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18 février 2014 2 18 /02 /février /2014 07:23


Sochi (Russian: Со́чи, IPA: [ˈsot͡ɕɪ] ( listen)) is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Black Sea coast near the border between Georgia/Abkhazia and Russia. The Greater Sochi area, which includes territories and localities subordinated to Sochi proper, has a total area of 3,526 square kilometers (1,361 sq mi)[4] and sprawls for 145 kilometers (90 mi) along the shores of the Black Sea near the Caucasus Mountains.[ HP Pavilion G61-336NR CPU Fan 

The area of the city proper is 176.77 square kilometers (68.25 sq mi).[4] According to the 2010 Census, the city had a permanent population of 343,334,[5] up from 328,809 recorded in the 2002 Census,[11] making it Russia's largest resort city. It is one of the very few places in Russia with a subtropical climate, with warm to hot summers and mild winters. HP Pavilion dv7-6184ca CPU Fan

With the alpine and Nordic events held at the nearby ski resort of Roza Khutor in Krasnaya Polyana, Sochi is hosting the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games in 2014, as well as the Russian Formula 1 Grand Prix from 2014 until at least 2020, subject to the circuit being ready in time.[12][13] It will also be one of the host cities for the 2018 FIFA World Cup. HP Pavilion dv7-3125eo CPU Fan

Greater Sochi is elongated along the Black Sea coast for 145 kilometers (90 mi). Depending on how one chooses todivide Europe and Asia, some sources claim Sochi is in Europe, whereas if one uses the Caucasus Mountains as the divide, Sochi is in Southwest Asia, falling on the southern (Asian) side of the Greater Caucasus.[ HP Pavilion dv7-2185dx CPU Fan

In terms of human geography, Sochi falls within Krasnodar Krai, which is geographically located entirely within European Russiaas does, generally, all territory of Russia west of the Ural Mountains and Ural River.[19][20] Sochi is approximately 1,603 kilometers (996 mi) from Moscow.[21]

The city of Sochi borders with Tuapsinsky District in the northwest, with Apsheronsky District and with Maykopsky District of the Republic of Adygea in the north, IBM MCF-C10AM05 CPU Fan

with Mostovsky District in the northwest, and with Abkhazia in the southeast. From the southwest, it is bounded by the Black Sea.

The vast majority of the population of Sochi lives in a narrow strip along the coast and is organized in independent microdistricts (formerly settlements). The biggest of these microdistricts, from the northwest to the southeast, are Lazarevskoye, Loo,Dagomys, Sochi proper (Tsentralny City District), Khosta, Matsesta, andAdler. SONY Vaio VGN-SZ2XP/C CPU Fan

The whole city is located on the slopes of the Western Caucasuswhich descend to the Black Sea and are cut by the rivers. The biggest rivers in Sochi are the Mzymta, which is in fact the longest Black Sea tributary in Russia, and the Shakhe. Other rivers include the Ashe, the Psezuapse, the Sochi, the Khosta, and the Matsesta. The Psou River makes the border with Abkhazia. DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

The northeastern part of the city belongs to the Caucasus Zapovednik which is a World Heritage Site spanning vast areas in Krasnodar Krai and Adygea. Almost the whole area of the Greater Sochi, with the exception of the coast and of the area which belong to the Caucasus Zapovednik, are included into Sochi National Park.

Sochi has a humid subtropical climate[22][23] with mild winters (average 11 °C (52 °F) during the day and 4 °C (39 °F) HP Pavilion dv7-2025es CPU Fan

FUJITSU LifeBook A6030 CPU Fan

at night) in the period from December to March and warm summers (average 24 °C (75 °F) during the day and 16 °C (61 °F) at night) in the period from May to October.

Before the whole area was conquered by Cimmerian, Scythian and Sarmatian invaders, the Zygii people lived in Smaller Abkhazia under the Kingdom of Pontus, then the Roman Empire's influence in antiquity. From the 6th to the 11th centuries, SONY Vaio VGN-FS115Z CPU Fan

the area successively belonged to the kingdom of Lazica and kingdom of Abkhazia who built a dozen churches within the city boundaries. The Christian settlements along the coast were destroyed by the invading Göktürks,Khazars, Mongols and other nomadic empires whose control of the region was slight. The northern wall of an 11th-century Byzantinesque basilica still stands in the Loo Microdistrict.[24] HP 532617-001 CPU Fan

From the 14th to the 19th centuries, the region was dominated by the Abkhaz, Ubykh and Adyghe tribes, the current location of the city of Sochi known as Ubykhia was part of historical Circassia, and was controlled by the native people of the local mountaineer clans of the north-west Caucasus, nominally under the sovereignty of the Ottoman Empire, which was their principal trading partner in the Muslim world. ACER Aspire 5730Z CPU Fan

The coastline was ceded to Russia in 1829 as a result of a Caucasian War and Russo-Turkish War, 1828–1829; however, the Circassians did not admit the Russian control over Circassia and kept resisting the newly established Russian outposts along the Circassian coast (Adyghe:Адыгэ хы аушу).[8][25] Provision of weapons and ammunition from abroad to the Circassians caused a diplomatic conflict between the Russian Empire and the United Kingdom that occurred in 1836 over the mission of the Vixen.[26] HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

The Russians had no detailed knowledge of the area until Baron Feodor Tornau investigated the coastal route fromGelendzhik to Gagra, and across the mountains to Kabarda, in the 1830s. In 1838, the fort of Alexandria, renamed Navaginsky a year later, was founded at the mouth of the Sochi River as part of the Black Sea coastal line, a chain of seventeen fortifications set up to protect the area from recurring Circassian resistance. HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr CPU Fan

At the outbreak of the Crimean War, the garrison was evacuated from Navaginsky in order to prevent its capture by the Turks, who effected a landing on Cape Adler soon after.

The last battle of the Caucasian War took place at the Godlikh river on March 18, 1864 O.S., where the ubykhs were defeated by the Dakhovsky regiment of the Russian Army. On March 25, 1864, the Dakhovsky fort was established on the site of the Navaginsky fort. FUJITSU Lifebook A3210 CPU Fan

The end of Caucasian War was proclaimed at Kbaade tract (modern Krasnaya Polyana) on June 2 (May 21 O.S.), 1864, by the manifesto of Emperor Alexander II read aloud by Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich of Russia.[8]

After the end of Caucasian War (during the period of 1864–1870) almost all Ubykhs and a major part of the Shapsugs, who lived on the territory of modern Sochi, were either killed in the Circassian Genocide or expelled to the Ottoman Empire (see Circassian Genocide). DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

Starting in 1866 the coast was actively colonized by Russians, Armenians, Ukrainians, Belorussians, Greeks, Germans, Georgians and other people from inner Russia.[8][25]

In 1874–1891, the first Russian Orthodox church, St. Michael's Church, was constructed, and the Dakhovsky settlement was renamed Dakhovsky Posad on April 13, 1874 (O.S.). In February 1890, the Sochi Lighthouse was constructed. Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan

In 1896, the Dakhovsky Posad was renamed Sochi Posad (after the name of local river) and incorporated into the newly formed Black Sea Governorate. In 1900–1910, Sochi burgeoned into a sea resort. The first resort, "Kavkazskaya Riviera", opened on June 14, 1909 (O.S.). Sochi was granted town status in 1917.

During the Russian Civil War, the littoral area saw sporadic armed clashes involving the Red Army, HP Pavilion dv2660se CPU Fan

White movement forces, and the Democratic Republic of Georgia. As a result of the war Sochi has become Russian territory. In 1923, Sochi acquired one of its most distinctive features, a railway which runs fromTuapse to Georgia within a kilometer or two of the coastline. Although this branch of the Northern Caucasus Railway may appear somewhat incongruous in the setting of beaches and sanatoriums, it is still operational and vital to the region's transportation infrastructure.[8] Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan

Sochi was established as a fashionable resort area under Joseph Stalin, who had his favorite dacha built in the city. Stalin's study, complete with a wax statue of the leader, is now open to the public.[27] During Stalin's reign the coast became dotted with imposing Neoclassical buildings, exemplified by the opulent Rodina and Ordzhonikidze sanatoriums. DELL GM0503PEB1-8 (L2.M) CPU Fan

The centerpiece of this early period is Shchusev's Constructivist Institute of Rheumatology (1927–1931). The area was continuously developed until the demise of the Soviet Union.[8]

Following Russia's loss of the traditionally popular resorts of the Crimean peninsula (transferred away from the Russian SFSR to the Ukrainian SSR in 1954 byNikita Khrushchev), Sochi emerged as the unofficial summer capital of the country.[28] HP Pavilion dv7-1098eo CPU Fan

During Vladimir Putin's term in office, the city witnessed a significant increase in investment, although many Russian holidaymakers still flock to the cheaper resorts of neighbouring Abkhazia (Georgia), Ukraine, or to the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. Additionally, Sochi has also served as the location for the signing of many treaties, especially those between theGeorgian, separatist Abkhazian, and separatist South Ossetian governing authorities. Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan

The area of the Russian city of Sochi was populated more than 100,000 years by ancient people of Asia Minor migrating through Colchis (olden Georgia). Ancient Greeks sailed to the region via the Black Sea in the 5th–6th centuries BC and encountered the Maeotae, Sindi, Cercetae, Zygii and other local tribes. They were the ancestors of the Abkhaz, Ubykh andAdyghe people who lived here until 1864; HP Pavilion dv7-1240us CPU Fan

many toponyms in Sochi, including the city itself, originate from their languages. The first Russian outpost was set up in central Sochi in 1838 as a part of the Russian expansion along theBlack Sea coast. The local resistance to this process resulted in the Caucasian War of 1817–1864, which ended in a Russian victory and the expulsion of the local population, mostly to Turkey. DELL yy529 CPU Fan

The Russian settlement built in the area was named Sochi in 1896 and received the status of a city (town) in 1917. The first tea plantations were established there in 1901–1905 and resulted in the production of the most prominent brand of Russian tea. From the end of the 19th century, the city has been developed as a dedicated area for sanatoriums and hospitals. Toshiba Qosmio G40-10E CPU Fan

It served as a rehabilitation center during World War II and, despite a decline following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, remains the majorresort town of Russia. An important recent event was selection of Sochi as the site of the 2014 Winter Olympics and 2014 Winter Paralympics.

Geologically, the area of Sochi is composed of  Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks. SONY Vaio VGN-CR407E CPU Fan

They had experienced significant changes due to the volcanic and seismic activity, with the earthquakes measuring up to 9 on the Richter scale. It was populated during the Lower Paleolithic more than 100,000 years ago by early humans migrating from Asia Minor through Colchis. They first formed open-type settlements, but during the Middle Paleolithic (100,000–35,000 years ago) moved to caves due to the global cooling. HP Pavilion dv6-1101au CPU Fan

One evidence of that is known as a 40,000–50,000 old site in the Akhshtyrskaya Cave, 15 km from Adlersky City District. The cave is protected by the UNESCO and contains human remains, early tools and bones of bears, deer and other animals indicating the hunting nature of the inhabitants.[1][2] In the Upper Paleolithic (35,000–10,000 years ago) they have developed techniques of producing elaborated stone tools.[3] HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

The Ancient Greeks sailed to the Sochi area in the fifth–sixth centuries BC and kept visiting it till about first century BC. They encountered the Aehi, Zygiiand other people who were apparently keen for the luxury goods brought by Greeks and exchanged them for slaves. Slaves were a major commodity of the time, and thus the Caucasian coast became a slave trade center.[1] HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

An ethnic group of a few thousands of Greeks still lives around Krasnaya Polyana. Between 2,000 and 1,800 BC, the coastal area around Sochi had one cultural entity.A detailed description of the coastal area around Sochi originated from the naval expedition of the Frenchman Frédéric Dubois de Montpéreux (1708–1850) in 1833. He also compiled former descriptions of the region. HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

Montpéreux however could not land at the site of Sochi as his ship was met with a strong gun fire from the coast. He mentions that in the Middle Ages, a Genoan city of Mamai stood on river Psakhe (modern Mamaika in Sochi), and some 60 north from it a German fortress and a monastery.

Ottoman Turkey had much interest in the Black Sea coast as an outpost for its northern expansions, HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

however, it had lost this area to Russia as a result of the Russo-Turkish War (1828–1829) and the Treaty of Adrianople. To further protect the coast from Turkey, a coastal line of defense was built in 1830–1839 consisting of 17 fortresses. Several of these fortresses were founded in the suburbs of the modern Sochi, such as the fortress of Holy Spirit in Adler (1837),[2] Lazarevskoye (1839) and Golovinskoe (1839). HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

On 23 April 1838, the first stone of the fortress was laid in central Sochi, at the mouth of the Sochi River. This day coincided with the birthday of Empress Alexandra Feodorovna, the wife of Tsar Nicholas I, and the fortress was named Alexandria after her. It was however soon renamed into Navaginsky (for uncertain reason). The construction was completed in July 1838.[6] HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan

During the Crimean War of 1853–1856 it was abandoned and partly destroyed; it was rebuilt in 1864 under a new name Dakhovsky.[7] The locals however did not recognize Russian rule and fiercely opposed what they perceived as colonization. This opposition attracted the interest of Britain, which was apparently selling weapons and ammunition to the Circassians. HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan

This caused a diplomatic conflict between the Russian Empire and Great Britain in 1836, centered on the Mission of the Vixen. The British ship Vixen loaded with weapons for the rebels was captured and confiscated by the Russians at the port Sudzhuk-Kale (nowadays Novorossiysk). The British protested, but the position of Tsar Nicholas I was firm and a quick order was given to prepare the army for a war with Britain.[8] ACER Aspire 4743 CPU Fan

The conflict quickly subsided, but not the local resistance, which resulted in the Russian Circassian War of 1817–1864, the longest in the history of the region. Its end was proclaimed on 21 May 1864 (Old Style) at Kbaade tract (modern Krasnaya Polyana) by the manifesto of Emperor Alexander II read aloud by the Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich. HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPU Fan

On 10 May 1864, 12 Cossack stations were set up around the Sochi area for its protection. On 10 March 1866, a decree was proclaimed promoting relocation to the Sochi area of all peoples of Russia. A rural settlement quickly grew on the Black Sea coast. On 23 May 1896 it was named Sochi[7][9] and shortly after included into the newly formed Black Sea Governoratewith the administrative center in Novorossiysk. Toshiba Satellite L675-S7018 CPU Fan

On 1 May 1898, the governing structure of Sochi was established, which consisted of a chair, vice-chair, and 12 deputies elected by people. In July 1917, the settlement received the status of atown. On 10 February 1961, it was expanded by the inclusion of Adler and Lazarevskoye districts and with an area of 3505 km² and length of 145 km became one of the world's longest cities.ASUS F80Q CPU Fan

In comparison, its area and length in 1941 were 32 km² and 30 km, respectively. From September 1937 until the present day, Sochi is a part of Krasnodar Krai

The major occupation of the new settlers was in agriculture, and many of them attempted to grow tea, which was then an expensive, yet the most popular non-alcoholic beverage in Russia. ACER TravelMate 4200 CPU Fan

Several attempts in the 1870s and 1880s failed because of the cold climate, and the first success was achieved in the early 1900s by the Ukrainian peasant Judas Antonovich Koshman (1838–1935). Koshman previously worked for a tea factory in Adjara, a place south to Sochi on the Black Sea coast. That tea was known in Russia but its taste was unpopular. HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

In 1901, Koshman brought seeds of tea plants from Adjara to Sochi (Solokhaul settlement) and developed a brand which was not only resistant to cold but also had a rich taste. The first successful plantation is dated to 1905. This new tea later became the distinct brand of Krasnodarsky Tea, which is the most prominent Russia-grown tea and is one of the northernmost teas in the world. HP G70-120EA CPU Fan

The house of Koshman still stands in Solokhaul along with the tea bushes planted by his hands.

During this period, numerous stone monuments (dolmens) were built around Sochi, and at least fifty remain to the present day. It is still unclear how these tombs weighing tens of tons were built with such an accuracy (some stones match each other within millimetres), and what exactly their purpose was.[4] Toshiba Satellite A300-034 CPU Fan

Numerous bronze tools and trade objects, dated to 800–700 BC, were found near Sochi indicating active exchange with the nearby areas.[3] In the Middle Ages, the region was mostly influenced by the Byzantine Empire and Christianity, as evidenced by the style of nine churches and eighteen fortresses dating from those times. The northern wall of an eleventh-century Byzantinesque basilica still stands inLoo Microdistrict. HP 606609-001 CPU Fan

In the 14th–17th centuries, the area was mostly populated by the Abkhaz, Ubykh and Adyghe peoplewho lived in small clay-wooden houses called “saklya” built on the mountain slopes. Although they shared the same region, which was then sometimes called Circassia, they spoke different languages and had different cultures. Despite their small size and massive external influence, they considered themselves independent nations. Compaq Presario CQ60-301sl CPU Fan

Their early religion was a form of shamanism. However, interaction with Turkey resulted in the dominance of Islam, especially between 1829 and 1864 when it was used as a mean to further separate the locals with Russians, who were mainly Orthodox Christians. After the end of the Caucasus War, the Russian government urged relocation of the coastal tribes. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan

This initiative was avidly promoted by the Turkish authorities; however, the relocation to Turkey resulted in much suffering and death as the refugee camps in Turkey could not cope with the large numbers of migrants. Seeing that, the Russians later reversed their policy and invited the locals back, but they already assimilated with Turks and refused the offer.[1] ASUS Eee PC 701 CPU Fan

The new settlers coming belonged to various nationalities (mostly Russians, but also Ukrainians, Georgians, Moldovans, Belorussians, Estonians, Letts and Germans) and religious groups, such as Catholics, Lutherans, Gregorian Armenians, Sunniand other Muslims, but the predominant part was Orthodox Christians. Compaq Presario CQ60-305sa CPU Fan

The first Orthodox church in Sochi, the St. Michael's Church, was designed by Alexander Kaminsky and constructed in 1874–1891. Its construction was promoted by the Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich aiming to commemorate the Russian victory in the Caucasian War and sponsored by Savva Mamontov and Count Felix Felixovich Sumarokov-Elston, among others. HP 637607-001 CPU Fan

Many areas and geographical features of Sochi retained their original names through its entire history. The city itself and its major river were named after the Ubykh tribe Soatshe which was living in the area before 1864.[3] It is believed that the name Adler originates not from German word for "eagle", but from the name of an Adyghe tribe, so as Loo. Dagomys means "cool place" in Adyghean,[13] HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan

Tuapse means "two waters", Matsesta – "fiery water", Kudepsta – "oily water", and Shepsi – "waterless".

The economical development of Sochi was greatly accelerated by the development of transport. So, in 1888, the construction of a transcoastal road from Novorossiysk to Sukhumi reached Sochi, and a road to Krasnaya Polyana was laid in 1899. HP Pavilion dv5-1210ez CPU Fan

In 1934–1936, all minor roads within the city were consolidated in a highway named after Stalin (now Kurortnyi Prospect). By 1916, railways were laid connecting Sochi with Russia via Tuapse. The first train station of Sochi was built around 1916 and rebuilt to nearly its present look in 1952. Later, the seaport (1955) and Sochi International Airport were constructed in central Sochi and in Adler, respectively. Compaq Presario CQ50-211nr CPU Fan

The Sochi Lighthouse was erected much earlier, in February 1890.[3]

Around that time, the development of Sochi was directed toward creating a health resort and a green city. In 1902, a wooden bath complex was raised on the territory of modern Matsesta springs and a joint venture regulating its operation was set up in 1912 led by the merchant M. M. Zensinov and doctor V. F. Podgursky. HP G56-114SA CPU Fan

The first spa resort named "Kavkazskaya Riviera" was opened on 14 June 1909.[7] The first city doctor was A. L. Gordon (1871–1940) who in 1911 established the first hospital in Sochi with the capacity of 35 beds. A number of writers, painters and artists had moved to the area by then and helped establish the educational system of the city.[3] In particular, the Soviet writer Nikolai Ostrovsky lived in Sochi between 1928 and 1936 and has a monument and a museum devoted to him.[7] SONY Vaio VGN-CR21Z/N CPU Fan

As a result of the October Revolution in 1917, all the infrastructure of Sochi was nationalized by the Bolsheviks in the spring of 1918. Georgian intervention resulted in a Russian-Georgian military conflict which lasted from July 1918 to February 1919. Actions of the Volunteer Army and local population resulted in the defeat of Georgian forces. HP Pavilion G61-336NR CPU Fan

In February 1918, the city was occupied by the Volunteer Army which restored the pre-revolution government system and forced local population to join the army. These measures were met with resistance and in April–October 1919, the local peasants had formed 30 partisan units (named the "Green Army") with the total force of 3,000 people. In parallel, in March 1919, a local section of the Red Army was formed and later merged with the main body. HP Pavilion dv7-6184ca CPU Fan

On 29 April 1920, the Volunteer Army was defeated in the Sochi area and its capitulation was signed on 2 May.[3][7]

In 1920, the management system was set up for developing the health resort infrastructure in Sochi. The first priority was eradicating malaria. In the swampy area of Sochi, this disease was so rampant[15] that the very existence of a health resort here was seriously questioned. HP Pavilion dv7-3125eo CPU Fan

The first anti-malaria station was established in 1921. Many swamps were dried and Eucalyptustrees were planted to accelerate the process, as they consume much water. A crucial step was introduction in 1925 of the fishGambusia affinis (mosquitofish), which feeds on the aquatic larval and pupal stages of mosquitoes. As a result, the number of malaria cases reduced 6 times by the mid-1930s; HP Pavilion dv7-2185dx CPU Fan

however, the disease wasn't completely eradicated until 1956.[3][16] A monument to the fish was raised in Adler in 2010.[17][18]

In 1924, the Caucasian State Nature Biosphere Reserve was established about 72 km (45 mi) east from central Sochi. It occupies about 2,633 km2 (1,017 sq mi)[9] and preserves some 85 m-high specimens of the Nordmann Fir (Abies nordmanniana), IBM MCF-C10AM05 CPU Fan

thought to be the tallest trees in Europe, and a unique forest formed by English Yew (Taxus baccata) and European Box (Buxus sempervirens). About a third of its high mountain species of plants are recognized as endemic. The area also includes the Sochi National Park (IUCN management category II). It hosted the rare Caucasian Wisent, but the last three animals were killed in 1927.[19] SONY Vaio VGN-SZ2XP/C CPU Fan

In 1940, a group of wisent-American bison hybrids were released into the Caucasian Biosphere Reserve.[20] These hybrids are described as a different subspecies, the highland bison (Bison bonasus montanus).[21]

The first medical research institution was established in Sochi in 1936 and named after Stalin. Between 1936 and 1939 it was led by professor (and then academician) A. I. Nesterov[22] and included laboratories and 4 hospitals with the total of 200 beds.DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

The research of that institute was focused on balneotherapy andphysiotherapy. In January 1934, Sochi was included in the list of the first-priority expansion areas of Soviet Union (which was usually reserved for industry). As a result, by 1940 the city contained more than 60 sanatoriums and hospitals with the total capacity of about 9,000 beds. In comparison, in the late 1920s, there were only 6 sanatoriums with 465 beds.[3] HP Pavilion dv7-2025es CPU Fan

The development of Sochi was promoted by Joseph Stalin who had his favorite dacha built in the city – a tradition followed by most succeeding Soviet and Russian leaders. Those dachas were used not only for personal leisure, but also hosted numerous (less formal) meetings with high-ranking foreign officials.

During World War II, nearly the whole city became a large hospital for the wounded at the Eastern Front; FUJITSU LifeBook A6030 CPU Fan

about 300,000 soldiers convalesced in the 111 hospitals of Sochi during that period. About 2,000 of donors contributed 20 tonnes of blood for this purpose. Also, 18,707 citizens were mobilized into the Army; of them 4,566 were killed and 17 were awarded the Hero of the Soviet Union award (8 posthumously). For its achievements during the war, the city was awarded the Order of the Patriotic War in 1980. SONY Vaio VGN-FS115Z CPU Fan

The resort infrastructure of the city was partly destroyed during the war and rebuilt by the early 1950s.[3]

After the war, the city kept its position as the leading sanatorium and health resort of the Soviet Union. By 1960s, it was receiving about 500,000 visitors per year, i.e. about four times its population. This motivated the government to expand the city by including the Adler and Lazarevskoye districts. HP 532617-001 CPU Fan

By the 1980s, the number of tourists rose to 5,000,000 per year, including 200,000 foreigners. It decreased dramatically to 300,000 in the 1990s due to the dissolution of the Soviet Union, and partly recovered to about 1,500,000 by the year 2000.[3]

Technical areas have always played a secondary role in modern Sochi and were represented mostly by construction and food industries. ACER Aspire 5730Z CPU Fan

The latter focuses on production of fruits and vegetables, tea, honey, fish and poultry.[7] The commercial fishing in the Black Sea is rather inactive, but there is a trout aquafarm in the city.[3] A major recent event was the selection of Sochi as the site of the 2014 Winter Olympics and 2014 Winter Paralympics that resulted in a major reconstruction of the city. HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with one urban-type settlement and seventy-nine rural localities, incorporated as the City of Sochi—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the City of Sochi is incorporated as Sochi Urban Okrug.[2]

Sochi is administratively subdivided into four city districts: Tsentralny City District, HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr CPU Fan

Lazarevsky City District, Khostinsky City District, and Adlersky City District. Tsentralny City District, comprising the city of Sochi proper, is by far the smallest out of four in terms of the area, and the other three have comparable areas, with Lazarevsky City District being the biggest. In terms of the population, Tsentralny City District is approximately twice as big as each of the other three city districts. FUJITSU Lifebook A3210 CPU Fan

Tsentralny City District, or Sochi proper, covers an area of 32 square kilometers (12 sq mi) and, as of the 2010 Census, has a population of 137,677.[5] The highlights include:

Michael Archangel Cathedral, a diminutive church built in 1873–1891 to Kaminsky's designs in order to commemorate the victorious conclusion of the Caucasian War. DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

  • The red-granite Archangel Column, erected in 2006 in memory of the Russian soldiers fallen in Sochi during the Caucasian War. It is capped by a 7-metre bronze statue of Sochi's patron saint, Michael the Archangel.

Sochi Art Museum occupies a large building with a four-columned portico, completed in 1939. The Neoclassical design is byIvan Zholtovsky. Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan

  • Sochi Arboretum, a large botanical garden with tropical trees from many countries, and the Mayors Alleé—a landscape avenue of palm trees planted by mayors from cities around the world.

The Tree of Friendship, a hybrid citrus tree planted in 1934 in the Subtropical Botanic Garden. Since 1940 numerous citrus cultivars from foreign countries have been grafted onto this tree as a token of friendship and peace. HP Pavilion dv2660se CPU Fan

  • The associated Friendship Tree Garden Museum has a collection of 20,000 commemorative presents from around the world.
  • The Winter Theater (1934–1937) is another rigorously Neoclassical edifice, surrounded by 88 Corinthian columns, with a pediment bearing the statues of Terpsichore, Melpomene and Thalia, all three cast by Vera Mukhina.

Hall of Organ and Chamber Music. Located centrally in the city of Sochi it conducts organ, symphony, chamber-ensemble, choral, vocal music concerts. Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan

  • All year round the Sochi Symphony Orchestra, local actors of the city art groups, famous Russian and international performers, International Contests Winners and Laureates give concerts here.
  • The Maritime Passenger Terminal (1955) is notable for its distinctive 71-meter-high steepled tower and four statues symbolizing the cardinal points.

The Railway Station (1952) is one of the most remarkable buildings of Sochi. DELL GM0503PEB1-8 (L2.M) CPU Fan

The Riviera Park was established by Vasily Alexeyevich Khludov in 1883 in the part of the city which later became known as Khludovskaya. The park is popular with tourists and local residents alike. It has a variety of attractions, including an outcrop of funny statues and a "glade of friendship" where magnoliatrees were planted by every Soviet cosmonaut, among other notables. HP Pavilion dv7-1098eo CPU Fan

Lazarevsky City District lies to the northwest from the city center; the 2010 Census showed the population of 63,894people.[5]It is the largest city district by area, covering some 1,744 square kilometers (673 sq mi) and comprising severalmicrodistricts:Lazarevskoye, 59 km (37 mi) from the city center, contains a delphinarium, an old church (1903), and a new church (1999). Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan

The settlement was founded as a Russian military outpost in 1839 and was named after Admiral Mikhail Lazarev.

Loo, 18 km (11 mi) from the city center, was once owned by Princes Loov, a noble Abkhazian family claiming patrilineal descent from King Anos, whose royal title was sanctioned by Emperor Heraclius in 623 AD. The district contains the ruins of a medieval church, HP Pavilion dv7-1240us CPU Fan

founded in the 8th century, rebuilt in the 11th century, and converted into a fortress in the Late Middle Ages.

Dagomys, 18 km (11 mi) from the city center, has been noted for its botanical garden, established by order of Nicholas II, as well as tea plantations and factories. A sprawling hotel complex was opened there in 1982. Dagomys adjoins Bocharov Ruchey, a dacha built for Kliment Voroshilov in the 1950s,  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

but later upgraded into a country residence of the President of Russia, where he normally spends his vacations and often confers with leaders of other states.

Golovinka is a historic location at the mouth of the Shakhe River. Formerly marking the border between the Ubykhs and the Shapsugs, the settlement was noted by Italian travelers of the 17th century as Abbasa. Toshiba Qosmio G40-10E CPU Fan

On May 3, 1838, it was the site of the Subashi landing of the Russians, who proceeded to construct Fort Golovinsky where many convicted Decembrists used to serve. The fort was intentionally destroyed by Russian forces at the beginning of the Crimean War, so as to avoid its capture by the enemy.

Fort Godlik, of which little remains, had a turbulent history. It was built at the mouth of the Godlik River in the Byzantine period (5th to 8th centuries), SONY Vaio VGN-CR407E CPU Fan

was destroyed by the Khazars and revived by the Genoese in the High Middle Ages.

Khostinsky City District, sprawling to the southeast from the city center, occupies approximately 374 square kilometers (144 sq mi), with a population of 65,229 as of the 2010 Census.[5] The district is traversed by many rivulets which give their names to the microdistricts of Matsesta ("flame-colored river"), HP Pavilion dv6-3131tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Kudepsta, and Khosta ("the river of boars").

Adlersky City District, with an area of 1,352 square kilometers (522 sq mi) and a population of 76,534 people as of the 2010 Census,[5] is the southernmost district of the city, located just north of the border with Abkhazia. Until the establishment of Greater Sochi in 1961, it was administered as a separate town, which had its origin in an ancient Sadz village and a medievalGenoese trading post. HP 622029-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Among the natural wonders of the district is the Akhshtyr Gorge with a 160-meter-long cave that contains traces of human habitation from about 30,000 years ago. The upland part of the district includes a network of remote mountain villages (auls), the Estonian colony at Estosadok, and the ski resort of Krasnaya Polyana which will host the events (Alpine and Nordic) of the2014 Winter Olympics. Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7047 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Also located here are the largest trout fishery in Russia (founded in 1964) and a breeding nursery for great apes.

The Byzantine Empire brought Christianity to the Sochi region in the Middle Ages.[37] The region was relatively isolated before 1829.[37] In the North, a few hundred Sunni Muslim Shapsugs, a part of the Adyghe nation, lived around Tkhagapsh, nearLazarevskoye. HP Pavilion dv7-4170ez Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Adyghe people (also known as Circassians) converted to Islam from Christianity in the 17th century.[38] In the nineteenth century, Islam spread to the region.[37]

Currently, Sochi is a large predominantly Christian city, though there are thought to be around 20,000 Muslims (5% of inhabitants) living there now (the majority are from Adyghe) plus other Eastern Caucasians, Turks, Tatars, and other smaller Muslim groups.[39] HP Pavilion dv4-1506tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

A mosque was built in 2008 by United Arab Emirates in the central area of Bytkha, in addition to the old mosque being around 40 km (25 miles) north of the city center[39][40] in the Adyghe aul of Tkhagapsh.

There are around thirty Christian Orthodox churches, the largest being St. Michael's, and two monasteries, plus two Catholic churches, one in the center of Sochi and the other in Lazarevskoye. Compaq Presario CQ61-411WM Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Armenian community, which is important in Sochi, gathers in about ten churches.

Sochi has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa),[22] at the lower elevations. Its average annual temperature is 18.4 °C (65.1 °F) during the day and 11 °C (52 °F) at night. In the coldest months—January and February—the average temperature is about 10 °C (50 °F) during the day, IBM FRU 46L4753 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

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above 3 °C (37 °F) at night and the average sea temperature is about 9 °C (48 °F). In the warmest months—July and August—the temperature typically ranges from 25 to 29 °C (77 to 84 °F) during the day, about 20 °C (68 °F) at night and the average sea temperature is about 23–24 °C (73–75 °F). Yearly sunshine hours are around 2,200. Generally, the summer season lasts six months, from May to October. SONY Vaio VGN-FZ21E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Two months—April and November—are transitional; sometimes temperatures reach 20 °C (68 °F), with an average temperature of around 16 °C (61 °F) during the day and 9 °C (48 °F) at night. December, January, February and March are the coldest months, with average temperature (of these four months) 11 °C (52 °F) during the day and 4 °C (39 °F) at night. Average annual precipitationis about 1,700 millimeters (67 in).[9][23][41] HP G42-415DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Sochi lies at 8b/9a hardiness zone, so the city supports different types of palm trees.[21] Sochi is situated on the same latitude as Nice but strong cold winds from Asia make winters less warm. In fact, temperatures drop below freezing every winter for one or two days. The highest temperature recorded was 39.4 °C (102.9 °F), on July 30, 2000, and the lowest temperature recorded was −13.4 °C (7.9 °F) on January 25, 1892. HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Sochi is unique among larger Russian cities as having some aspects of a subtropical resort. Apart from the scenic Caucasus Mountains, pebble and sand beaches, the city attracts vacation-goers with its subtropical vegetation, numerous parks, monuments, and extravagant Stalinist architecture. About two million people visit Greater Sochi each summer,[46] when the city is home to the annual film festival "Kinotavr" and a getaway for Russia's elite. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

Public transport is represented mainly by bus and taxi. Sochi is served by the Adler-Sochi International Airport. A kind of non-mass public transport are also two funicular (the Central military sanatorium and Ordzhonikidze resort) and three cable cars (at arboretum sanatorium "Dawn" and pension "Neva") also has several cableways in Krasnaya Polyana.  Dell Latitude E6500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Sochi Port terminal building was built in 1955 by Karo Alabyan and Leonid Karlik in Stalinist architecture. It is topped with a 71-meter steepled tower. Sculptures embodying seasons and cardinal points are set above the tower's three tiers.

Five of the railway stations of Sochi were renovated for the 2014 Winter Olympics. SONY Vaio VGN-NR120Q Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

These are Dagomys, Sochi, Matsesta andKhosta railway stations. In Adler city district of Sochi, the original railway station was preserved and new railway stationwas built near it. Another new railway station was built in Estosadok, close to Krasnaya Polyana.

At some point, plans to construct the light metro network to serve the Olympics were considered; however, the Sochi Light Metro plan was abandoned in favor of the reconstruction of the railway. Toshiba Satellite A205-S5879 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Sochi is also known for its sport facilities: a local tennis school spawned the careers of such notable players as Grand Slam champions Maria Sharapova andYevgeny Kafelnikov (Kafelnikov spent much of his childhood here, while Sharapova relocated to Florida at the age of seven). In late 2005, the Russian Football Union announced that it was planning to establish a year-round training center for the country's national teams in Sochi. HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The city's warm climate was cited as one of the main incentives. And it's home to FC Zhemchuzhina who play in the Russian First Division.The nearby ski resort of Roza Khutor at Krasnaya Polyana is the location of the alpine and Nordic events for the 2014 Winter Olympics.In June 2006, the International Olympic Committee announced that Sochi had been selected as a finalist city to host the 2014 Winter Olympics and the 2014 Winter Paralympics. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

On July 4, 2007, Sochi was announced as the host city of the 2014 Winter Games, edging out Pyeongchang, South Korea and Salzburg, Austria.[48]

This will be Russia's first time hosting the Winter Olympic Games, and its first time hosting the Paralympic Games. The site of a training centre for aspiring Olympic athletes, in 2008, the city had no world-class level athletic facilities fit for international competition.[49] HP Pavilion dv6-2016ax Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

To get the city ready for the Olympics, the Russian government committed a $12 billion investment package,[50] shared 60%–40% between the government and private sector.[51] According to some estimates, the investments necessary to bring the location up to Olympic standards may exceed that of any previous Olympic games.[49] SONY Vaio VGN-CR11S/P Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

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