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Sunshine keyboard IBJ was originally founded as a public-sector bank under the Industrial Bank of Japan Act of 1902. At that time, Japan was in the throes of its industrial revolution, and there was a strong demand for long-term investment capital. IBJ raised funds by issuing bank debentures. HP 367778-001 Laptop Keyboard IBJ also acted as the trustee in corporate debenture issues - notably, the major Japanese railway company issue of 1906 in London, amount to the then-enormous sum of 1 million pounds sterling. These activities contributed to the building of the Japanese domestic securities market, and to the generating of a higher profile for Japanese borrowers in the international market. HP Pavilion DV6z artist edition 2 Laptop Keyboard This early experience of a sophisticated mix of corporate and investment banking with exposure to trust work is unique to IBJ amongst Japanese banks. In the original Act, there was the wording, “Trust business related to local government bond, corporate bonds, andequities”. This was the first time for the term “trust”, or “shintaku” (信託?), to appear in the Japanese statute book. SONY VAIO VGN-FS640 Laptop Keyboard The 1918 amendment to the IBJ Act permitted the underwriting and offering of equities. At that point, IBJ had the full capabilities for what is now termed investment banking. However, that was at what proved to be the peak of the demand created for Japanese products by the First World War and the consequent economic boom. HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard Thereafter, the next 30 years of Japanese history encompassed many adversities for society in general and for financial institutions in particular: the Great Kanto Earthquake, the Showa Financial Panic, and finally, the Second World War and the postwar recovery. HP Mini 210-1190NR Laptop Keyboard IBJ became a private-sector bank in 1950 and took on legal form under the Long-Term Bank Act of 1952. However the Act was framed within the terms of the US-led Occupation policy of compartmentalizing financial services. IBJ was forced to retreat from much of its former investment banking activities and return principally to long-term lending funding by issuing bank debentures. HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard During the high-growth period of the Japanese economy in the 1960s, IBJ was particularly active in financing steel production,shipping, shipbuilding, and automobile manufacturing. Following the first oil crisis, Japan moved to a pattern of lower growth as a mature economy, and IBJ expanded its customer base at home, and started the process of expansion overseas. SONY VAIO VPCF126FM Laptop Keyboard In Japan, the wholesaling of bank debentures to major financial institutions and the regional banks led to a network of strong relationships. This was all supported by the fact that, originally a public-sector bank, IBJ had no keiretsu affiliations: IBJ has always been independent of the large corporate groupings characteristic of Japan and was hence number 2 banker to each and all of the major keiretsu groupings. Internationally, IBJ was free to pursue its investment banking ambitions. Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard originally Dai-Ichi Kokuritsu Bank (lit. FirstNational Bank) was literally the first bank and the first joint stock company ever to be established in Japan. Established by an industrialist Shibusawa Eiichi in 1873, it was originally empowered to issue banknotes, until the Bank of Japan assumed this function in 1883. Subsequently, it became a purely commercial bank based in Tokyo. SONY 147915321 Laptop Keyboard In 1884 Dai-Ichi Bank made a deal with the Joseon Dynasty to make Dai-Ichi Bank Korea Branch the monopoly agent of tariffmanagement for Choson. In subsequent years Dai-Ichi began issuing banknotes called “Dai-Ichi Bank Token” in Korea, and became the de facto central bank of Korea. Following the Japan-Korea Protectorate Treaty of 1904, however, Dai-Ichi was deprived of its privileges in Korea by the new colonial government, and reverted to being a conventional bank. HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard In 1943 Dai-Ichi Bank and Mitsui Bank, a Mitsui zaibatsu company, merged to form Teikoku Bank (lit. Imperial Bank of Japan). Teikoku Bank was the largest bank in Japan in terms of assets when it was inaugurated. Teikoku Bank, however, couldn't expand its business freely owing to Japan being at World War II. Furthermore, former Dai-Ichi employees and Mitsui employees didn't get along well together because of the difference of the two banks' corporate culture. As a result of its deteriorating business performance, Teikoku Bank was divided into two banks, the new Dai-Ichi Bank and the new Teikoku Bank in 1948. DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard The new Teikoku Bank was renamed Mitsui Bank in 1954. It merged with Taiyo Kobe Bank to form Sakura Bank in 1990. Sakura Bank merged with The Sumitomo Bank in 2001 and is now Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation. TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard The Nippon Kangyo Bank, Ltd. (lit. Japan Bank for Encouragement of Industry) was founded in 1897 as a governmental institution providing long-term light industrial and agricultural loansunder the Nippon Kangyo Bank Act of 1896. The Industrial Bank of Japan was also founded in 1902, providing long-term heavy industrial loans. Nippon Kangyo Bank had offices only in Tokyo and Osaka, leaving nationwide local services in the charge of its subsidiary Noko Bank (lit. Agricultural and Industrial Bank). Noko Banks were established in each prefecture, except forHokkaidō (see Hokkaido Takushoku Bank). HP Pavilion dm1-1010st Laptop Keyboard In order to provide long-term loans, the bank's source of funds was not deposits but debt securities. The bank was also authorized to issue premium-bearing debentures. The bank financed, however, landlords and partnerships, and there were little money to go around individual farmers. In 1911 the Nippon Kangyo Bank act was amended so that Nippon Kangyo Bank could handle deposit accounts and offer short-term finance. In the latter of Taishō period the bank embarked on real estate investments, while Noko Banks were absorbed into Nippon Kangyo Bank one after another. The bank dramatically increased its scale of operations. Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard During World War II, Nippon Kangyo Bank was the lead management underwriter of war bonds for Japanese government. In reality, the war bond by Nippon Kangyo Bank was a lottery rather than a bond. Today's Japanese lottery Takarakuji has its origin in this war bond. HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard After World War II, Nippon Kangyo Bank was privatized and became a commercial bank following the Nippon Kangyo Bank Repeal Act of 1950. The long-term banking division of Nippon Kangyo Bank was transferred to newly-established Long-Term Credit Bank of Japan. The bank became popular among the public with the new roselogo, mascot named Nobara-chan (lit. Rose-chan) and advertising slogan “Rose's NKB” (「ばらの勧銀」 Bara no Kangin?). GATEWAY V021646BS1 Laptop Keyboard In 1971 Dai-ichi Bank and Nippon Kangyo Bank merged to form the Dai-Ichi Kangyo Bank, Limited (“DKB”). DKB surpassed longtime leader the Fuji Bank as the Japanese largest bank measured by assets and deposit market share. DKB formed DKB Group (also known as Dai-Ichi Kangyo Group), the largest Japanese keiretsu in terms of the number of associated companies, and became the central bank of DKB Group. Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard Taking over Nippon Kangyo and Noko's operation, DKB was the sole trustee of Takarakuji lottery and was the only bank to have branches in every prefecture in Japan. DKB executives worried about recurrence of the problem in Teikoku Bank period that former two banks' employees were on bad terms each other. Therefore they were particular about “a merger of equals”. DKB's board of directors, for example, was always composed half-and-half of former Dai-Ichi members and former NKB members. The board of directors installed the former two banks members alternately as the next chairman and president. DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard These practices, however, backfired, but only caused difficulty among the employees that was similar to Teikoku's case. Irrational personnel affairs prevented DKB from growing profitable revenue. Although DKB had higher assets than any other Japanese banks, its capability was inferior to that of high-ranking banks such as Fuji, Sumitomo, Sanwa or Mitsubishi. GATEWAY MT3422 Laptop Keyboard During the Japanese asset price bubble of the late 1980s Japanese banks, including DKB, granted increasingly risky loans. What was worse, DKB financed not only risky companies but also Yakuza, crime organizations, in order to invest in capital resources much more easily than its competitors. Above all, loans to sōkaiya amounted to 30 billion JPY. DELL NSK-DG101 Laptop Keyboard After the bubble's collapse, the bad loans were judged to be poor value for money. A raid by Tokyo prosecutors in 1997 impeaching of the loans to sōkaiya laid DKB open to public criticism. Kuniji Miyazaki (宮崎 邦次 Miyazaki Kuniji?, 1930 - 1997), former president and the then chairman of DKB, who faced severe pressure over a series of alleged misdeeds, committed suicide by hanging himself at his home. DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard DKB combined with Fuji Bank and the Industrial Bank of Japan in 2000 to form Mizuho Financial Group. In 2002, DKB's corporate & investment banking division was transferred to Mizuho Corporate Bank and retail banking division to Mizuho Bank severally. SONY VAIO VGN-FS315M laptop keyboard On Thursday, December 8, 2005, shares of recruitment firm J-com debuted at 610,000 Japanese Yen (¥) ($5,041) on the Tokyo Stock Exchange (the TSE). An inexperienced trader at Mizuho, intending to sell one share at ¥610,000, instead sent an order at 9:27 am to the TSE to sell 610,000 shares of J-com at ¥1 each, essentially attempting to sell $3.075 billion worth of stock for only $5,041. In addition, the size of Mizuho's sell order was 41 times the total number of J-com shares.[1] SONY KFRSBA019A laptop keyboard There were no controls in place at Mizuho to prevent such grossly erroneous trades from being sent to the TSE, and neither were there any controls at the TSE to prevent such trades from being executed, although the TSE has instituted some since then.[2] At Mizuho, such controls could have included something as simple as a dialog box asking a trader if he was sure he wanted to sell more shares of a company's stock than actually existed. At the TSE, HP Pavilion dv6-2180ep laptop keyboard considering that there is almost no justifiable reason to place such a sell order, controls should have rejected any such order. The TSE did have the ability to halt trading that day, but did not exercise it. Tokyo stocks dropped 1.72% largely due to investor fears that the TSE could not maintain an orderly markets. Shares in J-com were halted the next day as the TSE attempted to untangle the mess caused by the gigantic, erroneous trade. HP Pavilion dv6-2015sw laptop keyboard Despite the extremely large sell order, J-com's stock price dropped by no more than 15% from its opening price to its low, ¥572,000 ($4,767), due to a large bid supporting the market as well as numerous day-traders taking advantage of the market imbalance, and the stock closed higher at ¥772,000 ($6,430) per share.[3] Packard Bell PEW91 laptop keyboard J-com itself was only able to sell 2,800 shares due to Mizuho's flooding of the market with 610,000 shares at a much lower price, with Mizuho selling shares at ¥1 versus J-com selling at ¥610,000.[1]Supporting the price were buy orders placed by Mizuho in an effort to counteract the effect of their erroneous sell order and to minimize their losses, essentially attempting to buy shares from themselves before other market participants were able to. Buying up many of Mizuho's erroneously sold shares, competing brokerage firm Morgan Stanley acquired 31.2% of J-com by the end of that trading day.[3] Mizuho's losses due to the erroneous trade that day wiped out the entire quarter's profits. Lenovo 45N2141 laptop keyboard On the day the order was transmitted, Mizuho representatives made multiple requests to the TSE to cancel all portions of the order not yet executed. But the TSE responded that those orders still open but not completed would have to be settled in cash. The cash settlement of a stock order had never been used by the exchange in its 55 years of operation, but was required in this case. Compaq Presario CQ71-317EA laptop keyboard J-com's share price increased substantially from the day's low, when many of Mizuho's erroneously placed sales were purchased by other market participants. Since the number of shares offered for sale vastly exceeded the number of shares in existence, buyers of the stock could not be provided the stock they paid for. Mizuho could not provide those shares, because the shares did not exist, and so Mizuho had to honor those trades with cash payments representing the change in value of the shares since the transactions occurred. HP 550 Laptop Keyboard The following day, all trading in J-com was suspended while the TSE worked to untangle the mess Mizuho's erroneous order created. On December 4, 2009, the Tokyo District Court ruled on a lawsuit by Mizuho against the TSE seeking compensation for damages that were done when the TSE failed to cancel Mizuho's trade. The court determined Mizuho's total damages at ¥15 billion, as compared to the ¥41.5 billion Mizuho sought. The TSE was then ordered to pay damages to Mizuho to compensate for losses on the botched J-com trade. The judge placed 70% of the blame on TSE, citing the TSE's failure to halt trading as soon as the enormous, market-distorting sell order hit the market, and placed 30% on Mizuho, which should have had their own controls in place. DELL NSK-DG101 laptop keyboard Fuji Bank traces its history as far back as the old Yasuda zaibatsu. Zenjiro Yasuda, a migrant from Toyama, opened a dry goods store in the Nihonbashi area of Edo in 1864, known as Yasuda-ya(lit. House of Yasuda).[1] After the Meiji Restoration in 1869, the company underwrote bonds for the Japanese government, whose credit standing was low then, and financed many public works such as railroads, harbor constructions, and so forth. The company was incorporated in 1880 with a share capital of 10 million yen, and changed its name to Yasuda Bank. HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard In the Taishō period, the Japanese banking community was thrown into financial difficulties because of World War I and the1923 Great Kanto earthquake. In the immediate wake of the earthquake, Yasuda absorbed ten smaller regional banks which lacked a sufficient financial base to cover their deposits. This merger made Yasuda Bank the largest in Japan by several measures, with share capital of 150 million yen, deposits of 542 million yen, loans of 521 million yen, 211 branches and 3,700 employees. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard Following World War II, the Yasuda zaibatsu was dissolved by the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers. On October 1, 1948, Yasuda Bank changed its name to The Fuji Bank, Limited, named after Mount Fuji. Fuji formed the Fuyo Group, one of the largest keiretsu, together with other former Yasuda zaibatsu companies. HP Pavilion dv5-1104tu Laptop Keyboard As the Japanese economy was rebuilt after the war, Fuji Bank expanded its business in syndicated lending, corporate banking, public money management, mortgages and retail financial services. However, the formation of Dai-Ichi Kangyo Bank (DKB) in 1971 dethroned Fuji from its top status in the Japanese banking industry. In an attempt to restore its preeminence, Fuji agreed to merge with Osaka-based Sanwa Bank in the late 1970s, but failed to win approval from the Ministry of Finance. Sumitomo Bank also rose as an intense competitor to Fuji in the 1980s, and both banks aggressively courted similar corporate banking clients, growing their loan portfolios dramatically with what would later become non-performing loans. Compaq Presario CQ71-420SO Laptop Keyboard Fuji Capital Markets Corp. was founded in New York in 1990 going on to become one of the lead players in the swaps market. FCMC went on to open an offices in London in 1992 and Hong Kong in 1994 which still exist as Mizuho Capital Markets Corp. FCMC was noted at the time for its relatively advanced technology, and was one of the first Japanese Banks to connect to the internet, registering the fcmc.com domain in 1993.  FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard However, following the collapse of the Japanese asset price bubble in the early 1990s, Fuji and other Japanese banks were increasingly troubled by bad loans and inadequate back-office systems. Fuji attempted to diversify its domestic services, establishing Fuji Securities and Fuji Trust & Banking Co. in 1994, but neither subsidiary was able to make substantial profits. HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard On November 24, 1997, Yamaichi, Fuji Bank's affiliated securities firm, announced it would cease operations and was declared bankrupt by the Tokyo District Court. Fuji's inability to support Yamaichi led to a rapid fall in Fuji's stock price on the Tokyo Stock Exchange. Between 1998 and 2000, Fuji laid off thousands of employees and borrowed one trillion yen of public funds. HP G56-118CA Laptop Keyboard Yasuda Trust & Banking, Fuji's affiliated trust company, entered severe financial difficulties in 1999 and sought an additional capital injection from Fuji. Fuji was still experiencing its own difficulties and could not afford to rescue Yasuda. However, Fuji and DKB were able to negotiate a three-party transaction in which Fuji and DKB merged their respective trust banks, and the merged company acquired the corporate and pension divisions of Yasuda Trust.  HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard Merger On September 29, 2000, all shares of Fuji, DKB and the Industrial Bank of Japan were acquired by a newly formed Mizuho Holdings. The three banks continued to operate separately pending their final legal merger. SONY VAIO VGN-NR21E/S Laptop Keyboard During the September 11, 2001 attacks on New York's World Trade Center, Fuji Bank's United States offices were located at the impact zone of United Airlines Flight 175 in 2 World Trade Center (the South Tower) occupying the office space on the 79th through 82nd floors. After the North Tower was hit, the managers rushed to evacuate their employees. Within fifteen minutes, the managers had successfully evacuated 120 employees. Unfortunately, 23 Fuji Bank employees died in the attack. Fuji Bank employee Stanley Praimnath was one of only four remaining people located above the South Tower's collision zone to survive. DKB's offices were located in the North Tower. SONY 147963021 Laptop Keyboard On April 1, 2002, Fuji acquired the corporate banking operations of DKB and absorbed all operations of IBJ, renaming itself Mizuho Corporate Bank. DKB simultaneously acquired the individual banking operations of Fuji and renamed itself Mizuho Bank. Both banks became wholly owned subsidiaries of Mizuho Financial Group. The legal merger of Mizuho Corporate Bank with Mizuho Bank is scheduled to take place in 2013, at which time the legal entity formerly known as Fuji Bank will cease to exist. DELL Precision M4500 Laptop Keyboard Share capital or capital stock (US English)[1] refers to the portion of a company's equity that has been obtained (or will be obtained) by trading stock to a shareholder for cash or an equivalent item of capital value. For example, a company can issue shares in exchange for computer servers, instead of purchasing the servers with cash. TOSHIBA NSK-TAJ01 Laptop Keyboard The term has several meanings. In its narrow, classical sense, still commonly used in accounting, share capital comprises the nominal values of all shares issued (that is, the sum of their "par values"). In a wider sense, if the shares have no par value or the allocation price of shares is greater than their par value, the shares are said to be at a premium (called share premiumadditional paid-in capital or paid-in capital in excess of par); in that case, the share capital can be said to be the sum of the aforementioned "nominal" share capital and the premium. In the modern law of shares, the "par value" concept has diminished in importance, and share capital can simply be defined as the sum of capital (cash or other assets) the company has received from investors for its shares. HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard Besides its meaning in accounting, described above, "share capital" may also be used to describe the number and types of shares that compose a company's share structure. For an example of the different meanings: a company might have an "outstanding share capital" of 500,000 shares (the "structure" usage); it has received for them a total of 2 million dollars, which in the balance sheet is the "share capital" (the accounting usage). COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard The legal aspects of share capital are mostly dealt with in a jurisdiction's corporate law system. An example of such an issue is that when a company allocates new shares, it must do so in a way that does not inequitably dilute existing shareholders. TOSHIBA Satellite A105 Series laptop keyboard The Great Kantō earthquake (関東大震災 Kantō daishinsai?) struck the Kantō plain on the Japanese main island of Honshūat 11:58:44 am JST (2:58:44 UTC) on Saturday, September 1, 1923. Varied accounts hold that the duration of the earthquake was between 4 and 10 minutes.[2] This is the deadliest earthquake in Japanese history, and at the time was the most powerful earthquake ever recorded in the region. The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake later surpassed that record, at magnitude 9.0. TOSHIBA Satellite P100-188 laptop keyboard The earthquake had a magnitude of 7.9 on the Moment magnitude scale (Mw),[3] with its focus deep beneath Izu Ōshima Island in the Sagami Bay. The cause was a massive rupture of the Sagami Trough, due the exertion of enormous energy from the Philippine Sea Plate subducting under the Okhotsk Plate. HP Pavilion dv5-1046tx laptop keyboard This earthquake devastated Tokyo, the port city of Yokohama, surrounding prefectures of Chiba, Kanagawa, and Shizuoka, and caused widespread damage throughout the Kantō region.[4] The power was so great that in Kamakura, over 60 kilometres (37 mi) from the epicenter, it moved a Great Buddha statue weighing about 93 short tons (84,000 kg) almost two feet.[5][6]TOSHIBA Satellite M305 laptop keyboard Estimated casualties entailed about 142,800 deaths, including approximately 40,000 who went missing and were presumed dead.[citation needed] The damage from this natural disaster was the greatest sustained by Prewar Japan. In 1960, the government of Japan declared September 1, the anniversary of the quake, as an annual "Disaster Prevention Day." TOSHIBA Satellite L550-ST5701 laptop keyboard According to the Japanese construction company Kajima Kobori Research's conclusive report of September 2004, there were 105,385 confirmed deaths in the 1923 quake.[7][8][9] Because the earthquake struck at lunchtime when many people were cooking meals over fire, many people died as a result of many large fires that broke out. Some fires developed into firestorms that swept across cities. HP Mini 210-2030ez laptop keyboard Many people died when their feet became stuck in melting tarmac. The single greatest loss of life was caused by a firestorm-induced fire whirl that engulfed open space at the Rikugun Honjo Hifukusho (formerly the Army Clothing Depot) in downtown Tokyo, where about 38,000 people were incinerated after taking shelter there following the earthquake. The earthquake broke water mains all over the city, and putting out the fires took nearly two full days until late in the morning of September 3. It is estimated that 140,000 people were killed and 447,000 houses were destroyed by the fire alone.[10]SAMSUNG N148 laptop keyboard A strong typhoon struck Tokyo Bay at about the same time as the earthquake. Some scientists, including C.F. Brooks of theUnited States Weather Bureau, suggested that the opposing energy exerted by a sudden decrease of atmospheric pressure coupled with a sudden increase of sea pressure by a storm surge on an already-stressed earthquake fault, known as the Sagami Trough, may have triggered the earthquake. Winds from the typhoon caused fires off the coast of Noto Peninsula in Ishikawa Prefectureto spread rapidly. FUJITSU Lifebook T4210 laptop keyboard Many homes were buried or swept away by landslides in the mountainous and hilly coastal areas in western Kanagawa Prefecture, killing about 800 people. A collapsing mountainside in the village of Nebukawa, west of Odawara, pushed the entire village and a passenger train carrying over 100 passengers along with the railway station into the sea. HP Mini 110-1119NR laptop keyboard A tsunami with waves up to 10 metres (33 ft) high struck the coast of Sagami Bay, Boso Peninsula, Izu Islands and the east coast of Izu Peninsula within minutes. The tsunami killed many, including about 100 people along Yui-ga-hama beach inKamakura and an estimated 50 people on the Enoshima causeway. Over 570,000 homes were destroyed, leaving an estimated 1.9 million homeless. Evacuees were transported by ship from Kanto to as far as Kobe in Kansai.[12] The damage is estimated to have exceeded USD$1 billion (or about $13,641 billion today).[citation needed] There were 57 aftershocks. SONY VAIO VGN NR430E laptop keyboard The Home Ministry declared martial law, and ordered all sectional police chiefs to make maintenance of order and security a top priority. A rumor spread was that Koreans were taking advantage of the disaster, committing arson and robbery, and were in possession of bombs.[14] Anti-Korean sentiment was heightened by fear of the Korean independence movement, partisans of whom were responsible for assassinations of top Japanese officials and other terrorist activity.[15] GATEWAY M-6851 laptop keyboard In the confusion after the quake, mass murder of Koreans by mobs occurred in urban Tokyo and Yokohama, fueled by rumors of rebellion and sabotage.[16] The government reported that 2613 Koreans were killed by mobs in Tokyo and Yokohama in the first week of September. Independent reports said the number killed was far higher.[17][18] Some newspapers reported the rumors as fact, including the allegation that Koreans were poisoning wells. The numerous fires and cloudy well water, a little-known effect of a large quake, all seemed to confirm the rumors of the panic-stricken survivors who were living amidst the rubble.  DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard Vigilante groups set up roadblocks in cities, and tested residents with a shibboleth for supposedly Korean-accented Japanese: deporting, beating, or killing those who failed. Army and police personnel colluded in the vigilante killings in some areas. Of the 3,000 Koreans taken into custody at the Army Cavalry Regiment base in Narashino, Chiba Prefecture, 10% were killed at the base, or after being released into nearby villages.[14] Moreover, anyone mistakenly identified as Korean, such as Chinese, Okinawans, and Japanese speakers of some regional dialects, suffered the same fate. About 700 Chinese, mostly from Wenzhou, were killed.[19] A monument commemorating this was built in 1993 in Wenzhou.[20] HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard ACER Aspire 5535 Laptop Keyboard In response, the government called upon the Japanese Army and the police to detain Koreans to defuse the situation: 23,715 Koreans were detained across Japan, 12,000 in Tokyo alone.[14][21] The chief of police of Tsurumi (or Kawasaki by some accounts) is reported to have publicly drunk the well-water to disprove the rumour that Koreans had been poisoning wells.[citation needed] In some towns, even police stations into which Korean people had escaped were attacked by mobs, HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard whereas in other neighbourhoods residents took steps to protect them.[citation needed] The Army distributed flyers denying the rumour and warning civilians against attacking Koreans, but in many cases vigilante activity only ceased as a result of Army operations against it. As Allen notes, the Japanese colonial occupation of Korea provided the backdrop to this extreme example of the explosion of racial prejudice into violence, based on a history of antagonism. To be a Korean in 1923 Japan was to be not only despised, but also threatened and potentially killed.[22]Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Amidst the mob violence against Koreans in the Kantō Region, regional police and the Imperial Army used the pretext of civil unrest to liquidate political dissidents.[21] Socialists like Hirasawa Keishichi, anarchists like Sakae Osugi and Noe Ito, and the Chinese communal leader, Ou Kiten, were abducted and killed by local police and Imperial Army, who claimed that radicals intended to use the crisis as an opportunity to overthrow the Japanese government.[21][23]SONY VAIO VGN-FS715F Laptop Keyboard The importance of obtaining and providing accurate information following natural disasters has been emphasized in Japan ever since. Earthquake preparation literature in modern Japan almost always directs citizens to carry a portable radio and use it to listen to reliable information, and not to be misled by rumors in the event of a large earthquake. HP Pavilion DV6-1128tx Laptop Keyboard Following the devastation of the earthquake, some in the government considered the possibility of moving the capital elsewhere.[24] Proposed sites for the new capital were even discussed. Japanese commentators interpreted the disaster as an act of divine punishment to admonish the Japanese people for their self-centered, immoral, and extravagant lifestyles. In the long run, the response to the disaster was a strong sense that Japan had been given an unparalleled opportunity to rebuild the city, and to rebuild Japanese values. In reconstructing the city the nation and the Japanese people, the earthquake fostered a culture of catastrophe and reconstruction that amplified discourses of moral degeneracy and national renovation in interwar Japan.[25]ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard After the earthquake, Gotō Shimpei organized a reconstruction plan of Tokyo with modern networks of roads, trains, and public services. Parks were placed all over Tokyo as refuge spots and public buildings were constructed with stricter standards than private buildings to accommodate refugees. However, the outbreak of World War II and subsequent destruction severely limited resources. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Frank Lloyd Wright received credit for designing the Imperial Hotel, Tokyo to withstand the quake, although in fact the building was damaged by the shock. The destruction of the US embassy caused Ambassador Cyrus Woods to relocate the embassy to the hotel.[26]Wright's structure withstood the anticipated earthquake stresses; and the hotel remained in use until 1968. TOSHIBA Portege 7200 Laptop Keyboard The unfinished battlecruiser Amagi was in drydock being converted into an aircraft carrier in Yokosuka in compliance with theWashington Naval Treaty of 1922. However, the earthquake damaged Amagi beyond repair, leading it to be scrapped, and the unfinished fast battleship Kaga was converted into an aircraft carrier in its place. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard In contrast to London, where typhoid fever had been steadily declining since the 1870s, the rate in Tokyo remained high, more so in the upper-class residential northern and western districts than in the densely populated working-class eastern district. An explanation is the decline of waste disposal, which became particularly serious in the northern and western districts when traditional methods of waste disposal collapsed due to urbanization. The 1923 earthquake led to record high morbidity due to unsanitary conditions following the earthquake, it prompted the establishment of antityphoid measures and the building of urban infrastructure.[27]TOSHIBA Portege 7200 Laptop Keyboard Beginning in 1960, every September 1 is designated as Disaster Prevention Day to commemorate the earthquake and remind people of the importance of preparation, as September and October are the middle of the typhoon season. Schools, public and private organizations host disaster drills. Tokyo is located near a fault zone beneath the Izu peninsula which, on average, causes a major earthquake about once every 70 years,[citation needed] and is also located near the Sagami Trough, DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard a large subduction zone that threatens to create a massive earthquake that, in the darkest case, would kill millions in the Kanto Region. Every year on this date, schools across Japan take a moment of silence at the precise time the earthquake hit in memory of the lives lost. HP AEUT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard There are some discreet memorials in Yokoamicho Park in Sumida Ward, at the site of the open space in which an estimated 38,000 people were killed by a single firestorm. The park houses a Buddhist-style memorial hall/museum, a memorial bell donated by Taiwanese Buddhists, a memorial to the victims of World War II Tokyo air raids, and a memorial to the Korean victims of the vigilante killings. HP Pavilion dv6-2030ec laptop keyboard Great Kanto Earthquake-related fiction Several Japanese films, books, and shows were based on this disaster, including the examples below. In Japan Sinks, in one scene in the book, due to the fast-moving subduction of the Pacific and Eurasian plates, the Sagami Trough ruptures in a magnitude 8.5 earthquake, killing several million people in Tokyo and other areas, causing major tsunamis, and creating major firestorms. SONY VAIO VGN-NW15G/S laptop keyboard In the film adaptation of Japan Sinks, Nihon Chinbotsu (1973 film), due to the fast-moving subduction of the Pacific and Eurasian plates, the Sagami Trough ruptures in a massive earthquake called "The Second Great Kanto Earthquake". The quake in the film flattens many buildings, causes Tokyo's three rivers to flood and wash out the lower east side of Tokyo in a series of tidal waves, and crushing overpasses and bridges, killing millions of people. Like the 1923 Kanto Earthquake, the quake also causes a series of major firestorms that burn the Kanto Region to the ground. The quake in the film also flattened Yokohama, Chiba, and other large cities, killing millions more. In the film, all told the quake killed between three million and four million or more. TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S5097 laptop keyboard In the 1983-1984 television series, Oshin, episode 114 began with the grand opening of the Tanokura factory and ended with the loss of family friend Genemon, aka Genji, who risked his own life to save the heir, Yu. The episode ended with the fires that overcame Tokyo, as this earthquake occurred around the lunch hour when many people were cooking over an open flame.[28]TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-S5145 laptop keyboard In the manga (cartoon) adaptation of Japan Sinks, the Second Kanto Earthquake killed over five million. In the historical fantasy novel Teito Monogatari (Hiroshi Aramata) a supernatural explanation is given for the cause of the Great Kanto Earthquake, connecting it with the principles of Feng Shui. SONY VAIO VPC-F13 laptop keyboard In Tokyo Magnitude 8.0, the Sagami Trough ruptures in a magnitude 8.0 earthquake, killing over 200,000 in Tokyo, causing floods and fires and putting the main character at risk. Waki Yamato's manga Haikara-san ga Tōru actually reaches its climax after the Great Kanto Earthquake—which happens right before the wedding of the female lead, Benio Hanamura, and her second love Tousei. During it the male lead, Shinobu Iijyuin, not only recovers his memories (which he had lost some time ago), but sees his other love interest (Larissa) die; before dying, she begs him to leave her and search for Benio. Traumatised and injured, Shinobu does so and manages to find Benio among the wreckage, renewing their bond. Tousei arrives and, since they're both in great risk, each of the lovers beg Tousei to save the other's life; he manages to save them both and then concedes, allowing them to get married. SONY 148023121 laptop keyboard Similarly, the josei manga and anime Kasei Yakyoku (by author Makiko Hirata) also finishes few after the Earthquake, as a corollary to the main love triangle between the noblewoman Akiko, her lover Taka and Akiko's maid Sara.[29] In the decades following the Second World War, Japan implemented stringent tariffs and policies to encourage people to save their income. With more money in banks, loans and credit became easier to obtain, and with Japan running large trade surpluses, the yen appreciated against foreign currencies. This allowed local companies to invest in capital resources much more easily than their competitors overseas, which reduced the price of Japanese-made goods and widened the trade surplus further. And, with the yen appreciating, financial assets became very lucrative.[5] One of the major reasons for the sudden appreciation of the yen was the Plaza Accord.[6] TOSHIBA Satellite M35x Series laptop keyboard So much money readily available for investment, combined with financial deregulation, overconfidence and euphoria about the economic prospects, and monetary easing implemented by the Bank of Japan in late 1980s resulted in aggressive speculation,[5] particularly in the Tokyo Stock Exchange and the real estate market. The Nikkei stock index hit its all-time high on December 29, 1989 when it reached an intra-day high of 38,957.44 before closing at 38,915.87. Additionally, banks granted increasingly risky loans. DELL Studio 1749 laptop keyboard Prices were highest in Tokyo's Ginza district in 1989, with choice properties fetching over 30 million yen[7] (approximately $215,000 US dollars) per square meter ($20,000 per square foot). Prices were only marginally less in other large business districts of Tokyo. By 2004, prime "A" property in Tokyo's financial districts had slumped to less than 1 percent of its peak, and Tokyo's residential homes were less than a tenth of their peak, but still managed to be listed as the most expensive in the world until being surpassed in the late 2000s by Moscow and other cities. HP Pavilion dv6-3032tx laptop keyboard However, since 2012, Tokyo is once again, the world's most expensive city, followed by Osaka with Moscow as number 4. Tens of trillions of dollars worth were wiped out with the combined collapse of the Tokyo stock and real estate markets. Only in 2007 had property prices begun to rise; however, they began to fall in late 2008 due to the financial crisis. Compaq Presario CQ56-105EW Laptop Keyboard With the economy driven by its high rates of reinvestment, this crash hit particularly hard. Investments were increasingly directed out of the country, and manufacturing firms lost some degree of their technological edge and Japanese products became less competitive overseas. The Japanese Central Bank set interest rates at approximately zero. When that failed to stop deflation some economists, such as Paul Krugman, advocated inflation targeting.[8]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard The easily obtainable credit that had helped create and engorge the real estate bubble continued to be a problem for several years to come, and as late as 1997, banks were still making loans that had a low probability of being repaid. Loan Officers and Investment staff had a hard time finding anything to invest in that would return a profit. TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 Laptop Keyboard They would sometimes resort to depositing their block of investment cash, as ordinary deposits, in a competing bank, which would bring howls of complaint from that bank's Loan Officers and Investment staff. Correcting the credit problem became even more difficult as the government began to subsidize failing banks and businesses, creating many so-called "zombie businesses". Eventually a carry trade developed in which money was borrowed from Japan, invested for returns elsewhere and then the Japanese were paid back, with a nice profit for the trader.  SONY VAIO VGN-SZ440 Laptop Keyboard The time after the bubble's collapse (崩壊 hōkai?), which occurred gradually rather than catastrophically, is known as the "lost decade" (失われた十年ushinawareta jūnen?) in Japan. On March 10, 2009, the Nikkei 225 stock index fell to a 27-year low of 7054.98.[9]HP Pavilion dv6-3167ca Laptop Keyboard Toronto is Canada's largest media market,[52] and has four conventional dailies, two alt-weeklies, and two free commuter papers in a greater metropolitan area of about 6 million inhabitants. The Toronto Star and the Toronto Sun are the prominent daily city newspapers, while national dailies, The Globe and Mail and theNational Post are also headquartered in the city. Metro24 Hours and t.o.night are distributed as free commuter newspapers. The city's two most prominent general-interest weeklies are Now and The Grid. TOSHIBA Satellite L750D-ST5NX1 Laptop Keyboard Toronto contains the headquarters of the major English-language Canadian television networks CTV, Citytv, Global, The Sports Network (TSN), Sportsnet and The Score. MuchMusic, MuchMore and MTV Canada are the main music television channels based in the city, though they no longer primarily show music videos as a result of channel drift. TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard Toronto is an international centre for business and finance. Generally considered the financial capital of Canada, Toronto has a high concentration of banks and brokerage firms on Bay Street, in the Financial District. The Toronto Stock Exchange is the world's seventh-largest stock exchange by market capitalization.[53] The five largest financial institutions of Canada, collectively known as the Big Five, have national offices in Toronto.[54]HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard The city is an important centre for the media, publishing, telecommunication, information technology and film production industries; it is home to Bell Media, Rogers Communications, and Torstar. Other prominent Canadian corporations in the Greater Toronto Area include Magna International, Celestica, Manulife Financial, Sun Life Financial, the Hudson's Bay Company, and major hotel companies and operators, such as Four Seasons Hotels and Fairmont Hotels and Resorts. Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard Although much of the region's manufacturing activities take place outside the city limits, Toronto continues to be a wholesale and distribution point for the industrial sector. The city's strategic position along the Quebec City – Windsor Corridor and its road and rail connections help support the nearby production of motor vehicles, iron, steel, food, machinery, chemicals and paper. The completion of the Saint Lawrence Seaway in 1959 gave ships access to the Great Lakes from the Atlantic Ocean. HP Mini 210-1100SB Laptop Keyboard The city's net debt stood at $4.4 billion as of the end of 2010 and has a AA credit rating.[55] Toronto is expected to pay $400 million of the debt in 2011.[55]The city's debt increased by $721 million in 2010.[55] The city’s unemployment rate was 8.1% in November 2011, down from 8.3% year over year.[56] The cost of living in Toronto was ranked highest in Canada in 2011.[57]HP AELX7U00410 Laptop Keyboard The city's population grew by 4% (96,073 residents) between 1996 and 2001, 1% (21,787 residents) between 2001 and 2006, and 4.3% (111,779 residents) between 2006 and 2011. Persons aged 14 years and under made up 17.5% of the population, and those aged 65 years and over made up 13.6%. The median age was 36.9 years. Foreign-born people made up 49.9% of the population.[59]The city's gender population is 48% male and 52% female.[60] However, women outnumber men in all age groups over 20.[61] As of 2006, 46.9% of the residents of the city proper belong to a visible minority group,[62] and visible minorities are projected to comprise a majority in the Toronto CMA by 2017.[63] In 1981, Toronto's visible minority population was 13.6%.[64]HP Compaq NC8430 Laptop Keyboard According to the United Nations Development Programme, Toronto has the second-highest percentage of constant foreign-born population among world cities, after Miami, Florida. While Miami's foreign-born population consists mostly of Cubans and other Latin Americans, no single nationality or culture dominates Toronto's immigrant population, placing it among the most diverse cities in the world.[59] By 2031, Toronto's current visible minority population will have increased to 63%, changing the definition of visible minority in the city.[65] More than 100,000 immigrants arrive in the Toronto area every year.[66]HP G62-b18EO Laptop Keyboard In 2006, a majority of Torontonians claimed their ethnic origins from as either in whole or part from England (15.9%), Canada (12.8%), Scotland (11.1%), China (10.6%), Ireland (10.5%), India (9.6%), Italy (9.2%), Germany (5.1%), France (4.8%), Poland (4.1%), Portugal (3.7%), thePhilippines (3.6%), and Jamaica (3.2%).[62] The five largest visible minority groups in Toronto are South Asian (12.0%), Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard Chinese (11.4%), Black (8.4%), Filipino(4.1%) and Latin American (2.6%).[62] Aboriginal peoples, who are not considered visible minorities, formed 0.5% of the population.[62] This diversity is reflected in Toronto's ethnic neighbourhoods, which include Chinatown, Corso Italia, Greektown, Kensington Market, Koreatown, Little India, Little Italy, Little Jamaica, Little Portugal and Roncesvalles. HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard Christianity is the largest religious group in Toronto. The 2001 Census reports that 33.4% of the city's population is Catholic, followed by Protestant (21.1%),Christian Orthodox at (4.8%), Coptic Orthodox (0.2%),[67] and other Christians (3.9%). With the city's significant number of Methodist Christians, Toronto was sometimes referred to as the Methodist Rome. Other religions in the city are Islam (5.5%), Hinduism (4.1%), Judaism (3.5%), Buddhism (2.1%), Sikhism (1.9%), and other Eastern religions (0.2%). 16.6% of the population professes no religion.[68][69]DELL Inspiron 8500 Laptop Keyboard While English is the predominant language spoken by Torontonians, many other languages have considerable numbers of local speakers.[70] The varieties of Chinese and Italian are the second and third most widely spoken languages at work.[71][72] As a result, the city's 9-1-1 emergency services are equipped to respond in over 150 languages.[73]ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard Toronto is a single-tier municipality governed by a mayor–council system. The structure of the municipal government is stipulated by the City of Toronto Act. The Mayor of Toronto is elected by direct popular vote to serve as the chief executiveof the city. The Toronto City Council is a unicameral legislative body, comprising 44 councillors representing geographicalwards throughout the city. The mayor and members of the city council serve four-year terms without term limits. (Until the2006 municipal election, the mayor and city councillors served three-year terms.) HP Pavilion DV7-4053 Laptop Keyboard At the start of the 2007 term, the city council will have seven standing committees, each consisting of a Chairman, a vice-chair and four other councillors. The Mayor names the committee chairs and the remaining membership of the committees is appointed by City Council.[74] An executive committee is formed by the chairs of each of standing committee, along with the mayor, the deputy mayor and four other councillors. Councillors are also appointed to oversee the Toronto Transit Commissionand the Toronto Police Services Board. SONY VAIO VGN-CS11S/Q laptop keyboard The city has four community councils that consider local matters. City Council has delegated final decision-making authority on local, routine matters, while others—like planning and zoning issues—are recommended to the city council. Each city councillor serves as a member on a community council. HP 640208-001 laptop keyboard There are about 40 subcommittees and advisory committees appointed by the city council. These bodies are made up of city councillors and private citizen volunteers. Examples include the Pedestrian Committee, Waste Diversion Task Force 2010, and the Task Force to Bring Back the Don.[75]TOSHIBA Satellite L755D-S5363 laptop keyboard Toronto had an operating budget of C$7.6 billion in 2006.[76] The city receives funding from the Government of Ontario in addition to tax revenues and user fees, spending 36% on provincially mandated programmes, 53% on major municipal purposes such as the Toronto Public Library and the Toronto Zoo, and 11% on capital financing and non-programme expenditures.[77]FUJITSU Lifebook E8310 laptop

keyboard The low crime rate[78] in Toronto has resulted in the city having a reputation as one of the safest major cities in North America.[79][80] For instance, in 2007, the homicide rate for Toronto was 3.3 per 100,000 people, compared with Atlanta (19.7), Boston (10.3), Los Angeles (10.0), New York City (6.3), Vancouver (3.1), and Montreal (2.6). Toronto's robbery rate also ranks low, with 207.1 robberies per 100,000 people, compared with Los Angeles (348.5), Vancouver (266.2), New York City (265.9), and Montreal (235.3).[81][82][83][84][85][86] Toronto has a comparable rate of car theft to various U.S. cities, although it is not among the highest in Canada.[78]HP Pavilion dv6-2044ca laptop keyboard Toronto recorded its largest number of homicides in 1991 with 89, a rate of 3.9 per 100,000.[87][88] In 2005, Toronto media coined the term "Year of the Gun", because there was a record number of gun-related homicides, 52, out of 80 homicides in total.[80][89] The total number of homicides dropped to 70 in 2006, that year, nearly 2,000 people in Toronto were victims of a violent gun-related crime, about one-quarter of the national total.[90] HP AELX7U00410 laptop keyboard 84 homicides were committed in 2007, roughly half of them involved guns. Gang-related incidents have also been on the rise; between the years of 1997 and 2005, over 300 gang-related homicides have occurred. As a result, the Ontario government developed an anti-gun strategy.[91] In 2011, Toronto's murder rate plummeted to 45 murders—nearly a 26% drop from the previous year. The 45 homicides were the lowest number the city has recorded since 1986.[92]HP Pavilion dv6-2147el laptop keyboard Toronto has a number of post-secondary academic institutions. The University of Toronto, established in 1827, has two satellite campuses, one of which is located in the city's eastern district of Scarborough while the other is located in the neighbouring city of Mississauga. Toronto is also home to Ryerson University, OCAD University, and the University of Guelph-Humber. HP Probook 4710S Laptop Keyboard There are four diploma and degree granting colleges in Toronto. These are Seneca College, Humber College, Centennial Collegeand George Brown College. The city is also home to a satellite campus of the francophone Collège Boréal. SONY VAIO VGN NR385E/T Laptop Keyboard The Royal Conservatory of Music, which includes the Glenn Gould School, is a school of music located downtown. The Canadian Film Centre is a film, television and new media training institute founded by filmmaker Norman Jewison. Tyndale University College and Seminary is a Christian post-secondary institution and Canada's largest seminary. HP Pavilion dv6-2044ca Laptop Keyboard The Toronto District School Board (TDSB) operates 558 public schools. Of these, 451 are elementary and 102 are secondary (high) schools. Additionally, the Toronto Catholic District School Board manages the city's publicly funded Roman Catholic schools, while the Conseil scolaire de district du Centre-Sud-Ouest and the Conseil scolaire de district catholique Centre-Sud manages public and Roman Catholic French-language schools. There are also numerous private university-preparatory schools. FUJITSU Lifebook E8310 Laptop Keyboard The Toronto Public Library[93] consists of 99 branches with more than 11 million items in its collection.[94] Toronto is home to 20 public hospitals, including the Hospital for Sick Children, Mount Sinai Hospital, St. Michael's Hospital, North York General Hospital, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto Western Hospital, St. Joseph's Health Centre, Rouge Valley Health System, The Scarborough Hospital, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health(CAMH), and Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, as well as the University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine. TOSHIBA NB200-10J Laptop Keyboard Several years ago, Toronto was reported as having some of the longer average ER wait times in Ontario. Toronto hospitals at the time employed a system of triage to ensure life-threatening injuries receive rapid treatment.[95] After initial screening, initial assessments by physicians were completed within the waiting rooms themselves for greater efficiency, within a median of 1.2 hours. Tests, consultations, and initial treatments were also provided within waiting rooms. 50% of patients waited 4 hours before being transferred from the emergency room to another room.[95] The least-urgent 10% of cases wait over 12 hours.[95] The extended waiting-room times experienced by some patients were attributed to an overall shortage of acute care beds.[95]ACER Aspire 7745G Laptop Keyboard Toronto's Discovery District[96] is a centre of research in biomedicine. It is located on a 2.5-square-kilometre (620-acre) research park that is integrated into Toronto's downtown core. It is also home to the Medical and Related Sciences Centre (MaRS),[97] which was created in 2000 to capitalize on the research and innovation strength of the Province of Ontario. Another institute is the McLaughlin Centre for Molecular Medicine (MCMM).[98]DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard Toronto also has some specialized hospitals located outside of the downtown core. These hospitals include Baycrest for geriatric care and Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital for children with disabilities. HP Pavilion dv6-3034ca Laptop Keyboard Toronto is home to the Toronto Maple Leafs, one of the National Hockey League's Original Six clubs, and has also served as home to the Hockey Hall of Fame since 1958. The city had a rich history of hockey championships. Along with the Maple Leafs' 13 Stanley Cuptitles the Toronto Marlboros and St. Michael's College School-based Ontario Hockey League teams combined have won a record 12Memorial Cup titles. The Toronto Marlies of the American Hockey League also play in Toronto at Ricoh Coliseum and are the farm team for the Maple Leafs. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard The Toronto Raptors entered the National Basketball Association in 1995, and have since earned five playoff spots in 15 seasons. The Raptors won the Atlantic Division title in the 2006–07 NBA season, led by former star player Chris Bosh. The Raptors are the only NBA team with their own television channel, NBA TV Canada. They and the Maple Leafs play their home games at the Air Canada Centre. DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard The Toronto Rock are the city's National Lacrosse League team. They won five Champion's Cup titles in seven years in the late 1990s and early first decade of the 21st century, appearing in an NLL record five straight championship games from 1999 to 2003, and are currently first all-time in the number of Champion's Cups won. The Rock share the Air Canada Centre with the Maple Leafs and the Raptors. ACER NSK-H361D Laptop Keyboard The city is represented in the Canadian Football League by the Toronto Argonauts, who have won 16 Grey Cup titles. Toronto played host to the 95th Grey Cup in 2007, the first held in the city since 1992. In addition, the city has hosted several National Football Leagueexhibition games; Ted Rogers leased the Buffalo Bills from Ralph Wilson for the purposes of having the Bills play eight home games in the city between 2008 and 2012. The city is also home to Major League Baseball'sToronto Blue Jays, who have won two World Series (1992 and 1993) titles. Both the Argonauts and Blue Jays (as well as the Bills when they are in town) play their home games at the Rogers Centre, in the downtown core. ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard Toronto was home to the International Bowl, an NCAA sanctioned post-season football game that pitted a Mid-American Conference team against a Big East Conference team. Beginning in 2007, the game was played at Rogers Centre annually in January. HP Envy 17-2077ez Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Toronto, along with Montreal, hosts an annual Tennis Tournament called the Rogers Cup between the months of July and August. In odd-numbered years, the men's tournament is held in Montreal, while the women's tournament is held in Toronto, and vice-versa in even-numbered years. Compaq Presario C769US Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Besides team sports, the city annually hosted Champ Car's Molson Indy Toronto at Exhibition Place from 1986 to 2007. The race was revived in 2009 as the Honda Indy Toronto, part of the IndyCar Series schedule. Both thoroughbred and standardbred horse racing events are conducted at Woodbine Racetrack in Rexdale. COMPAQ Presario CQ50-110US laptop keyboard Historic sports clubs of Toronto include the Granite Club (established in 1836), the Royal Canadian Yacht Club (established in 1852), the Toronto Cricket Skating and Curling Club (established in pre-1827), the Argonaut Rowing Club (established in 1872), the Toronto Lawn Tennis Club (established in 1881), and the Badminton and Racquet Club (established in 1924). TOSHIBA Satellite M305 laptop keyboard Toronto was a candidate city for the 1996 and 2008 Summer Olympics, which were awarded to Atlanta and Beijing respectively. The Canadian Olympic Committee was considering a Toronto bid for the 2020 Games,[48] however, in August 2011 it was announced that Toronto would not bid for the 2020 games.[49] It has been suggested that Toronto may bid for the 2024 Summer Olympics.[50]Acer eMachines G730Z laptop keyboard Toronto will be hosting the 2015 Pan American Games in July 2015, and the 2015 Parapan American Games in August 2015. It contested against the cities of Lima, Peru and Bogotá, Colombia.[51] Toronto's public transportation system is operated by the Toronto Transit Commission (TTC).[17] The backbone of its public transport network is the Toronto subway and RT, which includes three heavy-rail rapid transit lines and a mainly elevated light-metro rapid transit line that runs in Scarborough. The TTC also operates a network of buses and streetcars. There have been numerous plans to extend the subway and implement light-rail lines, but many efforts have been thwarted by budgetary concerns. Since July 2011, the only subway-related work is the Spadina subway extension north of Downsview Station. Lenovo 3000 G430 laptop keyboard The Government of Ontario also operates an interregional rail and bus transit system called GO Transit in the Greater Toronto Area. GO Transit carries over 217,000 passengers every weekday and 57 million annually, with a majority of them travelling to or from Union Station.[99][100]SONY VAIO VGN-FS830 laptop keyboard Canada's busiest airport, Toronto Pearson International Airport (IATA: YYZ), straddles the city's western boundary with the suburban city of Mississauga. Limited commercial and passenger service is also offered from the Billy Bishop Toronto City Airport, on the Toronto Islands, southwest of downtown.Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport in Markham provides general aviation facilities. Toronto/Downsview Airport, near the city's north end, is owned by de Havilland Canada and serves the Bombardier Aerospace aircraft factory. TOSHIBA Satellite A205-S4777 laptop keyboard There are a number of municipal expressways and provincial highways that serve Toronto and the Greater Toronto Area. In particular, Highway 401 bisects the city from west to east, bypassing the downtown core. It is the busiest road in North America,[101] and one of the busiest highways in the world.[102][103] The main municipal expressways in Toronto include the Gardiner Expressway, the Don Valley Parkway, and to some extent, Allen Road. TOSHIBA Satellite A200-1DR laptop keyboard The grid of major city streets was laid out by a concession road system, in which major arterial roads are 6,600 ft (2.0 km) apart. Major east-west arterial roads are generally parallel with the Lake Ontario shoreline, and major north-south arterial roads are roughly perpendicular to the shoreline. This arrangement is sometimes broken by geographical accidents, most notably the Don River ravines. DELL NSK-D8001 Laptop Keyboard DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard TOSHIBA Satellite A305 Laptop Keyboard

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