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Sliced apples turn brown with exposure to air due to the conversion of natural phenolic substances into melanin upon exposure to oxygen.[64HP 606575-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

] Different cultivars vary in their propensity to brown after slicing[65] and the genetically engineered Arctic Apples do not brown. Sliced fruit can be treated with acidulated waterto prevent this effect.

Organic apples are commonly produced in the United States.[66]  HP Pavilion dv7-6185us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Organic production is difficult in Europe, though a few orchards have done so with commercial success,[66] using disease-resistant cultivars. A light coating of kaolin, which forms a physical barrier to some pests, also helps prevent apple sun scalding.

One form of apple allergy, often found in northern Europe, is called birch-apple syndrome, and is found in people who are also allergic to birch pollen.[67DELL DFS491105MH0T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

] Allergic reactions are triggered by a protein in apples that is similar to birch pollen, and people affected by this protein can also develop allergies to other fruits, nuts, and vegetables. Reactions, which entailoral allergy syndrome (OAS), generally involve itching and inflammation of the mouth and throat,[67] but in rare cases can also include life-threatening anaphylaxis.[68] HP 532613-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

This reaction only occurs when raw fruit is consumed—the allergen is neutralized in the cooking process. The variety of apple, maturity and storage conditions can change the amount of allergen present in individual fruits. Long storage times can increase the amount of proteins that cause birch-apple syndrome. Compaq Presario CQ60-417DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In other areas, such as the Mediterranean, some individuals have adverse reactions to apples because of their similarity to peaches.[67] This form of apple allergy also includes OAS, but often has more severe symptoms, such as vomiting, abdominal pain and urticaria, and can be life-threatening. HP Pavilion dv7-3060us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Individuals with this form of allergy can also develop reactions to other fruits and nuts. Cooking does not break down the protein causing this particular reaction, so affected individuals can eat neither raw nor cooked apples. Freshly harvested, over-ripe fruits tend to have the highest levels of the protein that causes this reaction.[67]  HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Breeding efforts have yet to produce a hypoallergenic fruit suitable for either of the two forms of apple allergy.

The seeds of apples contain small amounts of amygdalin, a sugar and cyanide compound known as a cyanogenic glycoside. Ingesting small amounts of apple seeds will cause no ill effects, but in extremely large doses can cause adverse reactions. Dell Latitude E6510 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

There is only one known case of fatal cyanide poisoning from apple seeds; in this case the individual chewed and swallowed one cup of seeds. It may take several hours before the poison takes effect, as cyanogenic glycosides must be hydrolyzed before the cyanide ion is released. HP Pavilion dv6-2019er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The proverb "An apple a day keeps the doctor away", addressing the health effects of the fruit, dates from 19th century Wales.[70] Preliminary research suggests that apples may reduce the risk of colon cancer, prostate cancer and lung cancer.[71] Apple peels contain ursolic acid which, in rat studies, increases skeletal muscle and brown fat, and decreaseswhite fat, obesity, glucose intolerance, and fatty liver disease.[72] HP Pavilion dv6-3126ea Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

According to the United States Department of Agriculture, a typical apple serving weighs 242 grams and contains 126 calories with significant dietary fiber andvitamin C content.[73]

Apple peels are a source of various phytochemicals with unknown nutritional value[64] and possible antioxidant activity in vitro.[74] HP 532613-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The predominant phenolic phytochemicals in apples are quercetin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2.[75]

Apple juice concentrate has been found in mice to increase the production of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.[76] Other studies have shown an "alleviation of oxidative damage and cognitive decline" in mice after the administration of apple juice.[77HP Pavilion dv6-3300ss Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

] Fruit flies fed an apple extract lived 10% longer than other flies fed a normal diet.

Pollination is the process of pollen from one flower being transferred to another, required for certain plants, in this casefruit trees, to produce seeds with surrounding fruit. The material required for tree reproduction comes from separate flowers to allow transfer of genetic material from separate fruit trees. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad W500 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The pollination process requires a carrier, which can be animal, wind, or human intervention. Plants can be manually cross-pollinated to make seeds that can produce trees and fruit with desired attributes. Some tree species cannot be self-pollinated.

Most apples are self-incompatible and must be cross pollinated. HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

A few are described as "self-fertile" and are capable of self-pollination, although even those tend to carry larger crops when cross pollinated. A relatively small number of species are "Triploid", meaning that they provide no viable pollen for themselves or other apple trees. Apples that can pollinate one another are grouped by the time they usually flower so cross-pollinators are in bloom at the same time. HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Pollination management is an important component of apple culture. Before planting, it is important to arrange for pollenizers - varieties of apple orcrabapple that provide plentiful, viable and compatible pollen. Orchard blocks may alternate rows of compatible varieties, or may plant crabapple trees, orgraft on limbs of crabapple. HP Pavilion dv5030 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Some varieties produce very little pollen, or the pollen is sterile, so these are not good pollenizers. Good-quality nurseries have pollenizer compatibility lists.

Growers with old orchard blocks of single varieties sometimes provide bouquets of crabapple blossoms in drums or pails in the orchard for pollenizers. Compaq Presario CQ61-416EG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Home growers with a single tree and no other variety in the neighborhood can do the same on a smaller scale.

During the bloom each season, commercial apple growers usually provide pollinators to carry the pollen. Honeybee hives are most commonly used, and arrangements may be made with a commercial beekeeper who supplies hives for a fee. HP 532614-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Orchard mason bees are also used as supplemental pollinators in commercial orchards. According to Christopher O'Toole's The Red Mason BeeOsmia rufa is a much more efficient pollinator of orchard crops than the honeybee.[1] Home growers may find these more acceptable in suburban locations because they do not sting. HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Some wild bees such as carpenter bees and other solitary bees may help. Bumble bee queens are sometimes present in orchards, but not usually in enough quantity to be significant pollinators.

Symptoms of inadequate pollination are small and misshapen apples, and slowness to ripen. The seeds can be counted to evaluate pollination.  HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Well-pollinated apples have best quality, and will have seven to ten seeds. Apples with fewer than three seeds will usually not mature and will drop from the trees in the earlysummer. Inadequate pollination can result from either a lack of pollinators or pollenizers, or from poor pollinating weather at bloom time. HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Multiple bee visits are usually required to deliver sufficient grains of pollen to accomplish complete pollination.

The blossoms of all California Almond varieties are self-incompatible, requiring cross-pollination with other varieties to produce a crop. The single most important factor determining a good yield is pollination during the bloom period. HP Pavilion dv5030 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

More than a million colonies of honey bees are placed in California Almond orchards at the beginning of the bloom period to pollinate the crop. California beekeepers alone cannot supply this critical need, which is why honey bees travel across the country to the San Joaqin Valley each year. Compaq Presario CQ61-416EG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Although the recommended number of hives per acre is 2 to 3, due to the high demand in conjunction with the reduced availability of commercial beehives, many almond growers have to make due with a lower hive density during pollination. These growers started using semiochemical formulations, like SPLAT Bloom,[2] to compensate for the low hive density. HP 532614-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

SPLAT Bloom manipulates the behavior of the bees, inciting them to spend more time foraging, and thus pollinating flowers in entire the almond orchard (increasing pollination and fruit set), not only close to the hive.Pears are similar to apples, with the notable exception that pear blossoms are much less attractive to bees, due to lower sugar content than apple or contemporaneous wildflower nectar. HP MCF-W13BM05 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Bees may abandon the pear blossoms to visit dandelions or a nearby apple orchard. There are three methods used that commercial growers use to compensate for this low attractiveness of pear flowers. One is saturation pollination, that is to stock so many bees that all area blossoms are worked regardless of the attractiveness to the bees. HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The second is to delay the movement of the beehives into the orchards until there is about 30 per cent bloom. The bees are moved into the orchard during the night and will usually visit the pear blossoms for a few hours until they discover the richer nectar sources. The third method is to use semiochemical formulations, like SPLAT Bloom,[2] HP Pavilion dv7-3050ec Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

to manipulate the behavior of the bees, inciting them to spend more time foraging in the pear orchard, thus increasing pollination and fruit set. The recommended number of hives per acre is 1.

Many citrus varieties are seedless and are produced parthenocarpically without pollination. Some varieties may be capable of producing fruit either way, having seeds in the segments, if pollinated, and no seeds if not. HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Citrus that requires pollination may be self-compatible, thus pollen must be moved only a short distance from the anther to the stigma by a pollinator. Some citrus, such as Meyer Lemons, are popular container plants. When these bloom indoors, they often suffer from blossom drop because no pollinators have access.Hand pollinate by a human pollinator is a solution, HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

though it is important to learn A few citrus varieties,[3] including some tangelos and tangerines are self-incompatible, and require cross pollination. Pollinizers must be planned when groves are planted. This last group generally requires the addition of managed honeybee hives at bloom time for adequate pollination. HP 489126-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Malus sieversii is a wild apple native to the mountains of Central Asia in southern Kazakhstan, eastern Uzbekistan,Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Northern Afghanistan and Xinjiang, China. It has recently been shown to be the sole ancestor of mostcultivars of the domesticated apple (Malus domestica). DELL Inspiron E1405 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

It was first described (as Pyrus sieversii) in 1833 by Carl Friedrich von Ledebour, a German naturalist who saw them growing in the Altai Mountains.

It is a deciduous tree growing to 5 to 12 metres (16 to 39 ft), very similar in appearance to the domestic apple. DELL DFS541305MH0T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Its fruitis the largest of any species of Malus, up to 7 cm diameter, equal in size to many modern apple cultivars. Unlike domesticated varieties its leaves go red in autumn: 62.2% of the trees in the wild do this compared to only 2.8% of the 2,170 English cultivated varieties.[2] The species is now considered vulnerable to extinction. HP G62-341NR Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Malus sieversii has previously been identified as the main contributor to the genome of the cultivated apple (Malus domestica), on the basis of morphological, molecular, and historical evidence.[3] A DNA analysis in 2010[4] confirmed M. sieversii as the progenitor of the cultivated apple. HP Pavilion dv6648el Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

A third species that has been thought to have made contributions to the genome of the domestic apples is Malus baccata, but there is no evidence for this in older apple cultivars.[citation needed]

Almaty, the largest city in Kazakhstan, and formerly its capital, derives its name from the Kazakh word for 'apple' (алма), and is often translated as "full of apples" HP Pavilion dv7-6151ed Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

(the region surrounding Almaty is home to forests of Malus sieversii);alma is also 'apple' in other Turkic languages, as well as in Hungarian. The Soviet-era name, Alma-Ata, is Kazakh for "Father of Apples." Toshiba Satellite P100-386 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

These and other Malus species have been used in some recent breeding programmes to develop apples suitable for growing in climates unsuitable for M. domestica, mainly for increased cold tolerance.[5]

Malus sieversii has recently been cultivated by the United States Agricultural Research Service,  HP G42-380LA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

in hopes of finding genetic information of value in the breeding of the modern apple plant. Some, but not all, of the resulting trees show unusual disease resistance. The variation in their response to disease on an individual basis is, itself, a sign of how much more genetically diverse they are than their domesticated descendants.  HP G60-230us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Fruit tree propagation is usually carried out vegetatively (non-sexually) by grafting or budding a desired variety onto a suitable rootstock.

Perennial plants can be propagated either by sexual or vegetative means. Sexual reproduction begins when a male germ cell (pollen) from one flower fertilises a female germ cell (ovule, incipient seed) of the same species, HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

initiating the development of a fruit containing seeds. Each seed, when germinated, can grow to become a new specimen tree. However, the new tree inherits characteristics of both its parents, and it will not grow 'true' to the variety of either parent from which it came. That is, it will be a fresh individual with an unpredictable combination of characteristics of its own. SONY Vaio VPC-EB1E0E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Although this is desirable in terms of producing novel combinations from the richness of the gene pool of the two parent plants (such sexual recombination is the source of new cultivars), only rarely will the resulting new fruit tree be directly useful or attractive to the tastes of humankind.  Compaq Presario CQ70-220EO Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Most new plants will have characteristics that lie somewhere between those of the two parents.

Therefore, from the orchard grower or gardener's point of view, it is preferable to propagate fruit cultivars vegetatively in order to ensure reliability. This involves taking a cutting (or scion) of wood from a desirable parent tree which is then grown on to produce a new plant or 'clone' of the original. HP Pavilion dv7-3060sb Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In effect this means that the original Bramley apple tree, for example, was a successful variety grown from a pip, but that every Bramley since then has been propagated by taking cuttings of living matter from that tree, or one of its descendants.

The simplest method of propagating a tree vegetatively is rooting or taking cuttingsACER Aspire 7720 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

A cutting (usually a piece of stem of the parent plant) is cut off and stuck into soil. Artificial rooting hormones are sometimes used to improve chances of success. If the cutting does not die from rot-inducing fungi ordesiccation first, roots grow from the buried portion of the cutting to become a new complete plant. SONY UDQF2PH52CF0 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

However although this works well for some plants (such asfigs and olives), for most fruit tree cultivars this method has much too low a success rate to be commercially viable. Root cuttings (pieces of root cut off and induced to grow a new trunk) are also not used to propagate fruit trees, although this method is successful with some herbaceous plants. Compaq Presario CQ61-216TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

A refinement on rooting is layering. This is rooting a piece of a wood that is still attached to its parent and continues to receive nourishment from it. The new plant is severed only after it has successfully grown roots. Layering is the technique most used for propagation of clonal apple rootstocks. Toshiba Satellite A215-S5802 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The most common method of propagating fruit trees, suitable for nearly all species, is grafting onto rootstocks. This in essence involves physically joining part of a shoot of a hybrid cultivar onto the roots of a different but closely related species or cultivar, so that the two parts grow together as one plant. Toshiba Satellite A210-1BC Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The process of joining the two varieties must ensure maximum contact between the cambium (the layer just below the bark) of each, so that they grow together successfully. Grafting is a preferred method because it not only propagates a new plant of the desired hybrid cultivar, DELL Inspiron 630m Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

it usually also confers extra advantages as a result of the characteristics of the rootstocks (or stocks), which are selected for characteristics such as their vigour of growth, hardiness and soil tolerance, as well as compatibility with the desired variety that will form the aerial part of the plant (called the scion). ACER Travelmate 4152nlci Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

For example, grape rootstocks descended from North American grapes allow European grapes to be grown in areas infested with Phylloxera, a soil-dwelling insect that attacks and kills European grapes when grown on their own roots. Two of the most common grafting techniques are 'whip and tongue', carried out in spring as the sap rises, and 'budding', which is performed around the end of summer. HP Pavilion dv6-3034tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

One reason for grafting onto rootstocks is that this enables the grower to determine the tree's eventual size. Apple tree size classes number from one to ten in increasing height and breadth.[1] A "1" is a dwarf which can be productive and as short as 3 feet (0.91 m) with proper pruning. HP G62-107SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

A "10" is the standard sized tree with no dwarfing and will grow to 20 feet (6.1 m) tall and wide or more, dependent upon the variety chosen. In general the class range is (1) 10-20% of full size, (2) 20-30%, (3) 30-40% and so forth to size 10 which is 100% of full size.

The following are a selection of apple tree rootstocks.  HP G62-455TX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

They are referred to by numbers prefixed by letters indicating the developer of the rootstock.

"Bud 118" A winter hardy early bearing replacement for MM 111 bred in the Soviet Union. Full sized tree unless allowed to bear young which will stunt its growth. Hardy to USDA zone 3.

"Bud 9" A winter- hardy, early- bearing replacement for M9 bred in the Soviet Union. HP 532617-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Dwarf tree resistant to crown rot and less susceptible to drought than most other dwarfing stocks. Produces large fruit, is precocious and hardy to USDA zone 3.

"M" designates Malling series developed stocks. East Malling Research is a pioneer in the development of dwarfing rootstocks. HP Pavilion dv6-1101au CPU Fan

East Malling Research Station in Kent, England collected clones of the Paradise stocks from France in 1912 from which 24 "M" were designated with no particular order to the rootstock characteristics other than where they were located in the garden at the time the numbers were assigned. In other words, M.2 is larger tree than M.9 while M.27 is smaller than M.26.[2] HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

"MM" designates Malling-Merton stocks developed from joint breeding program by John Innes Institute, in Merton, England, & East Malling Research Station in the early 1950s.[3] The "MM" series was developed primarily to provide resistance to Woolly Apple Aphid(Eriosomatinae) infestation.[4]

"EMLA" designates East Malling / Long Ashton research statiHP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

ons who took the "M" stocks and developed virus free versions. E.g., EMLA 7 is M 7 with a guaranteed virus free stock.[5] EMLA characteristics are often different from the parent "M" rootstock. Note that nearly all the apple rootstocks in the industry are now virus free.[2] HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

"CG" or "G" designates Cornell-Geneva stocks which are those developed via the Cornell & USDA collaboration at the New York Agricultural Experiment Station in Geneva, NY. The "G" is the old designation. All newer stocks are "CG" followed by numbers that actually provide some information about the stock. HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

As one might surmise, this is a huge improvement in the classical naming scheme which has no identification method at all.

M.27 Malling 27: A very dwarfing rootstock. Unless the central leader is supported, the tree will be very small. Often only used as an intermediate stem piece on MM. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

106 or MM.111. If handled and spaced properly, it can be a very productive stock for a vertical axe system.[5] Trees can be grown three to four feet tall and produce about 45 fruit, roughly 2 pecks, depending on fruit cultivar.[7]

M.9: Very dwarfing - Reaches a height of 8 to 10 ft (2.4 to 3.0 m), HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan

coming into fruit after 3–4 years, reaching full capacity of 50 to 65 pounds (23 to 29 kg) after 5 to 6 years. It will grow under average soil conditions, but needs a good rich soil to thrive. A good choice where space is limited and fertility is high. Permanent staking is required, as is routine feeding and watering.[ HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan

on this rootstock always require leader support. The rootstock is very susceptible to fire blight and can develop burr knots.[5]

G.41 Geneva 41, released in 2005, produces trees the size of M.9. The rootstock was developed from a cross between M.27 and Robusta 5 made in 1975. Resistant to Crown|Collar|Root rot(Phytopthora) and fire blight.[5] ACER Aspire 4743 CPU Fan

M.26: Dwarfing - Similar to M9 in effect, although somewhat more vigorous and generally stronger, with a higher expected eventual yield of 65–75 pounds (29–34 kg) and height of 8 to 10 ft (2.4 to 3.0 m). A good choice where soil quality is average and compact growth is required. Comes into fruit after 3–4 years, reaching full cropping capacity after 5 to 6 years. HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPU Fan

Staking needed for first five years of its life. It is susceptible to collar rot and fire blight and should not be planted in a wet site. Certain varieties when grafted onto this rootstock may exhibit signs of graft union incompatibility(i.e., the union breaks).[5]

G.11 Geneva 11 is the second release of the Cornell breeding program similar in size to M.26(Class 4) but more productive. Toshiba Satellite L675-S7018 CPU Fan

Has the advantage of being resistant to fire blight and crown rot as well as only rarely producing suckers or burr knots.[5]

G.202 Geneva 202(CG 4202) is a semidwarfing rootstock that produces a tree in class 5 slightly larger than M.26(Size Class 4) and is more productive than M.26. ASUS F80Q CPU Fan

It was developed from a cross of M.27(Size Class 1) and Robusta 5 to be fire blight and Phytopthora resistant as well as having resistance to woolly apple aphids. In a 9-year study with the scion cultivar of the "Liberty" apple, G.202 was about 50 percent smaller than M.7 but had much greater production efficiency.[5] ACER TravelMate 4200 CPU Fan

M.7 Malling 7 rootstock produces a semidwarf tree of Class 6[1] that is freestanding in deep well drained soils but in rocky, steep, or shallow soils, it tends to lean. The rootstock may sucker profusely and is susceptible to collar rot(Phytopthora).[5]

MM.106: Semi-dwarfing - Sometimes referred to as semi-vigorous, this is the most widely used of rootstocks.[ HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

It is probably the best choice for the average garden under average conditions, being tolerant of a wide range of soils, and producing a tree with an eventual size of 14 to 18 ft (4.3 to 5.5 m).[citation needed] Trees on this stock begin producing fruit within three to four years, and yield 90 to 110 pounds (41 to 50 kg) after some seven or eight years.[ HP G70-120EA CPU Fan

MM106 is very suitable for use with weaker varieties that would produce under sized bushes with more dwarfing rootstocks. Can be trained as a half standard tree, but is rather too vigorous for cordons unless the soil is poor. Requires staking for the first five years or so of its life.[citation needed] Trees on MM. Toshiba Satellite A300-034 CPU Fan

106 are highly susceptible to collar rot especially when planted in soils that remain wet(poor percolation).[5]

M.111 : Vigorous - Not generally suitable for garden scale growing, being both too large and spreading (18-25'), and too slow to come into cropping. They are however suitable for growing as specimen standards in the large garden, or for producing medium sized bushes on poorer soils. HP 606609-001 CPU Fan

Begins to fruit after six or seven years, reaching full capacity of 160 to 360 lb (73 to 163 kg) after eight to nine years. It is not winter hardy in US zone 3 unless you receive abundant snow cover. Bud 118 was developed in the Soviet Union to replace MM 111, Bud 118 is winter hardy in zone 3 and very precocious. Compaq Presario CQ60-301sl CPU Fan

(Early bearing). Planting depth of this rootstock is critical. The union should be no higher than 1 to 2 inches above the final soil line.[5]

M.25: Very vigorous - Suitable for a grassed orchard, and to grow on as a full standard. Plant 20 ft (6.1 m) apart, makes a tree of 15 to 20 ft (4.6 to 6.1 m) or more height and spread, eventually yielding 200 to 400 lb (91 to 181 kg) per tree.[ TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan

This rootstock is primarily used in UK and is rarely seen in USA where M.111(size Class 8)[1] is used for this size tree.

Seedling: Very vigorous trees produced on a rootstock grown from seed. There is greater variability than with the vegetatively propagated rootstocks. Apples used for production of seedling rootstocks include 'Dolgo' and 'Antonovka', which are both extremely hardy and vigorous.[ ASUS Eee PC 701 CPU Fan

The Malling series and clones have been standard rootstocks for apples for many years and remain the "workhorses" for the commercial industry in the USA[5] and the UK. However, since most of them are susceptible to disease some Malling rootstocks are being replaced by new breeds, including the Cornell-Geneva series, Compaq Presario CQ60-305sa CPU Fan

which has resistance to the major problems preventing quality production of apples utilizing organic control systems. One of the newest rootstocks of the "CG" series, only released commercially in 2004, is CG5202(G.202) which adds resistance to the woolly apple aphid, and when combined with highly resistant cultivars such as "Liberty" it is showing great potential.[8][9] HP 637607-001 CPU Fan

Another desirable characteristic of rootstocks is environmental adaptability. This may be tolerance to wet/dry soil conditions, acidity/alkalinity of soil or even hot/cold air temperature.[2] Rootstocks based on Siberian Crab apple are being used in colder areas for more cold tolerance.[10] HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan

The ability of new rootstocks to modify or augment characteristics of fruit trees is limited and may disappoint in the long term. It takes ten years to get a full picture of the effects of any one rootstock, so a rootstock that appears promising in the first five years of a trial may fail in the last five years. HP Pavilion dv5-1210ez CPU Fan

The Mark rootstock was such a stock and has now fallen mostly into disfavor.[5] Another, the G.30, has proved to be an excellent stock for production but it was only after a number of years of trials that it was found to be somewhat incompatible with the cultivar 'Gala', so that it is now recommended to be staked and wired.[5] Compaq Presario CQ50-211nr CPU Fan

An industry consortium undertakes trials of different rootstocks - called the "NC-140" trials.[11] These test many pome rootstocks in many different sites across the USA and thereby provide growers a clearer picture of what to expect when growing fruit trees on specific stock, in specific planting methods in their specific area of the USA. HP G56-114SA CPU Fan

This information has the potential to create economic benefits to both growers and consumers, as well as helping to reduce the need to spray pesticides as frequently as is currently required.

Pears are usually grafted onto quince rootstocks, which produce small to medium sized trees. Some varieties however are not compatible with quince, and these require double working. SONY Vaio VGN-CR21Z/N CPU Fan

This means that a piece of pear graft-work compatible with both the quince rootstock and the pear variety is used as an intermediate between the two. If this is not done the pear and the rootstock could eventually separate at the graft. Varieties that require double working include 'Bristol Cross', 'Dr Jules Guyot', 'Doyenné d' été' and 'Williams Bon Chrétien'. HP Pavilion dv7-4060eo CPU Fan

Quince C: Moderately vigorous- Makes a bush pear tree about 8 to 18 ft (2.4 to 5.5 m) tall, bearing fruit within four to eight years. Suitable for highly fertile soils and vigorous varieties, but not where conditions are poor. Used for bush, cordon and espalier growing. Old stocks of Quince C may be infected with a virus, so care should be taken to obtain certified virus free stock. Toshiba Satellite M70-252 CPU Fan

If in doubt, use Quince A as there is not a great amount of difference in vigour between the two.

Quince A: Medium vigour- Slightly more vigorous than Quince C, this is the most common variety upon which pears are grafted. Bears fruit between four to eight years, making a tree of some 10 to 20 ft (3.0 to 6.1 m) in height and spread. Toshiba Satellite A100-455 CPU Fan

Suitable for all forms of pear trees except standards.

Pear stock: Very vigorous- Pears grafted onto pear rootstocks make very large standard trees, not suitable for most gardens.

Until the 1970s, cherries were grown on the vigorous Malling F12/1, Mazzard (Prunus avium), or Maheleb (P. maheleb) rootstocks, which required much space and time before cropping began, thus the growing of cherries was not a realistic option on a garden scale. HP Pavilion dv5-2112br CPU Fan

The introduction of the rootstock 'Colt' enabled trees reaching a maximum height of 12 to 15 ft (3.7 to 4.6 m) to be grown, and if trained as a pyramid it is possible to restrict growth to about 10 ft (3.0 m).[13]The popular sweet variety 'Stella' can even be successfully grown in a pot on the patio when grafted onto a 'Colt' rootstock.[13] DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

A newer rootstock, Gisela 5,[14]is slowly becoming available to gardeners and produces a tree smaller still than Colt, making netting for bird protection much easier.

Many species of fruit (e.g. fig, filbert, olive, and pomegranate) are commonly grown on their own roots, as there may be no great advantages to using a special rootstock, HP Pavilion dv6-3299en CPU Fan

or suitable rootstocks may not be readily available. However even for fruit trees which usually are grown grafted on a rootstock, there can be advantages in growing them on their own roots instead, particularly in the traditional coppicing systems advocated in both sustainable agriculture andpermaculture. SONY Vaio VGN-NW11Z/T CPU Fan

Disadvantages of using own root trees can include excessive size and excessive production of wood (thus very long times until the start of fruit production), although training branches horizontally and limiting pruning to summer only may help encourage fruit production at an earlier age.[15][16][17] Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan

There is a lack of research on the use of the own root method in large scale systems.

In addition to propagating trees on rootstocks designed to control size/vigour and confer disease resistance, grafting above the rootstock can be used to provide multiple cultivars of a single species, known as a family tree, or, within certain limits, HP Pavilion dv7-4183sf CPU Fan

cultivars of different fruit species on one tree, often known as a fruit salad tree. Family trees typically combine several cultivars (two or three being most common) of apple, pear or a given species of stonefruiton a single rootstock, while fruit salad trees typically carry two or more different species from within a given genus, HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

such as plum, apricot, and peach ormandarin orange, lemon, and lime. Certain combinations, including sour cherry (prunus cerasus)/sweet cherry (prunus avium), although from the same genus, are known to be difficult, although successes have sometimes been reported. Other grafts of this kind can produce the Pomato. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

Rootstocks used to control tree size have been used in apple for over 2,000 years. Dwarfing rootstocks were probably discovered by chance in Asia. Alexander the Great sent samples of dwarf apple trees back to his teacher, Aristotle inGreece. They were maintained at the Lyceum, a center of learning in Greece. HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

Dwarf apples are mentioned during the Song Dynasty in China (11th to 13th centuries) Initial propagation was likely by severing a root and causing it to sucker. The dwarfing clones were propagated in gardens for their novelty and not their efficiency. They were often trained to elaborate shapes such as pyramids, trellises and espaliers. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ei CPU Fan

In the mid-1800s,horticulturists began referring to the rootstocks by name. They were called Paradise (or French Paradise) or Doucin (or English Paradise), with the former being more dwarfing than the latter.

However, there was much variation in the plant material in size control. HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

Many new stocks had been introduced inaccurately under these names and undoubtedly viruses and genetic mutations had occurred in the plant material. In the late 19th century, one author described 14 different kinds of Paradise rootstocks. ASUS A6000R CPU Fan

This led to research workers at the East Malling Research Station in England to gather the selections up to determine their trueness to name. They concluded that indeed, there were numerous misnamed and mixed collections of plant material.

In 1912, Ronald Hatton initiated the work of classification, testing and standardization of apple tree rootstocks. HP Pavilion dv7-6011sg CPU Fan

With the help of Dr Wellington, Hatton sorted out the incorrect naming and mixtures then widespread in apple rootstocks distribute

Fruit tree pruning is the cutting and removing of parts of a fruit tree. It covers a number ofhorticultural techniques that control growth, remove dead or diseased wood, and stimulate the formation offlowers and fruit buds. Toshiba Satellite L300D-01P CPU Fan

Pruning often means cutting branches back, sometimes removing smaller limbs entirely. It may also mean removal of young shoots, buds, leaves, etc. Careful attention to pruning and training young trees affects their later productivity and longevity. Good pruning and training can also prevent later injury from weak crotches (where a tree trunk splits into two or more branches) Compaq Presario CQ60-409CA CPU Fan

that break from the weight of fruit, snow, or ice on the branches.[1]

Other sustainable agriculture or permaculture personalities, such as Sepp Holzer and Masanobu Fukuoka, advocate and practiced no-pruning methods.

To obtain a better understanding of how to prune plants properly, it is useful to have some underlying knowledge of how pruning works, and how it affects the way plants grow. HP Mini 110-3010sf CPU Fan

Plants form new tissue in an area called the meristem, located near the tips of roots and shoots, where active cell division takes place. Meristem growth is aimed at ensuring that leaves are quickly elevated into sunlight, and that roots are able to penetrate deeply into the soil. Once adequate height and length is achieved by the stems and roots, Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

they begin to thicken to support the plant. On the shoots, these growing tips of the plant are called apical buds. The apical meristem (or tip) produces the growth hormone auxin, which not only promotes cell division, but also diffuses downwards and inhibits the development of lateral bud growth that otherwise competes with the apical tip for light and nutrients. Toshiba Satellite M70-142 CPU Fan

Removing the apical tip and its suppressive hormone lets lower, dormant lateral buds develop, and the buds between the leaf stalk and stem produce new shoots that compete to become lead growth.

Manipulating this natural response to damage (known as the principle of apical dominance) DELL Inspiron E1505 CPU Fan

by processes such as pruning (as well as coppicing and pollarding) allows the arborist to determine the shape, size and productivity of many fruiting trees and bushes. The main aim when pruning fruit trees is usually to maximize fruit yield. Unpruned trees tend to produce large numbers of small fruits that may be difficult to reach when harvesting by hand. HP 532613-001 CPU Fan

Branches can become broken by the weight of the crop, and the cropping may become biennial (that is, bearing fruit only every other year). Overpruned trees on the other hand tend to produce light crops of large, flavourless fruit that does not store well. Careful pruning balances shoot growth and fruit production. HP Envy 14-1080eo CPU Fan

In the early years of the tree's life, it is important to develop a framework sufficiently strong to bear the weight of crops. This requires formative pruning to reinforce the tree. Formative pruning of apple (Malus pumila) and pear (Pyrus communis) trees should be carried out in the dormant winter months. ACER TravelMate 5230 CPU Fan

For the Northern hemisphere, this should occur between November and March; For the Southern hemisphere, June and September. Stonefruits—such as cherries, plums, or gages—have different requirements, and should not be pruned in dormant months.

A maiden whip (a one-year-old tree with no side shoots) Lenovo 3000 G430 CPU Fan

should be pruned to a bud with two buds below it at about 80 cm from the ground immediately after planting to produce primary branches during the first growing season. A feathered maiden (that is, a one-year-old tree with several side branches) should have its main stem pruned back to three or four strong shoots at 80 cm from the ground. ASUS EEE PC 1215N CPU Fan

Side shoots should be shortened by two thirds of their length to an upward or outward facing bud. Lower shoots should be removed flush with the stem.

Before pruning, distinguish between spur-bearing varieties, tip-bearing varieties, and an intermediate between the two that bears both on spurs and at the tips. Dell Vostro 3750 CPU Fan

Spur-bearing trees occur more frequently than tip-bearing trees, and they bear most of their fruit yearly at the end of short lateral pieces of wood (spurs) up to about 4 inches long.

Spur-bearing types include apples of the varieties Cox's Orange PippinJames Grieve and Sunset, and pears such asConference,Toshiba Satellite L500-018 CPU Fan

Doyenne du Commice and Williams Bon Chretien. Tip-bearers on the other hand produce most of their fruit buds at the tips of slender shoots grown the previous summer, and include the apples Worcester Pearmain andIrish Peach, and the pears such as Jargonelle and Josephine de MalinesCOMPAQ Presario CQ42-116TU CPU Fan

. There are basically three types of pruning that are applied once the main shape of the tree has been established.

Renewal pruning: This also depends on the tendency of many apple and pear trees to form flower buds on unpruned two-year-old laterals. It is a technique best used for the strong laterals on the outer part of the tree where there is room for such growth. HP Pavilion dv6-2115eg CPU Fan

Pruning long-neglected fruit trees is a task that should be undertaken over a lengthy period, with not more than one third of the branches that require removal being taken each year.

Regulatory pruning: This is carried out on the tree as a whole, and is aimed at keeping the tree and its environment healthy,Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

e.g., by keeping the centre open so that air can circulate; removing dead or diseased wood; preventing branches from becoming overcrowded (branches should be roughly 50 cm apart and spurs not less than 25 cm apart along the branch framework); and preventing any branches from crossing. HP 646578-001 CPU Fan

Tip-bearers should be pruned lightly in winter using the regulatory system (see above). Any maiden shoots less than 25 cm in length should be left untouched as they have fruit buds at their tips. Longer shoots are spur pruned to prevent overcrowding and to stimulate the production of more short-tip-bearing shoots the following year. SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L CPU Fan

Branch leaders are 'tipped', removing the top three or four buds to a bud facing in the desired direction to make them branch out and so produce more tip-bearing shoots. Toshiba Satellite X205-S9349 CPU Fan, DELL yy529 CPU Fan

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