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7 juillet 2013 7 07 /07 /juillet /2013 12:24

Sudan

Sudan (Arabic: السودان‎ as-Sūdān  i/suːˈdæn/ or /suːˈdɑːn/;[8]), officially the Republic of the Sudan[9] (Arabic:جمهورية السودان‎ Jumhūrīyat as-Sūdān) and sometimes called North Sudan,[10][11] is an Arab state in the Middle Eastand North Africa bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea to the northeast, Eritrea and Ethiopia to the east,South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the southwest,  HP Pavilion dv4-1131tx laptop keyboard

Chad to the west and Libya to the northwest. Internally, the Nile divides the country into eastern and western halves.[12] The population of Sudan is a combination of indigenous inhabitants of the Nile Valley and descendants of migrants from the Arabian Peninsula. The overwhelming majority of the population today adhere to Islam.[13] SONY VAIO VGN-FS550 laptop keyboard

The people of Sudan have a long history extending from antiquity that is intertwined with the history of Egypt. Sudan suffered seventeen years of civil war during the First Sudanese Civil War (1955–1972) followed by the Second Sudanese Civil War between central government of Northern Sudan and the SPLA/M of Southern Sudan.[14][15] This led to the Second Sudanese Civil War in 1983. HP Pavilion dv2-1007ax laptop keyboard

Because of continuing political and military struggles, Sudan was seized in a bloodless coup d'état by colonel Omar al-Bashir in 1989, who thereafter proclaimed himself President of Sudan.[16] The civil war ended with the signing of a Comprehensive Peace Agreement which granted autonomy to what was then the southern region of the country. Following a referendum held in January 2011, South Sudan seceded on 9 July 2011 with the consent of Sudan.[17][18] TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 laptop keyboard

A member of the United Nations, Sudan also maintains membership with the African Union, the Arab League, theOrganisation of Islamic Cooperation, and the Non-Aligned Movement, as well as serving as an observer in the World Trade Organization.[9] Its capital is Khartoum, the political, cultural and commercial centre of the nation. Officially a federal presidential representative democratic republic, SONY VAIO VGN-FS315M laptop keyboard

the politics of Sudan are widely considered by the international community to take place within an authoritarian system because of the control of the National Congress Party (NCP) of the judiciary, executive and legislative branches of government.[19] SONY VAIO VGN-FW11S laptop keyboard

sedentary way of life there in fortified mud-brick villages, where they supplemented hunting and fishing on the Nile with grain gathering and cattleherding.[20] During the fifth millennium BC migrations from the drying Sahara brought neolithic people into the Nile Valley along with agriculture. The population that resulted from this cultural and genetic mixing developed social hierarchy over the next centuries become the Kingdom of Kush (with the capital at Kerma) at 1700 BC. HP G61-400SP laptop keyboard

Anthropological and archaeological research indicate that during the predynastic period Nubia and Nagadan Upper Egypt were ethnically, and culturally nearly identical, and thus, simultaneously evolved systems of pharaonic kingship by 3300 BC.[21] Together with other countries lying on Red Sea, Sudan is considered the most likely location of the land known to the ancient Egyptians as Punt (or "Ta Netjeru", meaning "God's Land"), whose first mention dates to the 25th century BC.[22] SONY VAIO VGN-SZ470N/C laptop keyboard

The Kingdom of Kush was an ancient Nubian state centered on the confluences of the Blue Nile, White Nile and River Atbara. It was established after the Bronze Age collapse and the disintegration of the New Kingdom of Egypt, centered at Napata in its early phase. HP Pavilion dv4-1211tu laptop keyboard

After King Kashta ("the Kushite") invaded Egypt in the 8th century BC, the Kushite kings ruled as Pharaohs of the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt for a century before being defeated and driven out by the Assyrians. At the height of their glory, the Kushite conquered an empire that stretched from what is now known as South Kordofan all the way to the Sinai. King Piyeattempted to expand the empire into the Near East, SONY VAIO VGN-FS115Z laptop keyboard

but was thwarted by the Assyrian king Sargon II. The Kingdom of Kush is mentioned in the Bible as having saved the Israelites from the wrath of the Assyrians, although disease among the besiegers was the main reason for the failure to take the city.[23][page needed] SONY VAIO VGN-FS215M laptop keyboard

The war that took place between King Taharqa and the Assyrian King Sennacherib was a decisive event in western history, with the Nubians being defeated in their attempts to gain a foothold in the Near East by Assyria. Sennacherib's successor Esarhaddon went further, and invaded Egypt itself, deposing Taharqa and driving the Nubians from Egypt entirely. Taharqa fled back to his homeland where he died two years later. SONY VGN-FE890 laptop keyboard

Egypt became an Assyrian colony; however, king Tantamani, after succeeding Taharqa, made a final determined attempt to regain Egypt. Esarhaddon died while preparing to leave the Assyrian capital of Nineveh in order to eject him. However, his successor Ashurbanipal sent a large army into southern Egypt and routed Tantamani, ending all hopes of a revival of the Nubian Empire. ASUS X53S laptop keyboard

During Classical Antiquity, the Nubian capital was at Meroë. In early Greek geography, the Meroitic kingdom was known as Ethiopia (a term also used earlier by the Assyrians when encountering the Nubians). The civilization of Kush was among the first in the world to use iron smelting technology. The Nubian kingdom at Meroe persisted until the 4th century AD. After the collapse of the Kushite empire several states emerged in its former territories, among them Nubia. Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

By the 6th century, fifty states had emerged as the political and cultural heirs of the Meroitic Kingdom. Nobatia in the north, also known as Ballanah, had its capital at Faras, in what is now Egypt; the central kingdom, Muqurra (Makuria), was centred at Dunqulah, about 13 kilometres (10 miles) south of modern Dunqulah; and Alawa (Alodia), in the heartland of old Meroe, which had its capital at Sawba (now a suburb of modern-day Khartoum). HP Pavilion dv5-1221tx laptop keyboard

In all three kingdoms, warrior aristocracies ruled Meroitic populations from royal courts where functionaries bore Greek titles in emulation of the Byzantine court. A missionary sent by Byzantine empress Theodora arrived in Nobatia and started preaching Christianity about 540 AD. The Nubiankings became Monophysite Christians. However, Makuria was of the Melkite Christian faith, unlike Nobatia and Alodia. HP G61-400SP laptop keyboard

After many attempts at military conquest failed, the Arab commander in Egypt concluded the first in a series of regularly renewed treaties known as Albaqut al-sharim (pactum) with the Nubians that governed relations between the two peoples for more than 678 years. Islam progressed in the area over a long period of time through intermarriage and contacts with Arab merchants and settlers, Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard

particularly the Sufi nobles of Arabia. Additionally, exemption from taxation in regions under Muslim rule were also a powerful incentive for conversion.[24] In 1093, a Muslim prince of Nubian royal blood ascended the throne of Dunqulah as king. The two most important Arab tribes to emerge in Nubia were the Jaali and the Juhayna. Today's northern Sudanese culture often combines Nubian and Arabic elements. HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard

During the 16th century, a people called the Funj, under a leader named Amara Dunqus, appeared in southern Nubia and supplanted the remnants of the old Christian kingdom of Alwa, establishing As-Saltana az-Zarqa (the Blue Sultanate), also called the Sultanate of Sennar. The Blue Sultanate eventually became the keystone of the Funj Empire. HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard

By the mid-16th century, Sennar controlled Al Jazirah and commanded the allegiance of vassal states and tribal districts north to the Third Cataract and south to the rainforests. The government was substantially weakened by a series of succession arguments and coups within the royal family. In 1820, Muhammad Ali of Egypt sent 4,000 troops to invade Sudan. His forces accepted Sennar's surrender from the last Funjsultan, Badi VII. TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 Laptop Keyboard

In 1821, the Albanian-Ottoman ruler of Egypt, Muhammad Ali, had invaded and conquered northern Sudan. Although technically the Wāliof Egypt under the Ottoman Sultan, Muhammad Ali styled himself as Khedive of a virtually independent Egypt. Seeking to add Sudan to his domains, he sent his third son Ismail (not to be confused with Ismail the Magnificent mentioned later) to conquer the country, Lenovo ThinkPad T410-2516 Laptop Keyboard

and subsequently incorporate it into Egypt. This policy was expanded and intensified by Ibrahim's son, Ismail I, under whose reign most of the remainder of modern-day Sudan was conquered.

The Egyptian authorities made significant improvements to the Sudanese infrastructure (mainly in the north), especially with regard to irrigation and cotton production. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7332 Laptop Keyboard

In 1879, the Great Powers forced the removal of Ismail and established his son Tewfik I in his place. Tewfik's corruption and mismanagement resulted in the Orabi Revolt, which threatened the Khedive's survival. Tewfik appealed for help to the British, who subsequently occupied Egypt in 1882. Sudan was left in the hands of the Khedivial government, and the mismanagement and corruption of its officials.[25][26][page needed] COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard

During the 1870s, European initiatives against the slave trade caused an economic crisis in northern Sudan, precipitating the rise of Mahdist forces.[27] Muhammad Ahmad ibn Abd Allah, theMahdi (Guided One), offered to the ansars (his followers) and those who surrendered to him a choice between adopting Islam or being killed. The Mahdiyah (Mahdist regime) imposed traditional Sharia Islamic laws. HP Mini 110-3120se laptop keyboard

From his announcement of the Mahdiyya in June 1881 until the fall of Khartoum in January 1885, Muhammad Ahmad led a successful military campaign against the Turco-Egyptian government of the Sudan (known as the Turkiyah). Muhammad Ahmad died on 22 June 1885, a mere six months after the conquest of Khartoum. After a power struggle amongst his deputies, HP Mini 210-1066SB laptop keyboard

Abdallahi ibn Muhammad, with the help primarily of theBaqqara Arabs of western Sudan, overcame the opposition of the others and emerged as unchallenged leader of the Mahdiyah. After consolidating his power, Abdallahi ibn Muhammad assumed the title of Khalifa (successor) of the Mahdi, instituted an administration, and appointed Ansar (who were usually Baqqara) as emirs over each of the several provinces.  SAMSUNG Q320 laptop keyboard

Regional relations remained tense throughout much of the Mahdiyah period, largely because of the Khalifa's brutal methods to extend his rule throughout the country. In 1887, a 60,000-man Ansar army invaded Ethiopia, penetrating as far as Gondar. In March 1889, king Yohannes IV of Ethiopia, marched on Metemma; however, Packard Bell Easynote TM94 laptop keyboard

after Yohannes fell in battle, the Ethiopian forces withdrew. Abd ar Rahman an Nujumi, the Khalifa's general, attempted an invasion of Egypt in 1889, but British-led Egyptian troops defeated the Ansar at Tushkah. The failure of the Egyptian invasion broke the spell of the Ansar's invincibility. TheBelgians prevented the Mahdi's men from conquering Equatoria, and in 1893, the Italians repelled an Ansar attack at Akordat (in Eritrea) and forced the Ansar to withdraw from Ethiopia.  ASUS 04GNER1KUS00 laptop keyboard

In the 1890s, the British sought to re-establish their control over Sudan, once more officially in the name of the Egyptian Khedive, but in actuality treating the country as a British colony. By the early 1890s, British, French and Belgian claims had converged at the Nile headwaters. Britain feared that the other powers would take advantage of Sudan's instability to acquire territory previously annexed to Egypt. Apart from these political considerations, Lenovo 45N2036 laptop keyboard

 Britain wanted to establish control over the Nile to safeguard a planned irrigation dam at Aswan. Lord Kitchener led military campaigns against the Mahdists from 1896 to 1898. Kitchener's campaigns culminated in a decisive victory in the Battle of Omdurman on 2 September 1898.

In 1899, Britain and Egypt reached an agreement under which Sudan was run by a governor-general appointed by Egypt with British consent.  COMPAQ Presario CQ60-104TU Laptop Keyboard

In reality, much to the revulsion of Egyptian and Sudanese nationalists[citation needed], Sudan was effectively administered as a British colony. The British were keen to reverse the process, started under Muhammad Ali Pasha, of uniting the Nile Valley under Egyptian leadership, and sought to frustrate all efforts aimed at further uniting the two countries. HP G42-380LA Laptop Keyboard

During World War II, Sudan was directly involved militarily in the East African Campaign. Formed in 1925, the Sudan Defence Force (SDF) played an active part in responding to the early incursions (occupation by Italian troops of Kassala and other border areas) into the Sudan from Italian East Africa during 1940. HP G42-380LA Laptop Keyboard

In 1942, the SDF also played a part in the invasion of the Italian colony by British and Commonwealth forces. From 1924 until independence in 1956, the British had a policy of running Sudan as two essentially separate territories, the north (Muslim) and south (Christian). The last British Governor-Generalwas Sir Robert Howe. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

The continued British administration of Sudan fueled an increasingly strident nationalist backlash in Egypt, with Egyptian nationalist leaders determined to force Britain to recognise a single independent union of Egypt and Sudan. With the formal end of Ottoman rule in 1914, Hussein Kamel was declared Sultan of Egypt and Sudan,  TOSHIBA NB200-10J Laptop Keyboard

as was his brother and successor Fuad I. They continued their insistence of a single Egyptian-Sudanese state even when the Sultanate was retitled as the Kingdom of Egypt and Sudan, but the British continued to frustrate such reaches for independence. DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard

The Egyptian Revolution of 1952 finally heralded the beginning of the march towards Sudanese independence. Having abolished the monarchy in 1953, Egypt's new leaders, Muhammad Naguib, whose mother was Sudanese, and later Gamal Abdel-Nasser, believed the only way to end British domination in Sudan was for Egypt to officially abandon its claims of sovereignty over Sudan. DELL Vostro 1510 Laptop Keyboard

The British on the other hand continued their political and financial support for the Mahdi successor Sayyid Abdel Rahman who, they believed, could resist the Egyptian pressures for Sudanese independence. Rahman was able to resist the pressures, but his regime was plagued with political ineptitude, HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard

which garnered him a loss of support in northern and central Sudan. Egypt and Britain both sensed a great political instability forming, and opted to allow the Sudanese in the north and south to have a free vote on independence to see whether they wished for a British withdrawal. HP Pavilion dv6-3080tx Laptop Keyboard

A polling process was carried out resulting in composition of a democratic parliament and Ismail al-Azhari was elected first Prime Minister and led the first modern Sudanese government.[28] On 1 January 1956, in a special ceremony held at the People's Palace, the Egyptian and British flags were lowered and the new Sudanese flag, composed of green, blue and white stripes, was raised in their place by the prime minister Ismail al-Azhari. DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard

Dissatisfaction culminated in a second coup d'état on May 25, 1969. The coup leader, Col. Gaafar Nimeiry, became prime minister, and the new regime abolished parliament and outlawed all political parties. SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard

Several days later, anti-communist military elements restored Nimeiry to power.

In 1972, the Addis Ababa Agreement led to a cessation of the north-south civil war and a degree of self-rule. This led to ten years hiatus in the civil war. DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard

Until the early 1970s, Sudan's agricultural output was mostly dedicated to internal consumption. In 1972, the Sudanese government became more pro-Western, and made plans to export food and cash crops. However, commodity prices declined throughout the 1970s causing economic problems for Sudan. At the same time, debt servicing costs, DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard

from the money spent mechanizing agriculture, rose. In 1978, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) negotiated a Structural Adjustment Program with the government. This further promoted the mechanized export agriculture sector. This caused great economic problems for the pastoralists of Sudan (See Nuba Peoples). ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

In 1976, the Ansars mounted a bloody but unsuccessful coup attempt. In July 1977, President Nimeiry met with Ansar leader Sadiq al-Mahdi, opening the way for reconciliation. Hundreds of political prisoners were released, and in August a general amnesty was announced for all opponents of Nimeiry’s government. SONY VGN-FE790G/N laptop keyboard

On 30 June 1989, Colonel Omar al-Bashir led a bloodless military coup.[16] The new military government suspended political parties and introduced an Islamic legal code on the national level.[29] Later al-Bashir carried out purges and executions in the upper ranks of the army, the banning of associations, political parties, ACER PK1306F0200 laptop keyboard

and independent newspapers, and the imprisonment of leading political figures and journalists.[30] On 16 October 1993, al-Bashir appointed himself "President" and disbanded the Revolutionary Command Council. The executive and legislative powers of the council were taken by al-Bashir.[31] SONY VGN-FE790 laptop keyboard

In the 1996 general election he was the only candidate by law to run for election.[19] Sudan became a single-party state under the National Congress Party(NCP).[32] During the 1990s, Hassan al-Turabi, then Speaker of the National Assembly, reached out to Islamic fundamentalist groups, HP G42-164LA Laptop Keyboard

even personally invitingOsama bin Laden to the country.[33] The United States subsequently listed Sudan as a state sponsor of terrorism.[34] The U.S bombed Sudan in 1998. Later, al-Turabi's influence waned, in favor of more pragmatic leaders who focussed on trying to recover from Sudan's disastrous international isolation.[35] Sudan worked to appease its international critics by expelling members of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad and encouraging bin Laden to leave.[36]  HP Pavilion dv6-2157sb Laptop Keyboard

Before the 2000 presidential election, al-Turabi introduced a bill to reduce the President's powers, prompting al-Bashir to dissolve parliament and declare astate of emergency. When al-Turabi urged a boycott of the President's re-election campaign and signed an agreement with Sudan People's Liberation Army, al-Bashir suspected they were plotting to overthrow him and the government,[37] which resulted in the jailing of Hassan al-Turabi that same year.[38] HP Mini 1116NR Laptop Keyboard

In February 2003, the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A) and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) groups in Darfur took up arms, accusing the Sudanese government of oppressing non-Arab Sudanese in favor of Sudanese Arabs, precipitating the War in Darfur. The conflict has since been described as a genocide,[39] HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard

and the International Criminal Court (ICC) has issued twoarrest warrants for al-Bashir.[40][41] Arabic-speaking nomads militias known as the Janjaweed have been accused of many atrocities.

On 9 January 2005, the Nairobi Comprehensive Peace Agreement was signed between the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) and the government, HP Pavilion dv5-1104tu Laptop Keyboard

with the objective of ending the Second Sudanese Civil War. The United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) was established under the UN Security Council Resolution 1590 to support its implementation. The peace agreement led to the 2011 referendum which resulted in the secession of South Sudan; the region of Abyei is to hold its own referendum in the future. ACER Aspire 7520 Laptop Keyboard

The Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) was the primary member of the Eastern Front, a coalition of rebel groups operating in eastern Sudan. After the peace agreement, their place was taken in February 2004 after the merger of the larger Hausa and Beja Congress with the smaller Rashaida Free Lions.[42] A peace agreement between the Sudanese government and the Eastern Front was signed on 14 October 2006, in Asmara. DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard

On 5 May 2006, the Darfur Peace Agreement was signed, aiming at ending the three-year-long conflict.[43] The Chad-Sudan Conflict (2005–2007) erupted after theBattle of Adré, which led to the declaration of war by Chad.[44] The leaders of Sudan and Chad signed an agreement in Saudi Arabia on 3 May 2007 to stop fighting from the Darfur conflict along their countries' 1,000-kilometre (600 mi) border.[45] HP G62-a30SP Laptop Keyboard

In July 2007 the country was hit by flooding,[46] with over 400,000 people being directly affected.[47] Since 2009, a series of ongoing conflicts between rival nomadic tribes in Sudan and South Sudan have resulted in a large number of casualties. The Sudan internal conflict in the early 2010s between the Army of Sudanand the Sudan Revolutionary Front started as a dispute over the oil-rich region of Abyei in the months leading up to South Sudanese independence, though it is also related to the nominally resolved war in Darfur. DELL FM8 Laptop Keyboard

Sudan is situated in northern Africa, with a 853 km (530 mi) coastline bordering the Red Sea.[48] With an area of 1,886,068 km2 (728,215 sq mi), it is the third largest country on the continent (after Algeria and DR Congo) and the sixteenth largest in the world. Sudan lies between latitudes 8° and 23°N. Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard

The terrain is generally flat plains, broken by several mountain ranges; in the west the Deriba Caldera (3,042 m or 9,980 ft), located in the Marrah Mountains, is the highest point in Sudan; in the east are the Red Sea Hills.[49]  Lenovo 3000 C100 Laptop Keyboard

The Blue and White Nile rivers meet in Khartoum to form the River Nile, which flows northwards through Egypt to theMediterranean Sea. The Blue Nile's course through Sudan is nearly 800 km (497 mi) long and is joined by the Dinder and Rahad Rivers between Sennar and Khartoum. The White Nile within Sudan has no significant tributaries. DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard

The amount of rainfall increases towards the south. In the north there is the very dry Nubian Desert; in the south there are swamps and rainforest. Sudan’s rainy season lasts for about three months (July to September) in the north, and up to six months (June to November) in the south. The dry regions are plagued by sandstorms, ASUS F3F Laptop Keyboard

known as haboob, which can completely block out the sun. In the northern and western semi-desert areas, people rely on the scant rainfall for basic agriculture and many are nomadic, travelling with their herds of sheep and camels. Nearer the River Nile, there are well-irrigated farms growing cash crops.[50]  HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard

There are several dams on the Blue and White Niles. Among them are the Sennar and Roseires Dams on the Blue Nile, and theJebel Aulia Dam on the White Nile. There is also Lake Nubia on the Sudanese-Egyptian border. TOSHIBA Satellite L455 Laptop Keyboard

Rich mineral resources are available in Sudan including asbestos, chromite, cobalt, copper, gold, granite, gypsum, iron,kaolin, lead, manganese, mica, natural gas, nickel, petroleum, silver, tin, uranium and zinc.[51] Lenovo 39T7417 laptop keyboard

Desertification is a serious problem in Sudan.[52] There is also concern over soil erosion. Agricultural expansion, both public and private, has proceeded without conservation measures. The consequences have manifested themselves in the form ofdeforestation, soil desiccation, and the lowering of soil fertility and the water table.[53] ACER TravelMate 8204WLMi laptop keyboard

The nation's wildlife is threatened by hunting. As of 2001, twenty-one mammal species and nine bird species are endangered, as well as two species of plants. Endangered species include: the waldrapp, Northern White Rhinoceros, Tora Hartebeest,Slender-horned Gazelle, and hawksbill turtle. The Sahara oryx has become extinct in the wild.[54]  HP Mini 110-3102sl laptop keyboard

Officially, the politics of Sudan takes place in the framework of a federal presidential representative democratic republic, where the President of Sudan is head of state, head of government and commander-in-chief of the Sudan People's Armed Forcesin a multi-party system. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the bicameral parliament —TOSHIBA Satellite P300-1EI laptop keyboard

the National Legislature, with its National Assembly (lower chamber) and the Council of States (upper chamber). The judiciary is independent and obtained by the Constitutional Court.[9]

However, following the Second Sudanese Civil War (1983–2005) and the now-low-scale war in Darfur, Sudan is widely recognized as an authoritarian state where all effective political power is obtained by President Omar al-Bashir and the ruling National Congress Party (NCP).  HP Pavilion dv6-2114sa laptop keyboard

In 1993, Sudan was transformed into an Islamic authoritarian single-party state as al-Bashir abolished the Revolutionary Command Council and created the National Islamic Front (NIF) with a new parliament and government obtained solely by members of the NIF. At the same time, the structure of regional administration was replaced by the creation of twenty-six states, each headed by a governor, thus making Sudan a federal republic. HP Mini 110-1116NR laptop keyboard

Executive posts are divided between the NCP, the SPLA, the Sudanese Eastern Front and factions of the Umma Party andDemocratic Unionist Party (DUP). HP Pavilion dv6-3106tu laptop keyboard

According to the new 2005 constitution, the bicameral National Legislature is the official Sudanese parliament and is divided between two chambers — the National Assembly, a lower house with 450 seats, and the Council of States, an upper house with 50 seats. Thus the parliament consists of 500 appointed members altogether, where all are indirectly elected by state legislatures to serve six-year terms.[9] SONY VAIO VGN-CS31Z/Q laptop keyboard

Despite his international arrest warrant, al-Bashir was a candidate in the 2010 Sudanese presidential election, the first democratic election with multiple political parties participating in twenty-four years.[55] In the build-up to the vote, Sudanese pro-democracy activists say they faced intimidation by the government[56] and the International Crisis Group reported that the ruling party had gerrymandered electoral districts.[57] SONY VAIO VGN-SR290 laptop keyboard

A few days before the vote, the main opposition candidate, Yasir Arman from the SPLM, withdrew from the race.[58] The U.S.-based Carter Center, which helped monitor the elections, described the vote tabulation process as "highly chaotic, non-transparent and vulnerable to electoral manipulation."[59] Al-Bashir was declared the winner of the election with sixty-eight percent of the vote.[55] SONY VAIO VGN-CS31S/R laptop keyboard

Sudan has had a troubled relationship with many of its neighbours and much of the international community, owing to what is viewed as its radical Islamic stance. For much of the 1990s, Uganda, Kenya and Ethiopia formed an ad-hoc alliance called the "Front Line States" with support from the United States to check the influence of the National Islamic Front government. The Sudanese Government supported anti-Ugandan rebel groups such as the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA). IBM 42T3297 laptop keyboard

As the National Islamic Front regime in Khartoum gradually emerged as a real threat to the region and the world, the U.S. began to list Sudan on its list of State Sponsors of Terrorism. After the US listed Sudan as a state sponsor of terrorism, the NIF decided to develop relations with Iraq, and later Iran, the two most controversial countries in the region.  HP Pavilion dv6-2135er laptop keyboard

From the mid-1990s, Sudan gradually began to moderate its positions as a result of increased U.S. pressure following the 1998 U.S. embassy bombings, in Tanzania and Kenya, and the new development of oil fields previously in rebel hands. Sudan also has a territorial dispute with Egypt over the Hala'ib Triangle. Since 2003, the foreign relations of Sudan have centred on the support for ending the Second Sudanese Civil War and condemnation of government support for militias in the war in Darfur. HP Pavilion G7T-1000 Series laptop keyboard

Sudan has extensive economic relations with China. China obtains ten percent of its oil from Sudan. According to a former Sudanese government minister, China is Sudan's largest supplier of arms.[60] ASUS X53S laptop keyboard

On 27 December 2005, Sudan became one of the few states to recognize Moroccan sovereignty over Western Sahara.[61]

The Sudan People's Armed Forces is the regular forces of Sudan and is divided into five branches; the Sudanese Army, Sudanese Navy (including the Marine Corps), Sudanese Air Force, Border Patrol and the Internal Affairs Defense Force, SONY Vaio PCG-K23 laptop keyboard

totalling about 200,000 troops. The military of Sudan has become a well-equipped fighting force, thanks to increasing local production of heavy and advanced arms. These forces are under the command of the National Assembly and its strategic principles include defending Sudan's external borders and preserve internal security. TOSHIBA Satellite M105-S3004 laptop keyboard

However, since the Darfur crisis in 2004, safe-keeping the central government from the armed resistance and rebellion of paramilitary rebel groups such as the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA), the Sudanese Liberation Army (SLA) and theJustice and Equality Movement (JEM) have been important priorities. While not official, the Sudanese military also uses nomad militias, the most prominent being the Janjaweed, in executing a counter-insurgency war.[62] Somewhere between 200,000[63] and 400,000[9][64][65] people have died in the violent struggles. GATEWAY MX8715 laptop keyboard

Several UN agents are operating in Sudan such as the World Food Program (WFP); the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation (FAO); the United Nations Development Program (UNDP); the United Nations Industrial Development Organizations (UNIDO); the United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF); Doctors Without Borders (DWB);the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR); SONY Vaio VGN-AW330J laptop keyboard

the United Nations Mine Service (UNMAS), the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) and the World Bank. Also present is the Intergovernmental Organization for Migration (IOM).[66][67] SONY Vaio PCG-K315S Laptop Keyboard

Since Sudan has experienced civil war for many years, many Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) are also involved in humanitarian efforts to help internally displaced people. The NGOs are working in every corner of Sudan,  HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard

especially in the southern part and western parts. During the civil war, international nongovernmental organizations such as the Red Cross were operating mostly in the south but based in the capital Khartoum.[68] The attention of NGOs shifted shortly after the war broke out in the western part of the Sudan known as Darfur. The most visible organization in South Sudan is the Operation Lifeline Sudan(OLS) consortium.[69] HP Business Notebook nx9000 Laptop Keyboard

Even though most of the international organizations are substantially concentrated in both South Sudan and Darfur region, some of them are working in the northern part as well. For example the United Nations Industrial Development Organization is successfully operating in Khartoum, the capital. It is mainly funded by the European Union and recently opened more vocational training. The Canadian International Development Agency is operating largely in northern Sudan.[70]  IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 Laptop Keyboard

The legal system in Sudan is based on English common law and Islamic sharia. Islamic law was implemented in all of the north as of September 1983, by Jafar An-Numeri, the Second Sudanese Military Dictator; this applied to all residents of the Sudan regardless of their religion. The 2005 Naivasha Agreement, ending the civil war between north and south Sudan, established some protections for non-Muslims in Khartoum. HP 519004-001 Laptop Keyboard

International Court of Justice jurisdiction is accepted, though with reservations. Under the terms of the Naivasha Agreement, Islamic law did not apply in the south.[71] Since the secession of South Sudan there is some uncertainty as to whether Sharia law will now apply to the non-Muslim minorities present in Sudan, especially because of contradictory statements by al-Bashir on the matter.[72]  ACER Aspire One D150-1577 Laptop Keyboard

The judicial branch of the Sudanese government consists of a Constitutional Court of nine justices, the National Supreme Court and National Courts of Appeal, and other national courts; the National Judicial Service Commission provides overall management for the judiciary.  FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard

A letter dated 14 August 2006, from the executive director of Human Rights Watch found that the Sudanese government is both incapable of protecting its own citizens in Darfur and unwilling to do so, and that its militias are guilty of crimes against humanity. The letter added that these human-rights abuses have existed since 2004.[73]  HP G61-465SL Laptop Keyboard

Some reports attribute part of the violations to the rebels as well as the government and the Janjaweed. The U.S. State Department's human-rights report issued in March 2007 claims that "[a]ll parties to the conflagration committed serious abuses, including widespread killing of civilians, rape as a tool of war, systematic torture, robbery and recruitment of child soldiers."[74] HP Pavilion ze5715ca Laptop Keyboard

Both government forces and militias allied with the government are known to attack not only civilians in Darfur, but also humanitarian workers. Sympathizers of rebel groups are arbitrarily detained, as are foreign journalists, human-rights defenders, student activists and displaced people in and around Khartoum, some of whom face torture. The rebel groups have also been accused in a report issued by the U.S. government of attacking humanitarian workers and of killing innocent civilians.[75]  GATEWAY MX8715 Laptop Keyboard

In 2010, Sudan was considered the 17th-fastest-growing economy[78] in the world and the rapid development of the country largely from oil profits even when facing international sanctions was noted by The New York Times in a 2006 article.[79]Because of the secession of South Sudan, which contained over 80 percent of Sudan's oilfields, the economic forecast for Sudan in 2011 and beyond is uncertain. DELL Vostro 1015 Laptop Keyboard

Even with the oil profits before the secession of South Sudan, Sudan still faced formidable economic problems, and its growth was still a rise from a very low level of per capita output. In any case, the economy in the Sudan has been slowly growing over the last ten years, HP Pavilion zv6233ea Laptop Keyboard

and according to a World Bank report the overall growth in GDP in 2010 was 5.2 percent compared to 2009 growth of 4.2 percent.[9] This growth was sustained even during the crisis in Darfur and period of southern autonomypreceding South Sudan's independence.[80][81]  HP Mini 110-1032NR Laptop Keyboard

While historically agriculture remains the main source of income and employment hiring of over 80 percent of Sudanese, and makes up a third of the economic sector, oil production drove most of Sudan's post-2000 growth. Currently, the International Monetary Fund IMF is working hand in hand with Khartoum government to implement sound macroeconomic policies. SONY VAIO VGN-FS940 laptop keyboard

This follows a turbulent period in the 1980s when debt-ridden Sudan's relations with the IMF and World Bank soured, culminating in its eventual suspension from the IMF.[82][page needed] The program has been in place since the early 1990s, and also work-out exchange rate and reserve of foreign exchange.[9] Since 1997, Sudan has been implementing the macroeconomic reforms recommended by the International Monetary Fund.[citation needed] SONY VAIO VGN-FS730F laptop keyboard

In 1999, Sudan began exporting crude oil and in the last quarter of 1999, recorded its first trade surplus. Increased oil production (the current[when?] production is about 520,000 barrels per day (83,000 m3/d)) revived light industry, and expanded export processing zones helped sustain gross domestic product (GDP) growth at 6.1 percent in 2003. These gains, along with improvements to monetary policy, HP Pavilion dv3-2157cl laptop keyboard

have stabilized the exchange rate. The People's Republic of China is Sudan's largest economic partner, with a 40 percent share in its oil.[83] The country also sells Sudan small arms, which have been used in military operations such as the conflicts in Darfur and South Kordofan.[84] SONY Vaio PCG-K315S laptop keyboard

Oil was Sudan's main export, with production increasing dramatically during the late 2000s, in the years before South Sudan gained independence in July 2011. With rising oil revenues, the Sudanese economy was booming, with a growth rate of about nine percent in 2007. Sustained growth was expected the next year in 2008 because of not only increasing oil production, but also to the boost of hydroelectricity (annual electricity yield of 5.5 TWh) HP Pavilion dv3-2157cl laptop keyboard

provided by the Merowe Dam. The independence of oil-rich South Sudan, however, placed most major oilfields out of the Sudanese government's direct control. In order to export oil, South Sudan must rely on a pipeline to Port Sudan on Sudan's Red Sea coast, as South Sudan itself is landlocked, HP Pavilion dv6-2030ev laptop keyboard

as well as on Sudan's superior refinery infrastructure. The exact terms of a revenue-splitting agreement between Juba and Khartoum have yet to be established, but Sudan will likely receive a significant portion of the income from South Sudan's oil sales as a fee for the use of Sudanese pipelines, refineries, and port facilities, perhaps as much as 50 percent of the profits.[85] HP G61-465SL laptop keyboard

Agriculture production remains Sudan's most-important sector, employing eighty percent of the workforce and contributing thirty-nine percent of GDP, but most farms remain rain-fed and susceptible to drought. Instability, adverse weather and weak world-agricultural prices ensures that much of the population will remain at or below the poverty line for years.  LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 laptop keyboard

The Merowe Dam, also known as Merowe Multi-Purpose Hydro Project or Hamdab Dam, is a large construction project in Northern Sudan, about 350 kilometres (220 mi) north of the capital, Khartoum. It is situated on the River Nile, close to the Fourth Cataract where the river divides into multiple smaller branches with large islands in between. Merowe is a city about 40 kilometres (25 mi) downstream from the dam's construction site. SONY VAIO VGN-FS315M laptop keyboard

The main purpose of the dam will be the generation of electricity. Its dimensions make it the largest contemporary hydropower project in Africa. The construction of the dam was finished December 2008, supplying more than ninety percent of the population with electricity. Other gas-powered generating stations are operational in Khartoum State and other States. HP Mini 110-1150EV laptop keyboard

In Sudan's 2008 census, the population of Northern, Western and Eastern Sudan was recorded to be over 30 million.[86] This puts present estimates of the population of Sudan after the secession of South Sudan at a little over 30 million people. This is a significant increase over the past two decades as the 1983 census put the total population of Sudan, including present-day South Sudan, at 21.6 million.[87] The population of metropolitan Khartoum (including Khartoum, Omdurman, and Khartoum North) is growing rapidly and was recorded to be 5.2 million.  Packard Bell NEW95 laptop keyboard

Despite being a refugee-generating country, Sudan also hosts a refugee population. According to the World Refugee Survey 2008, published by the U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, 310,500 refugees and asylum seekers lived in Sudan in 2007. The majority of this population came from Eritrea (240,400 persons), Chad (45,000), HP Envy 15-1090eg laptop keyboard

Ethiopia (49,300) and the Central African Republic(2,500).[88] The Sudanese government UN High Commissioner for Refugees in 2007 forcibly deported at least 1,500 refugees and asylum seekers during the year. Sudan is a party to the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees.[88] SONY Vaio VGN-FW390 laptop keyboard

The Arab presence is estimated at 70% of the Sudanese population.[9] Others include the Arabized ethnic groups of Nubians, Copts, and Beja.[89][90]

Sudan has 597 tribes that speak over 400 different languages and dialects.[91] Sudanese Arabs are by far the largest ethnic group in Sudan. They are almost entirely Muslims; while the majority speak Sudanese Arabic, some other Arab tribes speak different Arabic dialects like Awadia and Fadnia and Bani Arak tribes who speak Najdi Arabic; SONY VAIO PCG-FR55E Laptop Keyboard

and Rufa'a, Bani Hassan, Al-Ashraf, Kinanahand Rashaida who speak Hejazi Arabic. In addition, the Western province comprises various ethnic groups, while a few Arab Bedouinof the northern Rizeigat and others who speak Sudanese Arabic share the same culture and backgrounds of the Sudanese Arabs. DELL M711P Laptop Keyboard

The majority of Arabized and indigenous tribes like the Fur, Zaghawa, Masalit and some Baggara ethnic groups, who speak Chadian Arabic, show less cultural integration because of cultural, linguistic and genealogical variations with other Arab and Arabized tribes.[92]  HP AEAT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard

Sudanese Arabs of Northern and Eastern parts descend primarily from migrants from the Arabian peninsula and some of the pre-existing indigenous populations of Sudan, especially the Nubian people, who also share a common history with Egypt and Beja. Additionally, a few pre-Islamic Arabian tribes existed in Sudan from earlier migrations into the region from Western Arabia, although most Arabs in Sudan are dated from migrations after the 12th century.[93]  HP 540 Laptop Keyboard

The vast majority of Arab tribes in Sudan migrated into the Sudan in the 12th century, intermarried with the indigenous Nubian and African populations and introduced Islam.[94]

In common with much of the rest of the Arab world, the gradual process of Arabization in Sudan following these Arabian migrations after the 12th century led to the predominance of the Arabic language and aspects of Arab culture, DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard

leading to the shift among a majority of Sudanese today to an Arab ethnic identity. This process was furthered both by the spread of Islam and an emigration to Sudan of genealogical Arabs from the Arabian Peninsula, and their intermarriage with the Arabized indigenous peoples of the country.[citation needed]  HP G62-361TX Laptop Keyboard

Sudan consists of numerous other non-Arabic tribes, such as the Masaleet, Zagawa, Fulani, Northern Nubians, Nuba, and Bija.

97 percent of the population adheres to Islam.[95] Almost all Muslims are Sunni, although there are significant distinctions between followers of different Sunni traditions. Two popular divisions, the Ansar and the Khatmia,  DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard

are associated with the opposition Umma and Democratic Unionist Parties, respectively. A minority of Muslims are Shia or Sufi There are significant but long-established groups of Coptic Orthodox and Greek Orthodox Christians in Khartoum and other northern cities.

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Other Christian groups with smaller followings in the country include the Africa Inland Church, theArmenian Apostolic Church, the Sudan Church of Christ, the Sudan Interior Church, Jehovah's Witnesses, the Sudan Pentecostal Church, the Sudan Evangelical Presbyterian Church (in the North) Religious identity plays a role in the country's political divisions. Northern and western Muslims have dominated the country's political and economic system since independence. The NCP draws much of its support from Islamists, HP Pavilion dv5-1104tu Laptop Keyboard

Salafis/Wahhabis and other conservative Arab Muslims in the north. The Umma Party has traditionally attracted Arab followers of the Ansar sect of Sufism as well as non-Arab Muslims from Darfur and Kordofan. The Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) includes both Arab and non-Arab Muslims in the north and east, especially those in the Khatmia Sufi sect. GATEWAY NV-59 Laptop Keyboard

Approximately 70 languages are native to Sudan.[96]

Sudanese Arabic is the most widely spoken language in the country. It is the variety of Arabic spoken throughout northern Sudan. It has much borrowed vocabulary from the local languages (El Rotana). ACER Aspire 5930 Laptop Keyboard

This has resulted in a variety of Arabic that is unique to Sudan, reflecting the way in which the country has been influenced by both African and Arab cultures. Some of the tribes in Sudan still have similar accents to the ones in Saudi Arabia. Other important languages include Beja (AKA Bedawi) along the Red Sea, with perhaps 2 million speakers; Fur in the west (Darfur), with perhaps a million speakers; DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard

and the various Nubian languages along the Nile in the north, with half a million or so speakers. The most linguistically diverse region in the country are the Nuba Hills in Kordofan, inhabited by speakers of multiple language families, with Darfur and the Ethiopian-border regions being second.

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Arabic is Semitic, the Niger–Congo family is represented by many of the Kordofanian languages, and Indo-Europeanby Domari (Gypsy) and English. Historically, Old Nubian, Greek, and Coptic (Egyptian) were the languages of Christian Nubia, and Meroitic the language of theKingdom of Kush which conquered Egypt. TOSHIBA NSK-TAJ01 Laptop Keyboard

Sudan also has multiple regional sign languages, which are not mutually intelligible. But 2009 a proposal for a unified Sudanese Sign Language had been worked out, but was not widely known.[97]  Lenovo Thinkpad T420 Laptop Keyboard

Before 2005, only Arabic was the official language.[98] In the 2005 constitution, Sudan's official languages became Arabic and English.[99]

Sudan has a rich and unique musical culture that has been through chronic instability and repression during the modern history of Sudan.  Lenovo Thinkpad T420 Laptop Keyboard

 Beginning with the imposition of strict sharia law in 1989, many of the country's most prominent poets, like Mahjoub Sharif, were imprisoned while others, like Mohammed el Amin (returned to Sudan in mid of 1990s) and Mohammed Wardi (returned to Sudan 2003), fled to Cairo. Traditional music suffered too, with traditional Zār ceremonies being interrupted and drums confiscated [1]. At the same time, however, -shop.com/sony-vaio-vgn-nw320f-cc1-t-laptop-keyboard.html">SONY VAIO VGN-NW320F/T laptop keyboard

the European militaries contributed to the development of Sudanese music by introducing new instruments and styles; military bands, especially the Scottish bagpipes, were renowned, and set traditional music to military march music. The march March Shulkawi No 1, is an example, set to the sounds of the Shilluk. SONY VAIO VPC-F12 laptop keyboard

The most popular sports in Sudan are athletics, (track and field), and football. Though not as successful as football, handball,basketball, and volleyball are also popular in Sudan.

Sudanese football has a long history. Sudan was one of the four African nations - the others being Egypt, SONY VAIO PCG-FR55E/B laptop keyboard

Ethiopia and South Africa - which formed African football. Sudan hosted the first African Cup of Nations in 1956, and has won the African Cup Of Nations once, in 1970. Two years later, the Sudan National Football Team participated in the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich. The nation's capital is home to the Khartoum League, which is considered to be the oldest football league in Africa. SONY VAIO PCG-FR55E/B laptop keyboard

Sudanese football teams such as Al-Hilal and El-Merreikh are among the nation's strongest teams. Other teams like Khartoum, El-Neel, and Hay-Al Arab, are also starting to grow in popularity.

Most individual Sudanese wear either traditional or western attire. A traditional garb widely worn in Sudan is the jalabiya, which is a loose-fitting,  HP G62-b21SL laptop keyboard

long-sleeved, collarless ankle-length garment also common to Egypt. The jalabiya is accompanied by a large scarf worn by women, and the garment may be white, colored, striped, and made of fabric varying in thickness, depending on the season of the year and personal preferences.

A similar garment common to Sudan is the thobe or thawb.  COMPAQ Presario V6405CA laptop keyboard

Like the jalabiya, the thawb is a long, tunic-like garment, although it may have a collar, be less loose-fitting, or have shorter sleeves or length than the jalabiya. The word "thawb" means "garment" in Arabic, and the thawb itself is the traditional Arab dress for men, although the word may also refer to similar tunic-like garments worn by women. HP Pavilion G7-1077NR laptop keyboard

Education in Sudan is free and compulsory for children aged 6 to 13 years. Primary education consists of eight years, followed by three years of secondary education. The former educational ladder 6 + 3 + 3 was changed in 1990. The primary language at all levels is Arabic. Schools are concentrated in urban areas; Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

many in the South and West have been damaged or destroyed by years of civil war. In 2001 the World Bank estimated that primary enrollment was 46 percent of eligible pupils and 21 percent of secondary students. Enrollment varies widely, falling below 20 percent in some provinces. Sudan has 19 universities; instruction is primarily in Arabic. Education at the secondary and university levels has been seriously hampered by the requirement that most males perform military service before completing their education.[100]  FUJITSU Lifebook S7111 laptop keyboard

The literacy rate is 70.2% of total population, male: 79.6%, female: 60.8%.[9]

On 11 October 2007, the SPLM withdrew from the government of national unity (GoNU), accusing the central government of violating the terms of the CPA. In particular, the SPLM states that the Khartoum-based government, which is dominated by the National Congress Party, SONY VAIO VGN-CR410E laptop keyboard

has failed to withdraw over 15,000 troops from southern oilfields and failed to implement the Protocol on Abyei. The SPLM stated that it was not returning to war, while analysts noted that the agreement had been disintegrating for some time, notably because of international focus on the conflict in nearby Darfur.[1] HP Mini 110-3538tu laptop keyboard

The SPLM announced that it was rejoining the government on 13 December 2007, following an agreement. The agreement states that the seat of government will rotate between Juba and Khartoum every three months, though it appears that this will be largely symbolic, as well as funding for a census (vital for the referendum) and a timetable for the withdrawal of troops across the border.[2] ASUS X85S laptop keyboard

Northern Sudanese troops finally left Southern Sudan on 8 January 2008.[3]

The Second Sudanese Civil War was a conflict from 1983 to 2005 between the central Sudanese government and theSudan People's Liberation Army. It was largely a continuation of the First Sudanese Civil War of 1955 to 1972. Although it originated in southern Sudan, the civil war spread to the Nuba mountains and Blue Nile. It lasted for 22 years. DELL PK1303Q0100 Laptop Keyboard

Roughly two million people have died as a result of war, famine and disease caused by the conflict. Four million people in southern Sudan have been displaced at least once (and often repeatedly) during the war. The civilian death toll is one of the highest of any war since World War II.[5] The conflict officially ended with the signing of a peace agreement in January 2005.  ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard

The war is often characterized as a fight between the central government expanding and dominating peoples of the periphery, raising allegations of marginalization. Kingdoms and great powers based along the Nile River have fought against the people of inland Sudan for centuries. Since at least the 17th century, central governments have attempted to regulate and exploit the undeveloped southern and inland Sudan.[6] SAMSUNG R522 Laptop Keyboard

Some sources describe the conflict as an ethnoreligious one where the muslim central government's pursuits to impose sharia law on non-muslim southerners led to violence, and eventually to the civil war.[7][8][9][10] Douglas Johnson have pointed at exploitative governance as the root cause.[11] GATEWAY NV-54 Laptop Keyboard

When the British governed Sudan as a colony they administered the northern and southern provinces separately. The south was held to be more similar to the other east-African colonies — Kenya, Tanganyika, and Uganda — while northern Sudan was more similar to Arabic-speaking Egypt. Northern Arabs were prevented from holding positions of power in the Catholic-dominated south, HP G42-362LA Laptop Keyboard

and trade was discouraged between the two areas. However, in 1946, the British gave in to northern pressure to integrate the two areas. Arabic was made the language of administration in the south, and northerners began to hold positions there. The southern elite, trained in English, resented the change as they were kept out of their own government.[12]  SONY KFRSBA019A Laptop Keyboard

After decolonization most power was given to the northern elites based in Khartoum, causing unrest in the south. The British moved towards granting Sudan independence, they failed to consider southern needs. Southern Sudanese leaders weren't even invited to negotiations during the transitional period in the 1950s. In the post-colonial government of 1953, the Sudanization Committee only included 6 southern leaders, though there were some 800 available senior administrative positions.[11] Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard

See also: First Sudanese Civil War

In the early Sudanese state, the government enacted many repressive measures. In 1962, foreign Christian missionarieswere expelled from the country, and Christian schools were closed. The government's attacks on southern protesters resulted in sporadic fighting and mutinies, transitioning into a full-scale civil war. SONY KFRMBA152B Laptop Keyboard

The civil war ended in 1972, with the Addis Ababa Agreement. Part of the agreement was a great deal of religious and cultural autonomy to the south.[13]

Another factor in the second war were the natural resources of Sudan, particularly in the South, where there are significant oil fields. Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard

Oil revenues make up about 70% of Sudan's export earnings. Due to numerous tributaries of theNile river and heavier precipitation in southern Sudan, the south also has greater access to water, and is therefore much more fertile. The north of the country is on the edge of the Sahara desert. The northern desire to control these resources in 2004 to present, and the southern desire to maintain control of the resources where they live, contributed to the war. A parallel war between the Nuer and Dinka also raged in the south. ACER Aspire 7745G Laptop Keyboard

Government marginalization was also the cause of spreading the war to other regions of Sudan. The government's policy was of taking land from farmers (Muslims and non-Muslims alike) and transferring it to government officials and merchants. This had drastic effects on the population of Darfur and Blue Nile.  HP Probook 4515S Laptop Keyboard

Eventually this would create unrest all over Sudan, including the north.[3]

The Addis Ababa Accords were incorporated in the Constitution of Sudan; the violation of the agreement led to the second civil war.[3] SONY VAIO VGN-N31S/W Laptop Keyboard

The first violations occurred when President Gaafar Nimeiry attempted to take control of oil fields straddling the north-south border. Oil had been discovered in Bentiu in 1978, in southern Kurdufan and Upper Blue Nile in 1979, the Unity oilfields in 1980 and Adar oilfields in 1981, and in Heglig in 1982. Access to the oil fields meant significant economic benefit to whoever controlled them.[3]

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The fundamentalists continued to grow in power, and in 1983 President Nimeiry declared all Sudan an Islamic state, terminating the Southern Sudan Autonomous Region.[14]

The Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) was founded in 1983 as a rebel group, to reestablish an autonomous Southern Sudanby fighting against the central government. While based in Southern Sudan, ASUS F3Sv laptop keyboard

it identified itself as a movement for all oppressed Sudanese citizens, and was led by John Garang. Initially, the SPLA campaigned for a "United Sudan", criticizing the central government for policies that were leading to national "disintegration".[3]  Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

In September 1984, President Nimeiry announced the end of the state of emergency and dismantled the emergency courts but soon promulgated a new judiciary act, which continued many of the practices of the emergency courts. Despite Nimeiry's public assurances that the rights of non-Muslims would be respected, southerners and other non-Muslims remained deeply suspicious.  IBM Thinkpad R40 laptop keyboard

In May 1986, the Sadiq al-Mahdi government coalition began peace negotiations with the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) led by Col. John Garang. In that year the SPLA and a number of Sudanese political parties met in Ethiopia and agreed to the "Koka Dam" declaration, which called for abolishing Islamic Sharia law and convening a constitutional conference.  HP Mini 210-1124TU laptop keyboard

In 1988, the SPLA and the DUP agreed on a peace plan calling for the abolition of military pacts with Egypt and Libya, freezing of Sharia law, an end to the state of emergency, and a cease-fire. However during this period the second civil war intensified in lethality, and the national economy continued to deteriorate. When prices of basic goods were increased in 1988, riots ensued, and the price increases were cancelled. SONY VAIO VGN-NW23GF laptop keyboard

When Prime Minister Sadiq al-Mahdi refused to approve a peace plan reached by the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) and the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) in November 1988, the DUP left the government. The new government consisted essentially of the Umma Party and the fundamentalist National Islamic Front (NIF). TOSHIBA Satellite P105-S6102 laptop keyboard

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In February 1989, the army presented Prime Minister Sadiq al-Mahdi with an ultimatum: he could move toward peace or be removed. He chose to form a new government with the DUP, and approved the SPLA/DUP peace plan. A constitutional conference was tentatively planned for September 1989. ACER Aspire 4315 laptop keyboard

In August 1991, internal dissension among the rebels led opponents of Colonel Garang's leadership of the SPLA to form the so-called Nasir faction of the SPLArebel army. The attempt to overthrow Garang was led by Riek Machar and Lam Akol. In September 1992, William Nyuon Bany formed a second rebel faction, Lenovo 04W0872 laptop keyboard

and in February 1993, Kerubino Kwanyin Bol formed a third rebel faction. On 5 April 1993, the three dissident rebel factions announced a coalition of their groups called SPLA United at a press conference in Nairobi, Kenya. Yet Sudan’s national governments have a long history of using proxies in Southern Sudan, and the North–South border areas, ACER Aspire 7745G Laptop Keyboard

to fight their wars and preserve their regular forces. These militias were recruited locally, and with covert ties to the national government. Many of the Khartoum-aligned groups were created and then armed by the NIF in a deliberate ‘divide and rule’ strategy.[18]

After 1991, the factions clashed occasionally and thus, the rebels lost much of their credibility with the West. DELL NSK-DD101 Laptop Keyboard

The Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) was in control of large areas of Equatoria, Bahr al Ghazal, and Upper Nile provinces and also operated in the southern portions of Darfur, Kordofan, and Blue Nile provinces. The government controlled a number of the major southern towns and cities, including Juba, Wau, andMalakal. An informal cease-fire in May broke down in October 1989. SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard

In July 1992, a government offensive seized southern Sudan, and captured the SPLA headquarters in Torit.[16]

It is estimated that as many as 200,000 Southern Sudanese and Nuba children and women have been taken into slavery from Southern Sudanese towns and villages during the war. Both the government regular armed forces and notorious militia (known as the People's Defense Forces, PDF) were used to attack and raid villages in the South and the Nuba Mountains for slaves and cattle.[17] HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard

Then, in 1990–91, the Sudanese government supported Saddam Hussein in the Gulf War. This changed American attitudes toward the country. Bill Clinton's administration prohibited American investment in the country and supplied money to neighbouring countries to repel Sudanese incursions. The US also began attempts to "isolate" Sudan and began referring to it as a rogue state.  Lenovo 0A62075 Laptop Keyboard

Since 1993, the leaders of Eritrea, Ethiopia, Uganda, and Kenya have pursued a peace initiative for Sudan under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), but results have been mixed. Despite that record, the IGAD initiative promulgated the 1994 Declaration of Principles (DOP) that aimed to identify the essential elements necessary to a just and comprehensive peace settlement; i.e., the relationship between religion and the state, power-sharing, wealth-sharing, and the right of self-determination for the south. HP Pavilion G7-1081NR Laptop Keyboard

The Sudanese Government did not sign the DOP until 1997 after major battle field losses to the SPLA.

In 1995, the opposition in the north united with parties from the south to create a coalition of opposition parties called the National Democratic Alliance. This development opened a northeastern front to the civil war, making it more than before a center-periphery rather than simply a north-south conflict. SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W Laptop Keyboard

The SPLA, DUP, and Umma Parties were the key groups forming the NDA, along with several smaller parties and northern ethnic groups.[14]

In 1995, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Uganda stepped up their military assistance to the SPLA to the point of sending active troops into Sudan. Eritrean and Ethiopian military involvement weakened when the two countries entered a border conflict in 1998. Uganda's support weakened when it shifted its attention to the conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo.[19] ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard

By 1997, seven groups in the government camp, led by former Garang lieutenant Riek Machar, signed the Khartoum Peace Agreement with the NIF, thereby forming the largely symbolic South Sudan Defence Forces (SSDF) umbrella.[18] Also in 1997, the government signed the Nuba Mountains, and Fashoda agreements with rebel factions. HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard

These included the Khartoum, agreements that ended military conflict between the government and significant rebel factions. Many of those leaders then moved to Khartoum where they assumed marginal roles in the central government, or collaborated with the government in military engagements against the SPLA. These three agreements paralleled the terms and conditions of the IGAD agreement, calling for a degree of autonomy for the south and the right of self-determination. FUJITSU CP270342-02 Laptop Keyboard

In July 2000, the Libyan/Egyptian Joint Initiative on the Sudan was mooted, calling for the establishment of an interim government, power-sharing, constitutional reform, and new elections. Southern critics objected to the joint initiative because it neglected to address issues of the relationship between religion  Acer eMachines E730 laptop keyboard

and the state and failed to mention the right of self-determination. It is unclear to what extent this initiative will have a significant impact on the search for peace, as some critics view it as more aimed at a resolution among northern political parties and protecting the perceived security interests of Egypt in favour of the unity of the Sudan. SONY Vaio PCG-K215S laptop keyboard

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