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Tanzania

Tanzania /ˌtænzəˈniːə/, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Swahili: Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania),[5] is a country in East Africa. It is bordered by Kenya and Uganda to the north; Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west; and Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique to the south. The country's eastern border is formed by theIndian Ocean. Kilimanjaro, Africa's highest mountain, is in Tanzania. DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard

The country is divided into 30 administrative regions: five on the semi-autonomous islands of Zanzibar and 25 on the mainland in the former Tanganyika.[6] The head of state is President Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete, elected in 2005. Since 1996, the official capital of Tanzania has been Dodoma,  HP G62-361TX Laptop Keyboard

where the country's parliament and some government offices are located.[7] Between independence and 1996, the main coastal city of Dar es Salaam served as the country's political capital. Today, it remains Tanzania's principal commercial city and is the main location of most government institutions.[6][8] It is the major seaport for the country.  DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard

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The name "Tanzania" derives from the names of the two states, Tanganyika and Zanzibar, that united in 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, which later the same year was renamed the United Republic of Tanzania.[9] TheArticles of Union are the main foundation of Tanzania. HP Pavilion dv5-1104tu Laptop Keyboard

Fossil remains of humans and pre-human hominids have been found in Tanzania that date back over 2 million years, making the area one of the oldest-known inhabited areas on Earth. More recently, Tanzania is believed to have been populated byCushitic and Khoisan-speaking hunter-gatherer communities. About 2,000 years ago, Bantu-speaking people began to arrive from western Africa in a series of migrations. Later, Nilotic pastoralists arrived and continued to move into the area until the 18th century.[10] GATEWAY NV-59 Laptop Keyboard

The people of Tanzania have been associated with the production of steel. The Haya people on the western shores of Lake Victoria invented a type of high-heat blast furnace that allowed them to forge carbon steel at temperatures exceeding1,820 °C (3,310 °F) more than 1,500 years ago.[11] The Shana clan in the Pare tribe also produced iron.[citation needed] ACER Aspire 5930 Laptop Keyboard

One of Tanzania's most important archaeological sites is Engaruka in the Great Rift Valley, which includes an irrigation and cultivation system.

Travellers and merchants from the Persian Gulf and western India have visited the East African coast since early in the first millennium AD. Islam was practised on the Swahili Coast as early as the eighth or ninth century AD.[12][13] DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard

Claiming the coastal strip, Omani Sultan Seyyid Said moved his capital toZanzibar City in 1840. During this time, Zanzibar became the centre for the Arab slave trade.[14] Between 65 and 90 percent of the population of Arab-SwahiliZanzibar was enslaved.[15] One of the most famous slave traders on the East African coast was Tippu Tip, who was himself the grandson of an enslaved African. ACER Aspire 5610Z Laptop Keyboard

The Nyamwezi slave traders operated under the leadership of Msiri and Mirambo.[16]According to Timothy Insoll, "Figures record the exporting of 718,000 slaves from the Swahili coast during the 19th century, and the retention of 769,000 on the coast."[17] TOSHIBA NSK-TAJ01 Laptop Keyboard

In the late 19th century, Imperial Germany conquered the regions that are now Tanzania (minus Zanzibar), Rwanda, and Burundi, and incorporated them into German East Africa. During World War I, an invasion attempt by the British was thwarted by German General Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck,  Lenovo Thinkpad T420 Laptop Keyboard

who then mounted a drawn out guerrilla campaign against the British. The post–World War I accords and the League of Nations charter designated the area a British Mandate, except for a small area in the northwest, which was ceded to Belgium and later became Rwanda and Burundi, as well as a small area in the southeast (Kionga Triangle), incorporated toPortuguese East Africa (later Mozambique).  HP Mini 110-1032NR Laptop Keyboard

British rule came to an end in 1961 after a relatively peaceful (compared with neighbouring Kenya, for instance) transition to independence. In 1954, Julius Nyerere transformed an organisation into the politically oriented Tanganyika African National Union (TANU). TANU's main objective was to achieve nationalsovereignty for Tanganyika. A campaign to register new members was launched, and within a year TANU had become the leading political organisation in the country. HP Pavilion zv6233ea Laptop Keyboard

Nyerere became Minister of British-administered Tanganyika in 1960 and continued as Prime Minister when Tanganyika became officially independent in 1961. In 1967 Nyerere's first presidency took a turn to the Left after the Arusha Declaration, which codified a commitment to socialism in Pan-African fashion. After the Declaration, banks were nationalised, as were many large industries.  COMPAQ Presario V6405CA laptop keyboard

After the Zanzibar Revolution overthrew the Arab dynasty in neighbouring Zanzibar,[18] which had become independent in 1963, the island merged with mainland Tanganyika to form the nation of Tanzania on 26 April 1964.[19] Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

The union of the two, hitherto separate, regions was controversial among many Zanzibaris (even those sympathetic to the revolution) but was accepted by both the Nyerere government and the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar owing to shared political values and goals. HP Pavilion G7-1077NR laptop keyboard

From the late 1970s, Tanzania's economy took a turn for the worse. Tanzania was also aligned with China, which from 1970 to 1975 financed and helped to build the 1,860-kilometre-long (1,160 mi) TAZARA Railway from Dar es Salaam to Zambia.[20]From the mid-1980s, the regime financed itself by borrowing from the International Monetary Fund and underwent some reforms. From the mid-1980s Tanzania's GDP per capita has grown and poverty has been reduced.[21]  FUJITSU Lifebook S7111 laptop keyboard

The President of Tanzania, and the members of the National Assembly, are elected concurrently by direct popular vote for five-year terms. The president appoints a prime minister who serves as the government's leader in the National Assembly. The president selects his Cabinet from among the National Assembly members. SONY VAIO VGN-CR410E laptop keyboard

The Constitution also empowers him to nominate ten non-elected members of Parliament, who are also eligible to become cabinet members. Elections for president and all National Assembly seats were held in October 2010. Tanzania is a one party dominant state with the Chama Cha Mapinduzi in power. Opposition parties are widely considered to have no real chance of gaining power, though the country remains peaceful.[citation needed] HP Mini 110-3538tu laptop keyboard

The unicameral National Assembly elected in 2010 has 343 members. These include the Attorney General, five members elected from the Zanzibar House of Representatives to participate in the Parliament, the special women's seats which are made up of 30% of the seats that a given party has in the House, ASUS X85S laptop keyboard

181 constituent seats of members of Parliament from the mainland, and 50 seats from Zanzibar. Also in the list are forty-eight appointed for women and the seats for the 10 nominated members of Parliament. At present, the ruling Chama Cha Mapinduzi holds about 75% of the seats in the Assembly. Laws passed by the National Assembly are valid for Zanzibar only in specifically designated union matters. DELL PK1303Q0100 Laptop Keyboard

Zanzibar's House of Representatives has jurisdiction over all non-union matters. There are seventy-six members in the House of Representatives in Zanzibar, including fifty elected by the people, ten appointed by the president of Zanzibar, five ex officio members, and an attorney general appointed by the president. In May 2002, the government increased the number of special seats allocated to women from ten to fifteen,  ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard

which will increase the number of House of Representatives members to eighty-one. Ostensibly, Zanzibar's House of Representatives can make laws for Zanzibar without the approval of the union government as long as it does not involve union-designated matters. The terms of office for Zanzibar's president and House of Representatives also are five years. The semi-autonomous relationship between Zanzibar and the union is a unique system of government. SAMSUNG R522 Laptop Keyboard

Tanzania has a five-level judiciary combining the jurisdictions of tribal, Islamic, and English common law. Appeal is from the Primary Courts through the District Courts, Resident Magistrate Courts, to the High Courts, and the Court of Appeal.[22]Judges are appointed by the Chief Justice of Tanzania, except for those of the Court of Appeal and the High Court, who are appointed by the President. SONY VAIO PCG-FR55E Laptop Keyboard

The Zanzibari court system parallels the legal system of the union, and all cases tried in Zanzibari courts, except for those involving constitutional issues and Islamic law, can be appealed to the Court of Appeal of the Union.[22] A commercial court was established in September 1999 as a division of the High Court. DELL M711P Laptop Keyboard

The economy is mostly based on agriculture, which accounts for more than half of the GDP, provides 75% (approximately) of exports, and employs approximately 75% of the workforce. Topography and climate, though, limit cultivated crops to only 4% of the land area. The nation has many natural resources including minerals, natural gas, and tourism.  HP AEAT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard

Extraction of natural gas began in the 2000s. Gas is drawn into the commercial capital, Dar Es Salaam and exported to various markets overseas. Tanzania has vast amounts of minerals including gold, diamonds, coal, iron, uranium, nickel, chromium, tin,platinum, coltan, niobium, and others. It was announced in February 2012 that the collapsed volcano approximately 200 km north of Mbeya, Mount Ngualla, contained one of the largest rare earths oxide deposits in the world.[24]  HP 540 Laptop Keyboard

Tanzania is the third-largest producer of gold in Africa after South Africa and Ghana.[citation needed] The country is also known for Tanzanite, a type of precious gemstone that is found only in Tanzania. The mineral sector started to pick up slowly in the late 1990s, with major discoveries announced regularly. The mineral sector, however, has yet to start contributing significantly to the overall Tanzanian economy,[citation needed] and industry is still mainly limited to processing agricultural products and light consumer goods. ACER Aspire 7745G Laptop Keyboard

Growth from 1991 to 1999 featured industrial production and a substantial increase in output of minerals, led by gold.[citation needed] Commercial production of natural gas from the Songo Songo island in the Indian Ocean off the Rufiji Delta commenced in 2004,[25] with natural gas being pumped in a pipeline to Dar es Salaam, the bulk of it converted to electricity by both public utility and private operators. A new gas field is being brought on stream in Mnazi Bay.  HP Probook 4515S Laptop Keyboard

Recent public sector and banking reforms, as well as revamped and new legislative frameworks, have all helped increase private-sector growth and investment. Short-term economic progress also depends on curbing corruption.[26] SONY VAIO VGN-N31S/W Laptop Keyboard

Prolonged drought during the early years of the 21st century has severely reduced electricity generation capacity (some 60% of Tanzania's electricity supplies are generated by hydro-electric methods).[27] SONY VAIO VGN-CS14G/B Laptop Keyboard

During 2006, Tanzania suffered a crippling series of "load-shedding" or power-rationing episodes caused by a shortfall of generated power, largely because of insufficient hydro-electric generation. Plans to increase gas- and coal-fuelled generation capacity are likely to take some years to implement, and growth is forecast to be increased to 7% or more per year.[28] ASUS F3Sv laptop keyboard

There are two major airlines in Tanzania: the Air Tanzania Corporation and Precision Air; both provide local flights toArusha, Kigoma, Mtwara, Mwanza, Musoma, Shinyanga, Zanzibar and regional flights to Kigali, Nairobi and Mombasa. There are also several charter firms and smaller airlines, such as Bold Aviation Ltd.,  Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

Tropical Air and Coastal Aviation Ltd. There are two railway companies: TAZARA provides service between Dar-es-Salaam and Kapiri Mposhi, a district of the Central Province in Zambia. The other one is the Tanzania Railways Corporation, which provides services between Dar-es-Salaam and Kigoma, a town on the shores of Lake Tanganyikaand between Dar-es-Salaam and Mwanza, a city on the shores of Lake Victoria. Several modern hydrofoil boats also provide transportation across the Indian Ocean between Dar-es-Salaam and Zanzibar.  IBM Thinkpad R40 laptop keyboard

Tanzania is part of the East African Community and a potential member of the planned East African Federation.

Unlike minerals, the contribution of the tourism sector to the Tanzanian economy is steadily rising year after year.  HP Mini 210-1124TU laptop keyboard

Tanzania is the home of the world-famous Kilimanjaro, Africa's highest mountain. The country has dozens of beaches such as those found in Zanzibar and national parks like the Serengeti and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. Other smaller parks, such as Mikumi National Park, which is located near Dar es Salaam, also contribute to the economy of the country. SONY VAIO VGN-NW23GF laptop keyboard

Tanzania is divided into thirty regions (mkoa), twenty-five on the mainland and five in Zanzibar (three on Unguja, two on Pemba).[33][34] Ninety-nine districts (wilaya), each with at least one council, have been created to further increase local authority; the councils are also known as local government authorities. SONY VAIO VGN-NW320F/T laptop keyboard

There are 114 councils operating in 99 districts; 22 are urban and 92 are rural. The 22 urban units are further classified as city councils (Dar es Salaam andMwanza), municipal councils (Arusha, Dodoma, Iringa, Kilimanjaro, Mbeya, Morogoro, Shinyanga, SONY VAIO PCG-FR55E/B laptop keyboard

Tabora, and Tanga) or town councils (the remaining eleven communities).Child labour is common in Tanzania with millions working.[29] It is more common with girls rather than boys.[30] Girls are commonly employed as domestic servants, sometimes by force.[29] There is trafficking of children into commercial sexual exploitation.[29] Sexual exploitation of children is illegal.[29] SONY VAIO VPC-F12 laptop keyboard

Tanzania has ratified both the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child. Tanzania then enacted the Law of the Child Act in 2009.[31] To help implement that Act and provide a mechanism for the reporting of children's rights violations, a free-of-charge, SONY VAIO PCG-FR55E/B laptop keyboard

24-hour-accessible helpline is available throughout the country.[32]

At 947,300 km²,[35] Tanzania is the world's 31st-largest country. Compared to other African countries, it is slightly smaller than Egypt and comparable in size to Nigeria. It lies mostly between latitudes 1° and 12°S, and longitudes 29° and 41°E.  HP G62-b21SL laptop keyboard

Tanzania is mountainous in the northeast, where Mount Kilimanjaro,[36] Africa's highest peak, is situated. To the north and west are the Great Lakes of, respectively, Lake Victoria (Africa's largest lake) and Lake Tanganyika (the continent's deepest lake, known for its unique species of fish); to the southwest lies Lake Nyasa. Central Tanzania comprises a large plateau, TOSHIBA Satellite P105-S6102 laptop keyboard

with plains and arable land. The eastern shore is hot and humid, with the island of Zanzibar lying just offshore.

Tanzania contains many large and ecologically significant wildlife parks,[37] including the famous Ngorongoro Crater, Serengeti National Park[38] in the north, and Selous Game Reserve and Mikumi National Park in the south. ASUS F9J laptop keyboard

Gombe National Park in the west is known as the site of Dr. Jane Goodall's studies of chimpanzee behaviour.

The government of Tanzania through its department of tourism has embarked on a campaign to promote the Kalambo water falls in the southwestern region of Rukwa as one of Tanzania's main tourist destinations. ACER Aspire 4315 laptop keyboard

The Kalambo Falls are the second highest in Africa and are located near the southern tip of Lake Tanganyika. The Menai Bay Conservation Area is Zanzibar's largest marine protected area.

The Engaresero village on the Western shores of Lake Natron has been chosen by the government of Tanzania to exemplify theMaasai pastoral system given its singularity, integrity, Lenovo 04W0872 laptop keyboard

high diversity of habitats and biodiversity. The site also has major additional significance, because of the presence of Lake Natron and the volcano Ol Doinyo Lengai, which have immense ecological, geological and cultural value. The community has demonstrated a strong resilience in facing threats to their systems, and has maintained associated social and cultural institutions, which ensure its sustainability under prevailing environmental conditions. ACER Aspire 7745G Laptop Keyboard

Tanzania has a tropical climate. In the highlands, temperatures range between 10 and 20 °C (50 and 68 °F) during cold and hot seasons respectively. The rest of the country has temperatures rarely falling lower than 20 °C (68 °F). DELL NSK-DD101 Laptop Keyboard

The hottest period extends between November and February (25–31 °C or 77–87.8 °F) while the coldest period occurs between May and August (15–20 °C or 59–68 °F). Annual temperature is 32 °C (89.6 °F). The climate is cool in high mountainous regions. SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard

Tanzania has two major rainfall regions. One is uni-modal (December–April) and the other is bi-modal (October–December and March–May). The former is experienced in southern, south-west, central and western parts of the country, and the latter is found to the north and northern coast. HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard

In the bi-modal regime the March–May rains are referred to as the long rains or Masika, whereas the October–December rains are generally known as short rains or Vuli. As this country lies near the equator, the climate is hot and humid. The easterlies winds cause rainfall in the eastern coastal region.  Lenovo 0A62075 Laptop Keyboard

Tanzania has considerable wildlife habitat, including much of the Serengetiplain, where the white-bearded wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus mearnsi) and other bovids participate in a large-scale annual migration. Up to 250,000 wildebeest perish each year in the long and arduous movement to find forage in the dry season. Tanzania is also home to 130 amphibian and over 275 reptile species, many of them strictly endemic and included in the IUCN Red Lists of different countries.[39] HP Pavilion G7-1081NR Laptop Keyboard

Tanzania has developed a Biodiversity Action Plan to address species conservation. A recently discovered species of elephant shrew called Grey-faced Sengi was filmed for the first time in 2005, and it was known to live in just two forests in the Udzungwa Mountains. In 2008, it was listed as "vulnerable" on the 2008 Red List of Threatened Species. SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W Laptop Keyboard

Lake Natron in northern Tanzania is the largest breeding site for the threatened Lesser Flamingo, a huge community of which nest in the salt marshes of the lake. Areas of East African mangroves on the coast are also important habitats. ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard

Almost half of the local population is under 15. As of 2010, the estimated population is 43,188,000.[citation needed] Population distribution is extremely uneven, with density varying from 1 person per square kilometre (3 mi2) in arid regions to 51 per square kilometre (133 mi2) in the well-watered mainland highlands, HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard

to 134 per square kilometre (347 mi2) in Zanzibar.[citation needed] More than 80 percent of the population is rural.[citation needed] Dar es Salaam is the largest city and commercial capital. Dodoma, located in the centre of Tanzania, is the capital of the country and hosts the National Assembly. FUJITSU CP270342-02 Laptop Keyboard

The population consists of more than 120 ethnic groups, of which the Sukuma, Nyamwezi, Chagga, Nyakyusa, Haya, Hehe, Bena, Gogo, and the Makonde have more than 1 million members.[citation needed] Other Bantu peoples include the Pare, Zigua, Shambaa, and Ngoni. The majority of Tanzanians, including the Sukuma and the Nyamwezi, are Bantu.[citation needed] Cushitic peoples include the half million Iraqw. GATEWAY NV-54 Laptop Keyboard

Nilotic peoples include the nomadic Maasai and Luo, both of which are found in greater numbers in neighbouring Kenya. The Sandawe speak a language that may be related to the Khoe languages of Botswana and Namibia,[citation needed] while the language of the Hadza, although it has similar click consonants, is a language isolate.[citation needed] HP G42-362LA Laptop Keyboard

The population also includes people of Arab, Indian, and Pakistani origin, and small European and Chinese communities.[40] Many also identify asShirazis.[citation needed] As of 1994, the Asian community numbered 50,000 on the mainland and 4,000 on Zanzibar.[citation needed] An estimated 70,000 Arabs and 10,000 Europeans resided in Tanzania.[citation needed]  SONY KFRSBA019A Laptop Keyboard

The total fertility rate in Tanzania is 5.08 children born per woman (2012 estimates), the 19th highest in the world.[41]

Although the Tanzanian government does not gather religious identification data in its census, the United States Department of State has reported that 62 percent of Tanzania's population is Christian, 35 percent is Muslim, Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard

and 3 percent are members of other religious groups.[42] A 18 December 2012 report on religion and public life by the Pew Research Center stated that in 2010, 61.4 percent of Tanzania's population was Christian, 35.2 percent was Muslim, and 1.8 percent were followers of indigenous religions.[43] SONY KFRMBA152B Laptop Keyboard

Other sources give the following number

The Christian population is mostly composed of Roman Catholics. Among Protestants, the large number of Lutherans and Moravians point to the German past of the country while the number of Anglicans point to the British history of Tanganyika. All of them have had some influence in varying degrees from the Walokole movement (East African Revival), which has also been fertile ground for the spread of charismatic and Pentecostal groups.[citation needed] Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard

Zanzibar is about 97 percent Muslim. On the mainland, Muslim communities are concentrated in coastal areas, with some large Muslim majorities also in inland urban areas especially and along the former caravan routes. A large majority of the Muslim population is Sunni. The Islamic population of Dar es Salaam, the largest and richest city in Tanzania, is composed of mainly Sunni Muslim. Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard

There are also active communities of other religious groups, primarily on the mainland, such as Buddhists, Hindus, and Bahá'ís.[44]

Swahili and English are the official languages; however the former is the national language.[45] English is still the language of higher courts,[4] it can however be considered a de facto official language.  Acer eMachines E730 laptop keyboard

Tanzanians see themselves as having two "official" languages, English and Swahili. Swahili is seen as the unifying language of the country between people of different ethnic groups, who each have their own language; English serves the purpose of providing Tanzanians with the ability to participate in the global economy and culture. Over 100 different (tribal) languages are spoken in Tanzania, including Maasai, Sukuma and Makonde.[46] The first language typically learned by a Tanzanian is that of his or her ethnic group, with Swahili and English learned thereafter. SONY Vaio PCG-K215S laptop keyboard

According to the official linguistic policy of Tanzania, as announced in 1984, Swahili is the language of the social and political sphere as well as primary and adult education, whereas English is the language of secondary education, universities, technology, and higher courts.[4] Though the British government financially supports the use of English in Tanzania,[4] its usage in the Tanzanian society has diminished over the past decades: ACER Aspire 2003WLMi laptop keyboard

In the seventies Tanzanian university students used to speak English with each other, whereas now they almost exclusively use Swahili outside the classroom. Even in secondary school and university classes, where officially only English should be used, it is now quite common to use a mix of Swahili and English. HP G72-b20SG laptop keyboard

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Other spoken languages are Indian languages, especially Gujarati, and Portuguese (spoken by Indians and Mozambicans, respectively) and to a lesser extent French (from neighbouring Rwanda, Burundi and Democratic Republic of the Congo). Historically German was widely spoken during that colonial period, but this practice is already forgotten. GATEWAY M-6333 laptop keyboard

The under-five mortality rate in 2010 is estimated to be 76 out of 1,000.[49] Life expectancy at birth is estimated to be 53 years in 2012.[50] The 15–60-year-old adult mortality (the probability of dying between the ages of 15 and 60) in 2009 was 456 in 1,000 men, and 311 in 1,000 women.[51] ASUS X85S laptop keyboard

The leading cause of death in children who survive the neonatal period is malaria.[52] Other leading causes of death in under 5s is pneumococcal disease (pneumonia) and rotavirus (diarrhea). The HIV/AIDS epidemic is a significant problem in Tanzania; in 2009, the prevalence was estimated to be 5.6 percent of the adult population.[50] HP Pavilion dv6-2131so laptop keyboard

Anti-retroviral treatment coverage for people with advanced HIV infection was 30 percent in 2011 – 7 percent below the average for the continent.[53] According to the 2011 UNAIDS Report, HIV prevalence has declined among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics, young people (ages 15–24 years) and men in the general population.[54] TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S5077 laptop keyboard

2006 data shows that 55 percent of the population had sustainable access to improved drinking water sources and 33 percent had sustainable access to improved sanitation.[53]

The music of Tanzania includes traditional African music, string-based taarab, and a distinctive hip hop known as bongo flava. Famous taarab singers are Abbasi Mzee, Culture Musical Club, Shakila of Black Star Musical Group. Internationally known traditional artists are Bi Kidude, Hukwe Zawose and Tatu Nane.  HP Pavilion dv6-2131so laptop keyboard

Tanzania has its own distinct African rumba music, termed muziki wa dansi ("dance music") where names of artists/groups like Tabora Jazz, Western Jazz Band, Morogoro Jazz, Volcano Jazz, Simba Wanyika, Remmy Ongala, Marijani Rajabu, Ndala Kasheba,[55] NUTA JAZZ, ATOMIC JAZZ, DDC Mlimani Park, Afro 70 & Patrick Balisidya,[56][57][58] Sunburst, Tatu Nane[59] and Orchestra Makassy must be mentioned in the history of Tanzanian music. SONY VAIO VGN-AR370E laptop keyboard

One of Tanzania's, and other parts of eastern Africa's, most common cultural dishes is Ugali. It is mainly composed of corn and is similar to the consistency of porridge, giving it its second name of corn meal porridge.  HP Pavilion DV6-1027nr laptop keyboard

Tanzania has many writers. The list of writers' names includes well-known writers such as Godfrey Mwakikagile, Mohamed Said,Abdulrazak Gurnah, Prof. Julius Nyang'oro, Prof. Clement Ndulute, Prof. Frank Chiteji, Prof. Joseph Mbele,[60] Juma Volter Mwapachu, Prof. Issa Shivji, Jenerali Twaha Ulimwengu, Prof. Penina Mlama,[61] Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere, Adam Shafi, Dr. Malima M.P Bundala and Shaaban Robert. SONY VAIO PCG-FR77G/B laptop keyboard

Tanzania has remarkable position in art. Two styles became world known: Tingatinga and Makonde. Tingatinga are the popular African paintings painted with enamel paints on canvas. Usually the motifs are animals and flowers in colourful and repetitive design. The style was started by Mr. ACER Aspire 3810T laptop keyboard

Edward Saidi Tingatinga born in South Tanzania. Later he moved to Dar Es Salaam. Since his death in 1972 the Tingatinga style expanded both in Tanzania and worldwide. Makonde is both a tribe in Tanzania (and Mozambique) and a modern sculpture style. It is known for the high Ujamaas (Trees of Life) made of the hard and dark ebony tree. Tanzania is also a birthplace of one of the most famous African artists – George Lilanga. TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5160 laptop keyboard

Filbert Bayi and Suleiman Nyambui both won track and field medals in the 1980 Summer Olympics. Tanzania competes in theCommonwealth Games as well as in the African Championships in Athletics. HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard

Football is widely played all over the country with fans divided between two major clubs, Young African Sports Club (Yanga) and Simba Sports Club (Simba). Football is the most popular sport in Tanzania, despite the little success that has been achieved by the national team. To date, they have never qualified for the FIFA World Cup and have made just one appearance in the African Cup of Nations, back in 1980, where they finished last in their group with just 1 draw and 2 losses. SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard

Basketball is also played but mainly in the army and schools. Hasheem Thabeet is a Tanzanian-born NBA player with the Oklahoma City Thunder. He is the first Tanzanian to play in the NBA. Cricket is a rapidly growing sport in Tanzania after hosting the ICC Cricket League division 4 in 2008, Tanzania finished with one win for the tournament,  HP G72-a10SV Laptop Keyboard

and Tanzania also has its own national team. Rugby is a minor sport in Tanzania. Tanzania now has a national team, which used to be part of theEast Africa team, but was separated. The city of Arusha is home to Tanzanian rugby, and the city was host to the 2007 Castel Beer Trophy competition. DELL Vostro 1015 Laptop Keyboard

Kikwete was born at Msoga, located in the Bagamoyo District of Tanganyika, in 1950.

As a party cadre, Kikwete moved from one position to another in the party ranks and from one location to another in the service of the party. When TANU and the Zanzibar’s Afro-Shirazi Party (ASP) merged to form CCM in 1977, SONY VAIO VGN-N31S/W Laptop Keyboard

Kikwete was moved to Zanzibar and assigned the task of setting-up the new party’s organisation and administration in the Islands. In 1980, he was moved to the headquarters as administrator of the Dar es Salaam Head Office and Head of the Defence and Security Department before moving again up-country to the regional and district party offices in Tabora Region (1981–84)and Singida Region and Nachingwea (1986–88) and Masasi District (1988) SONY VAIO VGN-CR150F Laptop Keyboard

in the country's southern regions of Lindi and Mtwara respectively. In 1988 he was appointed to join the Central Government.

In 1994, at 44, he became one of the youngest Finance Ministers in the history of Tanzania. In December 1995, he became Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation, being appointed by President Benjamin William Mkapaa of the third phase government. He held this post for ten years, DELL Inspiron 9300 Laptop Keyboard

until he was elected President of the United Republic of Tanzania in December 2005, hence becoming the country's longest serving foreign minister. During his tenure in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tanzania played a significant role in bringing about peace in the Great Lakes region, particularly in Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Kikwete was also deeply involved in the process of rebuilding regional integration in East Africa. Specifically, several times, DELL Latitude D505 Laptop Keyboard

he was involved in a delicate process of establishing a Customs Union between the three countries of the East African Community (Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania), where, for quite some time, he was a Chairman of East Africa Community’s Council of Ministers. HP Pavilion DV3000 Laptop Keyboard

Kikwete also participated in the initiation, and became a Co-Chair, of the Helsinki Process on Globalisation and Democracy. On May 4, 2005, Kikwete emerged victorious among 11 CCM members who had sought the party's nomination for Presidential candidacy in the general election. After a 14 December 2005 multiparty general election, he was declared a winner by the Electoral Commission on December 17, 2005 and was sworn-in as the Fourth President of the United Republic of Tanzania on 21 December 2005. Lenovo 0A62075 Laptop Keyboard

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Rwanda has issued a statement opposing the advice by President Kikwete that this was the right time to hold peace talks with the country's rebels, most of whom are in DRC forests and against whom the government has unsuccessfully fought for nearly 17 years. President Kikwete will not apologize because his statement was based on facts. ... We and Rwanda are friends. We have nothing to negotiate. But they should know that principally we ought to make peace with enemies and negotiate with our enemies and not friends. SONY VAIO VGN-FZ19VN laptop keyboard

We say that President Kagame should admit that the time is now and this is not a new phenomenon because in all the areas where liberation movements are, talks have been made. What we are saying is that President Kagame and [the] Rwandan government should know that it is time for talks with [the] opposition.[5][6] Kilimanjaro is composed of three distinct volcanic cones: Kibo 5,895 m (19,341 ft); Mawenzi 5,149 m (16,893 ft); and Shira 3,962 m (13,000 ft). Uhuru Peak is the highest summit on Kibo's crater rim. TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S5077 laptop keyboard

Kilimanjaro is a large stratovolcano. Two of its three peaks, Mawenzi and Shira, are extinct while Kibo (the highest peak) is dormant and could erupt again. The last major eruption has been dated to between 150,000 and 200,000 years ago.[5]

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Several collapses and landslides have occurred on Kibo in the past, one creating the area known as the Western Breach.

The origin of the name "Kilimanjaro" is not precisely known, but a number of theories exist. European explorers had adopted the name by 1860 and reported that "Kilimanjaro" was the mountain's Kiswahili name.[6] But according to the 1907 edition of The Nuttall Encyclopædia, the name of the mountain was "Kilima-Njaro".[7] DELL PK130CW1A08 laptop keyboard

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Johann Ludwig Krapf wrote in 1860 that Swahilis along the coast called the mountain "Kilimanjaro". Although he did not support his claim,[8] he claimed that "Kilimanjaro" meant either "mountain of greatness" or "mountain of caravans". Under the latter meaning, "Kilima" meant "mountain" and "Jaro" possibly meant "caravans".[6] SONY VAIO VGN-CR21SR laptop keyboard

Jim Thompson claimed in 1885, although he also did not support his claim,[8]

The term Kilima-Njaro has generally been understood to mean the Mountain (Kilima) of Greatness (Njaro). This is probably as good a derivation as any other, though not improbably it may mean the "White" mountain, ACER TravelMate 8210 laptop keyboard

as I believe the term "Njaro" has in former times been used to denote whiteness, and though this application of the word is now obsolete on the coast, it is still heard among some of the interior tribes. Either translation is equally applicable.... By the Wa-chaga[,] the mountain is not known under one name, the two masses which form it being respectively named Kibo and Kimawenzi.[9] TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7340 laptop keyboard

According to a website owned by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, "Kilima" is an ancient Kiswahili word for "shining".[10] Similarly, Krapf wrote that a chief of the Wakamba people, whom he visited in 1849, "had been to Jagga and had seen the Kima jaJeu, mountain of whiteness, the name given by the Wakamba to Kilimanjaro...."[11] SONY VAIO PCG-FR130 laptop keyboard

More correctly in the Kikamba language, this would be Kiima Kyeu, and this possible derivation has been popular with several investigators.[8]

Others have assumed that "Kilima" is Kiswahili for "mountain". The problem with this assumption is that "Kilima" actually means "hill" and is, therefore, the diminutive of "Mlima", the proper Kiswahili word for mountain. However, "[i]t is ... possible ... TOSHIBA Satellite C655-S9520D laptop keyboard

that an early European visitor, whose knowledge of [Kiswahili] was not extensive, changed mlima to kilima by analogy with the two Chagga names; Kibo and Kimawenzi."[8]

A different approach is to assume that the "Kileman" part of Kilimanjaro comes from the Kichagga "kileme", which means "which defeats", or "kilelema", which means "which has become difficult or impossible". The "Jaro" part would "then be derived from njaare, a bird, or, according to other informants, a leopard, or, possibly from jyaro a caravan." ACER TravelMate 6292 laptop keyboard

According to one [Wachagga] informant, the old men tell the story that long ago the Wachagga, having seen the snowy dome, decided to go up to investigate; naturally, they did not get very far. Hence the name: kilemanjaare, or kilemanyaro, or possibly kilelemanjaare etc.- "which defeats," or which is impossible for, the bird, the leopard,  HP Pavilion DV7-3060us laptop keyboard

or the caravan. This is attractive as being entirely made up of [Wachagga] elements based on an imaginable situation, but the fact remains that the name Kilimanjaro is not, and apparently never has been, current among the Wachagga as the name of the mountain. Is this then only, as other Wachagga suggest, a latter-day attempt to find a [Wachagga]  HP G62-b12SL laptop keyboard

explanation when pressed to do so by a foreign enquirer? Is it perhaps arguable that the early porters from the coast hearing the Wachagga say kilemanjaare or kilemajyaro, meaning simply that it was impossible to climb the mountain, imagined this to be the name of the mountain, and associated it with their own kilima? Did they then report to the European leaders of the expedition that the name of the mountain was, their version of the Kichagga, which, further assimilated by the European hearer, finally became standardised as Kilimanjaro?[8] TOSHIBA NB100 laptop keyboard

In the 1880s, the mountain became a part of German East Africa and was called "Kilima-Ndscharo" in German following the Kiswahili name components.[12] L

When on 6 October 1889, Hans Meyer reached the highest summit on the crater ridge of Kibo, he named it "Kaiser-Wilhelm-Spitze" ("Kaiser Wilhelm peak").[13] TOSHIBA Satellite L200 laptop keyboard

That name apparently was used until Tanzania was formed in 1964,[14] when the summit was renamed "Uhuru", meaning "Freedom Peak" in Kiswahili.[15] The Kaiser Wilhelm-Spitze with its altitude of 5895 meters was known at that time as the highest mountain of the German Empire.

According to the famous English geographer Halford Mackinder: "It was the missionary Rebmann of Mombasa who, in 1848, first reported the existence of Kilimanjaro."[16] Lenovo 0A62075 laptop keyboard

In 1861, the German officer Baron Carl Claus von der Decken and the young British geologist Richard Thornton (1838–1863) made a first attempt to climb Kibo,[17] but "got no farther than 8,200 feet"[18](2,500 meters). In 1862, Von der Decken tried a second time together with Otto Kersten. They reached a height of 14,000 feet (4,280 meters).[19][20] TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard

In 1887, during his first attempt to climb Kilimanjaro, the German geology professor Hans Meyer reached the base of Kibo, but was forced to turn back, not having the equipment necessary to handle the deep snow and ice on Kibo. The following year, Meyer planned another attempt with cartographer Oscar Baumann, but the mission was aborted due to consequences of theAbushiri Revolt. Meyer and Baumann were captured and held hostage, and only escaped after a ten thousand rupees ransom had been paid.[21] ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

In 1889 Meyer returned to Kilimanjaro with the celebrated Austrian mountaineer Ludwig Purtscheller for a third attempt. Their climbing team included two local headmen, nine porters, a cook, and a guide. The success of this attempt, which started on foot from Mombasa, was based on the establishment of many campsites with food supplies so that multiple attempts at the top could be made without having to descend too far. HP G72-b67CA Laptop Keyboard

Meyer and Purtscheller pushed to near the crater rim on October 3, but turned around exhausted from hacking footsteps in the icy slope. Three days later they reached the highest summit on the southern rim of the crater on Purtscheller's 40th birthday, October 6, 1889. They were the first to confirm that Kibo has a crater, which was filled with ice at the time. After descending to the saddle between Kibo and Mawenzi, DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard

Meyer and Purtscheller attempted to climb the more technically challenging Mawenzi next, but could only reach a 5096 m high subsidiary peak (later to be named Klute Peak) before retreating due to illness. On October 18 they reascended Kibo to enter and study the crater, cresting the rim at Hans Meyers Notch. In total, Meyer and Purtscheller spent 16 days above 4,200 m during their expedition.[21][22] HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard

The summit of Kibo wouldn't be climbed again until 20 years later (by the surveyor M. Lange in 1909), and the first ascent of the highest (5149 m) summit of Mawenzi was only on July 29, 1912, by the German climbers Edward Oehler and Fritz Klute, who christened it Hans Meyer Peak in Meyer's honor. Oehler and Klute went on to make the third ascent of Kibo, via the Western route over the Drygalski Glacier.[22] ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

In 1989, the organizing committee of the 100-year celebration of the first ascent decided to award posthumous certificates to the African porter-guides who had accompanied Meyer and Purtscheller. One person in pictures or documents of the 1889 expedition was thought to match a living inhabitant of Marangu, ACER Aspire 5336 Laptop Keyboard

Yohani Kinyala Lauwo. Lauwo did not know his own age nor did he remember Meyer or Purtscheller, but he remembered joining a Kilimanjaro expedition involving a Dutch doctor who lived near the mountain and that he did not get to wear shoes during the 8-day affair. Lauwo claimed that he had climbed the mountain 3 times before World War I.  HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard

The committee concluded that he had been a member of Meyer's team and therefore must have been born around 1871.[23] Lauwo died on 10 May 1996 at the thus reconstructed world-record age of 124 or 125 and is now even often suggested as co-first-ascendant of Kilimanjaro.[24]  DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard

Early maps of Kilimanjaro were published by the British Government's Directorate of Overseas Surveys (DOS 422 Y742) in 1963. These were based on air photography carried out as early as 1959 by the RAF. These were on a scale of 1:50,000 with contours at 100 ft intervals. These are now unavailable. Tourist mapping was first published by the Ordnance Survey in England in 1989 based on the original DOS mapping (1:100,000, 100 ft intervals, DOS 522).  SAMSUNG N140 Laptop Keyboard

This is also no longer available. EWP produced a map with tourist information in 1990 (1:75,000, 100 m contour intervals, inset maps of Kibo and Mawenzi on 1:20,000 and 1:30,000 scales respectively and 50 m contour interval). In the last few years, numerous other maps have become available of various qualities.[3] 3D route maps are also available online.[25] TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

There are seven official trekking routes by which to ascend and descend Mount Kilimanjaro: Lemosho, Machame, Marangu, Mweka, Rongai, Shira, and Umbwe.[26] Of all the routes, Machame is considered the most scenic, albeit steeper, route.[27] It can be done in six or seven days.[27] The Rongai is the easiest and least scenic of all camping routes.[28] The Marangu is also relatively easy, but this route tends to be very busy, the ascent and descent routes are the same, and accommodation is in shared huts with all other climbers.[29] SONY VAIO VGN-N31S/W Laptop Keyboard

People who wish to trek to the summit of Kilimanjaro are advised to undertake appropriate research[30] and ensure that they are both properly equipped and physically capable. Though the climb is technically not as challenging as when climbing the high peaks of the Himalayas or Andes, the high elevation, low temperature, and occasional high winds make this a difficult and dangerous trek. Acclimatisation is essential, ACER TravelMate 6252 laptop keyboard

and even the most experienced trekkers suffer some degree of altitude sickness.[31] Kilimanjaro summit is well above the altitude at which high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), or high altitude cerebral edema (HACE) can occur.[32] All trekkers will suffer considerable discomfort, typically shortage of breath, hypothermia, and headaches.  FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 laptop keyboard

High-altitude climbing clubs—citing safe ascent rate suggestions offered by organisations such as the Royal Geographical Society—have criticised the Tanzanian authorities for charging fees for each day spent on the mountain. It was once argued that this fee structure encouraged trekkers to climb rapidly to save time and money, while proper acclimatisation demands that delays are built into any high climb. However, HP Pavilion dv6-3217cl laptop keyboard

 in response to this accusation, Tanzania National Parks Authority several years ago mandated minimum climb durations for each route. These regulations prohibit climbs of fewer than five days on the Marangu Route, and ensure a minimum of six days for the other five sanctioned routes.  Lenovo 3000 C200 laptop keyboard

These minimums—particularly in the case of Marangu, which ostensibly allows that Uhuru Peak (5,895m) can be reached from a starting elevation at 1,860m within 72 hours of beginning the ascent—are reckoned by most alpinists to allow an ascent rate that will usually result in the climber failing to acclimatize adequately, by the time that Kibo Huts are reached; the launch base from which the summit is assaulted. Consequently, TOSHIBA Satellite m502 laptop keyboard

the incidence of Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS) is widely deemed to be unacceptably high on Kilimanjaro, with high volumes of fit young people succumbing to the condition, having opted for a relatively rapid ascent. As a general rule, it is far safer (and more enjoyable) to avoid altitude sickness by planning a sensible itinerary that allows for gradual acclimatisation to high elevation as one ascends. TOSHIBA Satellite P300 Laptop Keyboard

Operations that typically see in excess of a thousand climbers summitting annually and are best placed to identify such patterns, usually posit that an optimal climb length should last around seven to eight days. HP Pavilion DV8310CA Laptop Keyboard

Tanzanian Medical Services around the mountain have expressed concer

n recently[when?] over the current influx of tourists that apparently perceive Kilimanjaro as an easy walk. However this is not the case. Many individuals require significant attention during their attempts, and many are forced to abandon the trek. ACER TravelMate 4050 Laptop Keyboard

An investigation into the matter concluded that tourists visiting Tanzania were often encouraged to join groups heading up the mountain without being made aware of the significant physical demands of the climb, although many outfitters and tour operators flaunt high success rates for reaching the summit. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard

The Kilimanjaro National Park shows that only 41% of trekkers actually reach the Uhuru summit with the majority turning around at Gilman’s Point, 300 metres (980 feet) short of Uhuru, or Stella Point, 200 (660 feet) meters short of Uhuru. Kilimanjaro is often underestimated because it can be walked and is not a technical climb. However, many mountaineers consider Kilimanjaro very physically demanding. HP Mini 1001TU Laptop Keyboard

Some estimate that more people have died to date trekking up Kilimanjaro than Mount Everest but Everest is attempted by significantly fewer climbers.[citation needed] In August 2007 four trekkers died within a week underscoring the point that trekking to the summit should not be taken casually. Multiple people (trekkers, porters, and guides) die on the mountain each year. The majority of these deaths are porters, from hypothermia. SONY VAIO VGN-NR21E/S Laptop Keyboard

Trekkers fall on steep portions of the mountain, and rock slides have killed trekkers. For this reason, the route via the Arrow Glacier was closed for several years. It re-opened in December 2007,[33] but the park officials advise against taking that route and tell trekkers that they can climb, but at their own risk. Dell Inspiron 2500 Laptop Keyboard

When attempting the Arrow Glacier route, trekkers must leave early in the morning and make it past the rock face before mid-afternoon as when the sun comes out, unfrozen rock slides become quite common. HP Pavilion G7-1167DX Laptop Keyboard

Being an Afromontane sky island, Kilimanjaro has an enormous biodiversity while low in endemic species. However endemics include the giant groundsels in thebunchgrass tussock grasslands, and other flora adapted to living in alpine plant conditions. SAMSUNG N140 Laptop Keyboard

Kilimanjaro has a large variety of forest types over an altitudinal range of 3,000 m (9,843 ft) containing over 1,200 vascular plant species. Montane Ocoteaforests occur on the wet southern slope. Cassipourea and Juniperus forests grow on the dry northern slope. Subalpine Erica forests at 4,100 m (13,451 ft) represent the highest elevation cloud forests in Africa. In contrast to this enormous biodiversity, the degree of endemism is low. TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard

However, forest relicts in the deepest valleys of the cultivated lower areas suggest that a rich forest flora inhabited Mt Kilimanjaro in the past, with restricted-range species otherwise only known from the Eastern Arc mountains. The low degree of endemism on Kilimanjaro may result from destruction of lower elevation forest rather than the relatively young age of the mountain.

Another feature of the forests of Kilimanjaro is the absence of a bamboo zone, which occurs on all other tall mountains in East Africa with a similarly high rainfall.  ACER TravelMate 6292 Laptop Keyboard

Sinarundinaria alpina stands are favoured by elephants and African buffalos elsewhere. On Kilimanjaro these megaherbivores occur on the northern slopes, where it is too dry for a large bamboo zone to develop. They are excluded from the wet southern slope forests by topography and humans, who have cultivated the foothills for at least 2000  years. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard

This interplay of biotic and abiotic factors could explain not only the lack of a bamboo zone on Kilimanjaro but also offers possible explanations for the patterns of diversity and endemism. If true, Kilimanjaro's forests would serve as a striking example of the large and long-lasting influence of both animals and humans on the African landscape. TOSHIBA Satellite A215-S4807 Laptop Keyboard

Kilimanjaro rises approximately 5,100 m (16,732 ft) from its base in the plains nearMoshi. Kibo is capped by an almost symmetrical cone with scarps rising 180 to 200 m on the south side. These scarps define a 2.5 km wide caldera.[34] Within this caldera is an inner crater, the Reusch Crater. This inner crater was named after Dr. DELL Vostro 1510 Laptop Keyboard

Richard Reusch. The name was conferred by the government of Tanganyika in 1954 at the same time it awarded Reusch a gold medal on having climbed Kilmanjaro for the 25th time. Reusch climbed Kilimanjaro 65 times and helped to establish the exact elevation of the crater.[35][36] Within the Reusche Crater lies the Ash Pit. The Reusche Crater itself is nearly surrounded by a 400 feet (120 m) high dune of volcanic ash.[37]  ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

In the late 1880s the summit of Kibo was completely covered by an ice cap with outlet glaciers cascading down the western and southern slopes, and, except for the inner cone, the entire caldera was buried. Glacier ice flowed also through the Western Breach.[34] COMPAQ NSK-H5401 Laptop Keyboard

An examination of ice cores taken from the North Ice Field Glacier indicates that the "snows of Kilimanjaro" (aka glaciers) have a basal age of 11,700 years.[38][39] A continuous ice cap covering approximately 400 square kilometers covered the mountain during the period of maximum glaciation, extending across the summits of Kibo and Mawenzi.[34] The glacial ice survived drought conditions during a three century period beginning ~2200 BC.[40] DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard

The period from 1912 to present has witnessed the disappearance of more than 80% of the ice cover on Kilimanjaro. From 1912 to 1953 there was ~1% annual loss, while 1989–2007 saw ~2.5% annual loss. Of the ice cover still present in 2000, 26% had disappeared by 2007. SONY VAIO VGN-CR23G laptop keyboard

While the current shrinking and thinning of Kilimanjaro's ice fields appears to be unique within its almost twelve millennium history, it is contemporaneous with widespread glacier retreat in mid-to-low latitudes across the globe. At the current rate, Kilimanjaro is expected to become ice-free some time between 2022 and 2033.[40] DELL 0PVDG3 laptop keyboard

The United Republic of Tanzania was formed on 26 April 1964 as a result of the Union of Tanganyika and Zanzibar. Julius Kambarage Nyerere became the first President of the United Republic of Tanzania and Sheikh Abeid Karume became the First Vice President of the United Republic of Tanzania and the President ofZanzibar and Chairman of the Revolutionary Council. The late Rashidi Mfaume Kawawa became the second Vice President of Tanzania and leader of Government business in the National Assembly.[2]  Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

Like other African countries, the people of Tanganyika opposed and fought against colonial invaders from the very beginning. This included the formation of African Associations in both Tanganyika and Zanzibar. The African Association was established in Tanganyika in 1929. This association was transformed into the Tanganyika African Association (TAA) in 1948. HP Pavilion ze5170 laptop keyboard

On Zanzibar's part, the various football clubs established in the early 1930s provided the basis for the coming together of members of the African community. By 1934,members of the African community united in a formal organisation known as the African Association (AA). The formation of the Zanzibar Nationalist Party (ZNP) in 1955 forced leaders of the African Association and the Shirazi Association to unite. In 1957, the Shirazi Association and African Association united to form the Afro-Shirazi Party under the leadership of Sheikh Abeid Amani Karume.[4]  Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

The agreement for the unification of the two states was signed by the first President of Tanganyika, the late Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere, and the first Zanzibar President, the late Sheikh Abeid Amani Karume, on 22 April 1964, in Zanzibar. It was agreed that,to become valid The Articles of the Union must be ratified by both Tanganyika's Parliament and Zanzibar revolutionary council,the Articles was ratified by Tanganyika's Parliament on 26 April 1964 but was not ratified by the Zanzibar Revolutionary Council as per agreement.[5] Lenovo 3000 G430 4152 laptop keyboard

On 27 April 1964, the leaders of the two countries exchanged legal documents of the Union at the Karimjee Hall in Dar es Salaam. The Articles of the Union declared the formation of the United Republic in Section 4.

allowed in Tanzania and could led to criminal charges to anyone who conducts such discussion or debate ,that including Government officials,such person could be seen as an enemy of the Nation. HP Pavilion dv6-3030sp laptop keyboard

Knowledge and education about the union was never conducted and Tanzania citizen had no knowledge about the Union,its benefits and the reason of the union.The original Article of Union which contain 11 matter was never existed and So often Zanzibar Government asked about it only to receive negative results. In Private and Public funded Education,Union topic or history was never a part of it even in General studies and Civic studies.The only place where union matter appears is in the exams in the form of "When was the union formed?"  HP Pavilion DV8310CA laptop keyboard

And this led to number of critics and grievances since the Nyerere's era to present. Second President of Zanzibar Aboud Jumbe was among the first public figure to fall on the trap. In 1984 Jumbe and his colleagues, including his Chief Minister Seif Sharif Hamad, attempted to push for more autonomy for Zanzibar. As a result, Aboud Jumbe was pressured by the union government to resign his posts as vice president of Tanzania and president of Zanzibar in January 1984. SONY VAIO VGN-CR21Z laptop keyboard

His Chief Minister, Seif Sharif Hamad was detained,and On January 1988 Unceremoniously dropped from the Revolutionary Council and dropped as the Chief Minister of Zanzibar, on May 1988 he was Expelled from the ruling CCM with six colleagues and automatically lost his parliamentary seat in the Zanzibar House of Representatives. HP Pavilion dv5-1114ez laptop keyboard

On May 1989 he was arrested and taken to court to face (politically motivated) trumped up charges of allegedly being found with government secret documents believed to be the Article of Union. From 1989–1991 he was Reprimanded in the Zanzibar Central Prison.[6] HP Pavilion dv5-1033ez laptop keyboard

Among the Critics including, between 1964 and 1973 in six other things - elements seen in 12 to 16 of the First Additional - were added to the list of Union Matters. Thus, in 1965 the issues of finance, currency and banking were added, in 1967 the manufacturing licences and statistics, higher education and what was in Annex X of the Charter of the East African Community was expanded, in 1968 was expanded to the natural resources of oil, SONY VGN-FE48E laptop keyboard

petroleum and natural gas, and in 1973 issues of the National Examinations Council was expanded. 1984 addition of elements of Annex X of the Charter of the East African Community to create four independent list, transportation and aviation, research, weather forecast and data. Similarly, changes of Constitution had raised new thing on the list of the Union Matters: Court of Appeal of Tanzania. In addition, section 3, Compaq Presario CQ71-235SO laptop keyboard

ie Defense, was amended to become 'safety and security.' And in 1992 'the registration of political parties' was added to the list of Union Matters. Also the issue of removing power to Zanzibar President to seize being the Vice President of Tanzania created a fierce debate[7] In addition,  SONY VGN-FE48E laptop keyboard

the Interim Constitution, 1965 that Dominant in Tanzania until 1977 passed the law of Annex II of the Constitution to make provision that the Act can not be adjusted without amendment supported by two-thirds of all members of Tanganyika and Zanzibar. Similarly, the Constitution specifies, in the First Additional , Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

that any one of the legal changes requires support from two-thirds of all members in "Chapter 557 (Edition 1965), Laws of the Union Treaty Verification of Tanganyika and Zanzibar in 1964,but unfortunately all addition Matters of the union did not follow the law and were inserted locally. SONY VAIO VGN-FS940 laptop keyboard

Complaints from Zanzibar started before the assassination of Zanzibar first President Sheikh Abeid Amani Karume Snr.According to one of the first President of Zanzibar Revolution Council,Nassor Hassan Moyo,who was also a minister for many years in Tanzania the decision to Unite Tanganyika and Zanzibar was Nyerere personal opinion.Among the first thing Nyerere suggested to Karume snr.was to unite the two Countries and then came the article of Union later on the creation of the Union constitution.[8] ACER TravelMate 3012 laptop keyboard

In 1970's Nyerere decision to send Soldiers from Zanzibar to fight liberation of Mozambique without Karume's Knowledge was among the first clashes between Zanzibar and Tanganyika. Karume decision to return the Soldier caused Nyerere and Karume not to speak face to face from that day to the death of Karume,after three days Zanzibar revolutionary council met to decide the fate of the Union and prepared special request letter which contained five or six matters which was sent to Nyerere to change the list of the article of Union,  ACER TravelMate 3043WTMi laptop keyboard

the list including Tanzania president should seek advice to Zanzibar president in any decision including Announcement of State of emergency,Police to be excluded in Union Matters,International relation should be equal and Each country should have its own Currency.Nyerere turned down the request and offer to postpone the discussion until future.  IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard

Complaints about the inclusion of the ministries from Tanzania mainland which are not part of Union ministries but funded by Union government and those of from Zanzibar are not benefited from it. ACER Aspire 7736ZG Laptop Keyboard

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