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14 novembre 2013 4 14 /11 /novembre /2013 08:36

SYCAN as of January 2011 currently has two branches (Northern Beaches and Inner-West areas).

Australia's National Reserve System (NRS) is a network of around 9,400 Commonwealth plus state and territoryprotected areas which,[1] in combination, on a national scale, SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D/T CPU Fan

are hoped to enable more than 89 million hectares (greater than 12% of the continent's) unique biodiversity and most significant ecological landscapes to be protected and preserved for future generations.The aim of the NRS is protect the diversity of all native landscapes, floraand fauna across Australia through strategic habitat protection. Compaq Presario CQ60-418DX CPU Fan

As part of the National Reserve System Cooperative Program, the Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australiaframework was developed as a planning tool to assist in identifying areas of priority.

The move by the Australian Government to establish this National Reserve System SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D CPU Fan

was triggered by the internationalConvention on Biological Diversity, as part of the nation's commitment to fulfilling the objectives of that convention.[4] In particular, after signing and ratifying the convention in 1992 the then Prime Minister announced. SONY VGN-BX197XP CPU Fan

"The establishment of a comprehensive system of protected areas is vital if we are to retain our status as a region of megadiversity. Besides being ecologically viable these areas must represent the full range of ecosystems. The Government is committed to the development of a national comprehensive system of parks and reserves. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

This will be achieved in cooperation with States and Territories."

Within the first 4 years (1992–1996) $11.2 million was spent establishing the system and, with the cooperation and agreement of the Australian States and territories 5,600 properties (covering almost 60 million hectares) Toshiba AB7805HX-GB3 CPU Fan

were included within the system and a new Indigenous Protected Area (IPA) program was initiated to include some of the most valuable and rare ecological landscapes on Indigenous Australian owned lands.[4] 17 Indigenous Protected Area were declared by 2003 which significantly added to the NRS.[5] Toshiba Satellite L500-208 CPU Fan

Within the next 10 years (1996–2007), with further substantial investment (through a National Heritage Trust) an additional 30 million hectares were added to the National Reserve System, two thirds of which were Indigenous Protected Areas. During this time, starting in 1999, HP 535441-001 CPU Fan

Tasmania took a lead investing in partnerships to create protected areas on other private lands; and by 2005 all the states and territories re-affirmed their joint commitment to what was to be described as a national 'flagship in biodiversity conservation'.[4] Toshiba Satellite P100-444 CPU Fan

The National Reserve System continues to be an Australian Government priority, with continuing funding "target[ing] areas with low levels of protection, including the sub-tropical savanna from Cape York to the Kimberley, the Mitchell grass country of north-west Queensland and arid central Australia;[4] HP Pavilion dv7-3114eo CPU Fan

continuing investment in indigenous protected areas;[4] plus a new National Reserve System strategy identifying priorities and actions to be taken over the next 20 years.

Although most of Australia is semi-arid or desert, it covers a diverse range of habitats, from alpine heaths to tropicalrainforests, and is recognized as a megadiverse country. HP Mini 110-1125SA CPU Fan

Because of the great age and consequent low levels of fertility of the continent, its extremely variable weather patterns, and its long-term geographic isolation, much of Australia's biota is unique and diverse. About 85% of flowering plants, 84% of mammals, more than 45% of birds, and 89% of in-shore, temperate-zone fish are endemic.[3] HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

Many of Australia's ecoregions, and the species within those regions, are threatened by human activities and introduced plant and animal species. The federal Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999is a legal framework for the protection of threatened species. Compaq Presario CQ60-210eo CPU Fan

Numerous protected areas have been created under the nationalBiodiversity Action Plan to protect and preserve unique ecosystems; 65 wetlands are listed under the Ramsar Convention, and 16 World Heritage Sites have been established. Australia was ranked 13th in the world on the 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index.[4] HP Pavilion dv7-2250sf CPU Fan

Most Australian woody plant species are evergreen and many are adapted to fire and drought, including many eucalyptus andacacias. Australia has a rich variety of endemic legume species that thrive in nutrient-poor soils because of their symbiosis with Rhizobia bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi. HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

Well-known Australian fauna include monotremes (the platypus and echidna); a host of marsupials, including the kangaroo, koala, wombat; and birds such as the emu and kookaburra. The dingo was introduced by Austronesian people who traded with Indigenous Australians around 3000 BCE.[5] HP G60-230us CPU Fan

Many plant and animal species became extinct soon after first human settlement, including the Australian megafauna; others have become extinct since European settlement, among them theThylacine.

The fauna of Australia consists of a huge variety of animals; some 83% of mammals, HP Pavilion dv6365us CPU Fan

89% of reptiles, 90% of fish and insects and 93% of amphibians that inhabit the continent are endemic to Australia.[2] This high level of endemism can be attributed to the continent's long geographic isolation, tectonic stability, and the effects of an unusual pattern of climate change on the soil and flora over geological time. HP 535439-001 CPU Fan

A unique feature of Australia's fauna is the relative scarcity of native placental mammals. Consequently the marsupials—a group of mammals that raise their young in a pouch, including the macropods, possums anddasyuromorphs—occupy many of the ecological niches placental animals occupy elsewhere in the world. COMPAQ 6910c CPU Fan

Australia is home to two of the 5 known extant species of monotremes and has numerous venomous species, which include the Platypus, spiders, scorpions,octopus, jellyfish, molluscs, stonefish, and stingrays. Uniquely, Australia has more venomous than non-venomous species ofsnakes. IBM Lenovo IdeaPad G510 CPU Fan

The settlement of Australia by Indigenous Australians between 48,000 and 70,000 years ago [3] (research in 2011 using DNA suggesting an arrival around 50,000 years ago),[4] and by Europeans from 1788, has significantly affected the fauna. Hunting, the introduction of non-native species, HP G62-110SO CPU Fan

and land-management practices involving the modification or destruction of habitats have led to numerous extinctions. Some examples include the Paradise Parrot, Pig-footed bandicoot and the Broad-faced Potoroo. Unsustainable land use still threatens the survival of many species. DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

To target threats to the survival of its fauna, Australia has passed wide-ranging federal and state legislation and established numerous protected areas.

Both geologic and climatic events helped to make Australia's fauna unique.[5] Australia was once part of the southern supercontinent Gondwana,[6] which also included South America, Africa, India and Antarctica. SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan

Gondwana began to break up 140 million years ago (MYA); 50 MYA Australia separated from Antarctica and was relatively isolated until the collision of the Indo-Australian Plate with Asia in the Miocene era 5.3 MYA. The establishment and evolution of the present-day fauna was apparently shaped by the unique climate and the geology of the continent. HP Envy 17-1090eo CPU Fan

As Australia drifted, it was, to some extent, isolated from the effects of global climate change. The unique fauna that originated in Gondwana, such as the marsupials, survived and adapted in Australia.[

After the Miocene, fauna of Asian origin were able to establish themselves in Australia. Toshiba Satellite A210-1CF CPU Fan

The Wallace Line—the hypothetical line separating the zoogeographical regions of Asia and Australasia—marks the tectonic boundary between theEurasian and Indo-Australian plates. This continental boundary prevented the formation of land bridges and resulted in a distinct zoological distribution, Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

with limited overlap, of most Asian and Australian fauna, with the exception of birds. Following the emergence of the circumpolar current in the mid-Oligocene era (some 15 MYA), the Australian climate became increasingly arid, giving rise to a diverse group of arid-specialised organisms, Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan

just as the wet tropical and seasonally wet areas gave rise to their own uniquely adapted species.Australia has a rich mammalian fossil history, as well as a variety of extant mammalian species, dominated by the marsupials.[8] The fossil record shows that monotremes have been present in Australia since the Early Cretaceous 145–99 MYA,[9] Compaq Presario A900 CTO CPU Fan

and that marsupials and placental mammals date from the Eocene 56–34 MYA,[10] when modern mammals first appeared in the fossil record. Although marsupials and placental mammals did coexist in Australia in the Eocene, only marsupials have survived to the present. ACER Aspire 4736ZG CPU Fan

The placental mammals made their reappearance in Australia in the Miocene, when Australia moved closer to Indonesia, and bats and rodents started to appear reliably in the fossil record.[ The marsupials evolved to fill specific ecological niches, and in many cases they are physically similar to the placental mammals in Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan

Eurasiaand North America that occupy similar niches, a phenomenon known as convergent evolution.[11] For example, the top predator in Australia, the Tasmanian Tiger,[7] bore a striking resemblance to canids such as the Gray Wolf;[ gliding possums and flying squirrels have similar adaptations enabling their arboreal lifestyle;[ SONY MCF-519PAM05 CPU Fan

and the Numbat andanteaters are both digging insectivores.[12] For the most part, mammals are not a highly visible part of the faunal landscape, as most species are nocturnal and many arboreal. Furthermore, there are few extant large ground-dwelling species. SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan

Two of the five living species of monotreme occur in Australia: the Platypus and the Short-beaked Echidna.[14] The monotremes differ from other mammals in their methods of reproduction; in particular, they lay eggs instead of giving birth to live young.[14] HP Pavilion dv7-2043cl CPU Fan

The Platypus—a venomous, egg-laying, duck-billed amphibious mammal—is considered to be one of the strangest creatures in the animal kingdom. When it was first presented by Joseph Banks to English naturalists it was thought to be so strange that it was a cleverly created hoax.[ HP Pavilion dv7-2130ev CPU Fan

The Short-beaked Echidna is similarly strange, covered in hairy spikes with a tubular snout in the place of a mouth, and a tongue that can move in and out of the snout about 100 times a minute to capture termites.

Australia has the world's largest and most diverse range of marsupials.[19HP 608772-001 CPU Fan

] Marsupials are characterised by the presence of a pouch in which they rear their young.[19] The carnivorous marsupials—order Dasyuromorphia—are represented by two surviving families: the Dasyuridae with 51 members, and the Myrmecobiidae with the numbat as its sole surviving member.[20] Toshiba Satellite A100-194 CPU Fan

The Tasmanian Tiger was the largest Dasyuromorphia[21] and the last living specimen of the family Thylacinidae died in captivity in 1936.[7] The world's largest surviving carnivorous marsupial is the Tasmanian Devil; it is the size of a small dog and can hunt, although it is mainly a scavenger.[21][22] HP Pavilion tx1205/ CT CPU Fan

It became extinct on the mainland some 600 years ago, and is now found only in Tasmania.[22] There are four species of quoll, or native cat, all of which are threatened species.[18] The remainder of the Dasyuridae are referred to as 'marsupial mice';[23] most weigh less than 100 g.[24] HP Pavilion dv6640ep CPU Fan

There are two species of Marsupial Mole—order Notoryctemorphia—that inhabit the deserts of Western Australia. These rare, blind and earless carnivorous creatures spend most of their time underground; little is known about them.

The bandicoots and bilbies—order Peramelemorphia—are marsupial omnivores.[27] COMPAQ Presario CQ42-401TU CPU Fan

There are seven species in Australia, most of which are endangered.[28][29] These small creatures share several characteristic physical features: a plump, arch-backed body with a long, delicately tapering snout, large upright ears, long, thin legs, and a thin tail.[28] Toshiba Satellite A300D CPU Fan

The evolutionary origin of this group is unclear, because they share characteristics from both carnivorous and herbivorous marsupials.Herbivorous marsupials are classified in the order Diprotodontia, and further into the suborders Vombatiformes and Phalangerida. The Vombatiformes include the Koala and the three species of wombat. HP Pavilion dv8397ea CPU  Fan

One of Australia's best-known marsupials, the Koala is an arboreal species that feeds on the leaves of various species of eucalyptus.[30] Wombats, on the other hand, live on the ground and feed on grasses, sedges and roots.[30] Wombats use their rodent-like front teeth and powerful claws to dig extensive burrow systems; HP Pavilion dv9821ea CPU Fan

they are mainly crepuscular and nocturnal.[30]

The Phalangerida includes six families and 26 species of possum and three families with 53 species of macropod. The possums are a diverse group of arboreal marsupials and vary in size from the Little Pygmy Possum, weighing just 7 g,[31] HP COMPAQ TC4200 CPU Fan

to the cat-sizedCommon Ringtail and Brushtail possums.[32][33] The Sugar and Squirrel Gliders are common species of gliding possum, found in the eucalypt forests of eastern Australia, while the Feathertail Glider is the smallest glider species.[34][35] The gliding possums have membranes called 'patagiums' that extend from the fifth finger of their forelimb back to the first toe of their hind foot. SONY Vaio VGN-NW228F CPU Fan

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