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4 juillet 2012 3 04 /07 /juillet /2012 04:26

T. E. Lawrence

Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Edward Lawrence, CB, DSO (16 August 1888[5] – 19 May 1935), known professionally asT. E. Lawrence, was a British Army officer renowned especially for his liaison role during the Arab Revoltagainst Ottoman Turkish rule of 1916–18. HP Mini 210-1011EA Keyboard

The extraordinary breadth and variety of his activities and associations, and his ability to describe them vividly in writing, earned him international fame as Lawrence of Arabia, a title which was used for the 1962 film based on his World War I activities. HP Mini 210-1011EE Keyboard

Lawrence was born illegitimate in Tremadog, Wales, in August 1888 to Sir Thomas Chapman and Sarah Junner, a governess who was herself illegitimate. Chapman had left his wife and first family in Ireland to live with Sarah Junner, and they called themselves Mr and Mrs Lawrence. HP Mini 210-1011EG Keyboard

In the summer of 1896 the Lawrences moved to Oxford, where in 1907–10 young Lawrence studied history at Jesus College, graduating with First Class Honours. He became a practising archaeologist in the Middle East, working at various excavations with David George Hogarth and Leonard Woolley. HP Mini 210-1011EI Keyboard

In 1908 he joined the OUOTC (Oxford University Officer Training Corps), undergoing a two-year training course.[6] In January 1914, before the outbreak of World War I, Lawrence was co-opted by the British Army to undertake a military survey of the Negev Desert while doing archaeological research. HP Mini 210-1011EP Keyboard

Lawrence's public image was due in part to the sensationalised reportage of the revolt by an American journalist,Lowell Thomas, as well as to Lawrence's autobiographical account, Seven Pillars of Wisdom (1922). HP Mini 210-1011EZ Keyboard

Lawrence was born on 16 August 1888 in Tremadog, Caernarfonshire (nowGwynedd), Wales, in a house named Gorphwysfa, now known as Snowdon Lodge.[8]His Anglo-Irish father, Thomas Robert Tighe Chapman, who in 1914 inherited the title of Westmeath in Ireland as seventh Baronet, HP Mini 210-1011TU Keyboard

had left his wife Edith for his daughters' governess Sarah Junner. Junner's mother, Elizabeth Junner, had named as Sarah's father a "John Junner – shipwright journeyman", though she had been living as an unmarried servant in the household of a John Lawrence, ship's carpenter, just four months earlier.[9][10] The couple did not marry but were known as Mr and Mrs Lawrence. HP Mini 210-1012EA Keyboard

Thomas Chapman and Sarah Junner had five sons born out of wedlock, of whom Thomas Edward was the second eldest. From Wales the family moved to Kirkcudbright in Dumfries and Galloway, then Dinard in Brittany, then to Jersey. From 1894–96 the family lived at Langley Lodge (now demolished), HP Mini 210-1012EE Keyboard

set in private woods between the eastern borders of the New Forest and Southampton Water in Hampshire. Mr Lawrence sailed and took the boys to watch yacht racing in the Solent off Lepe beach. By the time they left, the eight-year-old Ned (as Lawrence became known) had developed a taste for the countryside and outdoor activities. HP Mini 210-1012EG Keyboard

In the summer of 1896 the Lawrences moved to 2 Polstead Road (now marked with a blue plaque) in Oxford, where, until 1921, they lived under the names of Mr and Mrs Lawrence. Lawrence attended the City of Oxford High School for Boys, where one of the four houses was later named"Lawrence" in his honour; HP Mini 210-1012EI Keyboard

the school closed in 1966.[11] As a schoolboy, one of his favourite pastimes was to cycle to country churches and make brass rubbings. Lawrence and one of his brothers became commissioned officers in the Church Lads' Brigade at St Aldate's Church. HP Mini 210-1012EZ Keyboard

Lawrence claimed that in about 1905, he ran away from home and served for a few weeks as a boy soldier with the Royal Garrison Artillery at St Mawes Castle inCornwall, from which he was bought out. No evidence of this can be found in army records.[12] HP Mini 210-1012SA Keyboard

Middle East archaeology

At the age of 15 Lawrence and his schoolfriend Cyril Beeson bicycled around Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire, visited almost every village's parish church, studied their monuments and antiquities and made rubbings of their monumental brasses.[13]HP Mini 210-1012TU Keyboard

Lawrence and Beeson monitored building sites in Oxford and presented their finds to the Ashmolean Museum.[13] The Ashmolean's Annual Report for 1906 said that the two teenage boys "by incessant watchfulness secured everything of antiquarian value which has been found".[13]HP Mini 210-1012VU Keyboard

In the summers of 1906 and 1907 Lawrence and Beeson toured France by bicycle, collecting photographs, drawings and measurements of medieval castles.[13] HP Mini 210-1013EE Keyboard

From 1907 to 1910 Lawrence studied history at Jesus College, Oxford.[14] In the summer of 1909 Lawrence set out alone on a three-month walking tour of crusadercastles in Ottoman Syria, HP Mini 210-1013EG Keyboard

in which he travelled 1,000 mi (1,600 km) on foot. Lawrence graduated with First Class Honours after submitting a thesis entitled The influence of the Crusades on European Military Architecture – to the end of the 12th century based on his field research with Beeson in France,[13] notably inChâlus, and his solo research in the Middle East.[15] HP Mini 210-1014EA Keyboard

On completing his degree in 1910, Lawrence commenced postgraduate research in mediaeval pottery with a Senior Demy, a form ofscholarship, at Magdalen College, Oxford, which he abandoned after he was offered the opportunity to become a practising archaeologist in the Middle East. HP Mini 210-1014EE Keyboard

Lawrence was a polyglot whose published work demonstrates competence in French, Ancient Greek, and Arabic. In December 1910 he sailed for Beirut, and on arrival went to Jbail (Byblos), where he studied Arabic. He then went to work on the excavations at Carchemish, HP Mini 210-1014SA Keyboard

near Jerablus in northern Syria, where he worked under D. G. Hogarth and R. Campbell Thompson of theBritish Museum. He would later state that everything that he had accomplished, he owed to Hogarth.[16]HP Mini 210-1014SG Keyboard

As the site lay near an important crossing on the Baghdad Railway, knowledge gathered there was of considerable importance to the military. While excavating ancientMesopotamian sites, Lawrence met Gertrude Bell, who was to influence him during his time in the Middle East. HP Mini 210-1014TU Keyboard

In late 1911, Lawrence returned to England for a brief sojourn. By November he was en route to Beirut for a second season at Carchemish, where he was to work with Leonard Woolley. Prior to resuming work there, however, he briefly worked with Flinders Petrie atKafr Ammar in Egypt. HP Mini 210-1015EE Keyboard

Lawrence continued making trips to the Middle East as a field archaeologist until the outbreak of the First World War. In January 1914, Woolley and Lawrence were co-opted by the British military as an archaeological smokescreen for a British military survey of the Negev Desert. HP Mini 210-1015EP Keyboard

They were funded by the Palestine Exploration Fund to search for an area referred to in the Bible as the "Wilderness of Zin"; along the way, they undertook an archaeological survey of the Negev Desert. The Negev was of strategic importance, as it would have to be crossed by any Ottoman army attacking Egypt in the event of war. HP Mini 210-1015ES Keyboard

Woolley and Lawrence subsequently published a report of the expedition's archaeological findings,[17] but a more important result was an updated mapping of the area, with special attention to features of military relevance such as water sources. Lawrence also visited Aqaba and Petra. HP Mini 210-1015SB Keyboard

From March to May 1914, Lawrence worked again at Carchemish. Following the outbreak of hostilities in August 1914, Lawrence did not immediately enlist in the British Army; on the advice of S.F. Newcombe he held back until October, when he was commissioned on the General List. HP Mini 210-1015SG Keyboard

Arab revolt

At the outbreak of the First World War Lawrence was a university post-graduate researcher who had for years travelled extensively within the Ottoman Empire provinces of the Levant (Transjordan and Palestine) and Mesopotamia (Syria and Iraq) under his own name. HP Mini 210-1015SL Keyboard

As such he became known to the Turkish Interior Ministry authorities and their German technical advisors. Lawrence came into contact with the Ottoman–German technical advisers, travelling over the German-designed, -built, and -financed railways during the course of his researches.[citation needed] HP Mini 210-1015SZ Keyboard

With his first-hand knowledge of Syria, the Levant, and Mesopotamia, Lawrence was in 1914 posted to Cairo on the Intelligence Staff of the GOC Middle East.[18] HP Mini 210-1015TU Keyboard

Contrary to later myth, it was neither Lawrence nor the Army that conceived a campaign of internal insurgency against the Ottoman Empire in the Middle East, but rather the Arab Bureau of Britain's Foreign Office. The Arab Bureau had long felt it likely that a campaign instigatHP Mini 210-1016SG Keyboard

Contrary to later myth, it was neither Lawrence nor the Army that conceived a campaign of internal insurgency against the Ottoman Empire in the Middle East, but rather the Arab Bureau of Britain's Foreign Office. The Arab Bureau had long felt it likely that a campaign instigated and financed by outside powers, HP Mini 210-1016TU Keyboard

supporting the breakaway-minded tribes and regional challengers to the Turkish government's centralised rule of their empire, would pay great dividends in the diversion of effort that would be needed to meet such a challenge. HP Mini 210-1017SG Keyboard

The Arab Bureau had recognised the strategic value of what is today called the "asymmetry" of such conflict. The Ottoman authorities would have to devote from a hundred to a thousand times the resources to contain the threat of such an internal rebellion compared to the Allies' cost of sponsoring it.[citation needed] HP Mini 210-1017TU Keyboard

At that point in the Foreign Office's thinking, the region was not considered candidate territories for incorporation in the British Empire but only as an extension of the range of British Imperial influence and the weakening and destruction of a German ally, the Ottoman Empire.[citation needed] HP Mini 210-1018CL Keyboard

During the war, Lawrence fought with Arab irregular troops under the command of Emir Faisal, a son of Sherif Hussein of Mecca, in extended guerrilla operations against the armed forces of the Ottoman Empire. He persuaded the Arabs not to make a frontal assault on the Ottoman stronghold in Medina but allowed the Turkish army to tie up troops in the city garrison. HP Mini 210-1018EG Keyboard

The Arabs were then free to direct most of their attention to the Turks' weak point, the Hejaz railway that supplied the garrison. This vastly expanded the battlefield and tied up even more Ottoman troops, who were then forced to protect the railway and repair the constant damage.[citation needed] HP Mini 210-1018TU Keyboard

In 1917, Lawrence arranged a joint action with the Arab irregulars and forces including Auda Abu Tayi (until then in the employ of the Ottomans) against the strategically located but lightly defended[19][20][21] town of Aqaba. On 6 July, after a surprise overland attack, HP Mini 210-1019EG Keyboard

Aqaba fell to Lawrence and the Arab forces. After Aqaba, Lawrence was promoted to major. Fortunately for Lawrence, the new commander-in-chief of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, General Sir Edmund Allenby, agreed to his strategy for the revolt, stating after the war: HP Mini 210-1019LA Keyboard

Fall of Damascus

The following year, Lawrence was involved in the build up to the capture of Damascus in the final weeks of the war. Much to his disappointment, and contrary to instructions he had issued, he was not present at the city's formal surrender, arriving several hours after the city had fallen. HP Mini 210-1020BR Keyboard

Lawrence entered Damascus around 9am on 1 October 1918, but was only the third arrival of the day, the first being the 10th Australian Light Horse Brigade, led by Major A.C.N. 'Harry' Olden who formally accepted the surrender of the city from acting Governor Emir Said. HP Mini 210-1020EA Keyboard

Despite his absence for the formal surrender, he was promoted to lieutenant-colonel in late 1918 for the role he had played in the capture of Damascus. HP Mini 210-1020EG Keyboard

Lawrence was reportedly embittered by having been beaten into the city by the Australians, and resented them for it later in his life. In his own recollections of the capture of Damascus he completely omitted the key role played by the Australians, and this error was widely believed and later repeated by many historians.[24][27] HP Mini 210-1020EH Keyboard

In newly liberated Damascus—which he had envisaged as the capital of an Arab state—Lawrence was instrumental in establishing a provisional Arab government under Faisal. Faisal's rule as king, however, came to an abrupt end in 1920, after the battle of Maysaloun, HP Mini 210-1020EJ Keyboard

when the French Forces of General Gouraud, under the command of General Mariano Goybet, entered Damascus, destroying Lawrence's dream of an independent Arabia. HP Mini 210-1020EK Keyboard

As was his habit when travelling before the war, Lawrence adopted many local customs and traditions (many photographs show him in the desert wearing white Arabdishdasha and riding camels). HP Mini 210-1020EM Keyboard

During the closing years of the war he sought, with mixed success, to convince his superiors in the British government that Arab independence was in their interests. The secret Sykes-Picot Agreement between France and Britain contradicted the promises of independence he had made to the Arabs and frustrated his work.[28] HP Mini 210-1020EO Keyboard

In 1918 he co-operated with war correspondent Lowell Thomas for a short period. During this time Thomas and his cameraman Harry Chase shot a great deal of film and many photographs, which Thomas used in a highly lucrative film that toured the world after the war. HP Mini 210-1020EP Keyboard

Immediately after the war, Lawrence worked for the Foreign Office, attending the Paris Peace Conference between January and May as a member of Faisal's delegation. He served for much of 1921 as an advisor to Winston Churchill at the Colonial Office. HP Mini 210-1020EQ Keyboard

On 17 May 1919, the Handley Page Type O carrying Lawrence on a flight to Egypt crashed at the airport of Roma-Centocelle. The pilot and co-pilot were killed; Lawrence came off with a broken shoulder blade and two broken ribs.[29] During his brief hospitalisation, he was visited by King Victor Emanuel III.[30] HP Mini 210-1020EZ Keyboard

In August 1919, the American journalist Lowell Thomas launched a colourful photo show in London entitled With Allenby in Palestine which included a lecture, dancing, and music.[31] Initially, Lawrence played only a supporting role in the show, but when Thomas realized that it was the photos of Lawrence dressed as a Bedouin that had captured the public's imagination, HP Mini 210-1020SA Keyboard

he shot some more photos in London of him in Arab dress.[31] With the new photos, Thomas re-launched his show as With Allenby in Palestine and Lawrence in Arabia in early 1920; it was extremely popular.[31] Thomas' shows made Lawrence, who until then had been rather obscure, into a household name.[31] HP Mini 210-1020SL Keyboard

In August 1922, Lawrence enlisted in the Royal Air Force as an aircraftman under the name John Hume Ross, at RAF Uxbridge. He was soon exposed and, in February 1923, was forced out of the RAF. He changed his name to T. E. Shaw and joined the Royal Tank Corps in 1923. HP Mini 210-1020SP Keyboard

He was unhappy there and repeatedly petitioned to rejoin the RAF, which finally readmitted him in August 1925.[32] A fresh burst of publicity after the publication of Revolt in the Desert (see below) resulted in his assignment to a remote base in British India in late 1926, where he remained until the end of 1928. At that time he was forced to return to Britain after rumours began to circulate that he was involved in espionage activities. HP Mini 210-1020SS Keyboard

He purchased several small plots of land in Chingford, built a hut and swimming pool there, and visited frequently. This was removed in 1930 when the Chingford Urban District Council acquired the land and passed it to the City of London Corporation, HP Mini 210-1020SW Keyboard

but re-erected the hut in the grounds of The Warren, Loughton, where it remains, neglected, today. Lawrence's tenure of the Chingford land has now been commemorated by a plaque fixed on the sighting obelisk on Pole Hill. HP Mini 210-1020TU Keyboard

He continued serving in the RAF based at Bridlington, East Riding of Yorkshire, specialising in high-speed boats and professing happiness, and it was with considerable regret that he left the service at the end of his enlistment in March 1935. HP Mini 210-1021EE Keyboard

Lawrence was a keen motorcyclist, and, at different times, had owned seven Brough Superior motorcycles.[33] His seventh motorcycle is on display at the Imperial War Museum. Among the books Lawrence is known to have carried with him on his military campaigns is Thomas Malory's Morte D'Arthur. HP Mini 210-1021EG Keyboard

Accounts of the 1934 discovery of the Winchester Manuscript of theMorte include a report that Lawrence followed Eugene Vinaver—a Malory scholar—by motorcycle from Manchester to Winchester upon reading of the discovery in The Times.[34] HP Mini 210-1021EK Keyboard

At the age of 46, two months after leaving the service, Lawrence was fatally injured in an accident on his Brough Superior SS100 motorcycle in Dorset, close to his cottage, Clouds Hill, near Wareham. A dip in the road obstructed his view of two boys on their bicycles; he swerved to avoid them, lost control and was thrown over the handlebars. He died six days later on 19 May 1935. The spot is marked by a small memorial at the side of the road. HP Mini 210-1021EO Keyboard

The circumstances of Lawrence's death had far-reaching consequences. One of the doctors attending him was the neurosurgeon Hugh Cairns. He was profoundly affected by the incident, and consequently began a long study of what he saw as the unnecessary loss of life by motorcycle dispatch riders through head injuries. His research led to the use of crash helmets by both military and civilian motorcyclists.[35] HP Mini 210-1021SS Keyboard

Moreton Estate, which borders Bovington Camp, was owned by family cousins, the Frampton family. Lawrence had rented and later bought Clouds Hill from the Framptons. He had been a frequent visitor to their home, Okers Wood House, and had for years corresponded with Louisa Frampton. HP Mini 210-1021TU Keyboard

On Lawrence's death, his mother arranged with the Framptons for him to be buried in their family plot at Moreton Church.[36] His coffin was transported on the Frampton estate's bier. Mourners included Winston andClementine Churchill, E.M. Forster and Lawrence's youngest brother, Arnold.[37] HP Mini 210-1022EG Keyboard

A bust of Lawrence was placed in the crypt at St Paul's Cathedral and a stone effigy by Eric Kennington remains in the Anglo-Saxon church of St Martin, Wareham. HP Mini 210-1022EK Keyboard

Writings

Throughout his life, Lawrence was a prolific writer. A large portion of his output was epistolary; he often sent several letters a day. Several collections of his letters have been published. He corresponded with many notable figures, including George Bernard Shaw, Edward Elgar, Winston Churchill, Robert Graves, HP Mini 210-1022EO Keyboard

Noël Coward, E. M. Forster, Siegfried Sassoon, John Buchan, Augustus John and Henry Williamson. He met Joseph Conrad and commented perceptively on his works. The many letters that he sent to Shaw's wife, Charlotte, offer a revealing side of his character.[38] HP Mini 210-1022EZ Keyboard

In his lifetime, Lawrence published four major texts. Two were translations: Homer's Odyssey, and The Forest Giant — the latter an otherwise forgotten work of French fiction. He received a flat fee for the second translation, and negotiated a generous fee plus royalties for the first. HP Mini 210-1022SS Keyboard

Lawrence's major work is Seven Pillars of Wisdom, an account of his war experiences. In 1919 he had been elected to a seven-year research fellowship at All Souls College, Oxford, providing him with support while he worked on the book. In addition to being a memoir of his experiences during the war, HP Mini 210-1022TU Keyboard

certain parts also serve as essays on military strategy, Arabian culture and geography, and other topics. Lawrence re-wrote Seven Pillars of Wisdom three times; once "blind" after he lost themanuscript while changing trains at Reading railway station. HP Mini 210-1023EO Keyboard

The list of his alleged "embellishments" in Seven Pillars is long, though many such allegations have been disproved with time, most definitively in Jeremy Wilson's authorised biography. HP Mini 210-1023SS Keyboard

However Lawrence's own notebooks refute his claim to have crossed the Sinai Peninsula from Aqaba to the Suez Canal in just 49 hours without any sleep. In reality this famous camel ride lasted for more than 70 hours and was interrupted by two long breaks for sleeping which Lawrence omitted when he wrote his book.[39] HP Mini 210-1023TU Keyboard

Lawrence acknowledged having been helped in the editing of the book by George Bernard Shaw. In the preface to Seven Pillars, Lawrence offered his "thanks to Mr. and Mrs. Bernard Shaw for countless suggestions of great value and diversity: and for all the present semicolons." HP Mini 210-1023VU Keyboard

The first public edition was published in 1926 as a high-priced private subscription edition, printed in London by Roy Manning Pike and Herbert John Hodgson, with illustrations by Eric Kennington, Augustus John, Paul Nash, Blair Hughes-Stantonand his wife Gertrude Hermes. HP Mini 210-1024EO Keyboard

Lawrence was afraid that the public would think that he would make a substantial income from the book, and he stated that it was written as a result of his war service. He vowed not to take any money from it, and indeed he did not, as the sale price was one third of the production costs.[40] This, along with his "saintlike" generosity, left Lawrence in substantial debt. [41] HP Mini 210-1024TU Keyboard

Revolt in the Desert was an abridged version of Seven Pillars, which he began in 1926 and was published in March 1927 in both limited and trade editions. He undertook a needed but reluctant publicity exercise, which resulted in a best-seller. HP Mini 210-1024VU Keyboard

Again he vowed not to take any fees from the publication, partly to appease the subscribers to Seven Pillars who had paid dearly for their editions. By the fourth reprint in 1927, the debt from Seven Pillars was paid off. As Lawrence left for military service in India at the end of 1926, he set up the "Seven Pillars Trust" with his friend D. G. Hogarth as a trustee, HP Mini 210-1025BR Keyboard

in which he made over the copyright and any surplus income ofRevolt in the Desert. He later told Hogarth that he had "made the Trust final, to save myself the temptation of reviewing it, if Revoltturned out a best seller." HP Mini 210-1025EG Keyboard

The resultant trust paid off the debt, and Lawrence then invoked a clause in his publishing contract to halt publication of the abridgment in the UK. However, he allowed both American editions and translations, which resulted in a substantial flow of income. HP Mini 210-1025LA Keyboard

The trust paid income either into an educational fund for children of RAF officers who lost their lives or were invalided as a result of service, or more substantially into the RAF Benevolent Fund. HP Mini 210-1025TU Keyboard

Posthumous

Lawrence left unpublished The Mint,[42] a memoir of his experiences as an enlisted man in the Royal Air Force. For this, he worked from a notebook that he kept while enlisted, writing of the daily lives of enlisted men and his desire to be a part of something larger than himself: HP Mini 210-1026EG Keyboard

the Royal Air Force. The book is stylistically very different from Seven Pillars of Wisdom, using sparse prose as opposed to the complicated syntax found in Seven Pillars. It was published posthumously, edited by his brother, Professor A. W. Lawrence. HP Mini 210-1026TU Keyboard

After Lawrence's death, A. W. Lawrence inherited Lawrence's estate and his copyrights as the sole beneficiary. To pay the inheritance tax, he sold the U.S. copyright of Seven Pillars of Wisdom (subscribers' text) outright to Doubleday Doran in 1935. Doubleday still controls publication rights of this version of the text of Seven Pillars of Wisdom in the USA. HP Mini 210-1027TU Keyboard

In 1936 Prof. Lawrence split the remaining assets of the estate, giving Clouds Hill and many copies of less substantial or historical letters to the nation via the National Trust, and then set up two trusts to control interests in T. E. Lawrence's residual copyrights. HP Mini 210-1027VU Keyboard

To the original Seven Pillars Trust, Prof. Lawrence assigned the copyright in Seven Pillars of Wisdom, as a result of which it was given its first general publication. To the Letters and Symposium Trust, he assigned the copyright in The Mint and all Lawrence's letters, which were subsequently edited and published in the book T. E. Lawrence by his Friends (edited by A. W. Lawrence, London, Jonathan Cape, 1937). HP Mini 210-1028LA Keyboard

A substantial amount of income went directly to the RAF Benevolent Fund or for archaeological, environmental, or academic projects. The two trusts were amalgamated in 1986 and, on the death of Prof. A. W. Lawrence, the unified trust also acquired all the remaining rights to Lawrence's works that it had not owned, plus rights to all of Prof. Lawrence's works. HP Mini 210-1028TU Keyboard

Sexuality

Lawrence's biographers have discussed his sexuality at considerable length, and this discussion has spilled into the popular press.[43] HP Mini 210-1028VU Keyboard

There is no reliable evidence for consensual sexual intimacy between Lawrence and any person. His friends have expressed the opinion that he was asexual,[44][45]and Lawrence himself specifically denied, in multiple private letters, any personal experience of sex.[46]HP Mini 210-1029VU Keyboard

While there were suggestions that Lawrence had been intimate with Dahoum, who worked with Lawrence at a pre-war archaeological dig in Carchemish,[47] and fellow-serviceman R.A.M. Guy,[48] his biographers and contemporaries have found them unconvincing.[47][48][49] HP Mini 210-1030BR Keyboard

Lawrence was never specific about the identity of "S.A." There are many theories which argue in favour of individual men, women, and the Arab nation.[50] The most popular is that S.A. represents (at least in part) his companion Selim Ahmed, "Dahoum", who apparently died of typhus prior to 1918. HP Mini 210-1030EG Keyboard

Although Lawrence lived in a period during which official opposition to homosexuality was strong, his writing on the subject was tolerant. In Seven Pillars, when discussing relationships between young male fighters in the war, he refers on one occasion to "the openness and honesty of perfect love"[51] HP Mini 210-1030EH Keyboard

and on another to "friends quivering together in the yielding sand with intimate hot limbs in supreme embrace".[52] In a letter to Charlotte Shaw he wrote "I've seen lots of man-and-man loves: very lovely and fortunate some of them were."[53] HP Mini 210-1030EM Keyboard

In both Seven Pillars and a 1919 letter to a military colleague,[54] Lawrence describes an episode in November 1917 in which, while reconnoitring Dera'a in disguise, he was captured by the Turkish military, heavily beaten, and sexually abused by the local Bey and his guardsmen. HP Mini 210-1030EQ Keyboard

The precise nature of the sexual contact is not specified. Although there is no independent evidence, the multiple consistent reports, and the absence of evidence for outright invention in Lawrence's works, make the account believable to his biographers.[55]HP Mini 210-1030ER Keyboard

At least three of Lawrence's biographers (Malcolm Brown, John Mack, and Jeremy Wilson) have argued this episode had strong psychological effects on Lawrence which may explain some of his unconventional behaviour in later life. HP Mini 210-1030EV Keyboard

There is considerable evidence that Lawrence was a masochist. In his description of the Dera'a beating, Lawrence wrote "a delicious warmth, probably sexual, was swelling through me", and also included a detailed description of the guards' whip in a style typical of masochists' writing.[56]HP Mini 210-1030EY Keyboard

In later life, Lawrence arranged to pay a military colleague to administer beatings to him,[43] and to be subjected to severe formal tests of fitness and stamina.[57] While John Bruce, who first wrote on this topic, included some other claims which were not credible, Lawrence's biographers regard the beatings as established fact.[58] HP Mini 210-1030EZ Keyboard

John E. Mack sees a possible connection between T.E.'s masochism and the childhood beatings he had received from his mother[59] for routine misbehaviours.[60]His brother Arnold thought the beatings had been given for the purpose of breaking T.E.'s will.[60]HP Mini 210-1030NR Keyboard

Writing in 1997, Angus Calder noted that it is "astonishing" that earlier commentators discussing Lawrence's apparent masochism and self-loathing failed to consider the impact on Lawrence of having lost his brothers Frank and Will on the Western front, along with many other school friends.[61] HP Mini 210-1030SL Keyboard

Caucasus theatre

The Caucasus was already a scene of confrontation for the Russians and the Ottomans, as both had sought to extend their influence in the region. HP Mini 210-1030SP Keyboard

Russian expansion into the region had been resisted by local peoples in Chechnya, Dagestan, and the other mountain areas. In the region the Russians were opposed by Muridists of the Caucasian Imamate, but were grudgingly supported by Circassians, Georgians and Kakhetians, who valued their independence, but were at odds with their neighbours. HP Mini 210-1030SS Keyboard

In 1853 the leader of the mountain peoples, Imam Shamil, staged an insurrection against the occupying Russian forces. His forces fough

t the Russians atZaqatala, and Meselderg, but were beaten back by the Russian forces. In 1854 he tried again, advancing on Tiflis before being defeated at Shulda. HP Mini 210-1030SV Keyboard

In summer of 1853 the Ottoman forces held strongholds at Kars, Batum, and Erzerum, with lesser forts at Ardahan and Bayazid. The Ottoman forces planned an invasion of Georgia but after some initial success were unable to maintain this and were forced to retreat. HP Mini 210-1030SW Keyboard

Russian forces in the region were spread thinly, due to the demands of holding down the region against insurrection, but during 1853 were reinforced. In September 1853 there were a number of clashes between Russian and Ottoman forces. HP Mini 210-1030TU Keyboard

Additionally, there were later battles at Fort St. Nicolas in October 1853 and twice at Alexandropol in October 1853 and again in December 1853. On November 26, 1853, the Russians beat the Ottoman armed forces at the Battle of Akhatzikh.[51] HP Mini 210-1031EG Keyboard

In the spring of 1854 the Russians planned an invasion of Ottoman territory, fighting inconclusive battles at the Cholok river and Kurekdere. Following this the invasion came to nothing and there was little further action that year. HP Mini 210-1031ER Keyboard

In 1855 both sides returned to the offensive; after initial manoeuvrings the Russians staged an assault on Kars, which was beaten back with losses. However they then settled down to a siege which was successful, Kars surrendering in November 1855. Meanwhile the Ottoman army at Batum invaded Georgia, but after an inconclusive clash at the Ingur river the offensive collapsed and they retreated to Batum. HP Mini 210-1031SS Keyboard

Baltic theatre

The Baltic was a forgotten theatre of the Crimean War. The popularisation of events elsewhere had overshadowed the significance of this theatre, which was close to Saint Petersburg, the Russian capital. In April 1854 an Anglo-French fleet was sent into the Baltic to attack the Russian sea port of Kronstadt and the Russian fleet stationed there.[52] HP Mini 210-1031TU Keyboard

In August 1854 the combined English and French fleet returned to Kronstadt for another attempt. However, from the beginning, the Baltic campaign remained a stalemate. The outnumbered Russian Baltic Fleet confined its movements to the areas around its fortifications. HP Mini 210-1031VU Keyboard

At the same time, British and French commanders Sir Charles Napier and Alexandre Ferdinand Parseval-Deschenes—although they led the largest fleet assembled since the Napoleonic Wars—considered the Sveaborg fortress too well-defended to engage. HP Mini 210-1032CL Keyboard

Thus, shelling of the Russian batteries was limited to two attempts in the summers of 1854 and 1855, and initially, the attacking fleets limited their actions to blockading the Russian trade in the Gulf of Finland.[53] Naval attacks on other ports, such as the ones at Hogland were more successful.[54] Additionally, they conducted raids on less fortified sections of the Finnish coast. HP Mini 210-1032SS Keyboard

Russia was dependent on imports for both the domestic economy and the supply of her military forces and the blockade seriously undermined the Russian economy. Raiding by allied British and French fleets destroyed forts on the Finnish coast including the newly constructed Bomarsund on the Åland Islands which was raided on July 3 through July 16, HP Mini 210-1032TU Keyboard

1854,[55] and Fort Slava. Other such attacks were not so successful, and the poorly planned attempts to take Hanko,[56] Ekenäs, Kokkola, andTurku were repulsed. HP Mini 210-1032VU Keyboard

The burning of tar warehouses and ships in Oulu and Raahe led to international criticism and, in Britain, MP Thomas Gibsondemanded in the House of Commons that the First Lord of the Admiralty explain "a system which carried on a great war by plundering and destroying the property of defenceless villagers".HP Mini 210-1033SS Keyboard

In 1855, the Western Allied Baltic Fleet tried to destroy heavily defended Russian dockyards at Sveaborg outside Helsinki. More than 1,000 enemy guns tested the strength of the fortress for two days. Despite the shelling, the sailors of the 120-gun ship Rossiya, led by Captain Viktor Poplonsky, HP Mini 210-1033TU Keyboard

defended the entrance to the harbour. The Allies fired over twenty thousand shells but were unable to defeat the Russian batteries. A massive new fleet of more than 350 gunboats and mortar vessels was prepared, but before the attack was launched, the war ended. HP Mini 210-1033VU Keyboard

Part of the Russian resistance was credited to the deployment of newly created blockade mines. Perhaps the most influential contributor to the development of naval mining was inventor and civil engineer Immanuel Nobel, the father of Alfred Nobel. Immanuel helped the war effort for Russia by applying his knowledge of industrial explosives such as nitroglycerin and gunpowder. HP Mini 210-1034TU Keyboard

Modern naval mining is said to date from the Crimean War: "Torpedo mines, if I may use this name given by Fulton to self-acting mines underwater, were among the novelties attempted by the Russians in their defenses about Cronstadt and Sevastopol", as one American officer put it in 1860.[57] HP Mini 210-1034VU Keyboard

Sardinian involvement

Camillo di Cavour, under orders by Victor Emmanuel II of the Kingdom of Sardinia (also known as Piedmont), sent an expeditionary corps of around 18,000 soldiers, commanded by General Alfonso La Marmora, to side with French and British forces during the war. HP Mini 210-1035EG Keyboard

This was an attempt at gaining the favour of the French especially when the issue of uniting Italy under the Sardinian throne would become an important matter. The deployment of Sardinian troops to the Crimea, HP Mini 210-1035LA Keyboard

and the gallantry shown by them in the Battle of the Chernaya (August 16, 1855) and in the siege of Sevastopol, allowed the Kingdom of Sardinia to be among the participants at the peace conference at the end of the war, where it could address the issue of the Risorgimento to other European powers. HP Mini 210-1035TU Keyboard

When the Crimean War broke out, many Greeks felt that it was an opportunity to regain Ottoman-occupied Greek territory to add to the recently liberated territory of the independent Kingdom of Greece. The Greek War of Independence (1821–1829) was still fresh in people's minds, HP Mini 210-1036TU Keyboard

as well as the Russian intervention that had helped secure Greek independence. Just before the Greek War of Independence a leader of Filiki Eteria, Alexander Ypsilantis, and his brother Demetrios Ypsilantis had led Russian troops in to Moldavia and Wallachia and co-ordinated the preparations for uprisings throughout Ottoman-occupied Greece which they later led. HP Mini 210-1036VU Keyboard

Moreover, Greeks have always considered Orthodox Christian Russia as an ally and viewed the Crimean War as a grave injustice against Russia and any support of the Ottoman Empire a grave threat to Greece's recent independence. HP Mini 210-1037TU Keyboard

Although the official Greek state, under severe diplomatic and military pressure from the British and French (allies of the Ottomans), which included a naval blockade and the occupation of the country's main port of Piraeus, refrained from actively entering the conflict, HP Mini 210-1037VU Keyboard

a number of uprisings broke out in Albania in January 1854[59] and soon spread to Epirus, Thessaly, and Macedonia.[60] A revolt also broke out in Crete, with support from individuals and groups within independent Greece and Constantinople. However, all Greek revolts in the Turkish provinces were soon suppressed. HP Mini 210-1038TU Keyboard

A small Greek volunteer force under Colonel Panos Koronaios went to Russia and fought during the Siege of Sevastopol. However, more Greek nationals fought in the Crimean War with the "Greek Battalion of Balaklava" which had been in the ranks of the Russian army since the first Russo-Turkish war (1768–1774). HP Mini 210-1039TU Keyboard

End of the war

Dissatisfaction with the conduct of the war was growing with the public in Britain and in other countries. On Sunday, January 21, 1855, a "snowball riot" occurred in Trafalgar Square near St. Martin-in-the-Field in which 1,500 people gathered to protest the war by pelting busses, cabs and pedestrians with snow balls.[61HP Mini 210-1039VU Keyboard

When the police intervened, the snowballs were directed at them. The riot was finally put down by troops and police acting with truncheons.[61] Public dissatisfaction with the conduct of the war was aggravated by reports of fiascoes like the Charge of the Light Brigade at the Battle of Balaclava led to questions being raised in parliament about the war. HP Mini 210-1040BR Keyboard

On Thursday, February 1, 1855, Edward Law, Earl of Ellenbrough, a Tory member of parliament, pushed the Aberdeen Coalition government for an accounting of all soldier, cavalry and sailors sent to the Crimea and accurate figures as to the number of casualties that had been sustained by all British armed forces in the Crimea.[62]HP Mini 210-1040EC Keyboard

Following this two more Tory members of Parliament, Charles Gordon-Lennox, Duke of Richmond andCharles Philip Yorke, Earl of Hardwicke, raised questions about the war and about the Battle of Balaclava in particular. These Tory members were part of the protectionist wing of the Tory party and, HP Mini 210-1040EH Keyboard

thus, may have had ulterior motives for posing these embarrassing questions to the Aberdeen government. George Hamilton Gordon, Earl of Aberdeen was a leader of the Peelites. The Peelites had been Tories but had sided with the Whigs on free trade issues and especially the repeal of the protectionist "Corn Laws" which damaged the material interests of the landed aristocracy represented by the Tory party.[63]HP Mini 210-1040EM Keyboard

The protectionist wing of the Tory party could not forgive the Peelites for this rank betrayal of their interests and now sought opportunities to bring down the Coalition (Whig-Peelite) government with the leading Peelite – Aberdeen – acting as prime minister. The war was to become the scapegoat in the continuation of the battle between free trade and protectionism.[63] HP Mini 210-1040EQ Keyboard

A more sincere attempt to question British involvement in the war was introduced in Parliament on January 29, 1855, in the form of a bill authored by John Arthur Roebuck, a radical member of the Parliament, asking for an investigation by Parliament into the conduct of the war. HP Mini 210-1040ER Keyboard

Parliament passed this bill with 305 in favour and 148 against.[64] Aberdeen chose to view the vote on this bill as a "vote of no confidence" on the Coalition government. Accordingly, Aberdeen resigned as prime minister on January 30, 1855, and Lord Palmerston was asked by Queen Victoria to form a new government. HP Mini 210-1040ES Keyboard

This time the Whigs formed a government with the help of the Irish members of Parliament. Roebuck eventually became the chairman of the select committee conducting the investigation. HP Mini 210-1040EV Keyboard

Peace negotiations began in 1856 under Nicholas I's son and successor, Alexander II, through the Congress of Paris. Furthermore, the Tsar and the Sultan agreed not to establish any naval or military arsenal on the Black Sea coast. The Black Sea clauses came at a tremendous disadvantage to Russia, HP Mini 210-1040EW Keyboard

for it greatly diminished the naval threat it posed to the Ottomans. Russian protectorates of Moldavia and Wallachia acquired in the previous war were returned to Ottoman Empire. Moreover, all of the Great Powers pledged to respect the independence and territorial integrity of the Ottoman Empire. HP Mini 210-1040EZ Keyboard

The Treaty of Paris stood until 1871, when France was defeated by Prussia in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871. While Prussia and several other German states united to form a powerful German Empire, the Emperor of the French, Napoleon III, was deposed to permit the formation of a Third French Republic. HP Mini 210-1040LA Keyboard

During his reign, Napoleon III, eager for the support of Great Britain, had opposed Russia over the Eastern Question. Russian interference in the Ottoman Empire, however, did not in any significant manner threaten the interests of France. Thus, France abandoned its opposition to Russia after the establishment of a republic. HP Mini 210-1040NR Keyboard

Encouraged by the decision of the French and supported by the German minister Otto von Bismarck, Russia renounced the Black Sea clauses of the treaty agreed to in 1856. As Great Britain alone could not enforce the clauses, Russia once again established a fleet in the Black Sea. HP Mini 210-1040SL Keyboard

Having abandoned its alliance with Russia, Austria was diplomatically isolated following the war, which contributed to its defeat in the 1866 Austro-Prussian War and its loss of influence in most German-speaking lands. With France, now hostile to Germany, HP Mini 210-1040SP Keyboard

allied with Russia, and Russia competing with the newly renamed Austro-Hungarian Empire for an increased role in the Balkans at the expense of the Ottoman Empire, the foundations were in place for creating the diplomatic alliances that would lead to World War I. HP Mini 210-1040SV Keyboard

Notwithstanding the guarantees to preserve Ottoman territories specified in the Treaty of Paris, Russia, exploiting nationalist unrest in the Ottoman states in the Balkans and seeking to regain lost prestige, once again declared war on the Ottoman Empire on 24 April 1877. In this later Russo-Turkish War the states ofRomania, Serbia and Montenegro achieved independence and Bulgaria its autonomy. HP Mini 210-1040TU Keyboard

The Crimean War was one of the main causes of the demise of The Concert of Europe, the balance of power that had dominated Europe since the Congress of Viennain 1815, and which had included France, Russia, and The British Empire. HP Mini 210-1040VU Keyboard

The Crimean War was notorious for the military and logistical immaturity of the British army.[citation needed] However, it highlighted the work of women who served as army nurses. War correspondents for newspapers reported the scandalous treatment of wounded soldiers in the desperate winter that followed and prompted the work of Florence Nightingale, Mary Seacole, Frances Margaret Taylor and others and led to the introduction of modern nursing methods. HP Mini 210-1041ER Keyboard

HP Mini 210-1041ES Keyboard

The Crimean War also saw the first tactical use of railways and other modern inventions such as the electric telegraph, with the first 'live' war reporting to The Times by William Howard Russell. Some credit Russell with prompting the resignation of the sitting British government through his reporting of the lacklustre shape of the British forces deployed to the Crimea. HP Mini 210-1041NR Keyboard

Additionally, the telegraph reduced the independence of British overseas possessions from their commanders in London due to such rapid communications. Newspaper readership informed public opinion in the United Kingdom and France as never before.[65] It was the first European war to be photographed. HP Mini 210-1041TU Keyboard

The war also employed modern military tactics, such as trenches and blind artillery fire. The use of the Minié ball for shot, coupled with the rifling of barrels, greatly increased Allied rifle range and damage. HP Mini 210-1042ES Keyboard

The British Army system of sale of commissions came under great scrutiny during the war, especially in connection with the Battle of Balaclava, which saw the ill-fated Charge of the Light Brigade. This scrutiny eventually led to the abolition of the sale of commissions. HP Mini 210-1042VU Keyboard

The Crimean War was a contributing factor in the Russian abolition of serfdom in 1861: Alexander II saw the military defeat of the Russian serf-army by free troops from Britain and France as proof of the need for emancipation.[66] The Crimean War also led to the eventual realisation by the Russian government of its technological inferiority, namely in its military practices as well as its military weapons.[67] HP Mini 210-1043ES KeyboardMeanwhile, the Russian military medicine saw dramatic progress: N. I. Pirogov, known as the father of Russian field surgery, developed the use of anaesthetics, plaster casts, enhanced amputation methods and five-stage triage in Crimea, among other things. HP Mini 210-1043TU Keyboard

The war also led to the establishment of the Victoria Cross in 1856 (backdated to 1854), the British Army's first universal award for valour. HP Mini 210-1043VU Keyboard

Order of the Bath

The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath)[1] is a Britishorder of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725.[2] The name derives from the elaborate mediæval ceremony for creating a knight, which involved bathing (as a symbol of purification) as one of its elements. The knights so created were known asKnights of the Bath.[3]HP Mini 210-1044NR Keyboard

George I "erected the Knights of the Bath into a regular Military Order".[4] He did not (as is often stated) revive the Order of the Bath,[5] since it had never previously existed as an Order, in the sense of a body of knights who were governed by a set of statutes and whose numbers were replenished when vacancies occurred.[6][7] HP Mini 210-1044TU Keyboard

The Order consists of the Sovereign (currently Elizabeth II), the Great Master (currently H.R.H. The Prince of Wales),[8]and three Classes of members:[9] HP Mini 210-1045TU Keyboard

Members belong to either the Civil or the Military Division.[10] Prior to 1815, the order had only a single class, Knight Companion (KB), which no longer exists.[11] Recipients of the Order are now usually senior military officers or seniorcivil servants.[12][13] Commonwealth citizens not subjects of the Queen and foreigners may be made Honorary Members.[14] HP Mini 210-1044VU Keyboard

The Order of the Bath is the fourth-most senior of the British Orders of Chivalry, after The Most Noble Order of the Garter, The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle, and The Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick.[15] The last of the aforementioned Orders, which relates to Ireland, still exists but has been in disuse since the formation, in December 1922, of the Irish Free State.[16] HP Mini 210-1046TU Keyboard

In the Middle Ages, knighthood was often conferred with elaborate ceremonies. These usually involved the knight-to-be taking a bath (possibly symbolic of spiritual purification)[17] during which he was instructed in the duties of knighthood by more senior knights. HP Mini 210-1047TU Keyboard

He was then put to bed to dry. Clothed in a special robe, he was led with music to the chapel where he spent the night in a vigil. At dawn he made confession and attended Mass, then retired to his bed to sleep until it was fully daylight. He was then brought before the King, HP Mini 210-1048TU Keyboard

who after instructing two senior knights to buckle the spurs to the knight-elect's heels, fastened a belt around his waist, then struck him on the neck (with either a hand or a sword), thus making him a knight.[18] It was this "accolade" which was the essential act in creating a knight, HP Mini 210-1049TU Keyboard

and a simpler ceremony developed, conferring knighthood merely by striking or touching the knight-to-be on the shoulder with a sword,[19] or "dubbing" him, as is still done today. In the early medieval period the difference seems to have been that the full ceremonies were used for men from more prominent families.[17] HP Mini 210-1050BR Keyboard

From the coronation of Henry IV in 1399 the full ceremonies were restricted to major royal occasions such as coronations, investitures of the Prince of Wales or royal Dukes, and royal weddings,[20] and the knights so created became known as Knights of the Bath.[17] HP Mini 210-1050EA Keyboard

Knights Bachelor continued to be created with the simpler form of ceremony. The last occasion on which Knights of the Bath were created was the coronation of Charles II in 1661.[21] HP Mini 210-1050ED Keyboard

From at least 1625,[22] and possibly from the reign of James I, Knights of the Bath were using the motto Tria iuncta in uno(Latin for "Three joined in one"), and wearing as a badge three crowns within a plain gold oval.[23] These were both subsequently adopted by the Order of the Bath; HP Mini 210-1050EF Keyboard

a similar design of badge is still worn by members of the Civil Division. Their symbolism however is not entirely clear. The 'three joined in one' may be a reference to the kingdoms of England,Scotland and either France or Ireland, which were held (or claimed in the case of France) by English and, HP Mini 210-1050EI Keyboard

later, British monarchs. This would correspond to the three crowns in the badge.[24] Another explanation of the motto is that it refers to the Holy Trinity.[12] Nicolas quotes a source (although he is sceptical of it) who claims that prior to James I the motto wasTria numina iuncta in uno, (three powers/gods joined in one), HP Mini 210-1050EV Keyboard

but from the reign of James I the word numina was dropped and the motto understood to mean Tria [regna] iuncta in uno (three kingdoms joined in one). HP Mini 210-1050EW Keyboard

Foundation of the order

The prime mover in the establishment of the Order of the Bath was John Anstis, Garter King of Arms, England's highest heraldic officer. Sir Anthony Wagner, a recent holder of the office of Garter, wrote of Anstis's motivations: HP Mini 210-1050LA Keyboard

It was Martin Leake's[26] opinion that the trouble and opposition Anstis met with in establishing himself as Garter so embittered him against theheralds that when at last in 1718 he succeeded, he made it his prime object to aggrandise himself and his office at their expense. HP Mini 210-1050NR Keyboard

It is clear at least that he set out to make himself indispensable to the Earl Marshal, which was not hard, their political principles being congruous and their friendship already established, but also to Sir Robert Walpole and the Whig ministry, which can by no means have been easy, HP Mini 210-1050SB Keyboard

considering his known attachment to the Pretender and the circumstances under which he came into office ... The main object of Anstis's next move, HP Mini 210-1059TU Keyboard

the revival or institution of the Order of the Bath was probably that which it in fact secured, of ingratiating him with the all-powerful Prime Minister Sir Robert Walpole.[27] HP Mini 210-1050SF Keyboard

The use of honours in the early eighteenth century differed considerably from the modern honours system in which hundreds, if not thousands, of people each year receive honours on the basis of deserving accomplishments. The only honours available at that time were hereditary (not life) peerages and baronetcies, HP Mini 210-1050SL Keyboard

knighthoods and the Order of the Garter (or the Order of the Thistle for Scots), none of which were awarded in large numbers (the Garter and the Thistle are limited to 24 and 16 living members respectively.) The political environment was also significantly different from today: HP Mini 210-1050SV Keyboard

The Sovereign still exercised a power to be reckoned with in the eighteenth century. The Court remained the centre of the political world. The King was limited in that he had to choose Ministers who could command a majority inParliament, but the choice remained his. HP Mini 210-1050TU Keyboard

The leader of an administration still had to command the King's personal confidence and approval. A strong following in Parliament depended on being able to supply places, pensions, and other marks of Royal favour to the government's supporters.[28] HP Mini 210-1050VU Keyboard

The attraction of the new Order for Walpole was that it would provide a source of such favours to strengthen his political position.[29] HP Mini 210-1058TU Keyboard

George I having agreed to Walpole's proposal, Anstis was commissioned to draft statutes for the Order of the Bath. As noted above, he adopted the motto and badge used by the Knights of the Bath, as well as the colour of the riband and mantle, and the ceremony for creating a knight. HP Mini 210-1051TU Keyboard

The rest of the statutes were mostly based on those of the Order of the Garter, of which he was an officer (as Garter King of Arms).[30] The Order was founded by letters patent under the Great Sealdated 18 May 1725, and the statutes issued the following week.[31][32] HP Mini 210-1051VU Keyboard

The Order initially consisted of the Sovereign, a Prince of the blood Royal as Principal Knight, a Great Master and thirty-five Knights Companion.[33] Seven officers (see below) were attached to the Order. These provided yet another opportunity for political patronage, as they were to be sinecures at the disposal of the Great Master, HP Mini 210-1052TU Keyboard

supported by fees from the knights. HP Mini 210-1057TU Keyboard

Despite the fact that the Bath was represented as a military Order, only a few military officers were among the initial appointments (see List of Knights Companion of the Order of the Bath). They may be broken down into categories as follows (note that some are classified in more than one category):[34] HP Mini 210-1052VU Keyboard

The majority of the new Knights Companions were knighted by the King and invested with their ribands and badges on 27 May 1725.[35] Although the statutes set out the full medieval ceremony which was to be used for creating knights, this was not performed, and indeed was possibly never intended to be, HP Mini 210-1053TU Keyboard

as the original statutes contained a provision[36] allowing the Great Master to dispense Knights Companion from these requirements. The original knights were dispensed from all the medieval ceremonies with the exception of the Installation, which was performed in the Order's Chapel, the Henry VII Chapel inWestminster Abbey, on June 17. HP Mini 210-1053VU Keyboard

This precedent was followed until 1812, after which the Installation was also dispensed with, until its revival in the twentieth century.[37] The ceremonies however remained part of the Statutes until 1847.[38] HP Mini 210-1054TU Keyboard

Although the initial appointments to the Order were largely political, from the 1770s appointments to the Order were increasingly made for naval, military or diplomatic achievements. This is partly due to the conflicts Britain was engaged in over this period.[21][39]HP Mini 210-1054VU Keyboard

The Peninsular War resulted in so many deserving candidates for the Bath that a statute was issued allowing the appointment of Extra Knights in time of war, who were to be additional to the numerical limits imposed by the statutes, and whose number was not subject to any restrictions.[40] HP Mini 210-1055NR Keyboard

Another statute, this one issued some 80 years earlier, had also added a military note to the Order. Each knight was required, under certain circumstances, to supply and support four men-at-arms for a period not exceeding 42 days in any year, to serve in any part of Great Britain.[41HP Mini 210-1055TU Keyboard

]This company was to be captained by the Great Master, who had to supply four trumpeters, and was also to appoint eight officers for this body, however the statute was never invoked.[35] HP Mini 210-1055VU Keyboard

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