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9 février 2012 4 09 /02 /février /2012 04:10

Argentina , officially the Argentine Republic , is the second largest country in South America by land area, after Brazil. It is constituted as a federation of 23provinces and an autonomous city, Buenos Aires. It is the eighth-largest country in the world by land area and the largest among Spanish-speaking nations. Sony VAIO VPCEB1LFX Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB1LFX/BI Battery

Argentina's continental area is between the Andes mountain range in the west and the Atlantic Ocean in the east. It borders Paraguayand Bolivia to the north, Brazil and Uruguay to the northeast, and Chile to the west and south. Argentine claims over Antarctica, as well as overlapping claims made by Chile and the United Kingdom, are suspended by the Antarctic Treaty of 1961. Sony VAIO VPCEB1LFX/WI Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB1MFX Battery

Argentina also claims the Falkland Islands (Spanish: Islas Malvinas) and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, which are administered by the United Kingdom as British Overseas Territories.

A recognised middle power,[12] Argentina is Latin America's third-largest economy,[13] Sony VAIO VPCEB1MFX/BI Battery

Sony VAIO VPCEB1NFX Battery

with a "very high" rating on the Human development index.[11] Within Latin America, Argentina has the fifth highest nominal GDP per capita and the highest in purchasing power terms.[14] Analysts[15] have argued that the country has a "foundation for future growth due to its market size, levels of foreign direct investment, Sony VAIO VPCEB1NFX/B Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB1NFX/L Battery

and percentage of high-tech exports as share of total manufactured goods", and it is classed by investors as an emerging economy. Argentina is a founding member of the United Nations, Mercosur, the Union of South American Nations, the Organization of Ibero-American States, theWorld Bank Group and the World Trade Organization, and is one of the G-15 and G-20 major economies. Sony VAIO VPCEB1NFX/P Battery

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Etymology

Argentina is derived from the poetic Spanish argento ("silver"). The first use of Argentina can be traced to the 1602 poem La Argentina y conquista del Río de la Plata (Argentina and the conquest of the silver river) by Martín del Barco Centenera. Sony VAIO VPCEB1PFX Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB1PFX/B Battery

Although this name for the La Plata Basin was already in common usage by the 18th century, the area was formally called Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata in 1776. The autonomous governments that emerged from the 1810 May Revolution replaced "Viceroyalty" with "United Provinces".[7] Sony VAIO VPCEB1QGX Battery

One of the first prominent uses of the demonym "Argentine" was in the 1812 first Argentine National Anthem, which made reference to the ongoing Argentine War of Independence. The first formal use of the name was in the 1826 constitution, which used both the terms "Argentine Republic" and "Argentine Nation".[16] TSony VAIO VPCEB1QGX/BI Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB1RGX Battery

he Constitution was repealed, and the territories were instead known as the "Argentine Confederation". This name was used in the 1853 Constitution, being changed to that of the "Argentine Nation" in 1859, and to the "Argentine Republic" per an 1860 decree, when the country achieved its current organization. Sony VAIO VPCEB1RGX/BI Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB20 Battery

Nevertheless, the names of the "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata", "Argentine Republic" and "Argentine Confederation" are acknowledged as legitimate names of the country.[1][7]

Early history

The earliest evidence of humans in Argentina dates from 11,000 BC and was found in Patagonia (Piedra Museo, Santa Cruz). Sony VAIO VPCEC20 Battery

Sony VAIO VPCEE20 Battery

These finds were of the Diaguitas, Huarpes, and Sanavirones indigenous peoples, among others. The Inca Empire, under Sapa-Inca Pachacutec, invaded and conquered present-day north-western Argentina in 1480, a feat usually attributed to Túpac Inca Yupanqui. The tribes of Omaguacas, Atacamas, Huarpes and Diaguitas were defeated and integrated into a region calledCollasuyu.Sony VAIO VPCEF20 Battery

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Others, such as the Sanavirones, Lule-Tonocoté, and Comechingones, resisted the Incas and remained independent from them. The Guaraní developed a culture based on yuca, sweet potato, and yerba mate. The central and southern areas (Pampas and Patagonia) were dominated by nomadic cultures, the most populous among them being the Mapuches.[17] Sony VAIO VPCF115FG/B Battery

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The Atacaman settlement ofTastil in the north had an estimated population of 2,000 people, the highest populated area in pre-Columbian Argentina.

The most advanced indigenous populations were the Charrúas and Guaraníes, who developed some basic agriculture and the use ofpottery. Sony VAIO VPCF117FJ/W Battery

Sony VAIO VPCF117HG/BI Battery

Most of their population was located in other South American sites, however, and their presence in the territory of modern Argentina was scarce by comparison.[18]

Colonial period

The first European explorer, Juan Díaz de Solís, arrived to the Río de la Plata in 1516. Sony VAIO VPCF118FJ/W Battery,Sony VAIO VPCF119FC Battery

Spain established the Viceroyalty of Peruin 1542, encompassing all its holdings in South America. Their first settlement in modern Argentina was the fort of Sancti Spiritu, established in 1527 next to the Paraná River. Buenos Aires, a permanent colony, was established in 1536 but was destroyed by natives. The city was established again in 1580. Sony VAIO VPCF119FC/BI Battery

Sony VAIO VPCF119FJ/BI Battery

The colonization of modern Argentina came from 3 different directions: from Paraguay, establishing the Governorate of the Río de la Plata, from Peru and from Chile.[19]

The Spanish society in the Americas was organized in a system of castas. The European-born Spanish peninsulars were at the top of the social hierachy, as were the people from other European countries. Sony VAIO VPCF11AFJ Battery

Sony VAIO VPCF11AGJ Battery

The Spanish born in the Americas were known as criollos. Most natives stayed away from the Spanish cities, and the Spaniards brought African slaves as well. The relations of peoples from different castas (in most cases, male Spaniards and female natives) generated the mestizos. Most of them lived in the countryside, and became the Argentine gauchos.[20] Sony VAIO VPCF11AHJ Battery

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Buenos Aires became the capital of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata in 1776, with territories from the Viceroyalty of Peru. Buenos Aires and Montevideo resisted two ill-fated British invasions in 1806 and 1807. The resistance was headed both times by the French Santiago de Liniers, who would become viceroy through popular support. Sony VAIO VPCF11M1E Battery,Sony VAIO VPCF11M1E/H Battery

The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment and the example of the Atlantic Revolutionsgenerated criticism to the Absolute monarchy. The overthrow of the Spanish King Ferdinand VIIduring the Peninsular War created great concern in the Americas, so many cities deposed the monarchic authorities and apppointed new ones, working under the new political ideas. Sony VAIO VPCF11MFX/B Battery

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This started the Spanish American wars of independenceacross the continent. Buenos Aires deposed the viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros in 1810, during the May Revolution.[21]

Independence and civil wars

The May Revolution began the Argentine War of Independence between patriots and royalists. Sony VAIO VPCF11S1E/B Battery

Sony VAIO VPCF11Z1E Battery

The Primera Junta, the new government in Buenos Aires, sent military campaigns to Córdoba, Upper Peru and Paraguay, and supported the rebellions at the Banda Oriental. The military campaigns were defeated and colonial Brazil supported the royalists at Montevideo, so Buenos Aires signed an armistice.[22] Sony VAIO VPCF11Z1E/BI Battery,Sony VAIO VPCF11ZHJ Battery

Paraguay stayed Non-interventionist during the remainder of the conflict, Upper Peru defeated further military campaigns, and the Banda Oriental would be captured by William Brown during renewed hostilities. The national organization, either under a centralized governmentlocated in Buenos Aires or as a federation, began the Argentine Civil Wars as well, with the conflicts of Buenos Aires and José Gervasio Artigas.[23] Sony VAIO VPCF127HGBI Battery

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The Argentine Declaration of Independence was issued by the Congress of Tucumán in 1816. Martín Miguel de Güemes kept royalists at bay on the North, while José de San Martín made the Crossing of the Andes, securing the independence of Chile. With the Chilean navy at his disposal he then took the fight to the royalist stronghold of Lima. Sony VAIO VPC-P111KX/B Battery

Sony VAIO VPC-P111KX/D Battery

San Martín's military campaigns complemented those of Simón Bolívarin Gran Colombia and led to the independent's victory in the Spanish American wars of independence.[24]

The 1820 Battle of Cepeda, fought between the Centralists and the Federalists, resulted in the end of the centralized national authority and created a power vacuum. Sony VAIO VPC-P111KX/G Battery,Sony VAIO VPC-P111KX/P Battery,Sony VAIO VPC-P111KX/W Battery

A new constitution was enacted in 1826, during the War with Brazil, and Bernardino Rivadavia was appointed the firstPresident of Argentina. This constitution was soon rejected by the provinces, due to its centralist bias, and Rivadavia resigned shortly after. The new governor Manuel Dorrego was deposed and executed by Juan Lavalle, which exacerbated the civil war. Sony VAIO VPC-P112KX/B Battery

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Juan Manuel de Rosas, who was so far a mere rancher, organized the resistance against Lavalle and restored the deposed authorities. The provinces then reorganized themselves as the Argentine Confederation, a loose confederationof provinces that lacked a common head of state. They would instead delegate some important powers to the governor of Buenos Aires Province, such as debt payment or the management of international relations.[25] Sony VAIO VPC-P112KX/G Battery

Sony VAIO VPC-P112KX/P Battery

Juan Manuel de Rosas ruled from 1829 to 1832, and from 1835 to 1852. During his first term he convened the Federal pact and defeated the Unitarian League. After 1835 he received the "Sum of public power". He faced several unitarian attacks and a constant state of war, including a French blockade from 1838 to 1840, the War of the Confederation in the north, Sony VAIO VPC-P112KX/W Battery

Sony VAIO VPCP113KX/B Battery

an Anglo-French blockadefrom 1845 to 1850, and the Corrientes province revolt. Rosas remained undefeated during this series of conflicts and prevented further loss of national territory. His refusal to enact a national constitution, pursuant to the Federal pact, led to Entre Ríos governor Justo José de Urquiza to turn against Rosas. Sony VAIO VPC-P113KX/B Battery,Sony VAIO VPCP113KX/D Battery

He defeated him at the battle of Caseros, forcing him into exile. The San Nicolás Agreement followed, and then the promulgation of the Constitution of Argentina of 1853. Rejecting it, Buenos Aires seceded from the Confederation and became the State of Buenos Aires. The war between both lasted nearly a decade, and ended with the victory of Buenos Aires at the battle of Pavón.[26] Sony VAIO VPC-P113KX/D Battery,Sony VAIO VPCP113KX/G Battery

Buenos Aires rejoined the Confederation, and Bartolomé Mitre was elected the first president of the unified country in 1862. Mitre began military campaigns against both the remaining federals in Argentina, the whites from Uruguay, and Paraguay. The War of the Triple Alliance, in alliance with Uruguay and Brazil, left over 300,000 dead and devastated Paraguay.[27] Sony VAIO VPC-P113KX/G Battery

Sony VAIO VPCP113KX/P Battery

Unable to influence the election of later presidents, Domingo Faustino Sarmiento andNicolás Avellaneda followed him. Albeit unitarians, they were not from Buenos Aires, and had conflicts with him. Mitre attempted twice to secede Buenos Aires from the country once more, but failed. Sony VAIO VPC-P113KX/P Battery

Sony VAIO VPCP113KX/W Battery

Avellaneda proposed the federalization of Buenos Aires, which was resisted in the city, and the national seat of government was temporarily moved to Belgrano (which was not part of Buenos Aires by then). The military conflict ended with the victory of the national army and the federalization of the city.[28] Sony VAIO VPC-P113KX/W Battery

Sony VAIO VPC-P114KX/B Battery

Since the colonial times, huge territories were under the control of indigenous peoples. All governments since then attempted in some way to stay in good terms, kill them, or push them to ever farther frontiers. The final conflict was the Conquest of the Desert, waged by Julio Argentino Roca. Sony VAIO VPC-P114KX/D Battery

Sony VAIO VPC-P114KX/G Battery

With this military operation, Argentina seized the control of the Patagonia.[29]

Modern history

The bases of modern Argentina were established by the Generation of '80, a political movement that opposed Mitre and sought to industrialize the country. Sony VAIO VPC-P114KX/P Battery

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A wave of European immigration led to the strengthening of a cohesive state, the development of modern agriculture and to a near-reinvention of Argentine society and economy. The country emerged as one of the ten richest countries in the world, benefiting from an agricultural export-led economy as well as British and French investment. Sony VAIO VPCP115JC Battery

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Driven by immigration and decreasing mortality the Argentine population grew fivefold and the economy 15-fold.[30] However, the National Autonomist Party(PAN) could not meet its original goals of industrialization, and the country stayed as a Pre-industrial society.[31]

President Julio Roca was followed by Miguel Ángel Juárez Celman, from the PAN as well. Sony VAIO VPCP115JC/D Battery

Sony VAIO VPCP115JC/G Battery

Juárez Celman faced an economic crisis that generated popular discontent, this caused the Revolution of the Park in 1890, led by the Civic Union. With the resignation of Mitre, the Civic Union became the Radical Civic Union (UCR). Although the Coup d'état failed, Celman resigned from the presidency, starting the decline of the PAN. Sony VAIO VPCP115JC/P Battery

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Conservative élites dominated Argentine politics until 1912, when President Roque Sáenz Peñaenacted universal male suffrage and the secret ballot. This allowed the UCR to win the country's first free elections in 1916. President Hipólito Yrigoyenenacted social and economic reforms and extended assistance to family farmers and small business.[32] Sony VAIO VPCP115KG Battery

Sony VAIO VPCP116KG Battery

Yrigoyen was overthrown by a coup in 1930, however, which led to another decade of Conservative rule. The Concordanceregime strengthened ties with the British Empire and their electoral policy was one of "patriotic fraud". The country was neutralduring World War I and most of World War II, becoming an important source of foodstuffs for the Allied Nations.[30]Sony VAIO VPC-P116KX/B Battery

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In 1946, General Juan Perón was elected president, creating a populist movement referred to as "Peronism". His wife Eva was popular and played a central political role until her death in 1952, mostly through the Eva Perón Foundation and the Female Peronist Party,[33] as women's suffrage was granted in 1947. Sony VAIO VPC-P116KX/G Battery,Sony VAIO VPC-P116KX/P Battery

During Perón's tenure, wages and working conditions improved appreciably, unionization was fostered, strategic industries and services were nationalized, as well as import substitution industrialization and urban development being prioritized in the agrarian sector.[34] Sony VAIO VPC-P116KX/W Battery

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Formerly stable prices and exchange rates were disrupted however: the peso lost around 70% of its value from 1948 to 1950, and inflation reached 50% in 1951.[35]Foreign policy became more isolationist, straining US-Argentine relations. Perón intensified censorship as well as repression: 110 publications were shuttered,[36]and numerous opposition figures were imprisoned and tortured.[37] Sony VAIO VPCP118JC/B Battery,Sony VAIO VPCP118JC/P Battery

Advancing a personality cult, Perón rid himself of many important and capable advisers while promoting patronage. A bombing of Plaza de Mayo was followed some months later by a violent coup which deposed him in 1955. He fled into exile, eventually residing in Spain.

Following an attempt to purge the Peronist influence and the banning of Peronists from political life, elections in 1958 brought Arturo Frondizi to office. Sony VAIO VPCP118JC/W Battery,Sony VAIO VPC-P118KX/B Battery

Frondizi enjoyed some support from Perón's followers, and his policies encouraged investment to make the country self-sufficient in energy and industry, helping reverse a chronic trade deficit for Argentina. The military frequently interfered on behalf of conservative, agrarian interests however, and the results were mixed.[30] Sony VAIO VPC-P118KX/D Battery,Sony VAIO VPC-P118KX/G Battery

Frondizi was forced to resign in 1962. Arturo Illiawas elected in 1963 and enacted expansionist policies but, despite prosperity, his attempts to include Peronists in the political process resulted in the armed forces retaking power in a quiet 1966 coup.

Though repressive, this new regime continued to encourage domestic development and invested record amounts into public works.Sony VAIO VPC-P118KX/P Battery

Sony VAIO VPC-P118KX/W Battery

The economy grew strongly and income poverty declined to 7% by 1975. Partly because of their repressiveness, however, political violence began to escalate and Perón, still in exile, skilfully co-opted student and labor protests which eventually resulted in the military regime's call for free elections in 1973, and Perón's return from Spain.[17] Sony VAIO VPCP119JC Battery

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Taking office that year, Perón died in July 1974 leaving his third wife Isabel, the Vice President, to succeed him in office. Mrs. Perón had been chosen as a compromise among feuding Peronist factions who could agree on no other running mate; secretly though, she was beholden to Perón's most fascist advisers. Sony VAIO VPCP11S1E/B Battery,Sony VAIO VPC-P11S1E/B Battery

The resulting conflict, between left and right-wing extremists, led to mayhem, financial chaos and a coup d'état in March 1976 which removed her from office.

The self-styled National Reorganization Process intensified measures against armed groups on the far left, Sony VAIO VPCP11S1E/D Battery

Sony VAIO VPC-P11S1E/D Battery

such as People's Revolutionary Army and the Montoneros who had kidnapped and murdered people almost weekly since 1970.[38]Repression was quickly extended to the opposition in general and, during the "Dirty War", thousands of dissidents "disappeared". These abuses were aided and abetted by the CIA in Operation Condor, with many of the military leaders that took part in abuses trained in the School of the Americas.[39] Sony VAIO VPCP11S1E/G Battery

Sony VAIO VPC-P11S1E/G Battery

The new dictatorship brought some stability at first, and built numerous important public works, but frequent wage freezes andderegulation of finance led to a sharp fall in living standards and record foreign debt.[30] Deindustrialization, the peso's collapse, and crushing real interest rates, Sony VAIO VPCP11S1E/P Battery

Sony VAIO VPCP11S1E/W Battery

as well as unprecedented corruption, public revulsion over the Dirty War, and finally the 1982 defeat by the British in the Falklands War, discredited the military regime and led to free elections in 1983. Sony VAIO VPC-P11S1E/W Battery

Contemporary era

Raúl Alfonsín's government took steps to account for the disappeared, established civilian control of the armed forces, and consolidated democratic institutions. The members of the three military juntas were prosecuted and sentenced to life terms. Sony VAIO VPCP11Z9E/B Battery,Sony VAIO VPCS111FM/S Battery

The previous regime's foreign debt, however, left the Argentine economy saddled by the conditions imposed on it by both its private creditors and theInternational Monetary Fund, and priority was given to servicing the foreign debt at the expense of public works and domestic credit. Sony VAIO VPCS115EC Battery

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Alfonsín's failure to resolve worsening economic problems caused him to lose public confidence. Following a 1989 currency crisis that resulted in a sudden and ruinous 15-fold jump in prices, he left office five months early.[40]

Newly elected President Carlos Menem began pursuing privatizations and, Sony VAIO VPCS117GG Battery,Sony VAIO VPCS117GGB Battery

after a second bout of hyperinflation in 1990, reached out to economist Domingo Cavallo, who imposed a peso-US$ fixed exchange rate in 1991 and adopted far-reaching market-basedpolicies, dismantlingprotectionist barriers and business regulations, while accelerating privatizations. Sony VAIO VPCS118EC Battery

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These reforms contributed to significant increases in investment and growth with stable prices through most of the 1990s; but the peso's fixed value could only be maintained by flooding the market with dollars, resulting in a renewed increase in the foreign debt.Sony VAIO VPCS119GC Battery

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Towards 1998, moreover, a series of international financial crises and overvaluation of the pegged peso caused a gradual slide into economic crisis. The sense of stability and well being which had prevailed during the 1990s eroded quickly, and by the end of his term in 1999, these accumulating problems and reports of corruption had made Menem unpopular.[41] Sony VAIO VPCS11AGJ Battery

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President Fernando de la Rúa inherited diminished competitiveness in exports, as well as chronic fiscal deficits. The governing coalition developed rifts, and his returning Cavallo to the Economy Ministrywas interpreted as a crisis move by speculators. Sony VAIO VPCS11AVJ Battery

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The decision backfired and Cavallo was eventually forced to take measures to halt a wave of capital flight and to stem the imminent debt crisis (culminating in the freezing of bank accounts). A climate of popular discontent ensued, and on 20 December 2001, Argentina dove into its worst institutional and economic crisis since the 1890 Barings financial debacle. Sony VAIO VPCS11M1E/W Battery

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There were violent street protests, which clashed with police and resulted in several fatalities. The increasingly chaotic climate, amid riots accompanied by cries that "they should all go", finally resulted in the resignation of President de la Rúa.[42]

Three presidents followed in quick succession over two weeks, Sony VAIO VPCS11V9E/B Battery,Sony VAIO VPCS11X9E/B Battery

culminating in the appointment of interim President Eduardo Duhaldeby the Legislative Assembly on 2 January 2002. Argentina defaulted on its international debt, and the peso's 11 year-old tie to the U.S. dollar was rescinded, causing a major depreciation of the peso and a spike in inflation. Sony VAIO VPCS123FGB Battery

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Duhalde, a Peronist with a centre-left economic position, had to cope with a financial and socio-economic crisis, with unemployment as high as 25% by mid 2002, and the lowest real wages in sixty years. The crisis accentuated the people's mistrust in politicians and institutions. Sony VAIO VPCS128EC Battery,Sony VAIO VPCS129GC Battery

Following a year racked by protest, the economy began to stabilize in late 2002, and restrictions on bank withdrawals were lifted in December.[43]

Benefiting from a devalued exchange rate the government implemented new policies based on re-industrialization, Sony VAIO VPCS12C7E/B Battery

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import substitution and increased exports and began seeing consistent fiscal and trade surpluses. Governor Néstor Kirchner, a left-wing Peronist, was elected president in May 2003. During his administration, Argentina restructured its defaulted debt with a steep discount (about 66%) on most bonds, Sony VAIO VPCS12V9E/B Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW111XX/P Battery

paid off debts with the International Monetary Fund, renegotiated contracts with utilities and nationalized some previously privatized enterprises. Kirchner and his economists, notably Roberto Lavagna, also pursued a vigorous incomes policy and public works investment.[44] Sony VAIO VPCW111XX/PC Battery

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Argentina has since been enjoying economic growth, though with high inflation. Néstor Kirchner forfeited the 2007 campaign, in favor of his wife Senator Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, who became the first woman to be elected President of Argentina. Sony VAIO VPCW111XX/W Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW111XXP Battery

She saw controversial plans for higher agricultural export taxes defeated byVice President Julio Cobos' surprise tie-breaking vote against them in July 2008, following massive agrarian protests and lockouts from March to July. The global financial crisis has since prompted Mrs. Sony VAIO VPCW111XXT Battery

Sony VAIO VPCW111XXW Battery

Kirchner to step up her husband's policy of state intervention in troubled sectors of the economy.[45] On 15 July 2010, Argentina became the first country in Latin America and the second country in the Southern Hemisphere to legalize same-sex marriage.[46][47] Sony VAIO VPCW115XG Battery

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Politics

The Constitution of Argentina mandates a separation of powers into executive, legislative, and judicial branches at both the national and provincial administrations. The political framework is a federal representative democratic republic, in which the President is both head Sony VAIO VPCW115XW/W Battery

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of state and head of government, complemented by a pluriform multi-party system.

The executive power resides in the President and the cabinet. The president and vice president are directly elected for a four-year term, with the chance of a single reelection. Cabinet ministers are appointed by the President and are not subject to legislative ratification. The current President is Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, with Amado Boudou as Vice President. Sony VAIO VPCW117XC/T Battery

Sony VAIO VPCW117XC/W Battery

Legislative power is vested in the bicameral National Congress, comprising a 72-member Senate and a 257-member Chamber of Deputies. Senators serve six-year terms, with one-third standing for re-election every two years. Members of the Chamber of Deputies are elected to four-year terms by a proportional representation system, with half of the members standing for re-election every two years. Sony VAIO VPCW119XJ Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW119XJ/P Battery

A third of the candidates presented by the parties must be women.

The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The Supreme Court has seven members appointed by the President in consultation with the Senate. The judges of all the other courts are appointed by the Council of Magistrates of the Nation, Sony VAIO VPCW119XJ/W Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW11AXJ Battery

a secretariat composed of representatives of judges, lawyers, the Congress and the executive.

Though declared the capital in 1853, Buenos Aires did not become the official Capital until the federalization of 1880. The 1994 amendment of the Argentine Constitution included a limited form of devolution to Buenos Aires. Sony VAIO VPCW11S1E/P Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW11S1E/T Battery

The national government reserved control of the Argentine Federal Police (the federally administered city force), the Port of Buenos Aires, and other faculties, however.[48]

Argentina is divided into twenty-three provinces (provincias; singular provincia) and one Autonomous City. Sony VAIO VPCW11S1E/W Battery

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Buenos Aires Province is divided into 134 partidos, while the remaining Provinces are divided into 376 departments (departamentos). Departments and Partidos are further subdivided into municipalities or districts. With the exception of Buenos Aires Province, the nation's provinces have chosen in recent years to enter into treaties with other provinces, Sony VAIO VPCW126AG Battery

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forming four federated regions aimed at fostering economic integration and development: Center Region, Patagonic Region, New Cuyo Region, and the Argentine Greater North Region.

Foreign policy

Argentina is a full member of the Mercosur block together with Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela; Sony VAIO VPCW127JC/T Battery

Sony VAIO VPCW127JC/W Battery

and five associate members: Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. From 2003 Argentina has emphasized Mercosur, which has some supranational legislative functions, as its first international priority; by contrast, during the 1990s, it relied more heavily on its relationship with the United States. Sony VAIO VPCW127JC/WZ Battery

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Argentina is a founding signatory and permanent consulting member of the Antarctic Treaty System and the Antarctic Treaty Secretariat is based in Buenos Aires.[49]

Argentina has long claimed sovereignty over the Falkland Islands (Spanish: Islas Malvinas), Sony VAIO VPCW12AKJ Battery

and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, which are administered by the United Kingdom as British Overseas Territories, as well as almost 1,000,000 square kilometres (390,000 sq mi) in Antarctica, between 25°W and 74°W and south of 60°S. The Antarctic claim overlaps claims by Chile and the United Kingdom, Sony VAIO VPCW12AVJ Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW12S1E/P Battery

though all claims to Antarctica fall under the provisions of the Antarctic Treaty. Since 1904, ascientific posthas been maintained in Antarctica by mutual agreement. While Argentina has employed threats and force to pursue its claims against Chile in the Beagle channel, against Britain in Antarctica[50] and the Falklands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Sony VAIO VPCW12S1E/T Battery

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as well as against illegal trawlers, this is the exception rather than the rule in Argentine international relations.

Argentina was the only Latin American country to participate in the 1991 Gulf War under the United Nations mandate, and played an important role in Operation Uphold Democracy, Sony VAIO VPCW213AG/L Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW213AG/P Battery

in Haiti.[51] Argentina has contributed worldwide to peacekeeping operations, including those in El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Guatemala, the Ecuador-Peru dispute, Western Sahara, Angola, Kuwait, Cyprus, Croatia, Kosovo, Bosnia and Timor Leste. Sony VAIO VPCW213AG/T Battery

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In recognition of its contributions to international security, U.S. President Bill Clintondesignated Argentina as a major non-NATO ally in January 1998. It was last elected as a member of the UN Security Councilin 2005. The United Nations White Helmets, a bulwark of peacekeeping and humanitarian aid efforts, were first deployed in 1994 following an Argentine initiative.[52] Sony VAIO VPCW215AG/L Battery

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Military

The armed forces of Argentina comprise an army, navy and air force, and number about 70,000 active duty personnel, one third fewer than levels before the return to democracy in 1983.[53] Sony VAIO VPCW217JC/L Battery

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The President is commander-in-chief of the armed forces, with the Defense Ministry exercising day-to-day control. There are also two other forces; the Naval Prefecture (which patrols Argentine territorial waters) and the National Gendarmerie (which patrols the border regions); Sony VAIO VPCW217JC/T Battery

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both arms are controlled by the Interior Ministry but maintain liaison with the Defense Ministry. The minimum age for enlistment in the armed forces is 18 years and there is no obligatory military service. Sony VAIO VPCW218JC Battery

Historically, Argentina's military has been one of the best equipped in the region (for example, developing its own jet fighters as early as the 1950s);[54] but recently it has faced sharper expenditure cutbacks than most other Latin American armed forces. Sony VAIO VPCW218JC/L Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW218JC/P Battery

Real military expenditures declined steadily after 1981 and though there have been recent increases, the defense budget is now around US$3 billion.[55] The armed forces are currently participating in major peacekeeping operations inHaiti and Cyprus. Sony VAIO VPCW218JC/T Battery

Provinces

Argentina is composed of twenty-three provinces (Spanish: provincias, singular provincia) and one autonomous city (Ciudad autónoma de Buenos Aires). The city and th

e provinces have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system. Sony VAIO VPCW218JC/W Battery

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The administrative divisions of the Provinces are the departments (Spanish: departamentos, singular departamento), and the municipalities (Spanish: municipios or intendencias), except for Buenos Aires Province, which is divided into partidos. The City of Buenos Aires is divided into communes. Sony VAIO VPCW219AJ/P Battery

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Geography

The total surface area (excluding the Antarctic claim) is 2,791,810 km2 (1,077,920 sq mi),[7] of which 30,200 km2 (11,700 sq mi) (1.1%) is water. Argentina is about 3,900 km (2,400 mi) long from north to south, and 1,400 km (870 mi) from east to west (maximum values). Sony VAIO VPCW21AAJ Battery

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There are four major regions: the fertile central plains of the Pampas, source of Argentina's agricultural wealth; the flat to rolling, oil-rich southern plateau of Patagonia including Tierra del Fuego; the subtropical northern flats of the Gran Chaco, and the rugged Andes mountain range along the western border with Chile. Sony VAIO VPCW21AVJ Battery,Sony VAIO VPCY115FGS Battery

The highest point above sea level is in Mendoza province at Cerro Aconcagua (6,962 m (22,841 ft)), also the highest point in theSouthern[56] and Western Hemisphere.[57] The lowest point is Laguna del Carbón in Santa Cruz province, ?105 m (?344 ft) below sea level.[58] This is also the lowest point in South America. Sony VAIO VPCY115FX/BI Battery

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The geographic center of the country is in south-central La Pampa province. The easternmost continental point is northeast of Bernardo de Irigoyen, Misiones,(26°15?S 53°38?W) the westernmost in the Mariano Moreno Range in Santa Cruz province. Sony VAIO VPCY118EC Battery

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(49°33?S 73°35?W) The northernmost point is at the confluence of the Grande de San Juan and Mojinete rivers in Jujuy province,(21°46?S 66°13?W) and the southernmost is Cape San Pío in Tierra del Fuego. (55°03?S 66°31?W)[59] Sony VAIO VPCY119FJ/S Battery

The major rivers are the Paraná (the largest), the Pilcomayo, Paraguay, Bermejo, Colorado, Río Negro, Salado and the Uruguay. The Paraná and the Uruguay join to form the Río de la Plata estuary, before reaching the Atlantic. Sony VAIO VPCY11AFJ Battery

Regionally important rivers are theAtuel and Mendoza in the homonymous province, the Chubut in Patagonia, the Río Grande in Jujuy and the San Francisco River in Salta.

There are several large lakes including Argentino and Viedma in Santa Cruz, Sony VAIO VPCY11AGJ Battery

Nahuel Huapibetween Río Negro and Neuquén, Fagnanoin Tierra del Fuego, and Colhué Huapi and Musters in Chubut. Lake Buenos Aires and O'Higgins/San Martín Lake are shared with Chile. Mar Chiquita, Córdoba, is the largest salt water lake in the country. There are numerous reservoirs created by dams. Argentina features various hot springs, such as Termas de Río Hondo with temperatures between 65 °C (149 °F) and 89 °C (192 °F).[60] Sony VAIO VPCY11AHJ Battery

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The largest oil spill in fresh water was caused by a Shell Petroleum tanker in the Río de la Plata, off Magdalena, on 15 January 1999, polluting the environment, drinking water, and local wildlife.[61] Sony VAIO VPCY11M1E/S Battery

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The 4,665 km (2,899 mi) long Atlantic coast[62] has been a popular local vacation area for over a century, and varies between areas of sand dunes and cliffs. The continental platform is unusually wide; this shallow area of the Atlantic is called theArgentine Sea. The waters are rich in fisheries and possibly hold important hydrocarbon energy resources. Sony VAIO VPCY11V9E/S Battery

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The two major ocean currents affecting the coast are the warm Brazil Current and the cold Falkland Current. Because of the unevenness of the coastal landmass, the two currents alternate in their influence on climate and do not allow temperatures to fall evenly with higher latitude. The southern coast of Tierra del Fuego forms the north shore of the Drake Passage. Sony VAIO VPCY218EC/G Battery

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Climate

The generally temperate climate ranges from subtropical in the north to subpolar in the far south. The north is characterized by very hot, humid summers with mild drier winters, and is subject to periodic droughts. Sony VAIO VPCY218EC/P Battery

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Central Argentina has hot summers with thunderstorms (western Argentina produces some of the world's largest hail), and cool winters. The southern regions have warm summers and cold winters with heavy snowfall, especially in mountainous zones. Higher elevations at all latitudes experience cooler conditions. Sony VAIO VPCY21S1E/P Battery,Sony VAIO VPCY21S1E/SI Battery

The hottest and coldest temperature extremes recorded in South America have occurred in Argentina. A record high temperature of 49.1 °C (120.4 °F), was recorded at Villa María, Córdoba, on 2 January 1920. The lowest temperature recorded was ?39 °C (?38.2 °F) at Valle de los Patos Superior, San Juan, on 17 July 1972.[63] Sony VAIO VPCZ110 Battery,Sony VAIO VPCZ110GB/BI Battery

Major wind currents include the cool Pampero Winds blowing on the flat plains of Patagonia and the Pampas; following the cold front, warm currents blow from the north in middle and late winter, creating mild conditions. The Zonda, a hot dry wind, affects west-central Argentina. Sony VAIO VPCZ112GD/S Battery,Sony VAIO VPCZ112GX/S Battery

Squeezed of all moisture during the 6,000 m (19,685 ft) descent from the Andes, Zonda winds can blow for hours with gusts up to 120 km/h (75 mph), fueling wildfires and causing damage; when the Zonda blows (June–November), snowstorms and blizzard (viento blanco) conditions usually affect higher elevations. Sony VAIO VPCZ114GX/S Battery,Sony VAIO VPCZ115 Battery

The Sudestada ("southeasterlies") could be considered similar to the Nor'easter, though snowfall is rare but not unprecedented. Both are associated with a deep winter low pressure system. The sudestada usually moderates cold temperatures but brings very heavy rains, rough seas and coastal flooding. Sony VAIO VPCZ115FC/B Battery

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It is most common in late autumn and winter along the central coast and in the Río de la Plata estuary.

The southern regions, particularly the far south, experience long periods of daylight from November to February (up to nineteen hours) and extended nights from May to August. Sony VAIO VPCZ116 Battery

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Biodiversity

Subtropical plants dominate the Gran Chaco in the north, with the Dalbergia genus of trees well represented by Brazilian Rosewoodand the quebracho tree; also predominant are white and black algarrobo trees (prosopis alba and prosopis nigra). Sony VAIO VPCZ117 Battery,Sony VAIO VPCZ117FC/B Battery

Savannah-like areas exist in the drier regions nearer the Andes. Aquatic plants thrive in the wetlands of Argentina. In central Argentina the humid pampas are a true tallgrass prairieecosystem. The original pampa had virtually no trees; some imported species like the American sycamore oreucalyptus are present along roads or in towns and country estates (estancias). Sony VAIO VPCZ118 Battery

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The only tree-like plant native to the pampa is the evergreen Ombú. The surface soils of the pampa are a deep black color, primarilymollisols, known commonly as humus. This makes the region one of the most agriculturally productive on Earth; however, this is also responsible for decimating much of the original ecosystem, to make way for commercial agriculture. Sony VAIO VPCZ118GX/S Battery

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The western pampas receive less rainfall, this dry pampa is a plain of short grasses orsteppe.[64] The national government maintains 29 national parks.[65]

Most of Patagonia lies within the rain shadow of the Andes, so the flora, shrubby bushes and plants, is suited to dry conditions. Sony VAIO VPCZ119FJ/S Battery

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The soil is hard and rocky, making large-scale farming impossible except along river valleys. Coniferous forests in far western Patagonia and on the island of Tierra del Fuego, include alerce, ciprés de la cordillera, ciprés de las guaitecas, huililahuán, lleuque, mañío hembra and pehuén, Sony VAIO VPCZ119L Battery

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while broadleaf trees include several species of Nothofagus such as coihue,lenga and ñire. Other introduced trees present in forestry plantations include spruce, cypress and pine. Common plants are the copihue and colihue.[66]

In Cuyo, semiarid thorny bushes and other xerophile plants abound. Sony VAIO VPCZ119R/S Battery,Sony VAIO VPCZ11AFJ Battery

Along the many rivers grasses and trees grow in significant numbers. The area presents optimal conditions for the large scale growth of grape vines. In northwest Argentina there are many species of cactus. No vegetation grows in the highest elevations (above 4,000 m (13,000 ft)) because of the extreme altitude. Sony VAIO VPCZ11AGJ Battery,Sony VAIO VPCZ11AVJ Battery

Many species live in the subtropical north. Prominent animals include big cats like the jaguar, puma, andocelot; primates (howler monkey); large reptiles (crocodiles), the Argentine Black and White Tegu and a species of caiman. Other animals include the tapir, peccary, capybara, bush dog, and various species of turtle and tortoise. Sony VAIO VPCZ11CGX/X Battery,Sony VAIO VPCZ11DGX/SJ Battery

There are a wide variety of birds, notably hummingbirds, flamingos, toucans, andswallows.

The central grasslands are populated by the giant anteater, armadillo, pampas cat, maned wolf, mara, cavias, and the rhea (ñandú), a large flightless bird. Hawks, falcons, herons, and tinamous (perdiz, Argentine "false partridges") inhabit the region. Sony VAIO VPCZ11FHX/XQ Battery

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There are also pampas deer and pampas foxes. Some of these species extend into Patagonia.

The western mountains are home to different animals. These include the llama, guanaco, vicuña, among the most recognizable species of South America. Also in this region are the fox, viscacha, Andean Mountain Cat, kodkod, and the largest flying bird in the New World, the Andean Condor. Sony VAIO VPCZ11X9E/B Battery

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Southern Argentina is home to the cougar, huemul, pudú (the world's smallest deer), and introduced, non-native wild boar.[66] The coast of Patagonia is rich in animal life: elephant seals, fur seals, sea lions and species of penguin. The far south is populated by cormorants. Sony VAIO VPCZ125GX/S Battery

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The territorial waters of Argentina have abundant ocean life; mammals such as dolphins, orcas, and whales like the southern right whale, a major tourist draw for naturalists. Sea fish include sardines, Argentine hakes, dolphinfish, salmon, and sharks; also present are squid and King crab (centolla) in Tierra del Fuego. Sony VAIO VPCZ128GC Battery

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Rivers and streams in Argentina have many species of trout and the South American golden dorado fish. Well known snake species inhabiting Argentina include boa constrictorsand a very venomous pit vipernamed the yarará. The Hornero was elected the National Bird after a survey in 1928.[67] Sony VAIO VPCZ13M9E/B Battery

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Economy

Argentina has a market-oriented economy with abundant natural resources, a well-educated population, an export-orientedagricultural sector and a relatively diversified industrial base. Sony VAIO VPCZ13Z9E/X Battery

The nation's services sector accounts for around 59% of the economy and 72% of employment, manufacturing is 21% of GDP and 13% of employment, and agriculture is 9% of GDP, with 7% of employment; construction, mining, and public utilities divide the rest.[68][69] Sony VAIO VPCZZZHJ Battery

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Agriculture, including processed goods, provided 54% of export earnings in 2010, however, while industrial manufactures accounted for 35% (energy staples and metal ores were most of the remainder).[70] Sony VAIO VPZ118 Battery

High inflation has been a weakness of the Argentine economy for decades.[71] Officially hovering around 9% since 2006, inflation has been privately estimated at over 20%,[72] becoming a contentious issue again. The urban income poverty rate has dropped to 18% as of mid-2008, a third of the peak level observed in 2002, though still above the level prior to 1976.[73][74] Sony VAIO VPZ119 Battery,Sony VPCM11M1E/B Battery

Income distribution, having improved since 2002, is still considerably unequal.[75][76]

Argentina ranks 105th out of 178 countries in the Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index for 2010.[77]Reported problems include both government and private-sector corruption, the latter of which include money laundering, Sony VPCM11M1E/W Battery,Sony VPCM12M1E/L Battery,Sony VPCM12M1E/P Battery

trafficking in narcotics and contraband, and tax evasion.[78] The Kirchner administration responded to the Global financial crisis of 2008–2009with a record public-works program, new tax cuts and subsidies,[79][80] and the transfer of private pensions to the social security system. Sony VPCM12M1E/W Battery

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Private pension plans, which required growing subsidies to cover, were nationalized to shed a budgetary drain as well as to finance high government spending and debt obligations.[81][82]

Argentina has, after its neighbour Chile, the second-highest Human Development Index, and the highest GDP per capita in purchasing power terms in Latin America. Sony VPCM13M1E/P Battery,Sony VPCM13M1E/W Battery

Argentina is one of the G-20 major economies, with the world's 27th largest nominal GDP, and the 22nd largest by purchasing power. The country is classified as upper-middle income or a secondary emerging market by the World Bank. Sony VAIO VGN-Z11MN/B Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-Z11VN/X Battery

History

Between 1860 and 1930, exploitation of the rich land of the pampas strongly pushed economic growth.[83] During the first three decades of the 20th century, Argentina outgrew Canada and Australia in population, total income, and per capita income.[83] Sony VAIO VGN-Z11WN/B Battery

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By 1913, Argentina was the world's 10th wealthiest nation per capita.[84]

Beginning in the 1930s, however, the Argentine economy deteriorated notably.[83] The single most important factor in this decline has been political instability since 1930, when a military junta took power, ending seven decades of civilian constitutional government.[85] Sony VAIO VGN-Z15 Battery

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Successive governments from the 1930s to the 1970s pursued a strategy of import substitution to achieve industrialself-sufficiency, but the government’s encouragement of industrial growth diverted investment from agricultural production, which fell dramatically.[86] Sony VAIO VGN-Z17 Battery

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The era of import substitution ended in 1976, but the same time growing government spending, large wage raises and inefficient production created a chronic inflation that rose through the 1980s.[86] The measures enacted in 1976 also produced a huge foreign debt by the late 1980s, which became equivalent to three-fourths of the GNP.[86] Sony VAIO VGN-Z19 Battery

In the early 1990s the government reined in inflation by making the peso equal in value to the U.S. dollar, and privatized numerous state-run companies, using part of the proceeds to reduce the national debt.[86] However, a sustained recession at the turn of the 20th to 21st century culminated in a default, and the government again devalued the peso.[86] Sony VAIO VGN-Z19N Battery

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By 2005, the economy had recovered: there was considerable GNP growth, renewed foreign investment, and a significant drop in the unemployment rate.[86]

Science and technology

Argentina has contributed many distinguished doctors, scientists and inventors to the world, including three Nobel Prize laureates in sciences. Sony VAIO VGN-Z21VN/X Battery

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Argentines have been responsible for major breakthroughs in world medicine; their research has led to significant advances in wound-healing therapies and in the treatment of heart disease and several forms of cancer. Domingo Liotta designed and developed the first artificial heart successfully implanted in a human being in 1969. Sony VAIO VGN-Z21XN Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-Z21ZN/X Battery

René Favaloro developed the techniques and performed the world's first ever coronary bypass surgery, and Francisco de Pedro invented a more reliable artificial cardiac pacemaker.

Bernardo Houssay, the first Latin American awarded with a Nobel Prize in the Sciences, discovered the role of pituitary hormones in regulating glucose in animals; Sony VAIO VGN-Z25 Battery

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César Milstein did extensive research in antibodies; Luis Leloirdiscovered how organisms store energy converting glucose into glycogen and the compounds which are fundamental in metabolizing carbohydrates. A team led byAlberto Taquini and Eduardo Braun-Menéndez discovered angiotensin in 1939, Sony VAIO VGN-Z25TN/B Battery

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and was the first to describe the enzymatic nature of therenin-angiotensin system and its role in hypertension.[87] The Leloir Institute of biotechnology is among the most prestigious in its field in Latin America and in the world.[88] Sony VAIO VGN-Z27 Battery

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Dr. Luis Agote devised the first safe method of blood transfusion, Enrique Finochietto designed operating table tools such as the surgical scissors that bear his name ("Finochietto scissors") and a surgical rib-spreader.[89] They have likewise contributed to bioscience in efforts like the Human Genome Project, where Argentine scientists have successfully mapped the genome of a living being, a world first.[90][91] Sony VAIO VGN-Z27TN/X Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-Z29N Battery

Argentina's nuclear program is highly advanced, having resulted in a research reactor in 1957 and Latin America's first on-line commercial reactor in 1974. Argentina developed its nuclear program without being overly dependent on foreign technology. Nuclear facilities with Argentine technology have been built in Peru, Algeria, Australia and Egypt. Sony VAIO VGN-Z29N/X Battery

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In 1983, the country admitted having the capability of producing weapon-grade uranium, a major step needed to assemble nuclear weapons; since then, however, Argentina has pledged to use nuclear power only for peaceful purposes.[92] As a member of the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Sony VAIO VGN-Z31VN/X Battery

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Argentina has been a strong voice in support of nuclear non-proliferation efforts[93] and is highly committed to global nuclear security.[94]

In other areas, Juan Vucetich, a Croatian immigrant, was the father of modern fingerprinting (dactiloscopy).[95] Sony VAIO VGN-Z31ZN/X Battery

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Raúl Pateras Pescara demonstrated the world's first flight of a helicopter, Hungarian-Argentine László Bíró mass-produced the first modern ball point pens and Eduardo Taurozzi developed the pendular combustion engine.[96] Juan Maldacena, an Argentine-American scientist, is a leading figure in string theory. Sony VAIO VGN-Z35/B Battery

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Argentine built satellites include LUSAT-1 (1990), Víctor-1 (1996), PEHUENSAT-1 (2007),[97]and those developed by CONAE, the Argentine space agency, of the SAC series.[98] The Pierre Auger Observatory near Malargüe, Mendoza, is the world's foremost cosmic ray observatory.[99] Sony VAIO VGN-Z36GD Battery

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