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Steven Paul "Steve" Jobs (February 24, 1955 – October 5, 2011) was an American inventor and entrepreneur. He was co-founder, chairman, and chief executive officer of Apple Inc.Jobs also previously served as chief executive of Pixar Animation Studios; he became a member of the board of directors ofthe Walt Disney Company in 2006, following the acquisition of Pixar by Disney.Sony VAIO VGN-TZ350N/N Battery

In the late 1970s, Jobs—along with Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak, Mike Markkula and others—designed, developed, and marketed one of the first commercially successful lines of personal computers, the Apple II series. In the early 1980s, Jobs was among the first to see the commercial potential ofXerox PARC's mouse-driven graphical user interface,Sony VAIO VGN-TZ350N/P Battery

which led to the creation of the Macintosh.After losing a power struggle with the board of directors in 1985, Jobs left Apple and founded NeXT, a computer platform development company specializing in the higher-education and business markets.Sony VAIO VGN-TZ370N/B Battery

In 1986, he acquired the computer graphics division of Lucasfilm Ltd, which was spun off as Pixar Animation Studios.[8] He was credited in Toy Story (1995) as an executive producer.[9] He remained CEO and majority shareholder at 50.1 percent until its acquisition by The Walt Disney Company in 2006,[10]making Jobs Disney's largest individual shareholder at 7 percent and a member of Disney's Board of Directors.Sony VAIO VGN-TZ37N/G Battery

Apple's 1996 buyout of NeXT brought Jobs back to the company he co-founded, and he served as its interim CEO from 1997, then becoming permanent CEO from 2000 onwards. After resigning as CEO in August 2011, Jobs was elected chairman of Apple's board of directors and held that title until his death.Sony VAIO VGN-TZ37N/P Battery

On October 5, 2011, Jobs died in California at age 56, seven years after being diagnosed with pancreatic cancer.On his death he was widely described as a visionary, pioneer and genius—perhaps one of the foremost—in the field of business, innovation, and product design, and a man who had profoundly changed the face of the modern world,Sony VAIO VGN-TZ37N/R Battery

revolutionized at least six different industries, and who was an "exemplar for all chief executives". His death was widely mourned and considered a loss to the world by commentators across the globe.

Early years

Jobs was born in San Francisco and was adopted by the family of Paul Jobs and Clara Jobs (née Hagopian) who moved to Mountain View, Californiawhen Jobs was five years old.Sony VAIO VGN-TZ37N/X Battery

Paul and Clara later adopted a daughter, Patti. Paul Jobs, a machinist for a company that made lasers, taught his son rudimentary electronics and how to work with his hands.[1] His adoptive mother was an accountant.[17] Asked in a 1995 interview what he wanted to pass on to his children, Jobs replied, "Just to try to be as good a father to them as my father was to me. Sony VAIO VGN-TZ38N/X Battery

I think about that every day of my life." Paul and Clara Jobs were his "true parents," he told an interviewer when asked about his "adoptive parents." "They were my parents," he told the interviewer emphatically.[17] Jobs' biological parents—Abdulfattah John Jandali, a Syrian Muslim immigrant to the U.S.,Sony VAIO VGN-TZ398U/XC Battery

who later became a political science professor at the University of Nevada and is presently a vice president of Boomtown Hotel Casino in Reno, Nevada,[20] and Joanne Schieble (later Simpson), an American graduate student[21] of Swissand German ancestry[22] who went on to become a speech language pathologist[17]—eventually[when?] married. Sony VAIO VGN-TZ50B Battery

The marriage produced Jobs's biological sister, novelist Mona Simpson; the two of them first met in 1986 as adults and enjoyed a close relationship, with Jobs regularly visiting Simpson in Manhattan. From Simpson, Jobs learned more about their birth parents and he invited his biological mother Joanne to some events.Sony VAIO VGN-TZ90HS Battery

Jandali claims that he didn't want to put Jobs up for adoption but that Simpson's parents did not approve of her marrying a Syrian. Jandali's few attempts to contact Jobs were unsuccessful;Jobs did not contact his biological father either.Jandali gave an interview to The Sun in August 2011 when Jobs resigned as CEO of Apple;Sony VAIO VGN-TZ90NS Battery

Jandali also mailed in his medical history after Jobs's pancreatic disorder was made public that year.

Jobs attended Cupertino Junior High and Homestead High School in Cupertino, California. He frequented after-school lectures at the Hewlett-Packard Company in Palo Alto,Sony VAIO VGN-TZ90S Battery

California, and was later hired there, working with Steve Wozniak as a summer employee.[29] Following high school graduation in 1972, Jobs enrolled at Reed College in Portland, Oregon. Although he dropped out after only one semester,[30] he continued auditing classes at Reed, Sony VAIO VPC CW2MFX/PU Battery

while sleeping on the floor in friends' rooms, returning Coke bottles for food money, and getting weekly free meals at the local Hare Krishna temple.[31] Jobs later said, "If I had never dropped in on that singlecalligraphy course in college, the Mac would have never had multiple typefaces or proportionally spaced fonts."Sony VAIO VPC S11V9E/B Battery

In the fall of 1974, Jobs returned to California and began attending meetings of the Homebrew Computer Club with Wozniak. He took a job as a technician at Atari, a manufacturer of popular video games, with the primary intent of saving money for a spiritual retreat to India.Sony VAIO VPCB119GJ/B Battery

Jobs then traveled to India to visit Neem Karoli Baba[32] at his Kainchi Ashram with a Reed College friend (and, later, the first Apple employee), Daniel Kottke, in search of spiritual enlightenment. He came back a Buddhist with his head shaved and wearing traditional Indian clothing.Sony VAIO VPCB11AGJ Battery

During this time, Jobs experimented with psychedelics, calling his LSD experiences "one of the two or three most important things [he had] done in [his] life".[35] He later said that people around him who did not share his countercultural roots could not fully relate to his thinking.Sony VAIO VPCB11AVJ Battery

Jobs returned to his previous job at Atari and was given the task of creating a circuit board for the game Breakout. According to Atari founder Nolan Bushnell, Atari offered $100 for each chip that was eliminated in the machine. Jobs had little interest in or knowledge of circuit board design and made a deal with Wozniak to split the bonus evenly between them if Wozniak could minimize the number of chips. Sony VAIO VPCB11V9E Battery

Much to the amazement of Atari, Wozniak reduced the number of chips by 50, a design so tight that it was impossible to reproduce on an assembly line. According to Wozniak, Jobs told Wozniak that Atari gave them only $700 (instead of the offered $5,000) and that Wozniak's share was thus $350.Sony VAIO VPCB11X9E Battery

Apple Computer

In 1976, Jobs, Steve Wozniak and Ronald Wayne founded Apple, with later funding from a then-semi-retired Intel product-marketing manager and engineer A.C. "Mike" Markkula Jr..Prior to co-founding Apple, Wozniak was an electronics hacker. Sony VAIO VPCCW18FJ/P Battery

Jobs and Wozniak met in 1971 when their mutual friend, Bill Fernandez, introduced 21-year-old Wozniak to 16-year-old Jobs. Friends for several years, Jobs managed to interest Wozniak in assembling a computer and selling it. As Apple continued to expand, the company began looking for an experienced executive to help manage its expansion.Sony VAIO VPCCW18FJ/R Battery

In 1978, Apple recruited Mike Scott from National Semiconductor to serve as CEO for what turned out to be several turbulent years. In 1983, Jobs lured John Sculley away from Pepsi-Cola to serve as Apple's CEO, asking, "Do you want to sell sugar water for the rest of your life, or do you want to come with me and change the world?"Sony VAIO VPCCW18FJ/W Battery

Apple president Mike Markkula also wanted to retire and believed that Jobs lacked the discipline and temperament needed to run Apple on a daily basis and that Sculley's conventional business background and recent successes would give a more favorable image.Sony VAIO VPCCW19FJ/W Battery

The following year, Apple aired a Super Bowl television commercial titled "1984". At Apple's annual shareholders meeting on January 24, 1984, an emotional Jobs introduced the Macintosh to a wildly enthusiastic audience; Andy Hertzfeld described the scene as "pandemonium".Sony VAIO VPCCW1AFJ Battery

The Macintosh became the first commercially successful small computer with a graphical user interface.

While Jobs was a persuasive and charismatic director for Apple, some of his employees from that time described him as an erratic and temperamental manager. Sony VAIO VPCCW1AHJ Battery

An industry-wide sales slump towards the end of 1984 caused a deterioration in Jobs's working relationship with Sculley as well as layoffs and disappointing sales performance. An internal power struggle developed between Jobs and Sculley.[42] Jobs kept meetings running past midnight, sent out lengthy faxes, then called new meetings at 7 am.Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E Battery

The Apple board of directors instructed Sculley to "contain" Jobs and limit his ability to launch expensive forays into untested products.Sculley learned that Jobs - believing Sculley to be "bad for Apple" and the wrong person to lead the company - had been attempting to organize a boardroom coup,[42] and on 24 May 1985[42] he called a board meeting to resolve the matter.Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/B Battery
Apple's board of directors sided with Sculley and removed Jobs from his managerial duties as head of the Macintosh division. Jobs resigned from Apple 5 months later[42] and founded NeXT Inc. the same year. Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/L Battery

Jobs later claimed that being fired from Apple was the best thing that could have happened to him; "The heaviness of being successful was replaced by the lightness of being a beginner again, less sure about everything. It freed me to enter one of the most creative periods of my life."Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/P Battery

NeXT Computer

After leaving Apple, Jobs founded NeXT Computer in 1985 with $7 million. A year later, Jobs was running out of money, and with no product on the horizon, he appealed for venture capital. Eventually, he attracted the attention of billionaire Ross Perot who invested heavily in the company.Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/R Battery

NeXT workstations were first released in 1990, priced at $9,999. Like the Apple Lisa, the NeXT workstation was technologically advanced, but was largely dismissed as cost-prohibitive by the educational sector for which it was designed. The NeXT workstation was known for its technical strengths, chief among them its object-oriented software development system. Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/W Battery

Jobs marketed NeXT products to the financial, scientific, and academic community, highlighting its innovative, experimental new technologies, such as the Mach kernel, the digital signal processor chip, and the built-in Ethernet port.

The revised, second-generation NeXTcube was released in 1990 also. Jobs touted it as the first "interpersonal" computer that would replace the personal computer. Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/B Battery

With its innovative NeXTMail multimedia email system, NeXTcube could share voice, image, graphics, and video in email for the first time. "Interpersonal computing is going to revolutionise human communications and groupwork", Jobs told reporters.Jobs ran NeXT with an obsession for aesthetic perfection, as evidenced by the development of and attention to NeXTcube's magnesium case.Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/L Battery

This put considerable strain on NeXT's hardware division, and in 1993, after having sold only 50,000 machines, NeXT transitioned fully to software development with the release of NeXTSTEP/Intel.The company reported its first profit of $1.03 million in 1994.Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/R Battery

In 1996, NeXT Software, Inc. released WebObjects, a framework for web application development. After NeXT was acquired by Apple Inc. in 1997, WebObjects was used to build and run the Apple Store, MobileMe services, and the iTunes Store.

Pixar and Disney

In 1986, Jobs bought The Graphics Group (later renamed Pixar) from Lucasfilm's computer graphics division for the price of $10 million, $5 million of which was given to the company as capital.Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/W Battery

The new company, which was originally based at Lucasfilm's Kerner Studios in San Rafael, California, but has since relocated to Emeryville, California, was initially intended to be a high-end graphics hardware developer. After years of unprofitability selling the Pixar Image Computer,Sony VAIO VPCCW26EC Battery

it contracted with Disney to produce a number of computer-animated feature films that Disney would co-finance and distribute.

The first film produced by the partnership, Toy Story, brought fame and critical acclaim to the studio when it was released in 1995. Over the next 15 years, under Pixar's creative chief John Lasseter, the company produced box-office hits A Bug's Life (1998);Sony VAIO VPCCW26FX/B Battery

Toy Story 2 (1999); Monsters, Inc. (2001); Finding Nemo(2003); The Incredibles (2004); Cars (2006); Ratatouille (2007); WALL-E(2008); Up (2009); and Toy Story 3 (2010). Finding Nemo, The Incredibles,Ratatouille, WALL-E, Up and Toy Story 3 each received the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature, an award introduced in 2001.Sony VAIO VPCCW28EC Battery

In the years 2003 and 2004, as Pixar's contract with Disney was running out, Jobs and Disney chief executive Michael Eisner tried but failed to negotiate a new partnership, and in early 2004 Jobs announced that Pixar would seek a new partner to distribute its films once its contract with Disney expired.Sony VAIO VPCCW28FJ/P Battery

In October 2005, Bob Iger replaced Eisner at Disney, and Iger quickly worked to patch up relations with Jobs and Pixar. On January 24, 2006, Jobs and Iger announced that Disney had agreed to purchase Pixar in an all-stock transaction worth $7.4 billion. Once the deal closed, Jobs became The Walt Disney Company's largest single shareholder with approximately 7% of the company's stock.Sony VAIO VPCCW28FJ/R Battery

Jobs's holdings in Disney far exceed those of Eisner, who holds 1.7%, and of Disney family member Roy E. Disney, who until his 2009 death held about 1% of the company's stock and whose criticisms of Eisner—especially that he soured Disney's relationship with Pixar—accelerated Eisner's ousting. Jobs joined the company's board of directors upon completion of the merger. Sony VAIO VPCCW28FJ/W Battery

Jobs also helped oversee Disney and Pixar's combined animation businesses with a seat on a special six person steering committee.

Return to Apple

In 1996, Apple announced that it would buy NeXT for $429 million. The deal was finalized in late 1996, bringing Jobs back to the company he co-founded.Sony VAIO VPCCW29FJ/W Battery

Jobs became de facto chief after then-CEO Gil Amelio was ousted in July 1997. He was formally named interim chief executive in September.In March 1998, to concentrate Apple's efforts on returning to profitability, Jobs terminated a number of projects, such as Newton, Cyberdog, and OpenDoc.Sony VAIO VPCCW2AFJ Battery

In the coming months, many employees developed a fear of encountering Jobs while riding in the elevator, "afraid that they might not have a job when the doors opened. The reality was that Jobs's summary executions were rare, but a handful of victims was enough to terrorize a whole company."Sony VAIO VPCCW2AHJ Battery

Jobs also changed the licensing program for Macintosh clones, making it too costly for the manufacturers to continue making machines.

With the purchase of NeXT, much of the company's technology found its way into Apple products, most notably NeXTSTEP, which evolved into Mac OS X. Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E Battery

Under Jobs's guidance the company increased sales significantly with the introduction of the iMac and other new products; since then, appealing designs and powerful branding have worked well for Apple. At the 2000 Macworld Expo, Jobs officially dropped the "interim" modifier from his title at Apple and became permanent CEO.Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/B Battery

Jobs quipped at the time that he would be using the title 'iCEO.' 

The company subsequently branched out, introducing and improving upon other digital appliances. With the introduction of the iPod portable music player, iTunes digital music software, and the iTunes Store, the company made forays into consumer electronics and music distribution. Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/L Battery

On June 29, 2007, Apple entered the cellular phone business with the introduction of the iPhone, a multi-touchdisplay cell phone, which also included the features of an iPod and, with its own mobile browser, revolutionized the mobile browsing scene. While stimulating innovation, Jobs also reminded his employees that "real artists ship",Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/P Battery

by which he meant that delivering working products on time is as important as innovation and attractive design.

Jobs was both admired and criticized for his consummate skill at persuasion and salesmanship, which has been dubbed the "reality distortion field" and was particularly evident during his keynote speeches (colloquially known as "Stevenotes") at Macworld Expos and at Apple Worldwide Developers Conferences.Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/R Battery

In 2005, Jobs responded to criticism of Apple's poor recycling programs for e-waste in the U.S. by lashing out at environmental and other advocates at Apple's Annual Meeting in Cupertino in April. A few weeks later, Apple announced it would take back iPods for free at its retail stores. Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/W Battery

The Computer TakeBack Campaign responded by flying a banner from a plane over the Stanford University graduation at which Jobs was the commencement speaker. The banner read "Steve—Don't be a mini-player recycle all e-waste". In 2006, he further expanded Apple's recycling programs to any U.S. customer who buys a new Mac. Sony VAIO VPCCW2S5C CN1 Battery

This program includes shipping and "environmentally friendly disposal" of their old systems.

Resignation

In August 2011, Jobs resigned as CEO of Apple, but remained at the company as chairman of the company's board.Sony VAIO VPCF112FX/B Battery

Hours after the announcement, Apple Inc. (AAPL) shares dropped 5% in after-hour trading.[65] The relatively small drop, when considering the importance of Jobs to Apple, was associated with the fact that Jobs's health had been in the news for several years, and he was on medical leave since January 2011.Sony VAIO VPCF115FG/B Battery

It was believed, according toForbes, that the impact would be felt in a negative way beyond Apple, including at The Walt Disney Company where Jobs served as director.[67] In after-hour trading on the day of the announcement, Walt Disney Co. (DIS) shares dropped 1.5%.Sony VAIO VPCF116FGBI Battery

Wealth

Even though Jobs earned only $1 a year as CEO of Apple, he held 5.426 million Apple shares, as well as 138 million shares in Disney (which he received in exchange for Disney's acquisition of Pixar). Jobs quipped that the $1 per annum he was paid by Apple was based on attending one meeting for 50 cents while the other 50 cents was based on his performance.Sony VAIO VPCF117FJ/W Battery

Forbes estimated his net wealth at $8.3 billion in 2010, making him the 42nd wealthiest American.

Stock options backdating issue

In 2001, Jobs was granted stock options in the amount of 7.5 million shares of Apple with an exercise price of $18.30. It was alleged that the options had beenbackdated, and that the exercise price should have been $21.10.Sony VAIO VPCF117HG/BI Battery

It was further alleged that Jobs had thereby incurred taxable income of $20,000,000 that he did not report, and that Apple overstated its earnings by that same amount. As a result, Jobs potentially faced a number of criminal charges and civil penalties.Sony VAIO VPCF118FJ/W Battery

The case is the subject of active criminal and civil government investigations, though an independent internal Apple investigation completed on December 29, 2006, found that Jobs was unaware of these issues and that the options granted to him were returned without being exercised in 2003.Sony VAIO VPCF119FC Battery

On July 1, 2008, a $7 billion class action suit was filed against several members of the Apple Board of Directors for revenue lost due to the alleged securities fraud.

Management style

Jobs was a demanding perfectionist who always aspired to position his businesses and their products at the forefront of the information technology industry by foreseeing and setting trends, at least in innovation and style.Sony VAIO VPCF119FC/BI Battery

He summed up that self-concept at the end of his keynote speech at the Macworld Conference and Expo in January 2007 by quoting ice hockey player Wayne Gretzky:

There's an old Wayne Gretzky quote that I love. 'I skate to where the puck is going to be, not where it has been.' And we've always tried to do that at Apple. Since the very very beginning. And we always will.Sony VAIO VPCF119FJ/BI Battery

Much was made of Jobs's aggressive and demanding personality. Fortune wrote that he was "considered one of Silicon Valley's leading egomaniacs".Commentaries on his temperamental style can be found in Mike Moritz's The Little Kingdom,The Second Coming of Steve Jobs, by Alan Deutschman; andiCon: Steve Jobs, by Jeffrey S. Young & William L. Simon. Sony VAIO VPCF11AFJ Battery

In 1993, Jobs made Fortune's list of America's Toughest Bosses in regard to his leadership of NeXT. Cofounder Dan'l Lewin was quoted in Fortune as saying of that period, "The highs were unbelievable ... But the lows were unimaginable", to which Jobs's office replied that his personality had changed since then.Sony VAIO VPCF11AGJ Battery

In 2005, Jobs banned all books published by John Wiley & Sons from Apple Stores in response to their publishing an unauthorized biography, iCon: Steve Jobs.[83] In its 2010 annual earnings report, Wiley said it had "closed a deal ... to make its titles available for the iPad."Sony VAIO VPCF11AHJ Battery

Jef Raskin, a former colleague, once said that Jobs "would have made an excellent king of France," alluding to Jobs's compelling and larger-than-life persona.[85] Floyd Norman said that at Pixar, Jobs was a "mature, mellow individual" and never interfered with the creative process of the filmmakers.Sony VAIO VPCF11JFX/B Battery

Jobs had a public war of words with Dell Computer CEO Michael Dell, starting[when?] when Jobs first criticized Dell for making "un-innovative beige boxes". On October 6, 1997, in a GartnerSymposium, when Michael Dell was asked what he would do if he owned then-troubled Apple Computer, he said "I'd shut it down and give the money back to the shareholders."Sony VAIO VPCF11M1E Battery

In 2006, Jobs sent an email to all employees when Apple's market capitalization rose above Dell's. The email read:

Team, it turned out that Michael Dell wasn't perfect at predicting the future. Based on today's stock market close, Apple is worth more than Dell. Sony VAIO VPCF11M1E/H Battery

Stocks go up and down, and things may be different tomorrow, but I thought it was worth a moment of reflection today. Steve.

Inventions

Jobs is listed as either primary inventor or co-inventor in 338 US patents or patent applications related to a range of technologies from actual computer and portable devices to user interfaces (including touch-based), speakers, keyboards, power adapters, staircases, clasps, sleeves, lanyards and packages.Sony VAIO VPCF11MFX/B Battery

Philanthropy

Arik Hesseldahl of BusinessWeek magazine opined that "Jobs isn't widely known for his association with philanthropic causes", compared to Bill Gates' efforts.[92] After resuming control of Apple in 1997, Jobs eliminated all corporate philanthropy programs.Sony VAIO VPCF11S1E Battery

Personal life

Jobs married Laurene Powell on March 18, 1991. Presiding over the wedding was the Zen Buddhist monk Kobun Chino Otogawa.[94]The couple have a son and two daughters.[95] Jobs also has a daughter, Lisa Brennan-Jobs (born 1978), from his relationship with Bay Area painter Chrisann Brennan.Sony VAIO VPCF11S1E/B Battery

She briefly raised their daughter on welfare when Jobs denied paternity by claiming he was sterile; he later acknowledged Lisa as his daughter.

In the unauthorized biography, The Second Coming of Steve Jobs, author Alan Deutschman reports that Jobs once dated Joan Baez.Sony VAIO VPCF11Z1E Battery

Deutschman quotes Elizabeth Holmes, a friend of Jobs from his time at Reed College, as saying she "believed that Steve became the lover of Joan Baez in large measure because Baez had been the lover of Bob Dylan" (Dylan was the Apple icon's favorite musician). The biography also notes that Jobs went out with actress Diane Keaton briefly.Sony VAIO VPCF11Z1E/BI Battery

In another unauthorized biography, iCon: Steve Jobs by Jeffrey S. Young & William L. Simon, the authors suggest that Jobs might have married Baez, but her age at the time (41) meant it was unlikely the couple could have children.

Jobs was also a fan of The Beatles. He referred to them on multiple occasions at Keynotes and also was interviewed on a showing of a Paul McCartney concert. Sony VAIO VPCF11ZHJ Battery

When asked about his business modelon 60 Minutes, he replied:

My model for business is The Beatles: They were four guys that kept each other's negative tendencies in check; they balanced each other. And the total was greater than the sum of the parts. Great things in business are never done by one person, they are done by a team of people.Sony VAIO VPCF127HGBI Battery

In 1982, Jobs bought an apartment in The San Remo, an apartment building in New York City with a politically progressive reputation, where Demi Moore, Steven Spielberg, Steve Martin, and PrincessYasmin Aga Khan, daughter of Rita Hayworth, also had apartments. Sony VAIO VPCF137HG/BI Battery

With the help of I.M. Pei, Jobs spent years renovating his apartment in the top two floors of the building's north tower, only to sell it almost two decades later to U2 singer Bono. Jobs never moved in.

In 1984, Jobs purchased a 17,000-square-foot (1,600 m2), 14-bedroom Spanish Colonial mansion, designed by George Washington Smith, in Woodside, California (also known as Jackling House). Sony VAIO VPCS111FM/S Battery

Although it reportedly remained in an almost unfurnished state, Jobs lived in the mansion for almost ten years. According to reports, he kept an old BMW motorcycle in the living room, and let Bill Clinton use it in 1998. From the early 1990s, Jobs lived in a house in the Old Palo Alto neighborhood of Palo Alto. Sony VAIO VPCS115EC Battery

President Clinton dined with Jobs and 14 Silicon Valley CEOs there on August 7, 1996, at a meal catered by Greens Restaurant.Clinton returned the favor and Jobs, who was a Democratic donor, slept in the Lincoln bedroom of the White House.

Jobs allowed Jackling House to fall into a state of disrepair, planning to demolish the house and build a smaller home on the property; Sony VAIO VPCS115FG Battery

but he met with complaints from local preservationists over his plans. In June 2004, the Woodside Town Council gave Jobs approval to demolish the mansion, on the condition that he advertise the property for a year to see if someone would move it to another location and restore it. Sony VAIO VPCS117GG Battery

A number of people expressed interest, including several with experience in restoring old property, but no agreements to that effect were reached. Later that same year, a local preservationist group began seeking legal action to prevent demolition. In January 2007 Jobs was denied the right to demolish the property, by a court decision.Sony VAIO VPCS117GGB Battery

The court decision was overturned on appeal in March 2010 and the mansion was demolished beginning February 2011.

Jobs usually wore a black long-sleeved mock turtleneck made by St. Croix, Levi's 501 blue jeans, and New Balance 991 sneakers. He was a pescetarian, one whose diet includes fish but no other meat.Sony VAIO VPCS118EC Battery

His car was a silver 2008 Mercedes SL 55 AMG, which does not display its license plates.

Health

In mid-2004, Jobs announced to his employees that he had been diagnosed with a cancerous tumor in his pancreas.Sony VAIO VPCS119FJ/B Battery

The prognosis for pancreatic cancer is usually very poor; Jobs, however, stated that he had a rare, far less aggressive type known as islet cell neuroendocrine tumor. Jobs resisted his doctors' recommendations for evidence-based medical intervention for nine months,Sony VAIO VPCS119GC Battery

instead consuming a special alternative medicine diet to thwart the disease, before eventually undergoing a pancreaticoduodenectomy (or "Whipple procedure") in July 2004 that appeared to successfully remove the tumor. Jobs apparently did not require nor receive chemotherapy or radiation therapy.Sony VAIO VPCS11AFJ Battery

During Jobs's absence, Timothy D. Cook, head of worldwide sales and operations at Apple, ran the company.

In early August 2006, Jobs delivered the keynote for Apple's annual Worldwide Developers Conference. His "thin, almost gaunt" appearance and unusually "listless" delivery, Sony VAIO VPCS11AGJ Battery

together with his choice to delegate significant portions of his keynote to other presenters, inspired a flurry of media and Internet speculation about his health. In contrast, according to an Ars Technica journal report,WWDC attendees who saw Jobs in person said he "looked fine".Following the keynote, an Apple spokesperson said that "Steve's health is robust."Sony VAIO VPCS11AHJ Battery

2008 development

Two years later, similar concerns followed Jobs's 2008 WWDC keynote address.Apple officials stated Jobs was victim to a "common bug" and was taking antibiotics,while others surmised hiscachectic appearance was due to the Whipple procedure.Sony VAIO VPCS11AVJ Battery

During a July conference call discussing Apple earnings, participants responded to repeated questions about Jobs's health by insisting that it was a "private matter". Others, however, voiced the opinion that shareholders had a right to know more, given Jobs's hands-on approach to running his company.Sony VAIO VPCS11J7E/B Battery

The New York Timespublished an article based on an off-the-record phone conversation with Jobs, noting that "while his health issues have amounted to a good deal more than 'a common bug,' they weren't life-threatening and he doesn't have a recurrence of cancer."Sony VAIO VPCS11M1E/W Battery

On August 28, 2008, Bloomberg mistakenly published a 2500-word obituary of Jobs in its corporate news service, containing blank spaces for his age and cause of death. (News carriers customarily stockpile up-to-date obituaries to facilitate news delivery in the event of a well-known figure's untimely death.) Sony VAIO VPCS11V9E Battery

Although the error was promptly rectified, many news carriers and blogs reported on it,intensifying rumors concerning Jobs's health.Jobs responded at Apple's September 2008 Let's Rock keynote by quoting Mark Twain: "Reports of my death are greatly exaggerated."Sony VAIO VPCS11V9E/B Battery

At a subsequent media event, Jobs concluded his presentation with a slide reading "110/70", referring to his blood pressure, stating he would not address further questions about his health.

On December 16, 2008, Apple announced that marketing vice-president Phil Schiller would deliver the company's final keynote address at the Macworld Conference and Expo 2009, again reviving questions about Jobs's health.Sony VAIO VPCS11X9E/B Battery

In a statement given on January 5, 2009 on Apple.com, Jobs said that he had been suffering from a "hormone imbalance" for several months. On January 14, 2009, in an internal Apple memo, Jobs wrote that in the previous week he had "learned that my health-related issues are more complex than I originally thought" and announced a six-month leave of absence until the end of June 2009 to allow him to better focus on his health. Sony VAIO VPCS123FGB Battery

Tim Cook, who previously acted as CEO in Jobs's 2004 absence, became acting CEO of Apple,[135] with Jobs still involved with "major strategic decisions."

In April 2009, Jobs underwent a liver transplant at Methodist University Hospital Transplant Institute in Memphis, Tennessee.Jobs's prognosis was "excellent".Sony VAIO VPCS125EC Battery

2011 medical leave and resignation

On January 17, 2011, a year and a half after Jobs returned from his liver transplant, Apple announced that he had been granted a medical leave of absence. Jobs announced his leave in a letter to employees, stating his decision was made "so he could focus on his health".Sony VAIO VPCS128EC Battery

As during his 2009 medical leave, Apple announced that Tim Cook would run day-to-day operations and that Jobs would continue to be involved in major strategic decisions at the company. Despite the leave, he made appearances at the iPad 2 launch event (March 2), the WWDC keynote introducing iCloud (June 6), and before the Cupertino city council (June 7).Sony VAIO VPCS129GC Battery

Jobs announced his resignation from his role as Apple's CEO on August 24, 2011. In his resignation letter, Jobs wrote that he could "no longer meet [his] duties and expectations as Apple's CEO".

Death

Jobs died at his home on October 5, 2011, due to complications from a rare form of pancreatic cancer. His death was announced by Apple in a statement which read:Sony VAIO VPCS12C7E/B Battery

We are deeply saddened to announce that Steve Jobs passed away today.
Steve's brilliance, passion and energy were the source of countless innovations that enrich and improve all of our lives. The world is immeasurably better because of Steve.
His greatest love was for his wife, Laurene, and his family. Our hearts go out to them and to all who were touched by his extraordinary gifts."Sony VAIO VPCS12L9E/B Battery

Jobs is survived by Laurene, his wife of 20 years, their three children and by Lisa Brennan-Jobs, his daughter from a previous relationship.His family released a statement saying that he "died peacefully".

Starting October 5, 2011, Apple's corporate website greeted visitors with a simple page showing Jobs's name and lifespan next to his grayscale portrait.Sony VAIO VPCS12V9E/B Battery

"Sony VAIO VPCS12V9E/B laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcs12v9e-b-battery-27514.htm">Clicking on Jobs's image led to an obituary that read "Apple has lost a visionary and creative genius, and the world has lost an amazing human being. Those of us who have been fortunate enough to know and work with Steve have lost a dear friend and an inspiring mentor.Sony VAIO VPCY115FGS Battery

Steve leaves behind a company that only he could have built, and his spirit will forever be the foundation of Apple." An email address was also posted for the public to share their memories, condolences, and thoughts.

A large number of newspapers carried news of his death on the front pages. Statements reacting to Jobs's death were made by several notable people, including U.S. President Barack Obama, Sony VAIO VPCY115FX/BI Battery

Microsoft founder Bill Gates, and The Walt Disney Company's Bob Iger. Wired News collected reactions and posted them in tribute on their homepage.Other statements of condolences were issued by many of Jobs' friends and colleagues, such as Steve Wozniak and George Lucas.A small private funeral was held on October 7, 2011.Sony VAIO VPCY115FXBI Battery

Honors and public recognition

After Apple's founding, Jobs became a symbol of his company and industry. When Time named the computer as the 1982 "Machine of the Year", the magazine published a long profile of Steve as "the most famous maestro of the micro".Sony VAIO VPCY118EC Battery

Jobs was awarded the National Medal of Technology by President Ronald Reagan in 1984 with Steve Wozniak (among the first people to ever receive the honor), and a Jefferson Award for Public Service in the category "Greatest Public Service by an Individual 35 Years or Under" (also known as the Samuel S. Beard Award) in 1987.Sony VAIO VPCY118GX/BI Battery

On November 27, 2007, Jobs was named the most powerful person in business by Fortune Magazine. On December 5, 2007, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and First Lady Maria Shriver inducted Jobs into the California Hall of Fame, located at The California Museum for History, Women and the Arts.Sony VAIO VPCY119FJ/S Battery

In August 2009, Jobs was selected as the most admired entrepreneur among teenagers in a survey by Junior Achievement, having previously been named Entrepreneur of the Decade 20 years earlier in 1989 by Inc. magazine. On November 5, 2009, Jobs was named the CEO of the decade by Fortune Magazine.Sony VAIO VPCY11AFJ Battery

In September 2011, Jobs was ranked No.17 on Forbes: The World's Most Powerful People. In December 2010, the Financial Timesnamed Jobs its person of the year for 2010, ending its essay by stating, "In his autobiography, John Sculley, the former PepsiCo executive who once ran Apple, said this of the ambitions of the man he had pushed out: Sony VAIO VPCY11AGJ Battery

'Apple was supposed to become a wonderful consumer products company. This was a lunatic plan. High-tech could not be designed and sold as a consumer product.' How wrong can you be".

At the time of his resignation, and again after his death, he was widely described as a visionary, pioneer and genius —perhaps one of the foremost—in the field of business,Sony VAIO VPCY11AHJ Battery

innovation, and product design, and a man who had profoundly changed the face of the modern world,revolutionized at least six different industries,and who was an "exemplar for all chief executives". His death was widely mourned and considered a loss to the world by commentators across the globe.Sony VAIO VPCY11AVJ Battery

After his resignation as Apple's CEO, Jobs was characterized as the Thomas Edison and Henry Ford of his time.

Apple Inc., formerly Apple Computer, Inc., is a multinational corporation that creates consumer electronics, computer software, and commercial servers. Sony VAIO VPCY11M1E/S Battery

Apple's core product lines are the iPad,iPhone, iPod music player, and Macintosh computer line-up. Founders Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak effectively created Apple Computer on April 1, 1976, with the release of the Apple I, and incorporated the company on January 3, 1977, in Cupertino, California. Sony VAIO VPCY11S1E Battery

For more than two decades, Apple Computer was predominantly a manufacturer of personal computers, including the Apple II,Macintosh, and Power Mac lines, but it faced rocky sales and low market share during the 1990s. Jobs, who had been ousted from the company in 1985, Sony VAIO VPCY11V9E/S Battery

returned to become Apple's CEO in 1996 after his company NeXT was bought by Apple Inc., and he brought with him a new corporate philosophy of recognizable products and simple design. With the introduction of the successful iPod music player in 2001, Apple established itself as a leader in the consumer electronics industry, dropping "Computer" from its name.Sony VAIO VPCY218EC/BI Battery

The latest era of phenomenal success for the company has been in theiOS (Apple) range of products that began with the iPhone, iPod Touch and now iPad. Today, Apple is the largest technology firm in the world, with annual revenues of more than $60 billion.

Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak were outcasts while they were in high school; Sony VAIO VPCY218EC/G Battery

by 1975, they had withdrawn from Reed College and UC Berkeley, respectively. Wozniak designed a video teletype that he could use to log on to the minicomputers at Call Computer. Alex Kamradt commissioned the design and sold a small number of them through his firm. Sony VAIO VPCY218EC/L Battery

Aside from their interest in up-to-date technology, the impetus for "the two Steves" seems to have had another source. In his essay From Satori to Silicon Valley (published 1986), cultural historian Theodore Roszak made the point that the Apple Computer emerged from within the West Coast counterculture and the need to produce print-outs, Sony VAIO VPCY218EC/P Battery

letter labels, and databases. Roszak offers a bit of background on the development of the two Steves’ prototype models.

In 1975, Wozniak started attending meetings of the Homebrew Computer Club. New microcomputers such as the Altair 8800 and the IMSAI inspired him to build a microprocessor into his video teletype and have a complete computer.Sony VAIO VPCY21S1E/L Battery

At the time the only microcomputer CPUs generally available were the $179 Intel 8080, and the $170 Motorola 6800. Wozniak preferred the 6800, but both were out of his price range. So he watched, and learned, and designed computers on paper, waiting for the day he could afford a CPU.Sony VAIO VPCY21S1E/P Battery

When MOS Technology released its $20 6502 chip in 1976, Wozniak wrote a version of BASIC for it, then began to design a computer for it to run on. The 6502 was designed by the same people who designed the 6800, as many in Silicon Valley left employers to form their own companies. Sony VAIO VPCY21S1E/SI Battery

Wozniak's earlier 6800 paper-computer needed only minor changes to run on the new chip.

Wozniak completed the machine and took it to Homebrew Computer Club meetings to show it off. At the meeting, Wozniak met his old friend Jobs, who was interested in the commercial potential of the small hobby machines.Sony VAIO VPCCW2S5C CN1 Battery

Apple I

Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak had been friends for some time, having met in 1971, when their mutual friend, Bill Fernandez, introduced 21-year-old Wozniak to 16-year-old Jobs. Jobs managed to interest Wozniak in assembling a machine and selling it.Sony VAIO VPCEA20 Battery

Jobs approached a local computer store, The Byte Shop, who said they would be interested in the machine, but only if it came fully assembled. The owner, Paul Terrell, went further, saying he would order 50 of the machines and pay US $500 each on delivery.Sony VAIO VPCEB10 Battery

Jobs then took the purchase order that he had been given from the Byte Shop to Cramer Electronics, a national electronic parts distributor, and ordered the components he needed to assemble the Apple I Computer. The local credit manager asked Jobs how he was going to pay for the parts and he replied, Sony VAIO VPCEB11FM Battery

"I have this purchase order from the Byte Shop chain of computer stores for 50 of my computers and the payment terms are COD. If you give me the parts on a net 30 day terms I can build and deliver the computers in that time frame, collect my money from Terrell at the Byte Shop and pay you."Sony VAIO VPCEB11FM/BI Battery

With that, the credit manager called Paul Terrell who was attending an IEEE computer conference at Asilomar in Pacific Grove and verified the validity of the purchase order. Amazed at the tenacity of Jobs, Terrell assured the credit manager if the computers showed up in his stores Jobs would be paid and would have more than enough money to pay for the parts order. Sony VAIO VPCEB11FM/T Battery

The two Steves and their small crew spent day and night building and testing the computers and delivered to Terrell on time to pay his suppliers and have a tidy profit left over for their celebration and next order. Steve Jobs had found a way to finance his soon-to-be multimillion-dollar company without giving away one share of stock or ownership.Sony VAIO VPCEB11FM/WI Battery

The machine had only a few notable features. One was the use of a TV as the display system, whereas many machines had no display at all. This was not like the displays of later machines, however; text was displayed at a terribly slow 60 characters per second. However, this was still faster than the teletypes used on contemporary machines of that era.Sony VAIO VPCEB11FX Battery

The Apple I also included bootstrap code on ROM, which made it easier to start up. Finally, at the insistence of Paul Terrell, Wozniak also designed a cassette interface for loading and saving programs, at the then-rapid pace of 1200 bit/s. Although the machine was fairly simple, Sony VAIO VPCEB11FX/BI Battery

it was nevertheless a masterpiece of design, using far fewer parts than anything in its class, and quickly earning Wozniak a reputation as a master designer.

Joined by another friend, Ronald Wayne, the three started to build the machines. Sony VAIO VPCEB11FX/T Battery

Using a variety of methods, including borrowing space from friends and family, selling various prized items (like calculators and a VW bus) and scrounging, Jobs managed to secure the parts needed while Wozniak and Wayne assembled them. But the owner of the Byte Shop was expecting complete computers, not just printed circuit boards. Sony VAIO VPCEB11FX/WI Battery

The boards still being a product for the customers Terrell still paid them. Eventually 200 of the Apple I's were built.

Apple II

But Wozniak had already moved on from the Apple I. Many of the design features of the I were due to the limited amount of money they had to construct the prototype,Sony VAIO VPCEB11GX Battery

but with the income from the sales he was able to start construction of a greatly improved machine, the Apple II; it was presented to the public at the first West Coast Computer Faire on April 16 and April 17, 1977. On the first day of exhibition, Jobs introduced Apple II to a Japanese chemist named Toshio Mizushima who became the first authorized Apple dealer in Japan.Sony VAIO VPCEB11GX/BI Battery

The main difference internally was a completely redesigned TV interface, which held the display in memory. Now not only useful for simple text display, the Apple II included graphics, and, eventually, color. Jobs meanwhile pressed for a much improved case and keyboard, with the idea that the machine should be complete and ready to run out of the box. Sony VAIO VPCEB11GX/T Battery

This was almost the case for the Apple I machines sold to The Byte Shop, but one still needed to plug various parts together and type in the code to run BASIC.

Building such a machine was going to be fiscally burdensome. Jobs started looking for cash, but Wayne was somewhat gun shy due to a failed venture four years earlier, and eventually dropped out of the company.Sony VAIO VPCEB11GX/WI Battery

Banks were reluctant to lend Jobs money; the idea of a computer for ordinary people seemed absurd at the time. Jobs eventually met "Mike" Markkula who co-signed a bank loan for US$250,000, and the three formed Apple Computer on April 1, 1976. Sony VAIO VPCEB12FX Battery

Why Apple? At the time, the company to beat was Atari, and Apple Computer came before Atari alphabetically and thus also in the phone book. Another reason was that Jobs had happy memories of working on an Oregon apple farm one summer.Sony VAIO VPCEB12FX/BI Battery

With both cash and a new case design in hand thanks to designer Jerry Manock, the Apple II was released in 1977 and became the computer generally credited with creating the home computermarket. Millions were sold well into the 1980s. A number of different models of the Apple II series were built, including the Apple IIe and Apple IIGS, which could still be found in many schools as late as 2005. Sony VAIO VPCEB12FX/BIC Battery

Apple III

By the early 1980s, Apple Computer faced increasing competition. While the Apple II was already established as a successful business-ready platform because of Visicalc, Apple was not content. The Apple III (Apple 3) was designed to take on the IBM PC in the business environment.Sony VAIO VPCEB12FX/T Battery

The Apple III was a relatively conservative design for computers of the era. However, Steve Jobs did not want the computer to have a fan; rather, he wanted the heat generated by the electronics to be dissipated through the chassis of the machine, forgoing the cooling fan.Sony VAIO VPCEB14FX Battery

Unfortunately, the physical design of the case was not sufficient to cool the components inside it. By removing the fan from the design, the Apple III was prone to overheating. This caused the integrated circuit chips to disconnect from the motherboard.Sony VAIO VPCEB14FX/BI Battery

Customers who contacted Apple customer service were told to "drop the computer on the desk", which would cause the ICs to fall back in to place.

Thousands of Apple III computers were recalled and, although a new model was introduced in 1983 to rectify the problems, the damage was already done.Sony VAIO VPCEB14FX/T Battery

Apple IPO

On December 12, 1980, Apple launched the Initial Public Offering of its stock to the investing public. When Apple went public, it generated more capital than any IPO since Ford Motor Company in 1956 and instantly created more millionaires (about 300) than any company in history.Sony VAIO VPCEB14FX/WI Battery

Several venture capitalists cashed out, reaping billions in long-term capital gains.

In January 1981, Apple held its first shareholders meeting as a public company in the Flint Center, a large auditorium at nearby De Anza College, which is often used for symphony concerts.(Previous meetings were held quietly in smaller rooms, because there had only been a few shareholders.) Sony VAIO VPCEB15FM Battery

The business of the meeting had been planned (or choreographed) so that the voting could be staged in 15 minutes or less. In most cases, voting proxies are collected by mail and counted days or months before a meeting. In this case, after the IPO, many shares were in new hands.Sony VAIO VPCEB15FM/BI Battery

Steve Jobs started his prepared speech, but after being interrupted by voting several times, he dropped his prepared speech and delivered a long, emotionally charged talk about betrayal, lack of respect, and related topics. Sony VAIO VPCEB15FM/T Battery

Xerox PARC and the Lisa

While Apple Computer’s business division was focused on the Apple III, a separate group was focused on a computer that would change the world. While the Apple III was another iteration of the text-based computer, this new machine would feature a completely different interface and introduce the words mouse,icon, and desktop into the lexicon of the computing public.Sony VAIO VPCEB15FM/WI Battery

In return for the right to buy US$1,000,000 of pre-IPO stock, Xerox granted Apple Computer three days access to the PARC facilities. After visiting PARC, they came away with new ideas that would complete the foundation for Apple Computer's first GUI computer, the Apple Lisa.Sony VAIO VPCEB15FX Battery

(Popular folklore states that "Lisa" was Steve Jobs' first daughter; Apple maintains it means Locally Integrated Software Architecture.)

Apple Computer's engineers did not come up with the LISA interface overnight. In fact, the first iteration of the soon-ubiquitous WIMP interface was a poorly-drawn picture of a floppy disk. Sony VAIO VPCEB15FX/BI Battery

It was only after months of usability testing and work that Apple settled on the LISA interface of windows and icons.

The Lisa was introduced in 1983 at a cost of US$9,995. Because of the high price, Lisa failed to penetrate the market, however it was a useful proof of concept.Sony VAIO VPCEB15FX/T Battery

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IT jobs 27/09/2012 12:32

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