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Seychelles French: [sɛʃɛl]), officially the Republic of Seychelles (French: République des Seychelles; Creole: Repiblik Sesel), is a 115-island country spanning an archipelago in the Indian Ocean, some 1,500 kilometres (932 mi) east of mainland Africa, northeast of the island of Madagascar.

Other nearby island countries and territories include Zanzibar to the west, Mauritius, Rodrigues, Agaléga andRéunion to the south, SONY N860-7676-T101 Laptop Keyboard

and Comoros and Mayotte to the southwest. Seychelles, with an estimated population of 86,525, has the smallest population of any African state.[3] It has the highest Human Development Index in Africaand the highest income inequality in the world, as measured by the Gini index. Seychelles is a member of theAfrican Union.  TOSHIBA Tecra M10-S3454 Laptop Keyboard

Scholars assume that Austronesian seafarers and later Maldivian and Arab traders were the first to visit the uninhabited Seychelles. Remains of Maldivian mariner presence from the 12th century were found in Silhouette Island.[4] The earliest recorded sighting by Europeans took place in 1502 by the Portuguese Admiral Vasco da Gama, who passed through the Amirantes and named them after himself (islands of the Admiral). TOSHIBA NB100-11G Laptop Keyboard

A transit point for trade between Africa and Asia, the islands were occasionally used by pirates until the French began to take control starting in 1756 when a Stone of Possession was laid by Captain Nicholas Morphey. The islands were named after Jean Moreau de Séchelles, Louis XV's Minister of Finance.[5] TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard

The British contested control over the islands between 1794 and 1810. Jean Baptiste Quéau de Quincy, French administrator of Seychelles during the years of war with the United Kingdom, declined to resist when armed enemy warships arrived.[6] Instead, he successfully negotiated the status of capitulation to Britain which gave the settlers a privileged position of neutrality. HP 640208-001 Laptop Keyboard

Britain eventually assumed full control upon the surrender of Mauritius in 1810, formalised in 1814 at the Treaty of Paris. Seychelles became a crown colony separate from Mauritius in 1903. Elections were held in 1966 and 1970. Independence was granted in 1976 as a republic within the Commonwealth.[7] In 1977, a coup d'état ousted the first president of the republic, James Mancham, who was replaced by France Albert René.[8] HP Probook 4710S Laptop Keyboard

The 1979 constitution declared a socialist one-party state, which lasted until 1991. The first draft of a new constitution failed to receive the requisite 60% of voters in 1992, but an amended version was approved in 1993. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard

In January 2013, the country declared a state of emergency; the tropical cyclone Felleng caused torrential rain, and flooding and landslides destroyed hundred of houses.[9][10]

The Seychelles president, who is head of state and head of government, is elected by popular vote for a five-year term of office. TOSHIBA Satellite M305 Laptop Keyboard

The previous president, France Albert René, first came to power after his supporters overthrew the first president James Mancham on the 5th of June 1977 in a bloody coup d`etat and installed him as president. He was at that time the current prime minister. He ruled under a dictatorial one party state communist system until in 1993 he was forced to introduce a multi-party system. He stepped down in 2004 in favour of his vice-president, SONY KFRMBA221A Laptop Keyboard

James Michel, who was re-elected in 2006. Michel was reelected in 2011.[11] by over 100 international observers representing southern African Development Community, the Commonwealth of Nations, and the Indian Ocean Commission, although the opposition parties claim that there was vote-buying.[12][13] HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard

The cabinet is presided over and appointed by the president, subject to the approval of a majority of the legislature.

The unicameral Seychellois parliament, the National Assembly or Assemblée Nationale, consists of 34 members, of whom 25 are elected directly by popular vote, while the remaining nine seats are appointed proportionally according to the percentage of votes received by each party. All members serve five-year terms. GATEWAY V030946FS1 US Laptop Keyboard

The main rival parties are the ruling socialist Seychelles People's Progressive Front (SPPF). As of 2009 the SPPF became the People's Party (PP) or Parti Lepep (LP) and the liberal democrat Seychelles National Party (SNP). Politics has been an integral part of the lives of the Seychellois since its inception in the early sixties. The range of opinion spans socialist and liberal democratic ideology. HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard

Seychelles is part of the Indian Ocean Commission (IOC), La Francophonie and the Commonwealth of Nations.

Until the mid-19th century, little formal education was available in Seychelles; the Catholic and Anglican churches opened mission schools in 1851. The Catholic mission later operated boys' and girls' secondary schools with religious Brothers and nuns from abroad even after the government became responsible for them in 1944. HP AELX6U00210 Laptop Keyboard

A teacher training college opened in 1959, when the supply of locally trained teachers began to grow, and in short time many new schools were established. Since 1981 a system of free education has been in effect requiring attendance by all children in grades one to nine, beginning at age five. Ninety percent of all children attend nursery school at age four. SONY VAIO VGN-FS515B Laptop Keyboard

The literacy rate for school-age children rose to more than 90% by the late 1980s. Many older Seychellois had not been taught to read or write in their childhood; adult education classes helped raise adult literacy from 60% to a claimed 85% in 1991. HP COMPAQ NC6320 Laptop Keyboard

Currently the public school system consists of 23 crèches, 25 primary schools and 13 secondary schools. The schools are on Mahé, Praslin, La Digue andSilhouette. There are three private schools: École Française, International School and the Independent school. All the private schools are on Mahé, and the International School has a branch on Praslin. There are seven post-secondary (non-tertiary) schools: SAMSUNG N145 Laptop Keyboard

 the Seychelles Polytechnic, School of Advanced Level Studies, National Institute of Education, Seychelles Institute of Technology, Maritime Training Centre, Seychelles Agricultural and Horticultural Training Centre and the National Institute for Health and Social Studies. HP Pavilion G6-1227TU laptop keyboard

The current administration has advanced plans to open a university in an attempt to slow down the brain drain that has occurred. University of Seychelles, initiated in conjunction with the University of London, is launching education programmes which will include teaching and lead to the award of the recognised qualifications from the University of London.  TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7335 laptop keyboard

An island nation, Seychelles is located to the northeast of Madagascar and about 1,600 km (994 mi) east of Kenya. The number of islands in the archipelago is often given as 115 but the Constitution of the Republic of Seychelles lists 155. The islands as per the Constitution are divided into groups as follows.  Lenovo 45N2240 Laptop Keyboard

There are 42 granitic islands, in descending order of size: Mahé, Praslin, Silhouette Island, La Digue, Curieuse, Felicite,Frégate, Ste-Anne, North, Cerf, Marianne, Grand Sœur, Thérèse, Aride, Conception, Petite Sœur, Cousin, Cousine, Long, Récif, Round (Praslin), Anonyme, Mamelles, Moyenne, Île aux Vaches Marines, TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5102CL Laptop Keyboard

L'Islette, Beacon (Île Sèche), Cachée, Cocos, Round (Mahé), L'Ilot Frégate, Booby, Chauve Souris (Mahé), Chauve Souris (Praslin), Île La Fouche, Hodoul, L'Ilot, Rat, Souris, St. Pierre (Praslin), Zavé, Harrison Rocks (Grand Rocher). DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard

There are 29 coral islands in the Amirantes group, west of the granitics: Desroches, Poivre Atoll (comprising three islands—Poivre, Florentin and South Island), Alphonse, D'Arros, St. Joseph Atoll (comprising 14 islands—St. Joseph Île aux Fouquets, Resource, Petit Carcassaye, Grand Carcassaye, Benjamin, Bancs Ferrari, Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

Chiens, Pélicans, Vars, Île Paul, Banc de Sable, Banc aux Cocos and Île aux Poules), Marie Louise, Desnoeufs, African Banks (comprising two islands—African Banks and South Island), Rémire, St. François, Boudeuse, Etoile, Bijoutier. SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W Laptop Keyboard

There are 13 coral islands in the Farquhar Group, south-southwest of the Amirantes: Farquhar Atoll (comprising 10 islands—Bancs de Sable Déposés Île aux Goëlettes Lapins Île du Milieu North Manaha South Manaha Middle Manaha North Island and South Island), Providence Atoll (comprising two islands—Providence and Bancs Providence) and St Pierre. Compaq 6720s Laptop Keyboard

There are 67 raised coral islands in the Aldabra Group, west of the Farquhar Group:Aldabra Atoll (comprising 46 islands—Grande Terre, Picard, Polymnie, Malabar, Île Michel, Île Esprit, Île aux Moustiques, Ilot Parc, Ilot Emile, Ilot Yangue, Ilot Magnan, Île Lanier, Champignon des Os, Euphrate, Grand Mentor,  DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard

Grand Ilot, Gros Ilot Gionnet, Gros Ilot Sésame, Heron Rock, Hide Island, Île aux Aigrettes, Île aux Cèdres, Îles Chalands, Île Fangame, Île Héron, Île Michel, Île Squacco, Île Sylvestre, Île Verte, Ilot Déder, Ilot du Sud, Ilot du Milieu, Ilot du Nord, Ilot Dubois, Ilot Macoa, Ilot Marquoix, Ilots Niçois, Ilot Salade, Middle Row Island, Noddy Rock, TOSHIBA Satellite P300 Laptop Keyboard

North Row Island, Petit Mentor, Petit Mentor Endans, Petits Ilots, Pink Rock and Table Ronde), Assumption Island, Astove and Cosmoledo Atoll (comprising 19 islands—Menai, Île du Nord (West North), Île Nord-Est (East North), HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard

Île du Trou, Goëlettes, Grand Polyte, Petit Polyte, Grand Île (Wizard), Pagode, Île du Sud-Ouest (South), Île aux Moustiques, Île Baleine, Île aux Chauve-Souris, Île aux Macaques, Île aux Rats, Île du Nord-Ouest, Île Observation, Île Sud-Est and Ilot la Croix). DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard

According to the president of Nauru, the Seychelles has been ranked the ninth most endangered nation due to flooding fromclimate change.[14]

The climate is equable although quite humid, as the islands are small.[15] The temperature varies little throughout the year. TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

Temperatures on Mahé vary from 24 to 30 °C (75 to 86 °F), and rainfall ranges from 2,900 mm (114 in) annually at Victoria to 3,600 mm (142 in) on the mountain slopes. Precipitation is somewhat less on the other islands. During the coolest months, July and August, the average low is about 24 °C (75 °F). The southeast trade winds blow regularly from May to November, and this is the most pleasant time of the year. The hot months are from December to April, HP COMPAQ NX6325 Laptop Keyboard

with higher humidity (80%). March and April are the hottest months, but the temperature seldom exceeds 31 °C (88 °F). Most of the islands lie outside the cyclone belt, so high winds are rare.[16]  IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X301 2779 Laptop Keyboard

During the plantation era, cinnamon, vanilla, and copra were the chief exports. In the 1960s, about 33% of the working population worked at plantations, and 20% worked in the public or government sector. In 1965, during a three-month visit to the islands, futurist Donald Prell prepared for the then crown colony Governor General, ASUS X71 laptop keyboard

an economic report containing a scenario for the future of the economy. In 1964–65 the Seychelles connection to the outside world consisted of (1) excellent telegraphic service, (2) weekly seaplane service from Mombasa, Kenya, and (3) a monthly visit of the 10,304 ton British India Line's passenger ship M.S. Kampala. HP Pavilion dv3-2320es laptop keyboard

Mahé, Seychelles was a stopover port on the ship's round trip voyage from Mombasa, to Bombay. The island's population of 47,000 was about half of what it grew to be in 2011. In 1964, the major sources of funds supporting the island's economy included: (1) Agricultural exports, Rs. 8,660,000, (2) Grants in aid and other funding from British government, SONY VAIO VGN-NR21E/S laptop keyboard

Rs. 2,920,000, (3) Funding from the United States covering the operating cost of the Indian Ocean Tracking Station, (part of the US Air Force Satellite Control Network), Rs. 4,500,000, (4) Invisible exports (funds received from sources outside the Seychelles) including, pensions and allotments to retired British expatriates, bank transfers from abroad, and miscellaneous purchases,), Rs. 3,260,000, and (5) Tourism, Rs. 860,000. SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W laptop keyboard

The total value of imports (including freight, insurance) and miscellaneous funds transferred abroad, totalled Rs. 16,500,000, resulting in a surplus to the economy of Rs. 3,700,000. The report recommended establishing a Seychelles Development Corporation.[19] The Indian Ocean Tracking Station on Mahé, was closed in August 1996 after the Seychelles government attempted to raise the rent to more than $10,000,000 per year. SONY VAIO VGN-FS215Z laptop keyboard

Since independence in 1976, per capita output has expanded to roughly seven times the old near-subsistence level. Growth has been led by the tourist sector, which employs about 30% of the labour force, compared to agriculture which today employs about 3% of the labour force. Despite the growth of tourism, farming and fishing continue to employ some people, ACER PK1301K0200 laptop keyboard

as do industries that process coconuts and vanilla. The prime agricultural products currently produced in the Seychelles includesweet potatoes, vanilla, coconuts, and cinnamon. These products provide much of the economic support of the locals. Frozen and canned fish, copra, cinnamon, and vanilla are the main export commodities of the islands. TOSHIBA Tecra M10-S3454 laptop keyboard

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Since the worldwide economic crises of 2008, the Seychelles government has prioritised a curbing of the budget deficit, including the containment of social welfare costs, and further privatisation of public enterprises. The government has a pervasive presence in economic activity, with public enterprises active in petroleum product distribution, insurance (has now been privatised), banking (is being privatised very soon), DELL NSK-DB301 laptop keyboard

imports of basic products (now being privatised), telecommunications (four private ISP/telecom companies), and a wide range of other businesses.

The national currency of the Seychelles is the Seychellois rupee. Initially tied to a basket of international currencies it was depegged and allowed to be devalued and float freely in 2008 on the presumed hopes of attracting further foreign investment in the Seychelles economy. SONY KFRMBA221A laptop keyboard

In 1971, with the opening of Seychelles International Airport, tourism became a serious industry, basically dividing the economy into plantations and tourism. The tourism sector paid better, and the plantation economy could only expand so far. The plantation sector of the economy declined in prominence, and tourism became the primary industry of Seychelles. GATEWAY V030946FS1 US laptop keyboard

In recent years the government has encouraged foreign investment to upgrade hotels and other services. These incentives have given rise to an enormous amount of investment in real estate projects and new resort properties, such as project TIME, distributed by the World Bank, along with its predecessor project MAGIC. HP Pavilion DV7-3183cl laptop keyboard

 [citation needed] Despite its growth, the vulnerability of the tourist sector was illustrated by the sharp drop in 1991–1992 due largely to the Gulf War.[20] Since then the government has moved to reduce the dependence on tourism by promoting the development of farming, fishing, small-scale manufacturing and most recently the offshore financial sector, SONY VAIO VGN-AR320E laptop keyboard

through the establishment of the Seychelles International Business Authority (SIBA) and the enactment of several pieces of legislation (such as the International Corporate Service Providers Act, the International Business Companies Act, the Securities Act, the Mutual Funds and Hedge Fund Act, amongst others). SONY VAIO VGN-FS515B laptop keyboard

When the British gained control of the islands during the Napoleonic Wars, they allowed the French upper class to retain their land. Both the French and British settlers used enslaved Africans and although the British prohibited slavery in 1835, African workers continued to come.  SONY KFRMBA220A laptop keyboard

Thus the Gran'bla ("big whites") of French origin dominated economic and political life. The British administration employed Indians on indentured servitude to the same degree as in Mauritius resulting in a small Indian population. The Indians, like a similar minority of Chinese, were confined to a merchant class.[21] Today the descendents of the Indian, Chinese, and Gran'bla form distinct ethnic communities, although most people are of 'black' African origin, often mixed with 'white' European or Asian heritage.[citation needed]  ASUS F83 laptop keyboard

 As the islands of Seychelles had no indigenous population, the current Seychellois are composed of people who have immigrated. The largest ethnic groups are those of African, French, Indian, and Chinese descent. French and English are official languages along with Seychellois Creole, which is primarily based upon French. HP Pavilion dv4-1050ee laptop keyboard

According to the 2002 census, most Seychellois are Christians: 82.3% are Roman Catholic, 6.4% are Anglican, and 4.5% are of other Christian denominations. There are small minorities who practice Hinduism (2.1%) and Islam (1.1%). Other non-Christian faiths account for 1.5% of the population while a further 2.1% were non-religious or did not specify a religion.[22] The median age of Seychellois is 32 years.[23] SONY VAIO VGN-N11M/W laptop keyboard

Seychellois society is essentially matriarchal.[24][25] Mothers tend to be dominant in the household, controlling most expenditures and looking after the interests of the children.[24] Unwed mothers are the societal norm, and the law requires fathers to support their children.[25] Men are important for their earning ability, HP G42-475TU laptop keyboard

but their domestic role is relatively peripheral.[24] Older women can usually count on financial support from family members living at home or contributions from the earnings of grown children.[24]  HP Pavilion dv6-2030ev laptop keyboard

The music of Seychelles is diverse. The folk music of the islands incorporates multiple influences in a syncretic fashion, including African rhythms, aesthetic and instrumentation—such as the zez and the bom (known in Brazil as berimbau), European contredanse,polka and mazurka, French folk and pop, sega from Mauritius and Réunion, taarab, SONY 013-000A-8715-C laptop keyboard

soukous and other pan-African genres, andPolynesian, Indian and Arcadian music.[citation needed] A complex form of percussion music called contombley is popular, as is Moutya, a fusion of native folk rhythms with Kenyan benga. SONY VAIO VGN-CS13S/W laptop keyboard

Traditionally, despite a greater connection with Great Britain (e.g., in education, which follows the International General Certificate of Education (IGCSE), and on many aspects of the law) many foreign observers[who?] have stated that "the culture remains emphatically French" and about 70% of the population have a family name of French origin, SONY KFRMBA220A laptop keyboard

compared with only about 20% family names of English origin.[citation needed] The two are often mixed, such that inhabitants receive an English first name and a French family name or vice-versa (e.g., Jean-Pierre Kingsmith). TOSHIBA Satellite l20-181 laptop keyboard

Environmental legislation is very strict, and every tourism project must undergo an environmental review and a lengthy process of consultations with the public and conservationists. The Seychelles is a world leader in sustainable tourism. The end result of thissustainable development is an intact and stable natural environment, which attracts financially strong visitors (150,000 in 2007) rather than short-term mass tourism. SONY VAIO VGN-NW25GF laptop keyboard

Since 1993 a law guarantees the citizens the right to a clean environment and at the same time obliges them to protect this environment. The country holds a record for the highest percentage of land under natural conservation—nearly 50% of the total land area.[citation needed] SONY VAIO VGN-N31Z/W laptop keyboard

Like many fragile island ecosystems, the Seychelles saw the loss of biodiversity during early human history, including the disappearance of most of the giant tortoises from the granitic islands, the felling of coastal and mid-level forests, and the extinction of species such as the chestnut flanked white eye, the Seychelles Parakeet, Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

the Seychelles Black Terrapin and the saltwater crocodile. However, extinctions were far fewer than on islands such as Mauritius or Hawaii, partly due to a shorter period of human occupation (since 1770). The Seychelles today is known for success stories in protecting its flora and fauna. The rare Seychelles Black Parrot, the national bird of the country, is now protected. SONY VAIO VGN-NW240F laptop keyboard

The granitic islands of Seychelles are home to about 75 endemic plant species, with a further 25 or so species in the Aldabragroup. Particularly well-known is the Coco de Mer, a species of palm that grows only on the islands of Praslin and neighbouring Curieuse. Sometimes nicknamed the "love nut" because of the shape of its fruit which, with the husk removed, presents a "double" coconut resembling buttocks, HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard

the coco-de-mer produces the world's heaviest seed pods. The jellyfish treeis to be found in only a few locations on Mahe. This strange and ancient plant in a genus of its own (Medusagynaceae) has resisted all efforts to propagate it. Other unique plant species include the Wright's Gardenia Rothmannia annae found only onAride Island Special Reserve. Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard

The freshwater crab genus Seychellum is endemic to the granitic Seychelles, and a further 26 species of crabs and 5 species of hermit crabs live on the islands.[26]

The Aldabra Giant Tortoise now populates many of the islands of the Seychelles. The Aldabra population is the largest in the world. These unique reptiles can be found even in captive herds. DELL Studio 1458 Laptop Keyboard

It has been reported that the granitic islands of Seychelles supported distinct species of Seychelles giant tortoises; the status of the different populations is currently unclear.

There are several unique varieties of orchids on the islands. HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard

Seychelles hosts some of the largest seabird colonies in the world. In the outer islands Aldabra and Cosmoledo are home to the largest numbers. In granitic Seychelles the largest numbers are on Aride Island including the world's largest numbers of two species.  Compaq 6720s Laptop Keyboard

The marine life around the islands, especially the more remote coral islands, can be spectacular. More than 1,000 species of fish have been recorded. Since the use of spearguns and dynamite for fishing was banned through efforts of local conservationists in the 1960s, the wildlife is unafraid of snorkelers and divers. Coral bleaching in 1998 has unfortunately damaged most reefs, but some reefs show healthy recovery (e.g., Silhouette Island). ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

Although multinational oil companies have explored the waters around the islands, no oil or gas has been found. In 2005, a deal was signed with US firm Petroquest, giving it exploration rights to about 30,000 km2 around Constant, Topaz, Farquhar and Coëtivy islands until 2014. DELL NSK-D8001 Laptop Keyboard

Seychelles imports oil from the Gulf in the form of refined petroleum derivatives at the rate of about 5,700 barrels per day (910 m3/d). In recent years oil has been imported from Kuwait and also from Bahrain. Seychelles imports three times more oil than is needed for internal uses because it re-exports the surplus oil in the form of bunker for ships and aircraft calling at Mahé.  SONY Vaio PCG-K23 Laptop Keyboard

There are no refining capacities on the islands. Oil and gas imports, distribution and re-export are the responsibility of Seychelles Petroleum (Sepec), while oil exploration is the responsibility of the Seychelles National Oil Company (SNOC).  HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard

The main natural resources of the Seychelles are fish, copra, cinnamon, coconuts, salt and iron.

Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title ofEmpress of India. HP Pavilion G7-1167DX Laptop Keyboard

Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and King George III died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X301 2779 Laptop Keyboard

The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality. HP Probook 4515S Laptop Keyboard

Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S2812 Laptop Keyboard

After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration. HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard

Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, HP 535689-001 Laptop Keyboard

and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.  LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 Laptop Keyboard

Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. SONY VAIO VGN-FS740W laptop keyboard

In 1818, he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess who already had two children—Carl (1804–1856) and Feodora (1807–1872)—by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1]  ASUS X88S laptop keyboard

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Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina (or Georgiana), ASUS A9R laptop keyboard

Charlotte and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]

At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, theDuke of York, APPLE 922-6913 laptop keyboard

and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E220s laptop keyboard

within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, she became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] SONY VAIO PCG-FR315B laptop keyboard

King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]  IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 laptop keyboard

Victoria later described her childhood as "rather melancholy".[7] Her mother was extremely protective, and Victoria was raised largely isolated from other children under the so called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, ACER TravelMate 6292 laptop keyboard

who was rumoured to be the Duchess's lover.[8] The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable (including most of her father's family), ACER TravelMate 3020 laptop keyboard

and was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them.[9] The Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of the King's bastard children,[10] and perhaps prompted the emergence ofVictorian morality by insisting that her daughter avoid any appearance of sexual impropriety.[11]  TOSHIBA Satellite P300 Laptop Keyboard

Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, and spent her play hours with her dolls and her King Charles spaniel, Dash.[12] Her lessons included French, German, Italian, and Latin,[13] but she spoke only English at home.[14]  Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

In 1830, the Duchess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit theMalvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way.[15] Similar journeys to other parts of England and Wales were taken in 1832, 1833, 1834 and 1835. To King William's annoyance, Victoria was enthusiastically welcomed in each of the stops.[16] SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard

William compared the journeys to royal progresses and was concerned that they portrayed Victoria as his rival rather than his heiress presumptive.[17] Victoria disliked the trips; the constant round of public appearances made her tired and ill, and there was little time for her to rest.[18] She objected on the grounds of the King's disapproval, Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

but her mother dismissed his complaints as motivated by jealousy, and forced Victoria to continue the tours.[19] At Ramsgate in October 1835, Victoria contracted a severe fever, which Conroy initially dismissed as a childish pretence.[20] While Victoria was ill, Conroy and the Duchess unsuccessfully badgered her to make Conroy her private secretary.[21] As a teenager, HP Pavilion dv5-1221tx laptop keyboard

Victoria resisted persistent attempts by her mother and Conroy to appoint him to her staff.[22] Once queen, she banned him from her presence, but he remained in her mother's household.[23] HP G61-400SP laptop keyboard

By 1836, the Duchess's brother, Leopold, who had been King of the Belgians since 1831, hoped to marry his niece to his nephew,Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.[24] Leopold, Victoria's mother, and Albert's father (Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha) were siblings. Leopold arranged for Victoria's mother to invite her Coburg relatives to visit her in May 1836, SONY VGN-FE890 laptop keyboard

with the purpose of introducing Victoria to Albert.[25] William IV, however, disapproved of any match with the Coburgs, and instead favoured the suit of Prince Alexander of the Netherlands, second son of the Prince of Orange.[26] Victoria was aware of the various matrimonial plans and critically appraised a parade of eligible princes.[27] SONY VGN-FE21B laptop keyboard

According to her diary, she enjoyed Albert's company from the beginning. After the visit she wrote, "[Albert] is extremely handsome; his hair is about the same colour as mine; his eyes are large and blue, and he has a beautiful nose and a very sweet mouth with fine teeth; but the charm of his countenance is his expression, which is most delightful."[28] Alexander, on the other hand, was "very plain".[29] HP Pavilion dv6-2165es laptop keyboard

Victoria wrote to her uncle Leopold, whom Victoria considered her "best and kindest adviser",[30] to thank him "for the prospect of great happiness you have contributed to give me, in the person of dear Albert ... He possesses every quality that could be desired to render me perfectly happy. He is so sensible, so kind, and so good, and so amiable too. He has besides the most pleasing and delightful exterior and appearance you can possibly see."[31] SONY VAIO VGN-FS285H laptop keyboard

However at 17, Victoria, though interested in Albert, was not yet ready to marry. The parties did not undertake a formal engagement, but assumed that the match would take place in due time.[32] Packard Bell Easynote TM99 laptop keyboard

Victoria turned 18 on 24 May 1837, and a regency was avoided. On 20 June 1837, William IV died at the age of 71, and Victoria became Queen of the United Kingdom. In her diary she wrote, "I was awoke at 6 o'clock by Mamma, who told me the Archbishop of Canterbury and Lord Conyngham were here and wished to see me. TOSHIBA Satellite L355-S7812 laptop keyboard

I got out of bed and went into my sitting-room (only in my dressing gown) and alone, and saw them. Lord Conyngham then acquainted me that my poor Uncle, the King, was no more, and had expired at 12 minutes past 2 this morning, and consequently that I am Queen."[33] Official documents prepared on the first day of her reign described her as Alexandrina Victoria, but the first name was withdrawn at her own wish and not used again.[34] SAMSUNG P28 laptop keyboard

Since 1714, Britain had shared a monarch with Hanover in Germany, but under Salic law women were excluded from the Hanoverian succession. While Victoria inherited all the British dominions, Hanover passed instead to her father's younger brother, her unpopular uncle the Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale, who became King Ernest Augustus I of Hanover. He was her heir presumptive until she married and had a child.[35]  ACER PK1306F0200 laptop keyboard

At the time of her accession, the government was led by the Whig prime minister Lord Melbourne, who at once became a powerful influence on the politically inexperienced Queen, who relied on him for advice.[36] Charles Greville supposed that the widowed and childless Melbourne was "passionately fond of her as he might be of his daughter if he had one", and Victoria probably saw him as a father figure.[37] SONY VAIO VGN-CR420D laptop keyboard

Her coronation took place on 28 June 1838, and she became the first sovereign to take up residence at Buckingham Palace.[38] She inherited the revenues of the duchies of Lancaster and Cornwall, and was granted a civil list of £385,000 per year. Financially prudent, she paid off her father's debts.[39]  HP G61-110SA laptop keyboard

At the start of her reign Victoria was popular,[40] but her reputation suffered in an 1839 court intrigue when one of her mother's ladies-in-waiting, Lady Flora Hastings, developed an abdominal growth that was widely rumoured to be an out-of-wedlock pregnancy by Sir John Conroy.[41] Victoria believed the rumours.[42] Packard Bell Easynote TM94 laptop keyboard

She hated Conroy, and despised "that odious Lady Flora",[43] because she had conspired with Conroy and the Duchess of Kent in the Kensington System.[44] At first, Lady Flora refused to submit to a naked medical examination, until in mid-February she eventually agreed, and was found to be a virgin.[45]  ASUS 04GNER1KUS00 laptop keyboard

Conroy, the Hastings family and the opposition Tories organised a press campaign implicating the Queen in the spreading of false rumours about Lady Flora.[46] When Lady Flora died in July, the post-mortem revealed a large tumour on her liver that had distended her abdomen.[47] At public appearances, Victoria was hissed and jeered as "Mrs. Melbourne".[48] Lenovo 45N2036 laptop keyboard

In 1839, Melbourne resigned after Radicals and Tories (both of whom Victoria detested) voted against a Bill to suspend the constitution of Jamaica. The Bill removed political power from plantation owners who were resisting measures associated with the abolition of slavery.[49] The Queen commissioned a Tory,  HP Pavilion dv4-1131tx laptop keyboard

Sir Robert Peel, to form a new ministry. At the time, it was customary for the prime minister to appoint members of the Royal Household, who were usually his political allies and their spouses. Many of the Queen's ladies of the bedchamber were wives of Whigs, and Peel expected to replace them with wives of Tories. SONY VAIO VGN-FS550 laptop keyboard

In what became known as the bedchamber crisis, Victoria, advised by Melbourne, objected to their removal. Peel refused to govern under the restrictions imposed by the Queen, and consequently resigned his commission, allowing Melbourne to return to office.[50] HP Pavilion dv2-1007ax laptop keyboard

Though queen, as an unmarried young woman Victoria was required by social convention to live with her mother, despite their differences over the Kensington System and her mother's continued reliance on Conroy.[51] Her mother was consigned to a remote apartment in Buckingham Palace, and Victoria often refused to meet her.[52] TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 laptop keyboard

When Victoria complained to Melbourne that her mother's close proximity promised "torment for many years", Melbourne sympathised but said it could be avoided by marriage, which Victoria called a "schocking [sic] alternative".[53] She showed interest in Albert's education for the future role he would have to play as her husband, but she resisted attempts to rush her into wedlock.[54] SONY VAIO VGN-FS315M laptop keyboard

Victoria continued to praise Albert following his second visit in October 1839. Albert and Victoria felt mutual affection and the Queen proposed to him on 15 October 1839, just five days after he had arrived at Windsor.[55] They were married on 10 February 1840, in the Chapel Royal of St. James's Palace, London. Victoria was besotted. She spent the evening after their wedding lying down with a headache, but wrote ecstatically in her diary: SONY VAIO VGN-FW11S laptop keyboard

I NEVER, NEVER spent such an evening!!! MY DEAREST DEAREST DEAR Albert ... his excessive love & affection gave me feelings of heavenly love & happiness I never could have hoped to have felt before! He clasped me in his arms, & we kissed each other again & again! His beauty, his sweetness & gentleness – really how can I ever be thankful enough to have such a Husband! ... to be called by names of tenderness, HP G61-400SP laptop keyboard

I have never yet heard used to me before – was bliss beyond belief! Oh! This was the happiest day of my life![56]

Albert became an important political adviser as well as the Queen's companion, replacing Lord Melbourne as the dominant, influential figure in the first half of her life.[57] Victoria's mother was evicted from the palace, SONY VAIO VGN-SZ470N/C laptop keyboard

to Ingestre House in Belgrave Square. After the death of Princess Augusta in 1840, Victoria's mother was given both Clarence and Frogmore Houses.[58] Through Albert's mediation, relations between mother and daughter slowly improved.[59] HP Pavilion dv4-1211tu laptop keyboard

During Victoria's first pregnancy in 1840, in the first few months of the marriage, 18-year-old Edward Oxford attempted to assassinate her while she was riding in a carriage with Prince Albert on her way to visit her mother. Oxford fired twice, but either both bullets missed or, as he later claimed, the guns had no shot.[60] SONY VAIO VGN-FS115Z laptop keyboard

He was tried for high treason and found guilty, but was acquitted on the grounds of insanity.[61] In the immediate aftermath of the attack, Victoria's popularity soared, mitigating residual discontent over the Hastings affair and the bedchamber crisis.[62] Her daughter, also named Victoria, was born on 21 November 1840. SONY VAIO VGN-FS215M laptop keyboard

The Queen hated being pregnant,[63] viewed breast-feeding with disgust,[64] and thought newborn babies were ugly.[65] Nevertheless, she and Albert had a further eight children.

Victoria's household was largely run by her childhood governess, Baroness Louise Lehzen from Hanover. Lehzen had been a formative influence on Victoria,[66] SONY VGN-FE890 laptop keyboard

and had supported her against the Kensington System.[67] Albert, however, thought Lehzen was incompetent, and that her mismanagement threatened the health of his daughter. After a furious row between Victoria and Albert over the issue, Lehzen was pensioned off, and Victoria's close relationship with her ended.[68] ASUS X53S laptop keyboard

On 29 May 1842, Victoria was riding in a carriage along The Mall, London, when John Francis aimed a pistol at her but the gun did not fire; he escaped. The following day, Victoria drove the same route, though faster and with a greater escort, in a deliberate attempt to provoke Francis to take a second aim and catch him in the act. DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard

As expected, Francis shot at her, but he was seized by plain clothes policemen, and convicted of high treason. On 3 July, two days after Francis's death sentence was commuted totransportation for life, John William Bean also tried to fire a pistol at the Queen, but it was loaded only with paper and tobacco and had too little charge.[70] DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard

Edward Oxford felt that the attempts were encouraged by his acquittal in 1840. Bean was sentenced to 18 months in jail.[71] In a similar attack in 1849, unemployed Irishman William Hamilton fired a powder-filled pistol at Victoria's carriage as it passed along Constitution Hill, London.[72] ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

In 1850, the Queen did sustain injury when she was assaulted by a possibly insane ex-army officer, Robert Pate. As Victoria was riding in a carriage, Pate struck her with his cane, crushing her bonnet and bruising her forehead. Both Hamilton and Pate were sentenced to seven years' transportation.[73] Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard

Melbourne's support in the House of Commons weakened through the early years of Victoria's reign, and in the 1841 general electionthe Whigs were defeated. Peel became prime minister, and the ladies of the bedchamber most associated with the Whigs were replaced.[74] HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard

In 1845, Ireland was hit by a potato blight.[75] In the next four years over a million Irish people died and another million emigrated in what became known as the Great Famine.[76] In Ireland, Victoria was labelled "The Famine Queen".[77][78] She personally donated £2,000 to famine relief, more than any other individual donor,[79] HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard

and also supported the Maynooth Grant to a Roman Catholic seminary in Ireland, despite Protestant opposition.[80] The story that she donated only £5 in aid to the Irish, and on the same day gave the same amount toBattersea Dogs Home, was a myth generated towards the end of the 19th century.[81] TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 Laptop Keyboard

By 1846, Peel's ministry faced a crisis involving the repeal of the Corn Laws. Many Tories—by then known also as Conservatives—were opposed to the repeal, but Peel, some Tories (the "Peelites"), most Whigs and Victoria supported it. Peel resigned in 1846, after the repeal narrowly passed, and was replaced by Lord John Russell.[82] Lenovo ThinkPad T410-2516 Laptop Keyboard

Internationally, Victoria took a keen interest in the improvement of relations between France and Britain.[83] She made and hosted several visits between the British royal family and the House of Orleans, who were related by marriage through the Coburgs. In 1843 and 1845, she and Albert stayed with King Louis Philippe I at château d'Eu in Normandy; TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7332 Laptop Keyboard

she was the first British or English monarch to visit a French one since the meeting of Henry VIII of England and Francis I of France on the Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520.[84] When Louis Philippe made a reciprocal trip in 1844, he became the first French king to visit a British sovereign.[85] Louis Philippe was deposed in therevolutions of 1848, and fled to exile in England.[86] COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard

At the height of a revolutionary scare in the United Kingdom in April 1848, Victoria and her family left London for the greater safety of Osborne House,[87] a private estate on the Isle of Wight that they had purchased in 1845 and redeveloped.[88] Demonstrations by Chartists and Irish nationalists failed to attract widespread support, HP Mini 110-3120se laptop keyboard

and the scare died down without any major disturbances.[89]Victoria's first visit to Ireland in 1849 was a public relations success, but it had no lasting impact or effect on the growth of Irish nationalism.[90] HP Mini 210-1066SB laptop keyboard

Russell's ministry, though Whig, was not favoured by the Queen.[91] She found particularly offensive the Foreign Secretary, Lord Palmerston, who often acted without consulting the Cabinet, the Prime Minister, or the Queen.[92]Victoria complained to Russell that Palmerston sent official dispatches to foreign leaders without her knowledge,  SAMSUNG Q320 laptop keyboard

 but Palmerston was retained in office and continued to act on his own initiative, despite her repeated remonstrances. It

was only in 1851 that Palmerston was removed after he announced the British government's approval of President Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte's coup in France without consulting the Prime Minister.[93] DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard

The following year, President Bonaparte was declared Emperor Napoleon III, by which time Russell's administration had been replaced by a short-lived minority government led by Lord Derby. ASUS F3F Laptop Keyboard

In 1853, Victoria gave birth to her eighth child, Leopold, with the aid of the new anaesthetic, chloroform. Victoria was so impressed by the relief it gave from the pain of childbirth that she used it again in 1857 at the birth of her ninth and final child, Beatrice, despite opposition from members of the clergy, who considered it against biblical teaching, and members of the medical profession, who thought it dangerous.[94]  HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard

Victoria may have suffered from post-natal depression after many of her pregnancies.[95] Letters from Albert to Victoria intermittently complain of her loss of self-control. For example, about a month after Leopold's birth Albert complained in a letter to Victoria about her "continuance of hysterics" over a "miserable trifle".[96]  COMPAQ Presario CQ60-104TU Laptop Keyboard

In early 1855, the government of Lord Aberdeen, who had replaced Derby, fell amidst recriminations over the poor management of British troops in the Crimean War. Victoria approached both Derby and Russell to form a ministry, but neither had sufficient support, and Victoria was forced to appoint Palmerston as prime minister.[97] HP G42-380LA Laptop Keyboard

Napoleon III, since the Crimean War Britain's closest ally,[95] visited London in April 1855, and from 17 to 28 August the same year Victoria and Albert returned the visit.[98] Napoleon III met the couple at Dunkirk and accompanied them to Paris. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

They visited the Exposition Universelle (a successor to Albert's 1851 brainchild the Great Exhibition) and Napoleon I's tomb at Les Invalides (to which his remains had only been returned in 1840), and were guests of honour at a 1,200-guest ball at the Palace of Versailles.[99] HP G42-380LA Laptop Keyboard

On 14 January 1858, an Italian refugee from Britain called Orsini attempted to assassinate Napoleon III with a bomb made in England.[100] The ensuing diplomatic crisis destabilised the government, and Palmerston resigned. Derby was reinstated as prime minister.[101] Victoria and Albert attended the opening of a new basin at the French military port of Cherbourg on 5 August 1858,  TOSHIBA NB200-10J Laptop Keyboard

in an attempt by Napoleon III to reassure Britain that his military preparations were directed elsewhere. On her return Victoria wrote to Derby reprimanding him for the poor state of the Royal Navy in comparison to the French one.[102]Derby's ministry did not last long, and in June 1859 Victoria recalled Palmerston to office.[103] DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard

Eleven days after Orsini's assassination attempt in France, Victoria's eldest daughter married Prince Frederick William of Prussia in London. They had been betrothed since September 1855, when Princess Victoria was 14-years-old; the marriage was delayed by the Queen and Prince Albert until the bride was 17.[104] DELL Vostro 1510 Laptop Keyboard

The Queen and Albert hoped that their daughter and son-in-law would be a liberalising influence in the enlarging Prussian state.[105] Victoria felt "sick at heart" to see her daughter leave England for Germany; "It really makes me shudder", HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard

she wrote to Princess Victoria in one of her frequent letters, "when I look round to all your sweet, happy, unconscious sisters, and think I must give them up too – one by one."[106] Almost exactly a year later, Princess Victoria gave birth to the Queen's first grandchild: Wilhelm. HP Pavilion dv6-3080tx Laptop Keyboard

In March 1861, Victoria's mother died, with Victoria at her side. Through reading her mother's papers, Victoria discovered that her mother had loved her deeply;[107] she was heart-broken, and blamed Conroy and Lehzen for "wickedly" estranging her from her mother.[108] To relieve his wife during her intense and deep grief,[109] DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard

Albert took on most of her duties, despite being ill himself with chronic stomach trouble.[110] In August, Victoria and Albert visited their son, the Prince of Wales, who was attending army manoeuvres near Dublin, and spent a few days holiday in Killarney. In November, Albert was made aware of gossip that his son had slept with an actress in Ireland.[111] SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard

Appalled, Albert travelled to Cambridge, where his son was studying, to confront him.[112] By the beginning of December, Albert was very unwell.[113] He was diagnosed with typhoid fever by William Jenner, and died on 14 December 1861. Victoria was devastated.[114] She blamed her husband's death on worry over the Prince of Wales's philandering. He had been "killed by that dreadful business", she said.[115] SONY Vaio PCG-K23 laptop keyboard

She entered a state of mourning and wore black for the remainder of her life. She avoided public appearances, and rarely set foot in London in the following years.[116] Her seclusion earned her the nickname "widow of Windsor".[117] SONY VGN-FE790G/N laptop keyboard

Victoria's self-imposed isolation from the public diminished the popularity of the monarchy, and encouraged the growth of the republican movement.[118] She did undertake her official government duties, yet chose to remain secluded in her royal residences—Windsor Castle, Osborne House, ACER PK1306F0200 laptop keyboard

and the private estate in Scotland that she and Albert had acquired in 1847, Balmoral Castle. In March 1864, a protester stuck a notice on the railings of Buckingham Palace that announced "these commanding premises to be let or sold in consequence of the late occupant's declining business".[119] SONY VGN-FE790 laptop keyboard

Her uncle Leopold wrote to her advising her to appear in public. She agreed to visit the gardens of the Royal Horticultural Society at Kensington and take a drive through London in an open carriage.[120] HP G42-164LA Laptop Keyboard

Through the 1860s, Victoria relied increasingly on a manservant from Scotland, John Brown.[121] Slanderous rumours of a romantic connection and even a secret marriage appeared in print, and the Queen was referred to as "Mrs. Brown".[122]  HP Pavilion dv6-2157sb Laptop Keyboard

The story of their relationship was the subject of the 1997 movie Mrs. Brown. A painting by Sir Edwin Henry Landseer depicting the Queen with Brown was exhibited at the Royal Academy, and Victoria published a book, Leaves from the Journal of Our Life in the Highlands, which featured Brown prominently and in which the Queen praised him highly.[123] HP Mini 1116NR Laptop Keyboard

Palmerston died in 1865, and after a brief ministry led by Russell, Derby returned to power. In 1866, Victoria attended the State Opening of Parliament for the first time since Albert's death.[124] The following year she supported the passing of the Reform Act 1867 which doubled the electorate by extending the franchise to many urban working men,[125] HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard

though she was not in favour of votes for women.[126] Derby resigned in 1868, to be replaced by Benjamin Disraeli, who charmed Victoria. "Everyone likes flattery," he said, "and when you come to royalty you should lay it on with a trowel."[127] With the phrase "we authors, Ma'am", he complimented her.[128] HP Pavilion dv5-1104tu Laptop Keyboard

Disraeli's ministry only lasted a matter of months, and at the end of the year his Liberal rival, William Ewart Gladstone, was appointed prime minister. Victoria found Gladstone's demeanour far less appealing; he spoke to her, she was supposed to have complained, as though she was "a public meeting rather than a woman".[129] ACER Aspire 7520 Laptop Keyboard

In 1870, republican sentiment in Britain, fed by the Queen's seclusion, was boosted after the establishment of the Third French Republic.[130] A republican rally in Trafalgar Square demanded Victoria's removal, and Radical MPs spoke against her.[131] DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard

In August and September 1871, she was seriously ill with an abscess in her arm, which Joseph Lister successfully lanced and treated with his new antiseptic carbolic acid spray.[132] In late November 1871, HP G62-a30SP Laptop Keyboard

at the height of the republican movement, the Prince of Wales contracted typhoid fever, the disease that was believed to have killed his father, and Victoria was fearful her son would die.[133] As the tenth anniversary of her husband's death approached, her son's condition grew no better, and Victoria's distress continued.[134] DELL FM8 Laptop Keyboard

To general rejoicing, he pulled through.[135] Mother and son attended a public parade through London and a grand service of thanksgiving in St Paul's Cathedral on 27 February 1872, and republican feeling subsided.[136] Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard

On the last day of February 1872, two days after the thanksgiving service, 17-year-old Arthur O'Connor (great-nephew of Irish MP Feargus O'Connor) waved an unloaded pistol at Victoria's open carriage just after she had arrived at Buckingham Palace. Brown, who was attending the Queen, grabbed him and O'Connor was later sentenced to 12 months' imprisonment.[137] As a result of the incident, Victoria's popularity recovered further.[138]  Lenovo 3000 C100 Laptop Keyboard

Empress of India

Britain's possessions and protectorates on the Indian subcontinent were formally incorporated into the British Empire. The Queen had a relatively balanced view of the conflict, and condemned atrocities on both sides.[139] She wrote of "her feelings of horror and regret at the result of this bloody civil war",[140] TOSHIBA Satellite L455 Laptop Keyboard

and insisted, urged on by Albert, that an official proclamation announcing the transfer of power from the company to the state "should breathe feelings of generosity, benevolence and religious toleration".[141] At her behest, a reference threatening the "undermining of native religions and customs" was replaced by a passage guaranteeing religious freedom.[141] Lenovo 39T7417 laptop keyboard

In the 1874 general election, Disraeli was returned to power. He passed the Public Worship Regulation Act 1874, which removed Catholic rituals from the Anglican liturgy and which Victoria strongly supported.[142] She preferred short, simple services, and personally considered herself more aligned with the presbyterian Church of Scotland than the episcopal Church of England.[143] He also pushed the Royal Titles Act 1876 through Parliament, ACER TravelMate 8204WLMi laptop keyboard

so that Victoria took the title "Empress of India" from 1 May 1876.[144]The new title was proclaimed at the Delhi Durbar of 1 January 1877.[145]

On 14 December 1878, the anniversary of Albert's death, Victoria's second daughter Alice, who had married Louis of Hesse,  HP Mini 110-3102sl laptop keyboard

died ofdiphtheria in Darmstadt. Victoria noted the coincidence of the dates as "almost incredible and most mysterious".[146] In May 1879, she became a great-grandmother (on the birth of Princess Feodora of Saxe-Meiningen) and passed her "poor old 60th birthday". She felt "aged" by "the loss of my beloved child".[147] TOSHIBA Satellite P300-1EI laptop keyboard

Between April 1877 and February 1878, she threatened five times to abdicate while pressuring Disraeli to act against Russia during the Russo-Turkish War, but her threats had no impact on the events or their conclusion with the Congress of Berlin.[148] Disraeli's expansionist foreign policy, which Victoria endorsed,  HP Pavilion dv6-2114sa laptop keyboard

led to conflicts such as the Anglo-Zulu War and the Second Anglo-Afghan War. "If we are to maintain our position as a first-rate Power", she wrote, "we must … be Prepared for attacks and wars, somewhere orother, CONTINUALLY."[149] HP Mini 110-1116NR laptop keyboard

Victoria saw the expansion of the British Empire as civilising and benign, protecting native peoples from more aggressive powers or cruel rulers: "It is not in our custom to annexe countries", she said, "unless we are obliged & forced to do so."[150] To Victoria's dismay, Disraeli lost the 1880 general election, HP Pavilion dv6-3106tu laptop keyboard

and Gladstone returned as prime minister.[151] When Disraeli died the following year, she was blinded by "fast falling tears",[152] and erected a memorial tablet "placed by his grateful Sovereign and Friend, Victoria R.I."[153] SONY VAIO VGN-CS31Z/Q laptop keyboard

On 2 March 1882, Roderick Maclean, a disgruntled poet apparently offended by Victoria's refusal to accept one of his poems,[154] shot at the Queen as her carriage left Windsor railway station. Two schoolboys from Eton College struck him with their umbrellas, until he was hustled away by a policeman.[155] SONY VAIO VGN-CS31S/R laptop keyboard

Victoria was outraged when he was found not guilty by reason of insanity,[156] but was so pleased by the many expressions of loyalty after the attack that she said it was "worth being shot at—to see how much one is loved".[157] SONY VAIO VGN-SR290 laptop keyboard

On 17 March 1883, she fell down some stairs at Windsor, which left her lame until July; she never fully recovered and was plagued with rheumatism thereafter.[158] Brown died 10 days after her accident, and to the consternation of her private secretary, Sir Henry Ponsonby, Victoria began work on a eulogistic biography of Brown.[159] IBM 42T3297 laptop keyboard

Ponsonby and Randall Davidson, Dean of Windsor, who had both seen early drafts, advised Victoria against publication, on the grounds that it would stoke the rumours of a love affair.[160] The manuscript was destroyed.[161] In early 1884, Victoria did publish More Leaves from a Journal of a Life in the Highlands,  HP Pavilion dv6-2135er laptop keyboard

a sequel to her earlier book, which she dedicated to her "devoted personal attendant and faithful friend John Brown".[162] On the day after the first anniversary of Brown's death, Victoria was informed by telegram that her youngest son, Leopold, had died in Cannes. He was "the dearest of my dear sons", she lamented.[163] The following month, HP Pavilion G7T-1000 Series laptop keyboard

Victoria's youngest child, Beatrice, met and fell in love with Prince Henry of Battenbergat the wedding of Victoria's granddaughter Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine to Henry's brother Prince Louis of Battenberg. Beatrice and Henry planned to marry, but Victoria opposed the match at first, wishing to keep Beatrice at home to act as her companion. After a year, she was won around to the marriage by Henry and Beatrice's promise to remain living with and attending her.[164] ASUS X53S laptop keyboard

Victoria was pleased when Gladstone resigned in 1885 after his budget was defeated.[165] She thought his government was "the worst I have ever had", and blamed him for the death of General Gordon at Khartoum.[166] Gladstone was replaced by Lord Salisbury. Salisbury's government only lasted a few months, however, TOSHIBA Satellite M105-S3004 laptop keyboard

and Victoria was forced to recall Gladstone, whom she referred to as a "half crazy & really in many ways ridiculous old man".[167] Gladstone attempted to pass a bill granting Ireland home rule, but to Victoria's glee it was defeated.[168] In the ensuing election, Gladstone's party lost to Salisbury's and the government switched hands again. GATEWAY MX8715 laptop keyboard

In 1887, the British Empire celebrated Victoria's Golden Jubilee. Victoria marked the fiftieth anniversary of her accession on 20 June with a banquet to which 50 kings and princes were invited. The following day, she participated in a procession and attended a thanksgiving service in Westminster Abbey.[169] SONY Vaio VGN-AW330J laptop keyboard

By this time, Victoria was once again extremely popular.[170] Two days later on 23 June,[171] she engaged two Indian Muslims as waiters, one of whom was Abdul Karim. He was soon promoted to "Munshi": teaching herHindustani, and acting as a clerk.[172] Her family and retainers were appalled, and accused Abdul Karim of spying for the Muslim Patriotic League, and biasing the Queen against the Hindus.[173] SONY Vaio PCG-K315S Laptop Keyboard

Equerry Frederick Ponsonby (the son of Sir Henry) discovered that the Munshi had lied about his parentage, and reported to Lord Elgin, Viceroy of India, "the Munshi occupies very much the same position as John Brown used to do."[174] Victoria dismissed their complaints as racial prejudice.[175] Abdul Karim remained in her service until he returned to India with a pension on her death.[176] HP Business Notebook nx9000 Laptop Keyboard

Victoria's eldest daughter became Empress consort of Germany in 1888, but she was widowed within the year, and Victoria's grandchild Wilhelm became German Emperor as Wilhelm II. Under Wilhelm, Victoria and Albert's hopes of a liberal Germany were not fulfilled. He believed in autocracy. Victoria thought he had "little heart or Zartgefühl [tact] – and ... his conscience & intelligence have been completely wharped [sic]".[177]  HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard

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