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Honduras is a republic in Central America. It was at times referred to as Spanish Honduras to differentiate it from British Honduras, which became the modern-day state of Belize.[6] The country is bordered to the west byGuatemala, to the southwest by El Salvador, to the southeast by Nicaragua, to the south by the Pacific Ocean at theGulf of Fonseca, and to the north by the Gulf of Honduras, a large inlet of the Caribbean Sea. Dell T117C Battery,Dell P721C Battery

Honduras was home to several important indigenous cultures, most notably the Maya. Much of the country was conquered by Spain who introduced its predominant language and many of its customs in the sixteenth century. It became independent in 1821 and has been a republic since the end of Spanish rule. Dell P722C Battery?Dell T118C Battery

Its size is just over 112,492 km² with an estimated population of almost eight million.[7] Its capitals are the twin cities of Tegucigalpa and Comayagüela [8] . Its northern portions are part of the Western Caribbean Zone.

It is notable for its production of minerals, tropical fruit, and recently for exportation of clothing for the international market. Dell P726C Battery,Dell 0P891C Battery

Etymology

Higueras – a reference to the gourds that come from the Jicaro tree, many of which were found floating in the waters off the northwest coast of Honduras.

Honduras – literally "depths" in Spanish. Columbus is traditionally quoted as having written "Gracias a Dios que hemos salido de esas Honduras"(English: "Thank God we have come out of those depths") while along the northeastern coast. Dell 0T555C Battery?Dell 312-0773 Battery

However, William Davidson notes that there is no form of this quotation in the primary documents of Columbus's voyage, and that it in fact comes from accounts over a century later.[10][11]

Honduras from fondura, a Leonese language word meaning anchorage which is one of the first words for the region to appear on a map in the second decade of the 16th century applied to the bay of Trujillo. Dell P891C Battery,Dell T555C Battery

It was not until the end of the 16th century that Honduras was used for the whole province. Prior to 1580, Honduras referred to the eastern part of the province, and Higueras referred to the western part.[11]

Pre-colonial period

In pre-Columbian times, modern Honduras was part of the Mesoamerican cultural area. In the west, the Maya civilization flourished for hundreds of years.Dell X411C Battery

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The dominant state within Honduras's borders was that based in Copán. Copán fell with the other Lowland centres during the conflagrations of the Terminal Classic, the early 9th century. The Maya of this civilization survive in western Honduras as the Ch'orti', isolated from their Choltian linguistic peers to the west. Dell W303C Battery,Dell U011C Battery

Remains of other Pre-Columbian cultures are found throughout the country. Archaeologists have studied sites such as Naco and La Sierra in the Naco Valley, Los Naranjos on Lake Yojoa, Yarumela in the Comayagua Valley, La Ceiba and Salitron Viejo (both now under the Cajon Dam reservoir), Selin Farm and Cuyamel in the Aguan valley, Cerro Palenque, Travesia, Curruste, Ticamaya, Despoloncal in the lower Ulua river valley, and many others. Dell 312-0814 Battery

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Conquest period

On his fourth and the final voyage to the New World in 1502, Christopher Columbus became the first European to visit the Bay Islands on the coast of Honduras.[12] Columbus landed near the modern town of Trujillo, in the vicinity of the Guaimoreto Lagoon.

In 1524 the Spanish arrived on Honduras led by Hernan Cortes, bringing forces down from Mexico. Dell 451-10692 Battery,Dell WU841 Battery

Much of the conquest was done in the following two decades, first by groups loyal to Cristóbal de Olid, and then by those loyal ofFrancisco Montejo but most particularly by those following Alvarado. In addition to Spanish resources, the conquerors relied heavily armed forces from Mexico—Tlaxcalans and Mexica armies of thousands who lived on in the region as garrisons. Dell KM760 Battery,Dell MT193 Battery

Resistance to conquest was led in particularly by Lempira,and many regions in the north never fell to the Spanish, notably the Miskito Kingdom. After the Spanish conquest, Honduras became part of Spain's vast empire in the New World within the Kingdom of Guatemala. Trujillo and Gracias were the first city-capitals. The Spanish ruled the region for approximately three centuries. Dell KM970 Battery

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Colonial period

Honduras was organized as a province of the "Kingdom of Guatemala" and the capital was fixed, first at Trujillo on the Atlantic coast, and later at Comayagua, and finally at Tegucigalpa in the central part of the country.

Silver mining was a key factor in the Spanish conquest and settlement of Honduras.[13] Dell MT196 Battery,Dell WU852 Battery

Initially the mines were worked by local people through the encomienda system, but as disease and resistance made this less available, slaves from other parts of Central America were brought in, and following the end of the local slave trading period at the end of the sixteenth century, African slaves, mostly from Angola were obtained.[14] Dell RM668 Battery

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After about 1650, very few slaves or other outside workers arrived in Honduras.

Although the Spanish conquered the southern or Pacific portion of Honduras fairly quickly they were less successful in the northern or Atlantic side. They managed to found a few towns along the coast, at Puerto Caballos and Trujillo in particular, but failed to conquer the eastern portion of the region and many pockets of independent indigenous people as well. Dell 451-10617 Battery

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The Miskito Kingdom, located in the northeast was particularly effective in resisting conquest. The Miskitos, in turn found support from northern European privateers, pirates and especially the English colony of Jamaica, which placed much of it under their protection after 1740.

Independence and the nineteenth century

Honduras became independent from Spain in 1821 and was for a time under the Mexican Empire. After 1838 it was an independent republic and held regular elections. Dell 451-10372 Battery

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Comayagua was the capital of Honduras until 1880, when it was transferred to Tegucigalpa.

In the decades of 1840 and 1850 Honduras participated in several failed attempts to restore Central American unity, such as the Confederation of Central America (1842–1845), the covenant of Guatemala (1842), the Diet of Sonsonate ( 1846), the Diet of Nacaome (1847) and National Representation in Central America (1849–1852). Dell CG623 Battery

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Although Honduras eventually adopted the name Republic of Honduras, the unionist ideal never waned, and Honduras was one of the Central American countries that pushed hardest for the policy of regional unity.

Since independence, nearly 300 small internal rebellions and civil wars have occurred in the country, including some changes of government. Dell KD476 Battery

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Liberal policies favoring international trade and investment began in the 1870s, and soon foreign interests became involved first in shipping, especially tropical fruit (most notably bananas) from the north coast, and then in railway building. In 1888, a projected railroad line from the Caribbean coast to the capital, Tegucigalpa, ran out of money when it reached San Pedro Sula, resulting in its growth into the nation's main industrial center and second largest city. Dell CG039 Battery,Dell HF674 Battery,Dell NF343 Battery

International influence in the 20th century

In the late nineteenth century United States-based infrastructure and fruit growing companies were granted substantial land and exemptions to develop the northern regions. As a result, thousands of workers came to the north coast to work in the banana plantations and the other industries that grew up around the export industry. Dell PC764 Battery,Dell TC030 Battery

The banana exporting companies, dominated by Cuyamel Fruit Company (until 1930), United Fruit Company, and Standard Fruit Company, built an enclave economyin northern Honduras, controlling infrastructure and creating self-sufficient, tax exempt sectors that contributed relatively little to economic growth. Dell TD175 Battery,Dell CF623 Battery

In addition to drawing many Central American workers to the north, the fruit companies also encouraged immigration of workers from the English-speaking Caribbean, notablyJamaica and Belize, who introduced an African descended, English speaking and largely Protestant population into the country, though many left after changes in the immigration law in 1939. Dell DF192 Battery

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Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, Honduras joined the Allied Nations on 8 December 1941. Along with twenty-five other governments, Honduras signed theDeclaration by United Nations on 1 January 1942.

Constitutional crises in the 1940s led to reforms in the 1950s, and as a result of one such reform, Dell GK479 Battery,Dell FK890 Battery

workers were given permission to organize, which led to a general strike in 1954 that paralyzed the northern part of the country for more than two months, but which led to more general reforms.

In 1969, Honduras and El Salvador fought what would become known as the Football War.[16] Dell 312-0566 Battery,Dell PU556 Battery

There had been border tensions between the two countries after Oswaldo López Arellano, a former president of Honduras, blamed the deteriorating economy on the large number of immigrants from El Salvador. From that point on, the relationship between the two countries grew acrimonious and reached a low when El Salvador met Honduras for a three-round football elimination match as a preliminary to the World Cup. Dell PU563 Battery,Dell TT485 Battery

Tensions escalated, and on 14 March 1969, the Salvadoran army launched an attack on the Honduras army. The Organization of American Statesnegotiated a cease-fire, which took effect on 20 July and brought about a withdrawal of Salvadoran troops in early August.[16] Contributing factors to the conflict were a boundary dispute and the presence of thousands of Salvadorans living in Honduras illegally. Dell WR050 Battery,Dell 0XR693 Battery

After the week-long football war, as many as 130,000 Salvadoran immigrants were expelled.[17] El Salvador had agreed on a truce to settle the boundary issue, but Honduras later paid war damage costs for expelled refugees.[16]

Hurricane Fifi caused severe damage while skimming the northern coast of Honduras on 18 and 19 September 1974. Dell 312-0625 Battery

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Melgar Castro (1975–78) and Paz Garcia (1978–82) largely built the current physical infrastructure and telecommunications system of Honduras.[18]

In 1979, the country returned to civilian rule. A constituent assembly was popularly elected in April 1980 and general elections were held in November 1981. A new constitution was approved in 1982 and the PLH government of Roberto Suazo assumed power. Dell GW240 Battery

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Roberto Suazo won the elections with a promise to carry out an ambitious program of economic and social development in Honduras in order to tackle the country's recession. President Roberto Suazo Cordoba launched ambitious social and economic development projects, sponsored by American development aid. Dell RN873 Battery

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Honduras became host to the largest Peace Corps mission in the world, and nongovernmental and international voluntary agencies proliferated.[18]

During the early 1980s, the United States established a continuing military presence in Honduras with the purpose of supporting the Contra guerillas fighting theNicaraguan government and also developed an air strip and a modern port in Honduras. Dell RU006 Battery

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Though spared the bloody civil wars wracking its neighbors, the Honduran army quietly waged a campaign against Marxist-Leninist militias such as Cinchoneros Popular Liberation Movement, notorious for kidnappings and bombings,[19] and many non-militants. The operation included a CIA-backed campaign of extrajudicial killings by government-backed units, most notably Battalion 316.[20] Dell HG307 Battery,Dell WG317 Battery

In 1998, Hurricane Mitch caused such massive and widespread destruction that former Honduran President Carlos Roberto Floresclaimed that fifty years of progress in the country were reversed. Mitch obliterated about 70% of the crops and an estimated 70–80% of the transportation infrastructure, including nearly all bridges and secondary roads. Dell 312-0867 Battery

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Across the country, 33,000 houses were destroyed, an additional 50,000 damaged, some 5,000 people killed, 12,000 injured – for a total loss estimated at $3 billion USD.[21]

21st century

The 2008 Honduran floods were severe and around half the country's roads were damaged or destroyed as a result.[22] Dell F144M Battery,Dell H766N Battery

In 2009, a constitutional crisis[23][24] culminated in a transfer of power from the president to the head of Congress.[25]Countries all over the world, the OAS, and the UN formally and unanimously condemned the action as a coup d'état[23] and refused to recognize the de facto[26] government, though a document submitted to the United States Congress declared the ouster to be legal according to the opinion of the lawyers consulted by the Library of Congress.[27] Dell J590M Battery,Dell 312-0804 Battery

In any event the Honduran Supreme Court also ruled the proceedings to be legal.

Presidents of Honduras

Honduras has had many leaders from several parties since gaining its independence from Spain and from Mexico Nineteen served as president during the period when Honduras was a part of the Federal Republic of Central America. Dell 312-0810 Battery,Dell C647H Battery

Sixty-seven men have served as president of the Republic of Honduras. The current Honduras president is President Porfirio Lobo. In addition there have been several joint governments.

Contemporary politics

Honduras has five registered political parties: National Party (Partido Nacional de Honduras: PNH); Liberal Party (Partido Liberal de Honduras: PLH); Dell F707H Battery

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Social Democrats (Partido Innovación y Unidad-Social Demócrata: PINU-SD), Social Christians (Partido Demócrata-Cristiano de Honduras: DCH); and Democratic Unification (Partido Unificación Democrática: UD). PNH and PLH have ruled the country for decades. In the last years, Honduras has had six Liberal presidents: Dell F805H Battery

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Roberto Suazo Córdova, José Azcona del Hoyo, Carlos Roberto Reina, Carlos Roberto Flores, Manuel Zelaya and Roberto Micheletti, and three Nationalists: Rafael Leonardo Callejas Romero, Ricardo Maduro and Porfirio Lobo Sosa. The elections have been full of controversies, including questions about whether Azcona was born in Spain, and whether Maduro should have been able to stand, given he was born in Panama. Dell KM905 Battery

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In 1963, a military coup was mounted against the democratically elected president Ramón Villeda Morales. This event started a string of Military Governments which held power almost uninterrupted until 1981 when Suazo Córdova (LPH) was elected president and Honduras changed from a military authoritarian regime. Dell MT276 Battery,Dell PW773 Battery

In 1986, there were five Liberal candidates and four Nationalists running for president. Because no one candidate obtained a clear majority, the so-called "Formula B" was invoked and Azcona del Hoyo became president. In 1990, Callejas won the election under the slogan "Llegó el momento del Cambio" (English: "The time for change has arrived"), which was heavily criticized for resembling El Salvador's "ARENAs" political campaign.[ Dell WU946 Battery

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Once in office, Callejas Romero gained a reputation for illicit enrichment, and has been the subject of several scandals and accusations.[citation needed] It was during Flores Facusse's mandate that Hurricane Mitch hit the country and decades of economic growth were eradicated in less than a week.[ 

Government ministries are often incapable of carrying out their mandate due to budgetary constraints.[ Dell WU965 Battery

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In an interview with Rodolfo Pastor Fasquelle, Minister of Sports & Culture and one of three 'super ministers' responsible for coordinating the ministries related to public services (security and economic being the other two), published in Honduras This Week on 31 July 2006, it was related that 94% of the department budget was spent on bureaucracy and only 6% went to support activities and organizations covered by the mandate. Dell KM974 Battery

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Wages within that ministry were identified as the largest budget consumer.

President Maduro's administration "de-nationalized" the telecommunications sector in a move to promote the rapid diffusion of these services to the Honduran population. As of November 2005, there were around 10 private-sector telecommunications companies in the Honduran market, including two mobile phone companies. Dell KM978 Battery

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As of mid 2007, the issue of tele-communications continues to be very damaging to the current government.[28] The country's main newspapers are La Prensa, El Heraldo, La Tribuna and Diario Tiempo. The official newspaper is La Gaceta.

A Presidential and General Election was held on 27 November 2005. Dell MT342 Battery

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Manuel Zelaya of the Liberal Party of Honduras (Partido Liberal de Honduras: PLH) won, withPorfirio Pepe Lobo of the National Party of Honduras (Partido Nacional de Honduras: PNH) coming in second. The PNH challenged the election results, and Lobo Sosa did not concede until 7 December. Dell PW824 Battery,Dell PW835 Battery

Towards the end of December, the government finally released the total ballot count, giving Zelaya the official victory. Zelaya was inaugurated as Honduras' new president on 27 January 2006.

Zelaya precipitated a national crisis by trying to hold a non-binding national referendum to ask the Honduran people: "Dell RM791 Battery,Dell RM868 Battery

Do you agree that, during the general elections of November 2009 there should be a fourth ballot to decide whether to hold a Constituent National Assembly that will approve a new political constitution?"[29] This possible Assembly then might not or more likely might have proposed constitutional changes to term-limits –Dell RM870 Battery

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as the military and the Supreme Court deemed possible – and other more likely, unrelated and legal constitutional changes.[30]

2009 Honduran constitutional crisis

The 2009 Honduran constitutional crisis[31] resulted in a coup d'état that lasted from 28 June 2009 to 27 January 2010. Dell 312-0712 Battery,Dell 312-0708 Battery

President Manuel Zelaya attempted to hold a "non-binding referendum" on 28 June asking voters if the upcoming November elections should include an additional ballot box. The ballot box would ask if the Honduran people wished to form a Constitutional Assembly in the term of the newly elected president.[32] The Supreme Court upheld a lower court ruling that found a prior referendum based on the same issue unconstitutional and prohibited it.[Dell F287H Battery

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Referendum

Zelaya ignored the Supreme Court and decided to proceed on the referendum, basing his decision on the Law of Citizen Participation, passed in 2006. Zelaya dismissed the head of the military command, General Romeo Vásquez Velásquez, for disobeying an order to hold the poll, but the Supreme Court ordered his reinstatement. Dell 312-0818 Battery

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The Supreme Court then ordered the military (who as a non-civilian force had no jurisdiction over the matter) to detain Zelaya. The vote on the referendum was scheduled for 28 June 2009. In the early morning on that day, the army[35] arrested Zelaya at his home.

Zelaya was held in a U.S. airbase outside Tegucigalpa[36] before being forcibly sent to San José, Costa Rica.[37] Dell F286H Battery,Dell F287F Battery

Zelaya attempted reentry into the country on several occasions. According to the constitution, it is illegal to expatriate any Honduran citizen.[38] Roberto Micheletti, the former President of the Honduran Congress and a member of the same party as Zelaya, was sworn in as President by the National Congress on the afternoon of Sunday 28 June[39] for a term that ended on 27 January 2010.[40] Dell R988H Battery,Dell 1691P Battery

No country recognised the de facto government as legitimate; all members of the UN condemned the removal of Zelaya as a coup d'état. SomeRepublican Party members of the U.S. Congress voiced support at the time for the new government.[41][42] On 21 September 2009, Zelaya returned to Honduras and entered the Brazilian embassy. Dell 1G222 Battery

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From its roof, he attempted to incite his supporters in a rebellion. The government disrupted utility services to the embassy and imposed a curfew in an attempt to maintain order in the area when Zelaya's supporters protested around the embassy.

The following day, in Decree PCM-M-016-2009, the government suspended five Constitutional rights: Dell 310-0083 Battery,Dell 310-6321 Battery,Dell 310-6322 Battery

personal liberty (Article 69), freedom of expression(Article 72), freedom of movement (Article 81), habeas corpus (Article 84) and freedom of association and assembly.[43][44] It closed a leftist radio and a television station.[45] The decree suspending human rights was officially revoked on 19 October 2009 in La Gaceta.[46] Dell 312-0068 Battery

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The 2009 election

The general election for President of the Republic of Honduras was won by the candidate of the National Party of Honduras, Mr. Porfirio Lobo Sosa,under a tense state of political turmoil and ongoing coup, the 29 November 2009, beating his opponent the candidate of the Liberal Party of Honduras, civil engineer, Dell 312-0079 Battery

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Mr. Elvin Ernesto Santos Ordoñez. Porfirio Lobo Sosa, was sworn in office as president in 2010 and declared its tasks to be to bring order to the country and reapply for acceptance of Honduras within the OAS.

Departments and municipalities

Honduras is divided into 18 departments. The capital city is Tegucigalpa in the Central District within the department ofFrancisco Morazán. Dell 312-0106 Battery

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Geography

Honduras borders the Caribbean Sea on the north coast and the Pacific Ocean on the south through the Gulf of Fonseca. It mostly lies between latitudes 13° and 17°N (a small area lies south of 13°, and the Swan Islands are north of 17°), and longitudes83° and 90°W. Dell 312-0305 Battery

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The climate varies from tropical in the lowlands to temperate in the mountains. The central and southern regions are relatively hotter and less humid than the northern coast.

The Honduran territory consists mainly of mountains, but there are narrow plains along the coasts, a large undeveloped lowland jungle La Mosquitiaregion in the northeast, and the heavily populated lowland Sula valley in the northwest. Dell 312-0326 Battery

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In La Mosquitia, lies the UNESCO world-heritage site Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve, with the Coco River which divides the country from Nicaragua.

The Islas de la Bahía and the Swan Islands (all off the north coast) are part of Honduras. Misteriosa Bank and Rosario Bank, 130 to 150 km (80–93 miles) north of the Swan Islands, fall within the EEZ of Honduras. Dell 312-0373 Battery,Dell 312-0518 Battery

Natural resources include timber, gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, iron ore, antimony, coal, fish, shrimp, and hydropower.

Ecology

The region is considered a biodiversity hotspot because of the numerous plant and animal species that can be found there. Dell 312-0566 Battery

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Like other countries in the region, Honduras contains vast biological resources. The country hosts more than 6,000 species of vascular plants, of which 630 (described so far) are orchids; around 250 reptiles and amphibians, more than 700 bird species, and 110 mammal species, half of them being bats.[47]

In the northeastern region of La Mosquitia lies the Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve, a lowland rainforest which is home to a great diversity of life. Dell 312-0831 Battery

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The reserve was added to the UNESCO World Heritage Sites List in 1982.

Honduras has rain forests, cloud forests (which can rise up to nearly three thousand meters above sea level), mangroves, savannasand mountain ranges with pine and oak trees, and the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System. In the Bay Islands there are bottlenose dolphins, manta rays, parrot fish, schools of blue tang and whale shark. Dell 8N544 Battery

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Economy

The economy has continued to grow slowly, but the distribution of wealth remains very polarized with average wages remaining low. Economic growth in the last few years has averaged 7% a year, one of the highest rates in Latin America, but 50% of the population, approximately 3.7 million people, still remains below the poverty line.[48] Dell C7786 Battery

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It is estimated that there are more than 1.2 million people who are unemployed, the rate of unemployment standing at 27.9%. According to the Human Development Index, Honduras is the sixth poorest/least developed country in Latin America, after Haiti, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Guyana, and Bolivia. Dell F5136 Battery,Dell HF674 Battery

Honduras was declared one of the heavily indebted poor countries by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, and was made eligible for debt relief in 2005.

The government operates both the electricity (ENEE) and land-line telephone services (HONDUTEL), as ENEE receives heavy subsidies for its chronic financial problems. Dell Y4991 Battery

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HONDUTEL, however, is no longer a monopoly, as the telecommunication sector was opened to private sector on 25 December 2005, as was required under the CAFTA. The price of petroleum is controlled, and the Congress often ratifies temporary price regulations for basic commodities.

Gold, silver, lead and zinc are produced at mines owned by foreign companies.[49] Dell XX337 Battery

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After years of decline against the U.S. dollar, lempira recently stabilized at around 19 lempiras per dollar. In June 2008, the exchange rate between U.S. dollar and lempira was approximately 1 to 18.85.

In 2005, Honduras signed the CAFTA, the free trade agreement with the United States. In December 2005, Puerto Cortes, the main seaport in Honduras, was included in the U.S. Container Security Initiative.[50] Dell HW905 Battery,Dell 312-0822 Battery

On 7 December 2006, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and the Department of Energy announced the first phase of the Secure Freight Initiative, an unprecedented effort to build upon existing port security measures by enhancing the U.S. government’s authority to scan containers from overseas for nuclear and radiological materials to better assess the risk of inbound containers. Dell 312-0823 Battery,Dell Y085C Battery

The initial phase of Secure Freight involves the deployment of nuclear detection and other devices to six foreign ports: Port Qasim in Pakistan; Puerto Cortes in Honduras; Southampton in the United Kingdom; Port Salalah in Oman; Port of Singapore; and the Gamman Terminal at Port Busan in Korea. Dell X784C Battery

Since early 2007, containers from these ports have been scanned for radiation and other risk factors before they are allowed to depart for the United States.[51]

Social conditions

Over the centuries, the territory of Honduras has known a number of social systems, ranging from ancient forager groups through early complex societies to more elaborated ones, such as those of the Maya and Lenca. Dell 312-0864 Battery

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Spanish conquest built on these, and their traditions carried over into the post independence period. Honduras' emergence in the late nineteenth century as a cash crop producing exporter and then its limited industrialization through the maquiladora system have brought about the conditions of today. Dell F586J Battery

Demographics

According to the CIA World Factbook, relying on national census data, Honduras has a population of 8,143,564 as at July 2011; the CIA World Factbook states that the population makeup is: "mestizo (mixed Amerindian and European) 90%, Amerindian 7%, black 2%, white 1%".Dell W346C Battery

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However, in Honduras as in Latin American countries in general, racial breakdowns of population conform to local perceptions of race, and also social status which may tend to over represent some groups and under represent others, and thus such statistics must be understood in that light.

Ninety percent of the Honduran population is Mestizo and white[53] (a mixture of Amerindian and European ancestry). Dell HW357 Battery,Dell HW358 Battery,Dell HW421 Battery

About 7% of the Honduran population are members of one of the seven recognized indigenous groups.

About 2% of Honduras's population is black,[53] or Afro-Honduran, and mainly reside on the country's Caribbean coast. Most are the descendants of the slaves and indentured servants from the West Indian islands brought to Honduras. Dell RK813 Battery

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Another large group (about 150,000 today) are the Garifuna, descendants of an Afro-Carib population which revolted against British authorities on the island of St. Vincent and were forcibly moved to Belize and Honduras during the 18th century. Garífunas are part of Honduran identity through theatrical presentations such as Louvavagu[Dell RK818 Battery

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A final group are workers brought in from the English-speaking Caribbean, primarily Jamaica and Barbados, to work on the fruit plantations started by mostly North American companies such as United Fruit Company in the late 19th and early 20th century.

Honduras hosts a significant Palestinian community (the vast majority of whom are Christian Arabs).[54] Dell TR517 Battery,Dell TR518 Battery

The Palestinians arrived in the country in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, establishing themselves especially in the city of San Pedro Sula. The Palestinian community, well integrated in Honduras, is prominent in business, commerce, banking, industry, and politics. Dell TR520 Battery

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There is also an East Asian community that is primarily Chinese descent, and to a lesser extent Japanese. Some Korean, Ryukyuan, Vietnameseand Filipino peoples also make up a small percentage due to their arrival to Honduras as contract laborers in the 1980s and 1990s. There are also an estimated 1000 Sumos (or Mayangnas) that live in Honduras, the majority of whom reside on the Caribbean coast[citation needed]. Dell WT866 Battery,Dell WT870 Battery

Since 1975, emigration from Honduras has accelerated as job-seekers and political refugees sought a better life elsewhere. Although many Hondurans have relatives in Nicaragua, Spain, Mexico, El Salvador and Canada, the majority of Hondurans living abroad are in the United States[citation needed].Dell WT873 Battery,Dell 312-4000 Battery

Religion

Although most Hondurans are nominally Roman Catholic (which would be considered the main religion), according to one report, membership in the Roman Catholic Church is declining while membership in Protestant churches is increasing. Dell U597P Battery

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The International Religious Freedom Report, 2008, notes that a CID Gallup poll reported that 47% of the population identified themselves as Catholic, 36% as evangelical Protestant, and 17% provided no answer or considered themselves "other." Customary Catholic church tallies and membership estimates 81% Catholic where the priest (in more than 185 parishes is required to fill out a pastoral account of the parish each year.[55][56] Dell 312-4009 Battery,Dell N998P Battery

The CIA Factbook has Honduras listed as 97% Catholic and 3% Protestant.[57] Commenting on statistical variations everywhere, John Green of Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life notes that: "It isn't that ... numbers are more right than [someone else's] numbers ... but how one conceptualizes the group.[58] Dell P219P Battery,Dell Y264R Battery

Often people attend one church without giving up their "home" church. Many who attend evangelical megachurches in the US, for example, attend more than one church.[59] This shifting and fluidity is common in Brazil where two-fifths of those who were raised evangelical are no longer evangelical and Catholics seem to shift in and out of various churches, often while still remaining Catholic.[60] Dell 5YRYV Battery,Dell 9JJGJ Battery

Most pollsters suggest an annual poll taken over a number of years would provide the best method of knowing religious demographics and variations in any single country. Still, in Honduras are thriving Anglican, Presbyterian, Methodist, Seventh-day Adventist, Lutheran,Mormon and Pentecostalchurches. Dell JKVC5 Battery

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There are Protestant seminaries. The Catholic Church, still the only "church" that is recognized, is also thriving in the number of schools, hospitals, and pastoral institutions (including its own medical school) that it operates. It archbishop, Oscar Andres Rodriguez Maradiaga, is also very popular, both with the government, other churches, and in his own church. Practitioners of the Buddhist, Jewish, Islamic, Bahá'í, Rastafari and indigenous denominations and religions exist.[61] Dell TRJDK Battery

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Health

The fertility rate is approximately 3.7 per woman.[62] The under-five mortality rate is at 40 per 1,000 live births.[62] The health expenditure was US$ (PPP) 197 per person in 2004.[62] There are about 57 physicians per 100,000 people.[62] Dell Vostro 1720 Battery

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Culture

The most renowned Honduran painter is Jose Antonio Velásquez. Other important painters include Carlos Garay, and Roque Zelaya. Two of Honduras' most notable writers are Froylan Turcios and Ramón Amaya Amador. Dell Latitude E4200 Battery

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Others include Marco Antonio Rosa, Roberto Sosa, Lucila Gamero de Medina, Eduardo Bähr, Amanda Castro, Javier Abril Espinoza, Teófilo Trejo, and Roberto Quesada. Some of Honduras' notable musicians include Rafael Coello Ramos, Lidia Handal, Victoriano Lopez, Guillermo Anderson, Victor Donaire, Matilde Quan, Moises Canelo,Julio Quan Francisco Carranza and Camilo Rivera Guevara. Dell Studio 1435 Battery,Dell Studio 1436 Battery

Hondurans are often referred to as Catracho or Catracha (fem) in Spanish. The word was coined by Nicaraguans and derives from the last name of the Spanish Honduran General Florencio Xatruch, who, in 1857, led Honduran armed forces against an attempted invasion by North American adventurer William Walker. Dell Studio 1450 Battery

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The nickname is considered complimentary, not derogatory. The main language is Spanish, spoken by 94% as first language. Minority languages are spoken by less than 4%. These are Amerindian languages such asGarifuna, Miskito, and Pech; Honduras Sign Language; and English on the Bay Islands off the north coast. Dell Inspiron 1320 Battery

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Honduras This Week is a weekly English-language newspaper that has been published for seventeen years in Tegucigalpa. On the islands of Roatan, Utila and Guanaja, the Bay Islands Voice has been a source of monthly news since 2003.

Honduran cuisine makes extensive use of coconut, in both sweet and savory foods, and even in soups. Dell Inspiron 1464 Battery,Dell Inspiron 1564 Battery

The José Francisco Saybe theater in San Pedro Sula is home to the Círculo Teatral Sampedrano (Theatrical Circle of San Pedro Sula)

Celebrations

Some of Honduras' national holidays include Honduras Independence Day on 15 September and Children's Day or Día del Niño, Dell Inspiron 1764 Battery

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which is celebrated in homes, schools and churches on 10 September; on this day, children receive presents and have parties similar to Christmas or birthday celebrations. Some neighborhoods have piñatas on the street. Other holidays are Easter, Maundy Thursday, Good Friday, Day of the Soldier (3 October to celebrate the birth of Francisco Morazán), Christmas, El Dia de Lempira on 20 July,[63] and New Year's Eve. Dell Latitude E6500 Battery Battery

Honduras Independence Day festivities start early in the morning with marching bands. Each band wears different colors and features cheerleaders. Fiesta Catracha takes place this same day: typical Honduran foods such as beans, tamales, baleadas, cassava withchicharron, and tortillas are offered. On Christmas Eve, Dell Studio XPS 13 Battery

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the people reunite with their families and close friends to have dinner, then give out presents at midnight. In some cities fireworks are seen and heard at midnight. On New Year's Eve there is food and "cohetes", fireworks and festivities. Birthdays are also great events, and include the famous “piñata” which is filled with candies and surprises for the children invited. Dell Studio XPS 16 Battery

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La Feria Isidra is celebrated in La Ceiba, a city located in the north coast, in the second half of May to celebrate the day of the city's patron saint Saint Isidore. People from all over the world come for one week of festivities. Every night there is a little carnaval (carnavalito) in a neighborhood. Finally, on Saturday there is a big parade with floats and displays with people from many countries. Dell Studio XPS M1640 Battery,Dell Latitude E5500 Battery

This celebration is also accompanied by the Milk Fair, where many Hondurans come to show off their farm products and animals.

Education

In Honduras about 83.6% of the population of the country is literate.[62] The net primary enrollment rate was 94% in 2004,[62] while in 2007 the primary schoolcompletion rate was reported to be 40%.[Dell Latitude E5400 Battery,Dell XPS M2010 Battery

Honduras has bilingual (Spanish and English) and even trilingual (Spanish, English, German/Turkish) schools[64]and numerous universities.

The university is ruled by National Autonomous University of Honduras which have centers in the most important cities in Honduras. Dell Inspiron 1410 Battery,Dell Vostro 1014 Battery

Energy

About half of the electricity sector in Honduras is privately owned. The remaining generation capacity is run by ENEE (Empresa Nacional de Energía Eléctrica). Key challenges in the sector are:

How to finance investments in generation and transmission in the absence of either a financially healthy utility or of concessionary funds by external donors for these types of investments; Dell Vostro 1015 Battery,Dell Vostro A840 Battery

  • How to re-balance tariffs, cut arrears and reduce commercial losses – including electricity theft – without fostering social unrest; and
  • How to reconcile environmental concerns with the government's objective to build two new large dams and associated hydropower plants.

How to improve access in rural areas. Dell Vostro A860 Battery,Dell Vostro A860n Battery

Water supply and sanitation

Water supply and sanitation in Honduras varies greatly from urban centers to rural villages. Larger population centers generally have modernized water treatment and distribution systems, however water quality is often poor because of lack of proper maintenance and treatment. Rural areas generally have basic drinking water systems with limited capacity for water treatment. Dell Studio 17 Battery,Dell Studio 1735 Battery

Many urban areas have sewer systems in place for the collection of wastewater, however proper treatment of wastewater is scarce. In rural areas, sanitary facilities are generally limited to latrines and basic septic pits.

Water and sanitation services were historically provided by Servicio Autonomo de Alcantarillas y Aqueductos (SANAA). Dell Studio 1737 Battery

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In 2003, a new "water law" was passed which called for the decentralization of water services. With the 2003 law, local communities have the right and responsibility to own, operate, and control their own drinking water and wastewater systems. Since passage of the new law, many communities have joined together to address water and sanitation issues on a regional basis. Dell Studio 1536 Battery

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Many national and international non-government organizations have a history of working on water and sanitation projects in Honduras. International groups include, but are not limited to, the Red Cross, Water 1st, Rotary Clu

b, Catholic Relief Services, Water for People, EcoLogic Development Fund, CARE, CESO-SACO, Dell Studio 1555 Battery

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Engineers Without Borders USA, Flood The Nations, SHH, Global Brigades, and Agua para el Pueblo in partnership with AguaClara at Cornell University.

In addition, many government organizations working on projects include: the European Union, USAID, the Army Corps of Engineers, Cooperacion Andalucia, the government of Japan, and many others. Dell Studio PP33L Battery,Dell Studio PP39L Battery

Transport

Transportation in Honduras consists of the following infrastructure: 699 km of railways;[65] 13,603 km of roadways;[65] seven ports and harbors;[citation needed] and 112 airports altogether (12 Paved, 100 unpaved).[65] Responsibility for policy in the transport sector rests with the Ministry of Public Works, Transport and Housing (SOPRTRAVI after its Spanish acronym). Dell Mini 12 Battery

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National symbols

The flag of Honduras is composed of 3 equal horizontal stripes, with the upper and lower ones being blue and representing the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea. The central stripe is white. It contains five blue stars representing the five states of theCentral American Union. Dell Mini 10 Battery

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The middle star represents Honduras, located in the center of the Central American Union.

The Coat of Arms was established in 1945. It is an equilateral triangle, at the base is a volcano between three castles, over which is a rainbow and the sun shining. The triangle is placed on an area that symbolizes being bathed by both seas. Around all of this an oval containing in golden lettering: "Republic of Honduras, Free, Sovereign and Independent".Dell Mini 1010n Battery

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The National Anthem of Honduras is a result of a contest carried out in 1914 during the presidency of Manuel Bonilla. In the end, it was the poet Augosto C. Coello that ended up writing the anthem, with the participation of German composer Carlos Hartling writing the music. Dell Mini 1011 Battery

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The anthem was officially adopted on 15 November 1915, during the presidency of Alberto Membreño. The anthem is composed of a choir and seven stroonduran,that is very long.

The national flower is the famous orchid, Rhyncholaelia digbyana (formerly known as Brassavola digbyana), which replaced the rose in 1969. Dell Mini 1011v Battery

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The change of the National Flower was carried out during the administration of general Oswaldo López Arellano, thinking that Brassavola digbiana "is an indigenous plant of Honduras; having this flower exceptional characteristics of beauty, vigor and distinction", as the decree dictates it.

The National Tree of Honduras is the Honduras Pine (Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis). Dell D630 Battery Battery,Dell Inspiron 1545 Battery Battery

Also the use of the tree was regulated, "to avoid the unnecessary destructions caused by choppings or fires of forest."

The National Mammal is the White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus), which was adopted as a measure to avoid excessive depredation. It is one of two species of deer that live in Honduras. Dell D820 Battery Battery,Dell D830 Battery Battery

The National Bird of Honduras is the Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao). This bird was much valued by the pre-Columbian civilizations of Honduras.

The economy of Honduras is based mostly on agriculture, which accounted for 22% of its gross domestic product (GDP) in 1999. Dell Inspiron 1420 Battery Battery

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Leading export coffee($340 million) accounted for 22% of total Honduran export revenues. Bananas, formerly the country's second-largest export until being virtually wiped out by 1998's Hurricane Mitch, recovered in 2000 to 57% of pre-Mitch levels. Cultivated shrimp are another important export sector. Since the late 1970s, towns in the north began industrial production through maquiladoras, especially in San Pedro Sula and Puerto Cortés. Dell Vostro 1310 Battery Battery

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Honduras has extensive forest, marine, and mineral resources, although widespread slash and burnagricultural methods continue to destroy Honduran forests. Unemployment is estimated at around 28%. The Honduran economy grew 4.8% in 2000, recovering from the Mitch-induced recession (-1.9%) of 1999. Dell Vostro 1520 Battery Battery,Dell Vostro 2510 Battery Battery

The Honduran maquiladora sector, the third-largest in the world, continued its strong performance in 2000, providing employment to over 120,000 and generating more than $528 million in foreign exchange for the country. Inflation, as measured by the consumer price index, was 10.1% in 2000, down slightly from the 10.9% recorded in 1999. Dell Vostro 1400 Battery Battery

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The country's international reserve position continued to be strong in 2000, at slightly over $1 billion. Remittances from Hondurans living abroad (mostly in the U.S.) rose 28% to $410 million in 2000. The lempira (currency) was devaluing for many years but stabilized at L19 to the US dollar in 2005. The minimum wage is USD150 a month (probably obsolete datum). Dell INSPIRON 1525 Battery

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The people of Honduras are among the poorest inLatin America; Gross national income per capita (2007) is $US 1,649; the average for Central America is $US 6,736.[1] Honduras is the third poorest country in the Western Hemisphere; only Haiti and Nicaragua are poorer. Utilizing alternative statistical measurements in addition to the Gross Domestic Product can provide greater context for the nation's poverty. Dell Inspiron 1200 Battery,Dell Inspiron 1420 Battery

The country signed an Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility (ESAF) -- later converted to a Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) with the International Monetary Fund in March 1999. Honduras (as of about year 2000) continues to maintain stable macroeconomic policies. Dell Inspiron 1520 Battery,Dell Inspiron 1521 Battery

It not been swift to implementing structural changes such as privatization of the publicly owned telephone and energy distribution companies—changes which are desired by the IMF and other international lenders. Honduras received significant debt relief in the aftermath of Hurricane Mitch, including the suspension bilateral debt service payments and bilateral debt reduction by the Paris Club—including the U.S. -- worth over $400 million. Dell Inspiron 1720 Battery

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In July 2000, Honduras reached its decision point under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative (HIPC), qualifying the country for interim multilateral debt relief.

Lack of resources, lack of arable land, and a small domestic market continue to impede economic progress in Honduras. Most significantly, Honduras lacks abundant natural resources; Dell Inspiron 2000 Series Battery,Dell INSPIRON 2100 SERIES Battery

only land appears to be plentiful and readily exploitable. But the presence of apparently extensive land is misleading because the nation's rugged, mountainous terrain restricts large-scale agricultural production to narrow strips on the coasts and to a few fertile valleys. Honduras's manufacturing sector has not yet developed beyond simple textile and agricultural processing industries and assembly operations. Dell Inspiron 2200 Battery,Dell INSPIRON 2600 SERIES Battery

The small domestic market and competition from more industrially advanced countries in the region have inhibited more complex industrialization.

Linkages to United States

As with most Latin American countries, Honduras's economy is loosely tied to the United States. Dell INSPIRON 2650 SERIES Battery,Dell INSPIRON 2800 SERIES Battery

The United States is Honduras's primary trading partner and the soup of about two hundred billion-thirds of the country's foreign direct investment (2009 information [2]). United States multinationals Doleand Chiquita control a large portion of Honduras's agricultural exports.[3] Dell INSPIRON 3700 SERIES Battery,Dell INSPIRON 3800 SERIES Battery

Hondurans working in the U.S. send more than US$2 billion each year to their families in Honduras; these remittancesaccount for 28.2% of Honduras's GDP (2007 information]).


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