard

Media in Sierra Leone began with the introduction of the first printing press in Africa at the start of the 19th century. A strong journalistic tradition developed with the creation of a number of newspapers. In the 1860s, the country became a journalist hub for Africa, with professionals travelling to the country from across the continent. HP Pavilion dv6-3080tx Laptop Keyboard

At the end of the 19th century, the industry went into decline, and when radio was introduced in the 1930s, it became the primary communication media in the country. The Sierra Leone Broadcasting Service (SLBS) was created by the government in 1934 making it the earliest English language radio broadcaster service in West Africa. DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard

Print media is not widely read in Sierra Leone, especially outside Freetown, partially due to the low levels of literacy in the country.[127] In 2007 there were 15 daily newspapers in the country, as well as those published weekly.[128] Among newspaper readership, young people are likely to read newspapers weekly and older people daily. SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard

The majority of newspapers are privately run and are often critical of the government. The standard of print journalism tends to be low due to lack of training, and people trust the information published in newspapers less than that found on the radio.[127] DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard

Radio is the most-popular and most-trusted media in Sierra Leone, with 85% of people having access to a radio and 72% of people in the country listening to the radio daily.[127] These levels do vary between areas of the country, with the Western Area having the highest levels and Kailahun the lowest. DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard

Stations mainly consist of local commercial stations with a limited broadcast range, combined with a few stations with national coverage - Capital Radio Sierra Leone being the largest of the commercial stations. The United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNIOSIL) ran one of the most popular stations in the country, ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

broadcasting programs in a range of languages. The UN mission were restructured in 2008 and it was decided that the UN Radio would be merged with SLBS to form the new Sierra Leone Broadcasting Corporation (SLBC). This merger eventually happened in 2011 after the necessary legislation was enacted. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard

SLBC transmits radio on FM and has two television services, one of which is uplinked by satellite for international consumption. FM relays of BBC World Service, Radio France Internationaleand Voice of America are also broadcast. HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard

Outside the capital Freetown television is not watched by a great many people, although Bo, Kenema and Makeni are served by their own relays of the main SLBC service. There are two national, free terrestrial television stations in Sierra Leone, one run by the government SLBC and the other a private station, HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard

AIT (Africa Independent Television) which is linked with theNigerian station of the same name. In 2007, a pay-per-view service was also introduced by GTV as part of a pan-African television service in addition to the nine-year-old sub-Saharan Digital satellite television service (DStv) originating from Multichoice Africa in South Africa. GTV subsequently went out of business, leaving DStv as the only provider of pay-per-view television in the country. TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 Laptop Keyboard

Internet access in Sierra Leone has been sparse but is on the increase, especially since the introduction of 3G cellular phone services across the country. There are three main internet service providers (ISPs) operating in the country. Freetown has internet cafes and other businesses offering internet access. Lenovo ThinkPad T410-2516 Laptop Keyboard

Problems experienced with access to the Internet include an intermittent electricity supply and a slow connection speed in the country outside Freetown.

The Sierra Leone constitution guarantees freedom of speech, and freedom of the press; however, the government maintains strong control of media, and at times restricts these rights in practice. Some subjects are seen as taboo by society and members of the political elite; TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7332 Laptop Keyboard

imprisonment and violence have been used by the political establishment against journalists.[129][130] Under legislation enacted in 1980, all newspapers must register with the Ministry of Information and pay sizeable registration fees. The Criminal Libel Law, including Seditious Libel Law of 1965, COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard

 is used to control what is published in the media.[130] In 2006, President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah committed to reforming the laws governing the press and media to create a freer system for journalists to work in.[130] As of 2013 Sierra Leone is ranked 61st (up two slots from 63rd in 2012) out of 179 countries on Reporters Without Borders' Press Freedom Index.[131] DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard

Rice is the staple food of Sierra Leone and is consumed at virtually every meal daily. The rice is prepared in numerous ways, and topped with a variety of sauces made from some of Sierra Leone's favourite toppings, including potato leaves, cassavaleaves, crain crain, okra soup, fried fish and groundnut stew.[120] HP G62-a30SP Laptop Keyboard

Along the street of towns and cities one can find foods consisting of fruit, vegetables and snacks such as fresh mangoes, oranges, pineapple, fried plantains, ginger beer, fried potato, fried cassava with pepper sauce; small bags of popcorn or peanuts, bread, roasted corn, or skewers of grilled meat or shrimp. DELL FM8 Laptop Keyboard

Poyo is a popular Sierra Leonean drink. It is a sweet, lightly fermented palm wine,[121] and is found in bars in towns and villages across the country. Poyo bars are areas of lively informal debate about politics, football, entertainment and other issues. Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard

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