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Slovenia southern Central Europe[13][Note 2] at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.[18][19]It borders Italy to the west, Austria to the north, Croatia to the south and southeast and Hungary to the northeast.[20] It covers 20,273 square kilometers (7,827 sq mi) and has a population of 2.05 million.[21]  HP G72-b60US Laptop Keyboard It is a parliamentary republic[22] and a member of the European Union and NATO.[23]Relative to its geography, history, economy, culture, and language, it is a very diverse country distinguished by a transitional character.[clarification needed][24] It is characterized by a high economic and social level.[25][not in citation given] Its capital and largest city is Ljubljana.[26] HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard Four major European geographic units meet on the territory of Slovenia: the Alps, the Dinaric Mountains, the Pannonian Plain, and the Mediterranean, with a small portion of coastline along the Adriatic Sea.[27][28] The territory has a mosaic structure and an exceptionally high landscape[28] andbiological[29][30] COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard diversity, which are a result of natural attributes and the long-term presence of humans.[31] Although the climate in the mainly hilly[27] territory is influenced by the continental climate, the Slovene Littoral enjoys the sub-Mediterranean climate, while the Alpine climate is found in the north-western part of the country.[32] Lenovo Thinkpad T420 Laptop Keyboard The country is one of the most water-rich in Europe,[33] with a dense river network, a rich aquifer system, and significant karstic underground watercourses.[34] Over half of the territory is covered by forest.[35] The settlement of Slovenia is dispersed and uneven.[36] TOSHIBA Satellite A305 Laptop Keyboard The Slavic, Germanic, Romance and Finno-Ugric linguistic and cultural groups meet here.[37][38][39]Although the region is not homogenous, the predominant population is Slovene.[40] Slovene is the only official language throughout the country, whereas Italian and Hungarian are regional minority languages. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Slovenia is a largely secularized country,[41] but its culture and identity have been significantly influenced by Catholicism as well as Lutheranism.[42] The economy of Slovenia is small, open, export-oriented[43] and, subsequently, strongly influenced by international conditions.[44] It has been severely hurt by the European economic crisis, started in late 2000s.[45] The main economic field is services, followed by industry and construction.[46]  Lenovo 39T7417 Laptop Keyboard Historically, the current territory of Slovenia was part of many different state formations, including the Roman Empire and the Holy Roman Empire, followed by the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In 1918, the Slovenes exercised self-determination for the first time by co-founding the internationally unrecognizedState of Slovenes, DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard Croats, and Serbs, which merged with Kingdom of Serbia into Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (in 1929 renamed into Kingdom of Yugoslavia). During World War II, Slovenia was occupied and annexed by Germany, Italy, Croatia, and Hungary.[47] Afterward, it was a founding member of theFederal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, HP Mini 210-1014TU Laptop Keyboard later renamed into Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. In June 1991, after the introduction of multi-party representative democracy, Slovenia split from Yugoslavia and became an independent country.[7] In 2004, it entered NATO and the European Union, in 2007 became the first former Communist country to join the Eurozone,[48] and in 2010 joined the OECD, a global association of high-income developed countries.[49] HP Pavilion DV6-1002tx Laptop Keyboard Present-day Slovenia was long inhabited in prehistoric times, and there is evidence of human habitation around 250,000 years ago. A pierced cave bear bone, dating from 43100 ± 700 BP, found in 1995 in Divje Babe cave near Cerkno, HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard is possibly the oldest musical instrument discovered in the world.[50] In 1920s and 1930s, artifacts belonging to the Cro-Magnon such as pierced bones, bone points, and needle have been found by archeologist Srečko Brodar inPotok Cave.[51][52] DELL Precision M4500 Laptop Keyboard In 2002, more than 4,500 years old remains of pile dwellings were discovered in the Ljubljana Marshes, now protected as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, along with the Ljubljana Marshes Wooden Wheel, the oldest wooden wheel in the world.[53] It shows that wooden wheels appeared almost simultaneously in Mesopotamia and Europe.[54] In the transition period between the Bronze age to the Iron age, DELL PK130801B00 Laptop Keyboard the Urnfield culture flourished. Archeological remains dating from the Hallstatt period have been found, particularly in southeastern Slovenia, among them a number of situlas in Novo Mesto, the "Town of Situlas".[55]In the Iron Age, present-day Slovenia was inhabited by Illyrian and Celtic tribes until the 1st century BC. HP Pavilion DV6-1030us Laptop Keyboard In the mid-8th century, Carantania became a vassal duchy under the rule of the Bavarians, who began spreading Christianity. Three decades later, the Carantanians were incorporated, together with the Bavarians, into theCarolingian Empire. During the same period Carniola, too, came under the Franks, and was Christianised fromAquileia. HP Probook 4520S Laptop Keyboard Following the anti-Frankish rebellion of Ljudevit Posavski at the beginning of the 9th century, theFranks removed the Carantanian princes, replacing them with their own border dukes. Consequently, the Frankishfeudal system reached the Slovene territory. SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard The Magyar invasion of the Pannonian Plain in the late 9th century effectively isolated the Slovene-inhabited territory from western Slavs. Thus, the Slavs of Carantania and of Carniola began developing into an independent Slovene ethnic group. SONY 147963021 Laptop Keyboard After the victory of Emperor Otto I over the Magyars in 955, Slovene territory was divided into a number of border regions of the Holy Roman Empire. Carantania, being the most important, was elevated into the Duchy of Carinthia in 976. IBM Thinkpad R40 laptop keyboard In the late Middle Ages, the historic provinces of Carniola, Styria, Carinthia, Gorizia, Trieste and Istriadeveloped from the border regions and incorporated into the medieval German state. The consolidation and formation of these historical lands took place in a long period between the 11th and 14th centuries, HP Pavilion DV7-3186cl laptop keyboard being led by a number of important feudal families, such as the Dukes of Spannheim, the Counts of Gorizia, the Counts of Celje and finally the House of Habsburg. In a parallel process, an intensive German colonisation significantly diminished the extent of Slovene-speaking areas; by the 15th century, the Slovene ethnic territory was reduced to its present size.[57] SONY VAIO VGN-N320E/W laptop keyboard In the 14th century, most of the territory of Slovenia was taken over by the Habsburgs. The counts of Celje, a feudal family from this area who in 1436 acquired the title of state princes, were their powerful competitors for some time. This large dynasty, important at a European political level, Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 laptop keyboard had its seat in Slovene territory but died out in 1456. Its numerous large estates subsequently became the property of the Habsburgs, who retained control of the area right up until the beginning of the 20th century. HP Pavilion dv6-2170eo laptop keyboard The Slovene Lands were part of the Illyrian provinces, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary (in Cisleithania). They encompassed Carniola, southern part of Carinthia, southern part of Styria, Istria, Gorizia and Gradisca,Trieste, and Prekmurje.[58] Industrialization was accompanied by construction of railroads to link cities and markets, but the urbanization was limited.  TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5153 laptop keyboard Due to limited opportunities, between 1880 and 1910 there was extensive emigration, and around 300,000 Slovenes (i.e., one in six) emigrated to other countries,[59] mostly to the United States, but also to South America, Germany, HP Pavilion DV7-3067cl laptop keyboard Egypt, and to larger cities in Austria-Hungary, especially Zagreb and Vienna. Despite this, the Slovene population increased significantly[59] and became as socially differentiated as in other European nations.[citation needed] Literacy was exceptionally high, at 80 to 90 percent.[59] HP Pavilion DV7-3180us laptop keyboard The Slovene People's Party launched a movement for self-determination, demanding the creation of a semi-independentSouth Slavic state under Habsburg rule. The proposal was picked up by most Slovene parties, and a mass mobilization of Slovene civil society, known as the Declaration Movement, followed.[61] SONY VAIO VGN-FW11S laptop keyboard This proposal was rejected by the Austrian political elites but, following the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in the aftermath of theFirst World War, a National Council of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs took power in Zagreb on 6 October 1918. HP Pavilion dv6-2170ee laptop keyboard On 29 October, independence was declared by a national gathering in Ljubljana, and by the Croatian parliament, declaring the establishment of the new State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs. HP Pavilion DV6-1122us laptop keyboard On 1 December 1918 the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs merged with Serbia, becoming part of the new Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes; in 1929 it was renamed as the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. The main territory of Slovenia, being the most industrialized and westernized compared to other less developed parts of Yugoslavia, SONY VAIO VGN-FS315M laptop keyboard became the main center of industrial production: in comparison to Serbia, for example, in Slovenia the industrial production was four times greater, and it was twenty-two times greater than in Yugoslav Macedonia.  DELL PK130801B00 laptop keyboard Following a plebiscite in October 1920, the Slovene-speaking southern Carinthia was ceded to Austria. With the Treaty of Trianon, on the other hand, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was awarded the Slovene-inhabited Prekmurje region, formerly part of Austro-Hungary. TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5163 laptop keyboard Slovenes living in territories that fell under the rule of the neighboring states: Italy, Austria and Hungary, were subjected to policies of forced assimilation. In the case of Fascist Italy, they suffered violent Fascist Italianization. HP Pavilion dv5t-1200se CTO laptop keyboard In exchange for joining the Allied Powers in the First World War, the Kingdom of Italy, under the secret Treaty of London (1915) and later Treaty of Rapallo (1920), was granted rule over much of the Slovene territories.  COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard These included a quarter of the Slovene ethnic territory, including areas that were exclusively ethnic Slovene. The population of the affected areas was approximately 327,000[62] of the total population of 1.3 million Slovenes.[63] SAMSUNG N140 Laptop Keyboard A quarter of Slovene ethnic territory and approximately 327,000 out of total population of 1.3[62] million Slovenes were subjected to forcedItalianization.[63][64] The Slovene minority in Italy (1920-1947) lacked any minority protection under international or domestic law.[64] Clashes between the Italian authorities and Fascist squads on one side, TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard and the local Slovene population on the other, started as early as 1920, culminating with the burning of the Narodni dom, the Slovenian National Hall of Trieste. IBM 42T4026 laptop keyboard After the Fascist takeover in Italy in 1922, they promoted a policy of violent Fascist Italianisation, as the new rulers sought to eradicate the Slovene middle class and the intelligentsia. They abolished education in Slovene in 1923, and required the Italianization of Slovene surnames and personal names between 1926 and 1932. Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 laptop keyboard By 1927, the government banned all Slovene associations, and prohibited all public use of Slovene. Police violently attacked opponents of the Fascist regime. By the mid-1930s, around 70,000 Slovenes had fled the region, mostly to Yugoslavia and nations of South America.[citation needed]  Packard Bell Easynote TM98 laptop keyboard After all Slovene minority organizations in Italy had been destroyed, the militant anti-fascist organization TIGR was formed in 1927 in order to fight Fascist violence. The anti-Fascist guerrilla movement continued throughout the late 1920s and 1930s.[citation needed] SONY VAIO VGN-N21E/W laptop keyboard Yugoslavia was invaded by Axis Powers on 6 April 1941. A coup d'état in the Yugoslav government had ended Yugoslavia's participation in the Tripartite Pact and enraged Adolf Hitler. Territory in Yugoslavia was quickly divided among German, HP Pavilion DV7T-4100 laptop keyboard Italian, and Hungarian control, and the Nazis soon annexed Lower Styria as Untersteiermark to the "Greater Reich". About 46,000 Slovenes in the Rann (Brežice) Triangle region were forcibly deported to eastern Germany for potential Germanization or forced labor beginning in November 1941. SONY VAIO VGN-FS215E laptop keyboard On 27 April 1941 in the Province of Ljubljana, the National Liberation Front was organized to carry out a liberation struggle, form the Slovene partisan army, and create structures of a future state in liberated areas. The Province of Ljubljana saw the deportation of 25.000 people, which equaled 7.5% of the total population. SONY Vaio PCG-K23 laptop keyboard The operation, one of the most drastic in the Europe, filled up manyItalian concentration camps, such as Rab concentration camp, in Gonars concentration camp, Monigo (Treviso), Renicci d'Anghiari, Chiesanuova and elsewhere. DELL NSK-DB301 laptop keyboard Slovenes were transported to several camps in Saxony, where they were forced to work on German farms or in factories run by German industries from 1941–1945. The forced laborers were not always kept in formal concentration camps, TOSHIBA P205-S7469 laptop keyboard but often just vacant buildings where they slept until the next day's labor took them outside these quarters. Toward the end of the war, these camps were liberated by American and Soviet Army troops. Repatriated refugees returned to Yugoslavia to find their homes in shambles. HP 6730S laptop keyboard Some Slovenes collaborated with the occupying powers, with the German-sponsored Slovene Home Guard having 21,000 members at the peak of its power. More than 30,000 partisans died fighting Axis forces and their collaborators; during WWII, approximately 8 percent of Slovenes died[citation needed]. SONY VAIO VGN-NW110D laptop keyboard In 1945, Yugoslavia liberated itself and shortly thereafter became a nominally federal Communist state. Slovenia joined the federation as a socialist republic; its own Communist Party was formed in 1937. After the withdrawal of the Axis forces, the vast majority of the indigenous German population was deported or fled to Austria and Germany. SONY VAIO VGN-N250E/B laptop keyboard Yugoslavia, Greece and Ethiopia requested the extradition of Italian war criminals at the end of World War II. However, of the 1,200 Italians wanted for war crimes, none were brought to trial. The British, HP G42-475TU laptop keyboard American and Spanish governments were accused of leniency in extraditing alleged criminals such asPietro Badoglio and Mario Roatta in an effort to secure an anti-communist post-war Italy.[65][66] The survivors received no compensation from the Italian state after the war. HP G62-a25SI laptop keyboard Following the re-establishment of Yugoslavia during World War II, Slovenia became part of Federal Yugoslavia. A socialist state was established, but because of the Tito–Stalin split in 1948, economic and personal freedoms were broader than in the Eastern Bloc. In 1947, Italy ceded most of the Julian March to Yugoslavia, and Slovenia regained the Slovenian Littoral. After the 1950s, Slovenia enjoyed relatively broad autonomy. HP Pavilion DV6-1205ee laptop keyboard Between 1945 and 1948, a wave of political repressions took place in Slovenia and in Yugoslavia. By 1947, all private property had been nationalised. Between 1949 and 1953, a forced collectivisation was attempted. After its failure, a policy of gradual liberalisation followed. A new economic policy, SAMSUNG Q320 laptop keyboard known as workers self-management, started to be implemented under the advice and supervision of the Slovene Edvard Kardelj, the main theorist of the Yugoslav Communist Party. In 1956, Josip Broz Tito, together with other leaders, founded the Non-Aligned Movement. TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4070 Laptop Keyboard Slovenia's economy developed rapidly, particularly in the 1950s when the country was strongly industrialised. Despite restrictive economic and social legislation within Yugoslavia, Slovenia managed to preserve a high level of economic development with a skilled workforce, working discipline and organisation.[  HP Probook 4515S Laptop Keyboard citation needed] After the economic reform and further economic decentralisation of Yugoslavia in 1965 and 1966, Slovenia was approaching amarket economy. Its domestic product was 2.5 times the average, which strengthened national confidence among the Slovenes. SONY VAIO VGN-AR630E Laptop Keyboard After the death of Tito in 1980, the economic and political situation in Yugoslavia became very strained.[57] Political disputes around economic measures were echoed in the public sentiment, as many Slovenians felt they were being economically exploited, having to sustain an expensive and inefficient federal administration.[citation needed] SONY VAIO PCG-FR315M Laptop Keyboard In 1987 a group of intellectuals demanded Slovene independence in the 57th edition of the magazine Nova revija. Demands for democratisation and increase of Slovenian independence were sparked off. A mass democratic movement, coordinated by the Committee for the Defense of Human Rights, pushed the Communists in the direction of democratic reforms. DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard In September 1989, numerous constitutional amendments were passed to introduce parliamentary democracy to Slovenia.[67][68] The same year Action North united both the opposition and democratized communist establishment in Slovenia as the first defense action against attacks by Milošević's supporters, DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard leading to Slovenian independence.[69][70][need quotation to verify] On 7 March 1990, the Slovenian Assembly changed the official name of the state to the "Republic of Slovenia".[71][72] In April 1990, the first democratic election in Slovenia took place, and the united opposition movement DEMOS led by Jože Pučnik emerged victorious. SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard These revolutionary events in Slovenia pre-dated by almost one year the Revolutions of 1989 in Eastern Europe, but went largely unnoticed by international observers. On 23 December 1990, more than 88% of the electorate voted for a sovereign and independent Slovenia.[73][74] On 25 June 1991, Slovenia became independent[7] HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard through the passage of appropriate legal documents.[75] On 27 June in the early morning, the Yugoslav People's Army dispatched its forces to prevent further measures for the establishment of a new country, DELL V119525BS1 Laptop Keyboard which led to the Ten-Day War.[76][77] On 7 July, the Brijuni Agreement was signed, implementing a truce and a three-month halt of the enforcement of Slovenia's independence.[78] In the end of month, the last soldiers of the Yugoslav Army left Slovenia. HP G62-367DX Laptop Keyboard In December 1991, a new constitution was adopted,[75] followed in 1992 by the laws on denationalisation and privatization.[79] The members of the European Union recognised Slovenia as an independent state on 15 January 1992, and the United Nations accepted it as a member on 22 May 1992.[80] SONY Vaio PCG-K33 Laptop Keyboard Slovenia joined the European Union on 1 May 2004. Slovenia has one Commissioner in the European Commission, and seven Slovene parliamentarians were elected to the European Parliament at elections on 13 June 2004.  DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard In 2004 Slovenia also joined NATO. Slovenia subsequently succeeded in meeting theMaastricht criteria and joined the Eurozone (the first transition country to do so) on 1 January 2007. It was the first post-Communist country to hold thePresidency of the Council of the European Union, for the first six months of 2008. On 21 July 2010, it became a member of the OECD. DELL XPS 15 L502X Laptop Keyboard Slovenia is a parliamentary democracy republic with a multi-party system. The head of state is the president, who is elected by popular vote and has an important integrative role.[83] He is elected for five years and at maximum for two consecutive terms. He has mainly a representative role and is the commander-in-chief of the Slovenian military forces.[84] DELL Vostro 1015 Laptop Keyboard The executive and administrative authority in Slovenia is held by the Government of Slovenia (Vlada Republike Slovenije),[80] headed by the Prime Minister and the council of ministers or cabinet, who are elected by the National Assembly (Državni zbor Republike Slovenije). HP 643263-001 Laptop Keyboard The legislative authority is held by the bicameral Parliament of Slovenia, characterised by an asymmetric duality.[85] The bulk of power is concentrated in the National Assembly, which consists of ninety members. Of those, 88 are elected by all the citizens in a system of proportional representation, HP G61-424CA laptop keyboard whereas two are elected by the registered members of the autochthonous Hungarian and Italian minorities. Election takes place every four years. The National Council (Državni svet Republike Slovenije), consisting of forty members, appointed to represent social, economic, professional and local interest groups, has a limited advisory and control power.[85] Packard Bell Easynote TM81 laptop keyboard The 1992-2004 period was marked by the rule of the Liberal Democracy of Slovenia, which was responsible for gradual transition from Titoistic economy to the capitalist market economy. It later attracted much criticism by neo-liberal economists, HP G61-424CA laptop keyboard who demanded less gradual approach. The party's president Janez Drnovšek, who served as Prime Minister between 1992 and 2002, was one of the most influential Slovenian politicians of the 1990s.[86] alongside the Slovenian President Milan Kučan (served between 1990 and 2002),[87][88] Compaq Presario CQ56-102SE laptop keyboard The 2005-2008 period was characterized by over-enthusiasm after joining EU. During the first term of Janez Janša's government, for the first time after independence, the Slovenian banks have seen loan-deposit ratio veering out of control. There was over-borrowing from foreign banks and then over-crediting of customers, including local tycoons. HP G42-265LA laptop keyboard After the onset of the financial crisis of 2007-2010 and European sovereign-debt crisis, the left-wing coalition that replaced Janša's government in 2008 elections, had to face the consequences of the 2005-2008 over-borrowing. TOSHIBA Satellite A305-S6841 laptop keyboard Attempts to implement reforms that would help toward economic recovery were met by student protesters, led by a student who later became a member of Janez Janša's SDS, and by the trade unions. HP Mini 210-1081NR laptop keyboard The proposed reforms were postponed on a referendum. The left-wing government was ousted with a vote of no confidence. Janez Janša attributed the boom of spending and overborrowing to the period of left-wing government; he proposed harsh austerity reforms which he had previously helped postpone.[citation needed] HP G42-265LA laptop keyboard The Slovenian Armed Forces provide military defence independently or within an alliance, in accordance with international agreements. Since conscription was abolished in 2003, it is organized as a fully professional standing army.[89] The Commander-in-Chief is the President of the Republic of Slovenia, TOSHIBA Satellite A305-S6829 laptop keyboard while operational command is in the domain of the Chief of the General Staff of the Slovenian Armed Forces. In 2008, military spending was an estimated 1.5% of the country's GDP.[90] Since joining NATO, the Slovenian Armed Forces have taken a more active part in supporting international peace. TOSHIBA PK13AT10600 laptop keyboard They have participated in peace support operations and humanitarian activities. Among others, Slovenian soldiers are a part of international forces serving inBosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, and Afghanistan.[91] SONY VGN-FE21B laptop keyboard Officially, Slovenia is subdivided into 211 municipalities (eleven of which have the status of urban municipalities). The municipalities are the only body of local autonomy in Slovenia. Each municipality is headed by a Mayor (župan), elected every four years by popular vote, and a Municipal Council (občinski svet). COMPAQ Presario CQ50-210US laptop keyboard In the majority of the municipalities, the municipal council is elected through the system of proportional representation; only a few smaller municipalities use the plurality voting system. In the urban municipalities,  TOSHIBA 9J.N9282.W01 laptop keyboard the municipal councils are called Town (or City) Councils.[93] Every municipality also has a Head of the Municipal Administration (načelnik občinske uprave), appointed by the Mayor, who is responsible for the functioning of the local administration.[93] DELL V119525BS1 laptop keyboard Four major European geographic regions meet in Slovenia: the Alps, theDinarides, the Pannonian Plain, and the Mediterranean. Although on the shore of the Adriatic Sea, near the Mediterranean, most of Slovenia is in the Black Sea drainage basin. The Alps—including the Julian Alps, SONY KFRMBA151B laptop keyboard the Kamnik-Savinja Alps and the Karavanke chain, as well as the Pohorje massif—dominate Northern Slovenia along its long border with Austria. Slovenia's Adriatic coastline stretches approximately 47 km (29 mi)[100]from Italy to Croatia. TOSHIBA Satellite l25-s1196 laptop keyboard The term "Karst topography" refers to that of southwestern Slovenia'sKras Plateau, a limestone region of underground rivers, gorges, and caves, between Ljubljana and the Mediterranean. On the Pannonian plain to the East and Northeast, toward the Croatian and Hungarian borders, the landscape is essentially flat. However, the majority of Slovenian terrain is hilly or mountainous, with around 90% of the surface 200 m (656 ft) or more above sea level. HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard Over half of the country (10,124 km2 or 3,909 sq mi) is covered by forests. This makes Slovenia the third most forested country in Europe, after Finland and Sweden. The areas are covered mostly by beech, fir-beech and beech-oak forests and have a relatively high production capacity.[101] SONY VAIO VGN-FS315M Laptop Keyboard Remnants of primeval forests are still to be found, the largest in the Kočevje area. Grassland covers 5,593 km2 (2,159 sq mi) and fields and gardens (954 km2 or 368 sq mi). There are 363 km2(140 sq mi) of orchards and 216 km2 (83 sq mi) of vineyards. TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard Slovenia is located in temperate latitudes. The climate is also influenced by the variety of relief, and the influence of the Alps and the Adriatic Sea. In the Northeast, the continental climate type with greatest difference between winter and summer temperatures prevails. In the coastal region, there is sub-Mediterranean climate. ASUS F3M Laptop Keyboard The effect of the sea on the temperature rates is visible also up the Soča valley, while a severe Alpine climate is present in the high mountain regions. There is a strong interaction between these three climatic systems across most of the country.[107][108] Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard Precipitation varies across the country as well, with over 3500 mm in some Western regions and dropping down to 800 mm in Prekmurje. Snow is quite frequent in winter and the record snow cover in Ljubljana was recorded in 1952 at 146 cm.  HP Pavilion dv6-3107ax Laptop Keyboard Compared to Western Europe, Slovenia is not very windy, because it lies in the slipstream of the Alps. The average wind speeds are lower than in the plains of the nearby countries. Due to the rugged terrain, SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard local vertical winds with daily periods are present. Besides these, there are three winds of particular regional importance: the bora, the jugo, and the foehn. The jugo and the bora are characteristic of the Littoral. Whereas jugo is humid and warm, bora is usually cold and gusty. The foehn is typical of the Alpine regions in the north of Slovenia. Generally present in Slovenia are the northeast wind, the southeast wind and the north wind.[109] HP 488590-001 Laptop Keyboard Slovenia is distinguished by an exceptionally wide variety of habitats,[30] due to the contact of geological units and biogeographical regions, but also due to human influences. Around 12.5% of the territory is protected with different protection categories, and 35.5% within the Natura 2000 ecological network.[112] Despite this, because of pollution and environmental degradation, diversity has been in decline. TOSHIBA P000482730 Laptop Keyboard Animals The country contains 24,000 animal species, accounting for 1% of the world's organisms despite its small size (0.004% of the Earth's surface area).[113] These include marmots, Alpine ibex, and chamois.  SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard There are numerous deer, roe deer,boar, and hares.[114] The edible dormouse is often found in the Slovenian beech forests. Trapping these animals is a long tradition and is a part of the Slovenian national identity.[115] TOSHIBA Tecra M9-S5514 Laptop Keyboard Some important carnivores include the Eurasian lynx (reintroduced to the Kočevje area in 1973), European wild cats,foxes (especially the red fox), and European jackal.[116] There are also hedgehogs, martens, and snakes such as vipers and grass snakes. According to recent estimates, Slovenia also has up to 50 wolves and about 450 brown bears.[117][118]  GATEWAY NV-54 Laptop Keyboard There is a wide variety of birds, such as the Tawny Owl, the Long-eared Owl, the Eagle Owl, hawks, and Short-toed Eagles. Various other birds of prey have been recorded, as well as a growing number of ravens, crows and magpiesmigrating into Ljubljana and Maribor where they thrive.[120] Other birds include both Black and Green Woodpeckers and the White Stork, which nests mainly in Prekmurje.[citation needed] FUJITSU Lifebook P1510 Laptop Keyboard There are thirteen domestic animals native to Slovenia,[121] of eight species (hen, pig, dog, horse, sheep, goat, honey bee, and cattle).[122] Among these are the Karst Shepherd,[123] the Carniolan honeybee, and the Lipizzan horse.[122] They have been preserved ex situ and in situ.[124]  FUJITSU Lifebook P1610 Laptop Keyboard The marble trout or marmorata (Salmo marmoratus) is an indigenous Slovenian fish.[125] Extensive breeding programmes have been introduced to repopulate the marble trout into lakes and streams invaded by non-indigenous species of trout. Slovenia is also home to the wels catfish.  DELL Precision M4500 Laptop Keyboard Fungi lovenia is the third most forested country in Europe, with 58.5% of the territory covered by forests.[127] The forests are an important natural resource, but logging is kept to a minimum, as Slovenians also value their forests for the preservation of natural diversity, for enriching the soil and cleansing the water and air,  SONY VAIO VGN-N325QE/W Laptop Keyboard for the social and economic benefits of recreation and tourism, and for the natural beauty they give to the Slovenian landscape. In the interior of the country are typical Central European forests, predominantly oak and beech.  TOSHIBA Satellite A205-S4618 Laptop Keyboard In the mountains, spruce, fir, and pineare more common. Pine trees also grow on the Kras plateau, although only one third of the region is now covered by pine forest. The lime/linden tree, also common in Slovenian forests, is a national symbol.The tree line is at 1,700 to 1,800 meters (or 5,575 to 5,900 ft).[128] DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard In the Alps, flowers such as Daphne blagayana, various gentians (Gentiana clusii, Gentiana froelichi), Primula auricula, edelweiss (the symbol of Slovene mountaineering), Cypripedium calceolus, Fritillaria meleagris (snake's head fritillary), and Pulsatilla grandis are found.[citation needed] Lenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard Slovenia harbors many plants of ethnobotanically useful groups.  HP Pavilion zv6223ea Laptop Keyboard129] In 2004-2006, the economy grew on average by nearly 5% a year in Slovenia; in 2007, it expanded by almost 7%. The growth surge was fuelled by debt, particularly among firms, and especially in construction.  Lenovo Thinkpad T520 Laptop Keyboard After the financial crisis of 2007-2010 andEuropean sovereign-debt crisis, the price for a boom that veered out of control is now being paid.[132] The construction industry was severely hit in 2010 and 2011.[133] Already in 2009 the Slovenian GDP per capita shrunk by 7.9%, which was the biggest fall in the European Union after the Baltic countries and Finland.[citation needed] ACER Aspire 4736Z laptop keyboard In August 2012 the year-on-year contraction is still 0.8%, however, growth by 0.2% was recorded in the first quarter (in relation to the quarter before, after data was adjusted according to season and working days).[134] Year-on-year contraction has been attributed to the fall in domestic consumption,  HP Pavilion DV7t-3100 laptop keyboard and the slowdown in export growth. The decrease in domestic consumption has been attributed to the fiscal austerity, to the freeze on budget expenditure in the final months of last year,[135] to the failure of the efforts to implement economic reforms, to inappropriate financing, and to the decrease in exports.[136] HP Pavilion dv6-2150es laptop keyboard Slovenia's total national debt at the end of September 2011 amounted to 15,884 million euros or 44.4% of GDP.[137] In August 2012, the three main ratings agencies have all downgraded Slovenian sovereign debt. HP Pavilion dv6-3107ax laptop keyboard An increase in 2013 estimates about Slovenia allegedly being in need of a bailout was attributed by Finland’s Europe Minister Alexander Stubb to "financial sharks" who would like to capitalize on it by creating self-fulfilling prophecies[138] and Die Welt ranked Slovenia among the three least vulnerable European countries topped only by Germany and Estonia.[139][140]  SONY VAIO VGN-FS415E laptop keyboard Almost two-thirds of people are employed in services, and over one-third in industry and construction.[141] Slovenia benefits from a well-educated workforce, well-developed infrastructure, and its location at the crossroads of major trade routes.[45] HP Pavilion DV7-3165dx laptop keyboard The level of foreign direct investment (FDI) per capita in Slovenia is one of the lowest in the EU,[45] and the labor productivity and the competitiveness of the Slovenian economy is still significantly below the EU average.[142][143] Taxes are relatively high, the labor market is seen by business interests as being inflexible, and industries are losing sales to China, India, and elsewhere.[144] SONY VAIO VGN-NW25GF laptop keyboard High level of openness makes Slovenia extremely sensitive to economic conditions in its main trading partners and changes in its international price competitiveness.[145] The main industries are motor vehicles, HP Pavilion dv6-2129ev laptop keyboard electric and electronic equipment, machinery, pharmaceuticals, and fuels.[45][45] An increasing burden for the Slovenian economy has been its rapidly ageing population.[146] Compaq Presario CQ71-317EA laptop keyboard The economically most prosperous statistical regions are the Central Slovenia and the Slovenian Littoral, while the poorest are theMura, the Central Sava and the Carinthia.[147] FUJITSU Lifebook P1610 laptop keyboard In 2011 electricity production was 14.144 GWh, electricity consumption was 12.602 GWh. Electricity production by source: hydro 3.361 GWh, thermal 4.883 GWh, nuclear 5.899 GWh.  Packard Bell NEW90 laptop keyboard Current investments: new 600 MW block of Šoštanj thermal power plant is in construction and will be finished by 2014. New 39.5 MW HE Krško hydro power plant will be finished this year. By 2018, 41.5 MW HE Brežice and 30.5 MW HE Mokrice hydro power plants will be built on Sava river. SONY VAIO VGN-FS640/W laptop keyboard Construction of ten hydropower plants on the Sava river with a cumulative capacity of 338 MW is planned to be finished by 2030. Big pumped storage hydro power plant Kozjak onDrava river is in planning stage.  HP 405963-001 laptop keyboard Renewable energy in Slovenia: at the end of 2011 at least 87 MWp of photovoltaic modules were installed and 22 MW of biogas powerplants. There is a plan and obligation that at least 500 MW of wind power will be installed by 2020. Solar hot water heating is gaining popularity in Slovenia. SONY VAIO VGN-FS620 laptop keyboard Slovenia offers tourists a wide variety of natural and cultural amenities. Different forms of tourism have developed. The tourist gravitational area is considerably large, however the tourist market is small. HP Pavilion dv3-2155mx laptop keyboard149] The nation's capital, Ljubljana, has many important Baroque and Vienna Secession buildings, with several important works of the native born architect Jože Plečnik.[150] TOSHIBA PK130BH2A00 laptop keyboard At the northwestern corner of the country lie the Julian Alps with the picturesque Lake Bledand the Soča Valley, as well as the nation's highest peak, Mount Triglav in the middle ofTriglav National Park. Other mountain ranges include Kamnik–Savinja Alps, Karavanke andPohorje, popular with skiers and hikers.[151] SONY VAIO VGN-CR123E laptop keyboard The Karst Plateau in the Slovenian Littoral gave its name to karst, a landscape shaped by water dissolving the carbonate bedrock, forming caves. The best-known caves are Postojna Cave, with more than 28 million visitors, Lenovo ThinkPad T510-4339 laptop keyboard and the UNESCO-listed Škocjan Caves. The region of Slovenian Istria meets the Adriatic Sea, where the most important historical monument is the Venetian Gothic Mediterranean town of Piran while the settlement ofPortorož attracts crowds in summer.[152] HP Pavilion dv6-2130ca laptop keyboard The hills around Slovenia's second-largest town, Maribor, are renowned for their wine-making. The northeastern part of the country is rich with spas,[153] with Rogaška Slatina, Radenci, Čatež ob Savi, Dobrna, and Moravske Toplice growing in importance in the last two decades.[154] Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard Other popular tourist destinations include the historic cities of Ptuj and Škofja Loka, and several castles, such as the Predjama Castle.[155][156] DELL Inspiron 1750 Laptop Keyboard Important parts of tourism in Slovenia include congress and gambling tourism. Slovenia is the country with the highest percentage of casinos per 1,000 inhabitants in the European Union.[157] Perla in Nova Gorica is the largest casino in the region.[158] HP Pavilion DV6z artist edition 2 Laptop Keyboard Most of foreign tourists to Slovenia come from the key European markets: Italy, Austria, Germany, Croatia, Benelux,Serbia, Russia and Ukraine, followed by UK and Ireland.[159] European tourists create more than 90% of Slovenia's tourist income. HP G42-364LA Laptop Keyboard The location at the junction of major geographic units and the area being traversed by major rivers have been the reasons for the intersection of the main transport routes in Slovenia. Their course was established already in the Antiquity.  DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard A particular geographic advantage in recent times has been the location of the intersection of the Pan-European transport corridors V (the fastest link between the North Adriatic, and Central and Eastern Europe) and X(linking Central Europe with the Balkans) in the country. This gives it a special position in the European social, economic and cultural integration and restructuring.[160] SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard The road freight and passenger transport constitutes the largest part of transport in Slovenia at 80%.[161]Personal cars are much more popular than public road passenger transport, which has significantly declined.[161][162] HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard Slovenia has a very high highway and motorway density compared to the European Union average.[163] The highway system, the construction of which was speeded up after 1994,[164] has slowly but steadily transformed Slovenia into a large conurbation.[165] Other state roads have been rapidly deteriorating due to neglect and the overall increase in traffic.[163] HP G42-364LA Laptop Keyboard The existing Slovenian rails, which were mostly built in the 19th century, are out-of-date and can't compete with the motorway network.[166] The maintenance and modernisation of the Slovenian railway network has been neglected due to the lack of financial assets.[167]  TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 Laptop Keyboard Due to the out-of-date infrastructure, the share of the railway freight transport has been in decline in Slovenia.[168] The railway passenger transport has been recovering after a large drop in the 1990s.[169] HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard The Pan-European railway corridors V and X, and several other major European rail lines intersect in Slovenia.[167] All international transit trains in Slovenia drive through the Ljubljana Railway Hub.[170] TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S2804 Laptop Keyboard The major Slovenian port is the Port of Koper. It is the largest Northern Adriatic port in terms of container transport,[171] with almost 590,000 TEUsannually[172] and lines to all major world ports.[173][174] It is much closer to destinations east of the Suez than the ports of Northern Europe.[173] In addition, Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard the maritime passenger traffic mostly takes place in Koper.[175] Two smaller ports used for the international passenger transport as well as cargo transport are located in Izola and Piran. Passenger transport mainly takes place with Italy and Croatia.[176] Splošna plovba,[177] the only Slovenian shipping company, transports freight and is active only in foreign ports.[175] SONY VAIO VGN-N31Z/W laptop keyboard The air transport in Slovenia is quite low,[168] but has significantly grown since 1991.[178] Of the three international airports in Slovenia, Ljubljana Jože Pučnik Airport in central Slovenia is the busiest,[178] ACER TravelMate 6252 laptop keyboard with connections to many major European destinations.[179] The Maribor Edvard Rusjan Airport is located in the eastern part of the country and the Portorož Airport in the western part.[178] The state-owned Adria Airways is the largest Slovenian airline.[178] Since 2003, several new carriers have entered the market, SONY VGN-FE11M laptop keyboard mainly low-cost airlines.[163] The only Slovenian military airport is the Cerklje ob Krki Air Base in the southwestern part of the country.[180] There are also 12 public airports in Slovenia.[178] TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4NX1 laptop keyboard With 101 inhabitants per square kilometer (262/sq mi), Slovenia ranks low among the European countries in population density (compared to 402/km² (1042/sq mi) for the Netherlands or 195/km² (505/sq mi) for Italy). The Notranjska-Kras statistical region has the lowest population density while the Central Slovenian statistical region has the highest.[181] ASUS X53S laptop keyboard According to the 2002 census, Slovenia's main ethnic group are the Slovenes (83%), however their share in the total population is continuously decreasing due to their relatively low fertility rate. At least 13% (2002) of the population were immigrants from other parts of Former Yugoslavia and their descendants.[182] Acer eMachines E640 laptop keyboard They have settled mainly in cities and suburbanised areas.[183] Relatively small but protected by the Constitution of Slovenia are the Hungarian and the Italian ethnic minority.[184][185][186] A special position is held by the autochthonous and geographically dispersed Roma ethnic community.[187][188] TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5107 laptop keyboard Slovenia is among the European countries with the most pronounced ageing of population, ascribable to a low birth rate and increasing life expectancy.[189] Almost all Slovenian inhabitants older than 64 are retired, with no significant difference between the genders.[190] HP Pavilion DV6z artist edition 2 laptop keyboard The working-age group is diminishing in spite of immigration.[191] The proposal to raise the retirement age from the current 57 for women and 58 for men was rejected in a referendum in 2011.[146] In addition, the difference among the genders regarding life expectancy is still significant.[190] In 2007, it was 74.6 years for men and 81.8 years for women.[192] SONY VAIO VGN-N250E/B laptop keyboard In 2009, the suicide rate in Slovenia was 22 per 100,000 persons per year, which places Slovenia among the highest ranked European countries in this regard.[193] Nonetheless, from 2000 until 2010, the rate has decreased by about 30%. The differences between regions and the genders are pronounced.[194] HP Pavilion DV7-3067nr laptop keyboard The official language in Slovenia is Slovene, which is a member of the South Slavic language group. In 2002, Slovene was the native language of around 88% of Slovenia's population according to the census, TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5216 laptop keyboard with more than 92% of the Slovenian population speaking it in their home environment.[198][199] This places Slovenia among the most homogeneous countries in the EU in terms of the share of speakers of predominant mother tongue.[200] SONY Vaio PCG-K315S laptop keyboard Slovene is sometimes characterized as the most diverse Slavic language in terms of dialects,[201] with different degrees of mutual intelligibility.[citation needed] Accounts of the number of dialects range from as few as seven[202][203][204]  HP Pavilion DV6z artist edition 2 laptop keyboard dialects, often considered dialect groups or dialect bases that are further subdivided into as many as 50 dialects.[205] Other sources characterize the number of dialects as nine[206] or eight.[207]  HP Pav

ilion dv6-3142se laptop keyboard A significant number of Slovenian population speak a variant of Serbo-Croatian (Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian or Montenegrin) as their native language. These are mostly immigrants who moved to Slovenia from other former Yugoslav republics from the 1960s to the late 1980s, and their descendants. TOSHIBA Satellite P300-ST3712 laptop keyboard 0,4% of the Slovenian population declared themselves as native speakers of Albanian and 0,2% as native speakers of Macedonian in 2002.[199] Czech, which used to be the fourth largest minority language in Slovenia prior to World War II (after German, Hungarian and Serbo-Croatian), is now the native language of a few hundred Slovenian residents.[199] HP G42-265LA laptop keyboard Regarding the knowledge of foreign languages, Slovenia is ranked among the top European countries. The most taught foreign languages are English, German, Italian, French and Spanish. As of 2007, 92% of the population between the age of 25 and 64 spoke at least one foreign language and around 71.8%  ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard of them spoke at least two foreign languages, which was the highest percentage in the European Union.[211] According to the Eurobarometer survey, as of 2005 the majority of Slovenes could speak Croatian (59%) and English (56%).[212] HP AEUT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard A reported 45% of Slovenes could speak German, which was one of the highest percentages outside German-speaking countries.[212] Italian is widely spoken on the Slovenian Coast and in some other areas of the Slovenian Littoral. Around 15% of Slovenians can speak Italian, which is (according to the Eurobarometer pool) the third highest percentage in the European Union, after Italy and Malta.[213] ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard Before World War II, 97% of the population declared itself Catholic (Roman Rite), around 2.5% as Lutheran, and around 0.5% of residents identified themselves as members of other denominations.[199]  HP AEUT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard Catholicism was an important feature of both social and political life in pre-Communist Slovenia. After 1945, the country underwent a process of gradual but steady secularization. After a decade of severe persecution of religions, the Communist regime adopted a policy of relative tolerance towards the churches, APPLE A1278 Laptop Keyboard but limited their social functioning. After 1990, the Catholic Church regained some of its former influence, but Slovenia remains a largely secularized society. According to the 2002 census, 57.8% of the population is Catholic. ACER 9J.N0F82.A1D Laptop Keyboard As elsewhere in Europe, affiliation with Catholicism is dropping: In 1991, 71.6% were self-declared Catholics which means a drop of more than 1% annually.[214] The vast majority of Slovenian Catholics belong to the Latin Rite. A small number of Greek Catholics live in the White Carniola region.[215] HP G72-b66US Laptop Keyboard Despite a relatively small number of Protestants (less than 1% in 2002), the Protestant legacy is historically significant given that the Slovene standard language and Slovene literature were established by the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century. ACER 9J.N0F82.A1D Laptop Keyboard Today, a significant Lutheran minority lives in the easternmost region of Prekmurje, where they represent around a fifth of the population and are headed by a bishop with the seat in Murska Sobota.[216]  HP G72-b66US Laptop Keyboard Besides these two Christian denominations, a small Jewish community has also been historically present. Despite the losses suffered during the Holocaust, Judaism still numbers a few hundred adherents, mostly living in Ljubljana, site of the sole remaining active synagogue in the country.[217] HP Mini 110-3180sv Laptop Keyboard According to the 2002 census, Islam is the second largest religious denomination with around 2.4% of the population. Most Slovenian Muslims came from Bosnia, Kosovo, and Macedonia.[218] Lenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard The third largest denomination, with around 2.2% of the population, is Orthodox Christianity, with most adherents belonging to the Serbian Orthodox Church while a minority belongs to the Macedonian and other Orthodox churches. DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard In the 2002, around 10% of Slovenes declared themselves as atheists, another 10% professed no specific denomination, and around 16% decided not to answer the question about their religious affiliation.  DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard According to the Eurobarometer Poll 2010,[219] 32% of Slovenian citizens responded that "they believe there is a god", whereas 36% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 26% that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, god, or life force".HP Pavilion dv6-2125ef laptop keyboard Slovenia's education ranks as the 12th best in the world and 4th best in the European Union, being significantly higher than the OECD average, according to the Programme for International Student Assessment.[224] Among people age 25 to 64, 12 per cent have attended higher education, HP Pavilion dv6-2110ev laptop keyboard whilst on average Slovenes have 9.6 years of formal education. According to an OECD report, 83% of adults ages 25–64 have earned the equivalent of a high school degree, well above the OECD average of 74%; among 25- to 34-year-olds, the rate is 93%.[225] According to the 1991 census there is 99.6 per centliteracy in Slovenia. Lifelong learning is also increasing.[226] HP Mini 110-3180sv laptop keyboard Primary Responsibility for education oversight at primary and secondary level in Slovenia lies with the Ministry of Education and Sports. After non-compulsory pre-school education, children enter the nine-year primary school at the age of six.[227] Primary school is divided into three periods, each of three years. LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 laptop keyboard In the academic year 2006–2007 there were 166,000 pupils enrolled in elementary education and more than 13,225 teachers, giving a ratio of one teacher per 12 pupils and 20 pupils per class.[226] HP Mini 110-3180sv laptop keyboard Secondary After completing elementary school, nearly all children (more than 98 per cent) go on to secondary education, either vocational, technical or general secondary programmes (gimnazija). The latter concludes with matura, the final exam that allows the graduates to enter a university. 84 per cent of secondary school graduates go on to tertiary education.[226] Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E125 laptop keyboard Ethnologically most characteristic Slovene dishes were one-pot dishes, such as ričet, Istrian stew (jota), minestrone(mineštra), and žganci; in the Prekmurje region there is also bujta repa, and prekmurska gibanica pastry, HP Pavilion dv6-3230us laptop keyboard andprosciutto (pršut) in the Slovene Littoral. The nut roll (potica) has become a trade mark and symbol of Slovenia especially among Slovene diaspora in America. Soups were added to the traditional one-pot meals and various kinds of porridge and stew only in relatively recent history. ACER K052030A1 laptop keyboard Each year since 2000, the Festival of Roasted Potatoes is organized by the Society for the Recognition of Roasted Potatoes as a Distinct Dish, attracting thousands of visitors. The roasted potatoes,  DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard which have been traditionally served in most Slovenian families only on Sundays - preceded by a meat-based soup, such as beef or chicken soup - have been depicted on a special edition of post marks by the Post of Slovenia on 23 November 2012.[239] The best known sausage is Koza Čurák. TOSHIBA NSK-TAJ01 Laptop Keyboard The Slovenian Philharmonics, established in 1701 as part of Academia operosorum Labacensis, is among the oldest such institutions in Europe. Music of Slovenia historically includes numerous musicians and composers, ACER Aspire 7741G Laptop Keyboard such as the Renaissance composer Jacobus Gallus (1550–1591), who greatly influenced Central European classical music, the Baroque composer Janez Krstnik Dolar (ca. 1620–1673), and the violin virtuoso Giuseppe Tartini. ACER Aspire 7741G Laptop Keyboard During the medieval era, secular music was as popular as church music, including wandering minnesingers. By the time of Protestant Reformation in the 16th century, music was used to proselytize. The first Slovenian hymnal, Eni Psalmi, was published in 1567. This period saw the rise of musicians like Jacobus Gallus and Jurij Slatkonja.[245] SONY KFRMBA152B Laptop Keyboard In 1701, Johann Berthold von Höffer (1667–1718), a nobleman and amateur composer from Ljubljana, founded the Academia Philharmonicorum Labacensis, as one of the oldest such institutions in Europe, based on Italian models.[246] HP Pavilion dv6-3001so Laptop Keyboard Composers of Slovenian Lieder and art songs include Emil Adamič (1877–1936), Fran Gerbič (1840–1917), Alojz Geržinič (1915–2008), Benjamin Ipavec (1829–1908), Davorin Jenko (1835–1914), Anton Lajovic (1878–1960), Kamilo Mašek (1831–1859), Josip Pavčič (1870–1949), Zorko Prelovec (1887–1939), andLucijan Marija Škerjanc (1900–1973). HP HDX18-1100 CTO Laptop Keyboard In the early 20th century, impressionism was spreading across Slovenia, which soon produced composers Marij Kogoj and Slavko Osterc. Avant-garde classical music arose in Slovenia in the 1960s, largely due to the work of Uroš Krek, Dane Škerl,  TOSHIBA Satellite C655-S9521D Laptop Keyboard Primož Ramovš and Ivo Petrić, who also conducted the Slavko Osterc Ensemble. Jakob Jež, Darijan Božič, Lojze Lebič and Vinko Globokar have since composed enduring works, especially Globokar's L'Armonia, an opera. HP G42-380LA Laptop Keyboard Modern composers include Uroš Rojko, Tomaž Svete, Brina Jež-Brezavšček, Božidar Kantušer and Aldo Kumar. Kumar's Sonata z igro 12 (A sonata with a play 12), a set of variations on a rising chromatic scale, is particularly notable. GATEWAY NV-53 Laptop Keyboard The Slovene National Opera and Ballet Theatre serves as the national opera and ballet house. From 1952 on, the Slavko Avsenik's band began to appear in broadcasts, movies, and concerts all over the West Germany,  HP 646568-001 Laptop Keyboard inventing the original "Oberkrainer" country sound that has became the primary vehicle of ethnic musical expression not only in Slovenia, but also in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and in the Benelux, spawning hundreds of Alpine orchestras in the process. The band produced nearly 1000 original compositions, TOSHIBA Satellite C655-S5141 laptop keyboard an integral part of the Slovenian-style polkalegacy. Avsenik's most popular instrumental composition is the polka that is titled "Na Golici" (in Slovene), or "Trompetenecho" (in German), and "Trumpet Echoes" (in English). Oberkrainer music, which the Avsenik Ensemble popularized, is always a strong candidate for country (folk) music awards in Slovenia and Austria. HP Pavilion dv6-2160ep laptop keyboard Many musicians followed Avsenik's steps, one of the most famous being Lojze Slak. Other popular bands, most largely unknown outside the country, include Negligence (thrash metal), Elvis Jackson (ska punk), Lačni Franz, Bohem, Puppetz(Indie), Tabu, Društvo Mrtvih Pesnikov (pop-rock), Naio Ssaion (Gothic metal), Packard Bell PEW91 laptop keyboard Terrafolk, Leaf Fat (screamo), Avven, Carpe Diem, Šank Rock, Big Foot Mama,Yogurt, Adam, Levitan, Dan D, Time to time, Flirrt, Zablujena generacija, Slon in Sadež, Katalena, Rock Partyzani, Shyam, Eroika, Hic et Nunc, Devil Doll(experimental rock), Chateau, Posodi mi jürja, Rok'n'band, Čuki, Juliette Justine, Zaklonišče Prepeva, HP Pavilion dv6-2159tx laptop keyboard Psycho-Path, Dekadent (black metal) and Buldožer(progressive rock), and most recently Perpetuum Jazzile with more than 12 million views combined for the two a capella "Africa" performance videos since their publishing on YouTube in May 2009 until September 2011,[249][250] earning them kudos from the song's co-writer, David Paich.[251] DELL 0M711P laptop keyboard Slovenia is a natural sports venue, with many Slovenians actively practicing sports.[259] A variety of sports are played in Slovenia on a professional level,[260] with top international successes in handball, basketball, SONY VAIO VGN-CR13/B laptop keyboard volleyball, association football, ice hockey, rowing, Swimming, tennis, boxing and athletics. Prior to World War II, gymnastics and fencing used to be the most popular sports in Slovenia, with champions like Leon Štukelj and Miroslav Cerar gaining Olympic medals for Slovenia. Association football gained popularity in the interwar period. SONY 148701322 laptop keyboard After 1945, basketball, handball and volleyball have become popular among Slovenians, and from the mid-1970s onward, winter sports have, as well. Since 1992, Slovenian sportspeople have won 22 Olympic medals, including three gold medals, and 19 Paralympic medals, also with three golds.  Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard Individual sports are also very popular in Slovenia, including tennis and mountaineering, which are two of the most widespread sporting activities in Slovenia. Several Slovenian extreme and endurance sportsmen have gained an international reputation, including the mountaineer Tomaž Humar, the mountain skier Davo Karničar, HP Pavilion dv6-3001so laptop keyboard the ultramaraton swimmer Martin Strel and the ultracyclist Jure Robič. Past and current winter sports Slovenian champions include Alpine skiers, such as Mateja Svet, Bojan Križaj, and Tina Maze, the cross-country skier Petra Majdič, and ski jumpers, such as Primož Peterka. Boxing has gained popularity since Dejan Zavec won the IBF Welterweight World Champion title in 2009. HP HDX18-1100 CTO laptop keyboard Since the major international success of the national football team, qualifying for two FIFA World Cups and one UEFA European Football Championship, association football has become increasingly popular, as well. Slovenian past and current football stars include Branko Oblak and Zlatko Zahovič. The national basketball team has qualified for eight Eurobaskets, SONY VAIO VGN-N21E/W laptop keyboard including a 4th place finish in 2009, and two FIBA World Championship appearances. Notable Slovenian basketball players include Jure Zdovc, Peter Vilfan, and Ivo Daneu. Slovenia will be the host of European basketball championship in 2013, having previously hosted the final round of 1970 FIBA World Championship. HP Pavilion dv5-1118tx laptop keyboard The national ice hockey team has qualified for six Ice Hockey World Championships. Anze Kopitar is the most notable Slovene ice hockey player, and is one of the best players in the world, having led the Los Angeles Kings to the Stanley Cup Championship in 2012. HP AEUT5U00010 laptop keyboard The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean surrounded by the Mediterranean region and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant. The sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, although it is usually identified as a completely separate body of water. HP Mini 110-3504tu laptop keyboard The name Mediterranean is derived from the Latin mediterraneus, meaning "inland" or "in the middle of the land" (from medius, "middle" and terra, "land"). It covers an approximate area of 2.5 million km² (965,000 sq mi), SONY VGN-FE21H laptop keyboard but its connection to the Atlantic (the Strait of Gibraltar) is only 14 km (8.7 mi) wide. In oceanography, it is sometimes called the Eurafrican Mediterranean Sea or the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it frommediterranean seas elsewhere.[3][4]  HP G72-b60SF laptop keyboard The Mediterranean Sea has an average depth of 1,500 m (4,900 ft) and the deepest recorded point is 5,267 m (17,280 ft) in the Calypso Deep in the Ionian Sea. Lenovo 45N2240 Laptop Keyboard It was an important route for merchants and travellers of ancient times that allowed for trade and cultural exchange between emergent peoples of the region. The history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of many modern societies. SONY VGN-FE550G Laptop Keyboard The term Mediterranean derives from the Latin word mediterraneus, meaning "in the middle of earth" or "between lands" (medi-; adj. medius, -um -a "middle, between" + terra f., "land, earth"): as it is between the continents of Africa, Asia and Europe. The Greek name Mesogeios (Μεσόγειος), is similarly from μέσο, "middle" + γη, "land, earth").[5] Lenovo IdeaPad Y710 Laptop Keyboard The Mediterranean Sea has historically had several names. For example the Romans commonly called it Mare Nostrum (Latin, "Our Sea"), and occasionally Mare Internum (Sallust, Jug. 17). DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard In the Bible, it was primarily known as הים הגדול (HaYam HaGadol), the "Great Sea", (Num. 34:6,7; Josh. 1:4, 9:1, 15:47; Ezek. 47:10,15,20), or simply "The Sea" (1 Kings 5:9; comp. 1 Macc. 14:34, 15:11); however, TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S2812 Laptop Keyboard it has also been called the "Hinder Sea", due to its location on the west coast of the Holy Land, and therefore behind a person facing the east, sometimes translated as "Western Sea", (Deut. 11:24; Joel 2:20). Another name was the "Sea of thePhilistines" (Exod. 23:31), from the people occupying a large portion of its shores near the Israelites. GATEWAY M-6319 Laptop Keyboard In Modern Hebrew, it has been called HaYam HaTikhon (הַיָּם הַתִּיכוֹן), "the Middle Sea", reflecting the Sea's name in ancient Greek (Mesogeios), Latin (Mare internum) and modern languages in both Europe and the Middle East (Mediterranean, etc.). Simillarly, in Modern Arabic, it is known as al-Baḥr [al-Abyaḍ] al-Mutawassiṭ (البحر [الأبيض] المتوسط), HP 634139-001 Laptop Keyboard "the [White] Medium Sea", while in Islamic and older Arabic literature, it was referenced as Baḥr al-Rūm (بحر الروم), or "the Roman/Byzantine Sea." In Turkish, it is known as Akdeniz,[6] "the White Sea".TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5083 Laptop Keyboard Several ancient civilizations were located around its shores; thus it has had a major influence on those cultures. It provided routes for trade, colonization and war, and provided food (by fishing and the gathering of other seafood) for numerous communities throughout the ages.[7]  ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard The sharing of similar climate, geology and access to a common sea led to numerous historical and cultural connections between the ancient and modern societies around the Mediterranean. HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard Two of the most notable Mediterranean civilizations in classical antiquity were the Greek city states and thePhoenicians. When[citation needed] Augustus founded the Roman Empire, the Mediterranean Sea began to be called Mare Nostrum (literally:"Our Sea") by the Romans. TOSHIBA Satellite A300 Laptop Keyboard Darius I of Persia, who conquered Ancient Egypt, built a canal linking the Mediterranean to the Red Sea. Darius's canal was wide enough for two triremes to pass each other with oars extended, and required four days to traverse.[8] TOSHIBA Satellite A110 Series Laptop Keyboard The western Roman empire collapsed around AD 476. Temporarily the east was again dominant as the Byzantine Empireformed from the eastern half of the Roman empire. Another power soon arose in the east: Islam. At its greatest extent, the Arab Empire controlled 75% of the Mediterranean region. SONY VGN-FE670G Laptop Keyboard Europe was reviving, however, as more organized and centralized states began to form in the later Middle Ages after theRenaissance of the 12th century. HP COMPAQ NX6310 Laptop Keyboard Ottoman power continued to grow, and in 1453, the Byzantine Empire was extinguished with the Conquest of Constantinople. Ottomans gained control of much of the sea in the 16th century and maintained naval bases in southern France, Algeria and Tunisia. Barbarossa, the famous Ottoman captain is a symbol of this domination with the victory of the Battle of Preveza.  DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard The Battle of Djerba marked the apex of Ottoman naval domination in the Mediterranean. However, as naval prowess of the European powers grew, they confronted Ottoman expansion in the region when the Battle of Lepanto checked the power of the Ottoman Navy. This was the last naval battle to be fought primarily between galleys. SONY Vaio PCG-K315S laptop keyboard The Barbary pirates of North Africa preyed on Christian shipping in the western Mediterranean Sea.[9] According to Robert Davis, from the 16th to 19th century, pirates captured 1 million to 1.25 million Europeans as slaves.[10] TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5083 laptop keyboard The development of oceanic shipping began to affect the entire Mediterranean. Once, all trade from the east had passed through the region, but now the circumnavigation of Africa allowed spices and other goods to be imported through the Atlantic ports of western Europe.[11][12][13] TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5160 laptop keyboard Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

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