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28 août 2011 7 28 /08 /août /2011 05:15

Virginia

The Commonwealth of Virginia (i/v?r?d??nj?/) is a U.S. state on the Atlantic Coast of the Southern United States. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" and sometimes the "Mother of Presidents" after the eight U.S. presidents born there. HP Pavilion DV6-1120SL Battery

The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna. The capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond; Virginia Beach is the most populous city and Fairfax County the most populous political subdivision. The Commonwealth's population is over eight million.[2] HP Pavilion DV6-1120TX Battery

The area's history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established theColony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony. Slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colony's early politics and plantation economy. HP Pavilion DV6-1121TX Battery

Virginia was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution and joined the Confederacy in the American Civil War, during which Richmond was made the Confederate capital and Virginia's northwestern counties separated to form the state of West Virginia. Although the Commonwealth was conservative under white supremacy rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction and was historically part of the South, today both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia.[5] HP Pavilion DV6-1122TX Battery

The Virginia General Assembly is the oldest legislature in the Americas. The state government has been repeatedly ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States.[6] It is unique in how it treats cities and counties equally, manages local roads, and prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms. HP Pavilion DV6-1122US Battery

Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in theShenandoah Valley; federal agencies in Northern Virginia, including the headquarters of the Department of Defense and CIA; and military facilities in Hampton Roads, the site of the region's main seaport. Virginia's public schools and many colleges and universities have contributed to growing media and technology sectors. As a result, computer chips have become the state's leading export.[7] HP Pavilion DV6-1123EE Battery

Virginia has a total area of 42,774.2 square miles (110,784.7 km2), including 3,180.13 square miles (8,236.5 km2) of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area.[8] Virginia is bordered by Maryland and Washington, D.C. to the north and east; by the Atlantic Ocean to the east; by North Carolina and Tennessee to the south; by Kentucky to the west; and by West Virginiato the north and west. Virginia's boundary with Maryland and Washington, D.C. HP Pavilion DV6-1123TX Battery

extends to the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River.[9]The southern border is defined as the 36° 30? parallel north, though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes.[10] HP Pavilion DV6-1124CA Battery

Geology and terrain

The Chesapeake Bay separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia's Eastern Shore. The bay was formed following a meteoroid impact crater during the Eocene.[11] HP Pavilion DV6-1124TX Battery

Many of Virginia's rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock, York, and James, which create three peninsulas in the bay.[12][13]Geographically and geologically, Virginia is divided into five regions from east to west: Tidewater, Piedmont, Blue Ridge Mountains, Ridge and Valley, and Cumberland Plateau.[14] HP Pavilion DV6-1125EE Battery

The Tidewater is a coastal plain between the Atlantic coast and the fall line. It includes the Eastern Shore and major estuariesof Chesapeake Bay. The Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic.[15] The region, known for its heavy clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains.[16] HP Pavilion DV6-1125EF Battery

The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the chain of Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state, the tallest being Mount Rogersat 5,729 feet (1,746 m).[17] The Ridge and Valley region is west of the mountains, and includes the Great Appalachian Valley. HP Pavilion DV6-1125EL Battery

The region is carbonate rock based, and includes Massanutten Mountain.[18] The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountainsare in the south-west corner of Virginia, below the Allegheny Plateau. In this region rivers flow northwest, with a dendritic drainage system, into the Ohio River basin.[19] HP Pavilion DV6-1125EO Battery

The state's carbonate rock is filled with more than 4,000 caves, ten of which are open for tourism.[21] The Virginia seismic zone has not had a history of regular activity. Earthquakes are rarely above 4.5 on the Richter magnitude scale because Virginia is located away from the edges of the North American Plate. HP Pavilion DV6-1125ER Battery

The largest earthquake, at an estimated 5.9 magnitude, was in 1897 near Blacksburg.[22] Coal mining takes place in the three mountainous regions at 40 distinct coal beds near Mesozoic basins.[23]Other resources such as slate, kyanite, sand, and gravel are mined, with an annual value over $2 billion as of 2006.[24] HP Pavilion DV6-1125ET Battery

Climate

The climate of Virginia becomes increasingly warmer and more humid farther south and east.[25] Seasonal extremes vary from average lows of 26 °F (?3 °C) in January to average highs of 86 °F (30 °C) in July. The Atlantic ocean has a strong effect on eastern and southeastern coastal areas of the state. Influenced by the Gulf Stream, coastal weather is subject to hurricanes, most pronouncedly near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay.[26] HP Pavilion DV6-1125SF Battery

Virginia has an annual average of 35–45 days of thunderstorm activity, particularly in the western part of the state, and an average annual precipitation of 42.7 inches (1,085 mm).[26][27] Cold air masses arriving over the mountains in winter can lead to significant snowfalls, such as the Blizzard of 1996and winter storms of 2009–2010. HP Pavilion DV6-1125TX Battery

The interaction of these elements with the state's topography creates distinct microclimates in the Shenandoah Valley, the mountainous southwest, and the coastal plains.[28] Virginia averages seventornadoes annually, most F2 or lower on the Fujita scale.[29] HP Pavilion DV6-1126EL Battery

In recent years, the expansion of the southern suburbs of Washington, D.C. into Northern Virginia has introduced an urban heat island primarily caused by increased absorption of solar radiation in more densely populated areas.[30] In the American Lung Association's 2011 report, 11 counties received failing grades for air quality, with Fairfax County having the worst in the state, due to automobile pollution.[31][32] Haze in the mountains is caused in part by coal power plants.[33] HP Pavilion DV6-1126TX Battery

Flora and fauna

Forests cover 65% of the state, primarily with deciduous, broad leaf trees.[34] Lower altitudes are more likely to have small but dense stands of moisture-loving hemlocks and mosses in abundance, with hickory and oak in the Blue Ridge.[25] However since the early 1990s, Gypsy moth infestations have eroded the dominance of oak forests.[35] HP Pavilion DV6-1127CL Battery

Other common trees and plants include chestnut, maple, tulip poplar, mountain laurel, milkweed, daisies, and many species of ferns. The largest areas of wilderness are along the Atlantic coast and in the western mountains, where the largest populations of trillium wildflowers in North America are found.[25][36] HP Pavilion DV6-1127EL Battery

The Atlantic coast regions are host to flora commonly associated with the South Atlantic pine forests and lower Southeast Coastal Plain maritime flora, the latter found primarily in southeastern Virginia. HP Pavilion DV6-1127EE Battery

Mammals include White-tailed deer, black bear, beaver, bobcat, coyote, raccoon, skunk, groundhog, Virginia Opossum, gray fox, and eastern cottontail rabbit.[37] Birds include cardinals, barred owls, Carolina chickadees, Red-tailed Hawks, and Wild Turkeys. ThePeregrine Falcon was reintroduced into Shenandoah National Park in the mid-1990s.[38] HP Pavilion DV6-1127TX Battery

Walleye, brook trout, Roanoke bass, and blue catfish are among the 210 known species of freshwater fish.[39] Running brooks with rocky bottoms are often inhabited by a plentiful amounts of crayfish and salamanders.[25] The Chesapeake Bay is host to many species, including blue crabs, clams, oysters, and rockfish (also known as striped bass).[40] HP Pavilion DV6-1128TX Battery

Virginia has 30 National Park Service units, such as Great Falls Park and the Appalachian Trail, and one national park, theShenandoah National Park.[41] Shenandoah was established in 1935 and encompasses the scenic Skyline Drive. Almost 40% of the park's area (79,579 acres/322 km2) has been designated as wilderness under the National Wilderness Preservation System.[42] HP Pavilion DV6-1129TX Battery

Additionally, there are 34 Virginia state parks and 17 state forests, run by the Department of Conservation and Recreation and the Department of Forestry.[34][43] The Chesapeake Bay, while not a national park, is protected by both state and federal legislation, and the jointly run Chesapeake Bay Program which conducts restoration on the bay and its watershed. HP Pavilion DV6-1130EC Battery

The Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge extends into North Carolina.[44] The Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge marks the beginning of the Outer Banks which also extends into North Carolina. HP Pavilion DV6-1130EG Battery

Jamestown 2007 marked Virginia's quadricentennial year, celebrating 400 years since the establishment of the Jamestown Colony. The celebrations highlighted contributions from Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans, each which had a significant part in shaping Virginia's history. HP Pavilion DV6-1130EH Battery

Warfare, including among these groups, has also had an important role. Virginia was a focal point in conflicts from the French and Indian War, the American Revolution and the Civil War, to the Cold War and the War on Terrorism.[47] Stories about historic figures, such as those surrounding Pocahontas and John Smith, HP Pavilion DV6-1130EI Battery

George Washington's childhood, or the plantation elite in the slave society of the antebellum period, have also created potent myths of state history, and have served as rationales for Virginia's ideology.[48] The legacy of slavery in the state has also continued to affect the society's racial politics. HP Pavilion DV6-1130EK Battery

Colony

The first people are estimated to have arrived in Virginia over 12,000 years ago.[49] By 5,000 years ago more permanent settlements emerged, and farming began by 900 AD. By 1500, the Algonquian peoples had founded towns such as Werowocomoco in the Tidewater region, which they referred to as Tsenacommacah. HP Pavilion DV6-1130EL Battery

The other major language groups in the area were the Siouan to the west, and the Iroquoians, who included the Nottoway and Meherrin, to the north and south. After 1570, the Algonquians consolidated under Chief Powhatan in response to threats from these other groups on their trade network.[50] HP Pavilion DV6-1130EQ Battery

Powhatan controlled more than 30 smaller tribes and over 150 settlements, who shared a common Virginia Algonquian language. In 1607, the native Tidewater population was between 13,000 to 14,000.[51] HP Pavilion DV6-1130ES Battery

In 1583, Queen Elizabeth I of England granted Walter Raleigh a charter to explore and plant a colony north of Spanish Florida.[52] In 1584, Raleigh sent an expedition to the Atlantic coast of North America.[53] The name "Virginia" may have been suggested then by Raleigh or Elizabeth, perhaps noting her status as the "Virgin Queen", and may also be related to a native phrase, "Wingandacoa", or name, "Wingina".[54] HP Pavilion DV6-1130ET Battery

Initially the name applied to the entire coastal region from South Carolina to Maine, plus the island of Bermuda.[55] The London Company was incorporated as a joint stock company by the proprietary Charter of 1606, which granted land rights to this area. The Company financed the first permanent English settlement in the "New World", Jamestown. HP Pavilion DV6-1130SA Battery

Named for King James I, it was founded in May 1607 by Christopher Newport.[56] In 1619, colonists took greater control with an elected legislature called the House of Burgesses. With the bankruptcy of the London Company in 1624, the settlement was taken into royal authority as a British crown colony.[57] HP Pavilion DV6-1130TX Battery

Life in the colony was perilous, and many died during the "starving time" in 1609 and the Anglo-Powhatan Wars, including theIndian massacre of 1622, which fostered the colonists' negative view of all tribes.[58][59] By 1624, only 3,400 of the 6,000 early settlers had survived.[60] However, European demand for tobacco fueled the arrival of more settlers and servants.[61] HP Pavilion DV6-1131SA Battery

The headright systemtried to solve the labor shortage by providing colonists with land for each indentured servant they transported to Virginia.[62]African workers were first imported in 1619, and their slavery was codified after a 1654 lawsuit over the servantJohn Casor.[63] HP Pavilion DV6-1131TX Battery

Tensions between the working and ruling classes led to Bacon's Rebellion in 1676, by when current and former indentured servants made up as much as 80% of the population.[64] HP Pavilion DV6-1132TX Battery

Colonists appropriated land from Virginia Indians by force and treaty, including the Treaty of 1677, which made the signatory tribes tributary states. Williamsburg became the colonial capital in 1699, following the founding of The College of William & Mary in 1693.[65] HP Pavilion DV6-1132SA Battery

Statehood

The British Parliament's efforts to levy new taxes following the French and Indian War (1754–1763) were deeply unpopular in the colonies. In the House of Burgesses, opposition to taxation without representation was led by Patrick Henry and Richard Henry Lee, among others.[66] HP Pavilion DV6-1133EG Battery

Virginians began to coordinate their actions with other colonies in 1773, and sent delegates to the Continental Congress the following year.[67] After the House of Burgesses was dissolved by the royal governor in 1774, Virginia's revolutionary leaders continued to govern via the Virginia Conventions. HP Pavilion DV6-1133ET Battery

On May 15, 1776, the Convention declared Virginia's independence from the British Empire and adopted George Mason's Virginia Declaration of Rights, which was then included in a new constitution.[68]Another Virginian, Thomas Jefferson, drew upon Mason's work in drafting the national Declaration of Independence.[69] HP Pavilion DV6-1133SA Battery

When the American Revolutionary War began, George Washington, who had commanded Virginia's forces in the French and Indian War, was selected to head the colonial army. During the war, the capital was moved to Richmond at the urging of Governor Thomas Jefferson, who feared that Williamsburg's location would make it vulnerable to British attack.[70] HP Pavilion DV6-1133TX Battery

In 1781, the combined action of Continental and French land and naval forces trapped the British army on the Virginia Peninsula, where troops under George Washington and Comte de Rochambeau defeated British General Cornwallis in the Siege of Yorktown. His surrender on October 19, 1781, led to peace negotiations in Paris and secured the independence of the colonies.[71] HP Pavilion DV6-1134CA Battery

Virginians were instrumental in writing the United States Constitution. James Madison drafted the Virginia Plan in 1787 and the Bill of Rights in 1789.[69] Virginia ratified the Constitution on June 25, 1788. The three-fifths compromise ensured that Virginia, with its large number of slaves, initially had the largest bloc in the House of Representatives. HP Pavilion DV6-1134TX Battery

Together with the Virginia dynasty of presidents, this gave the Commonwealth national importance. In 1790, both Virginia and Maryland ceded territory to form the new District of Columbia, though the Virginian area was retroceded in 1846.[72] Virginia is sometimes called "Mother of States" because of its role in being carved into states like Kentucky, which became the 15th state in 1792, and for the numbers of American pioneers born in Virginia.[73] HP Pavilion DV6-1135EI Battery

Civil War and aftermath

In addition to agriculture, slave labor was increasingly used in mining, shipbuilding and other industries.[74] Nat Turner's slave rebellion in 1831 and John Brown's Raid on Harpers Ferry in 1859 showed deep social discontent about slavery and its role in theplantation economy. By 1860, almost half a million people, roughly 31% of the total population of Virginia, were enslaved.[75]This division contributed to the start of the American Civil War. HP Pavilion DV6-1135EK Battery

Virginia voted to secede from the United States on April 17, 1861, after the Battle of Fort Sumter and Abraham Lincoln's call for volunteers. On April 24, Virginia joined the Confederate States of America, which chose Richmond as its capital.[73] After the 1863 Wheeling Convention, HP Pavilion DV6-1135ET Battery

48 counties in the northwest separated to form a new state of West Virginia, which chose to remain loyal to the Union. During the war, more battles were fought in Virginia than anywhere else, including Bull Run, the Seven Days Battles, Chancellorsville, and the concluding Battle of Appomattox Court House.[76] HP Pavilion DV6-1135TX Battery

After the capture of Richmond in 1865, the capital was briefly moved to Danville.[77] Virginia was formally restored to the United States in 1870, due to the work of the Committee of Nine.[78] HP Pavilion DV6-1135EZ Battery

During the post-war Reconstruction era, Virginia adopted a constitution which provided for free public schools, and guaranteed political, civil, and voting rights.[79] The populist Readjuster Party ran an inclusive coalition until the conservative white Democratic Party gained power after 1883.[80] HP Pavilion DV6-1136TX Battery

It passed segregationist Jim Crow laws and in 1902 rewrote the Constitution of Virginia to include a poll tax and other voter registration measures that effectively disfranchisedmost African Americans and many poor whites until passage of federal legislation in the 1960s.[81] Though their schools were segregated and underfunded, as were services, due to a lack of political representation, African Americans were able to create their own communities.[82] HP Pavilion DV6-1138CA Battery

Contemporary era

Protests started by Barbara Rose Johns in 1951 in Farmville against segregated schools led to the lawsuit Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County. This case, filed by Richmond natives Spottswood Robinson and Oliver Hill, was decided in 1954 with Brown v. Board of Education, which rejected the segregationist doctrine of "separate but equal". HP Pavilion DV6-1140EA Battery

However in 1958, under the policy of "massive resistance" spearheaded by the influential segregationist Senator Harry F. Byrd and his Byrd Organization, the Commonwealth prohibited desegregated local schools from receiving funding.[83] HP Pavilion DV6-1140EC Battery

The Civil Rights Movement gained many participants in the 1960s and achieved the moral force to gain national legislation for protection of suffrage and civil rights for African Americans. In 1964 the United States Supreme Court ordered Prince Edward Countyand others to integrate schools.[84] HP Pavilion DV6-1140ED Battery

In 1967, the Court also struck down the state's ban on interracial marriage. From 1969 to 1971, state legislators under Governor Mills Godwin rewrote the constitution, after goals such as the repeal of Jim Crow law shad been achieved. In 1989, Douglas Wilder became the first African American elected as governor in the United States.[85] HP Pavilion DV6-1140EF Battery

New economic forces also changed the Commonwealth. In 1926, Dr. W.A.R. Goodwin, rector of Williamsburg's Bruton Parish Church, began restoration of colonial-era buildings in the historic district with financial backing of John D. Rockefeller, Jr.; their work led to the development of Colonial Williamsburg, the state's most popular tourism site.[86] HP Pavilion DV6-1140EG Battery

World War II and the Cold War led to massive expansion of national government programs housed in offices in Northern Virginia near Washington, D.C., and correlative population growth.[87] Among the federal developments was the Pentagon, which was later targeted in the September 11 attacks, during which 189 people died.[88] HP Pavilion DV6-1140EI Battery

Cities and towns

Virginia is divided into 95 counties and 39 independent cities, which both operate the same way since independent cities are considered to be county-equivalent.[89] This method of treating cities and counties equally is unique to Virginia, with only three other independent cities in the United States outside Virginia.[90] HP Pavilion DV6-1140EJ Battery

Virginia limits the authority of cities and counties to countermand laws expressly allowed by the Virginia General Assembly under what is known as Dillon's Rule.[91] In addition to independent cities, there are also incorporated towns which operate under their own governments, but are part of a county. HP Pavilion DV6-1140EK Battery

Finally there are hundreds of unincorporated communities within the counties. Virginia does not have any further political subdivisions, such as villages or townships.

Virginia has 11 Metropolitan Statistical Areas; Northern Virginia, Hampton Roads, and Richmond-Petersburg are the three most populous. Richmond is the capital of Virginia, and its metropolitan area has a population of over 1.2 million.[92] HP Pavilion DV6-1140EL Battery

As of 2010,Virginia Beach is the most populous city in the Commonwealth, with Norfolk and Chesapeake second and third, respectively.[93]Norfolk forms the urban core of the Hampton Roads metropolitan area, which has a population over 1.6 million people and is the site of the world's largest naval base, Naval Station Norfolk.[92][94] Suffolk, which includes a portion of the Great Dismal Swamp, is the largest city by area at 429.1 square miles (1,111 km2).[95] HP Pavilion DV6-1140EO Battery

Fairfax County is the most populous locality in Virginia, with over one million residents, although that does not include its county seat Fairfax, which is one of the independent cities.[96] Fairfax County has a major urban business and shopping center in Tysons Corner, Virginia's largest office market.[97] HP Pavilion DV6-1140EQ Battery

Neighboring Loudoun County, with the county seat at Leesburg, is both the fastest-growing county in Virginia and has the highest median household income ($114,204) in the country as of 2010.[98] Arlington County, the smallest self-governing county in the United States by land area, is an urban community organized as a county.[99]The Roanoke area, with an estimated population of 300,399, is the largest Metropolitan Statistical Area in western Virginia.[100] HP Pavilion DV6-1140ES Battery

Demographics

As of 2010, Virginia had a population of 8,001,024 which is an increase of 118,434, or about 1.5%, from the prior year's estimate and an increase of 922,509, or 13%, since 2000.[2] This includes an increase from net migration of 314,832 people into the Commonwealth. HP Pavilion DV6-1140ET Battery

Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 159,627 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 155,205 people.[101] The center of population is located in Goochland County outside of Richmond.[102] HP Pavilion DV6-1140EZ Battery

English was passed as the Commonwealth's official language by statutes in 1981 and again in 1996, though the status is not mandated by the Constitution of Virginia.[103] English is the only language spoken by 6,245,517 (86.7%) Virginians, though it is spoken "very well" by an additional 570,638 (7.9%) for a total of 94.6% of the Commonwealth. HP Pavilion DV6-1145EG Battery

Among speakers of other languages, Spanish is the most common with 424,381 (5.9%).226,911 (3.2%) speak Asian and Pacific Islander languages, including Korean, Vietnamese, and Filipino.[104] HP Pavilion DV6-1148CA Battery

Ethnicity

As of 2000, the five largest reported ancestry groups in Virginia are: African (19.6%), German (11.7%), unspecified American (11.4%),English (11.1%), and Irish (9.8%).[105] People of English heritage settled throughout the Commonwealth during the colonial period, and others of British and Irish heritage have since immigrated.[106] HP Pavilion DV6-1149EG Battery

Those who self-identify as having "American" ancestry are predominantly of English descent, but have ancestry that has been in North America for so long that they choose to identify simply as American.[107][108] Of the English immigrants to Virginia in the 1600s, 75% came as indentured servants.[109] HP Pavilion DV6-1149ET Battery

The western mountains have many settlements that were founded by Scotch-Irish immigrants before the American Revolution.[110]There are also sizable numbers of people of German descent in the northwestern mountains and Shenandoah Valley.[111] HP Pavilion DV6-1150EC Battery

Most African American Virginians have been descendants of enslaved Africans who worked on tobacco, cotton, and hempplantations. These men, women and children were brought from west-central Africa, HP Pavilion DV6-1150ED Battery

primarily from Angola and the Bight of Biafra. The Igbo ethnic group of what is now southern Nigeria were the single largest African group among slaves in Virginia.[112][113]Though the black population was reduced by the Great Migration, since 1965 there has been a reverse migration of blacks returning south.[114] HP Pavilion DV6-1150EI Battery

More recent immigration in the late 20th century and early 21st century has fueled new communities of Hispanics, particularly Central Americans, and Asians. As of 2010, 7.9% of Virginians are Hispanic, 5.5% are Asian, and 0.9% are American Indian/Alaska Native/Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander. HP Pavilion DV6-1150EL Battery

The state's Hispanic population rose by 92% from 2000 to 2010, with two-thirds of Hispanics living in Northern Virginia.[115]Hispanics in Virginia have higher median household incomes and educational attainment than the general United States or Virginia population.[116] HP Pavilion DV6-1155EI Battery

Northern Virginia has some of the largest populations nationwide of Vietnamese Americans, whose major wave of immigration followed the Vietnam War, and Korean Americans, whose migration has been more recent and was induced in part by the quality school system.[117][118] HP Pavilion DV6-1157EZ Battery

The Filipino American community has about 45,000 in the Hampton Roads area, many of whom have ties to the U.S. Navy and armed forces.[119] Virginia has extended state recognition to eight Native American tribes resident in the state, though all lack federal recognition status. Most Native American groups are located in the Tidewater region. HP Pavilion DV6-1160ED Battery

Religion

Virginia is predominantly Christian and Protestant; Baptists are the largest single group with 27% of the population as of 2008.[121]Baptist denominational groups in Virginia include the Baptist General Association of Virginia, with about 1,400 member churches, which supports both the Southern Baptist Convention and the moderate Cooperative Baptist Fellowship; HP Pavilion DV6-1160EG Battery

and the Southern Baptist Conservatives of Virginia with more than 500 affiliated churches, which supports the Southern Baptist Convention.[122][123]Roman Catholics are the second-largest religious group, and the group which grew the most in the 1990s.[124][125] The Roman Catholic Diocese of Arlington includes most of Northern Virginia's Catholic churches, while the Diocese of Richmond covers the rest. HP Pavilion DV6-1160EI Battery

The Virginia Conference is the regional body of the United Methodist Church and the Virginia Synod is responsible for the congregations of the Lutheran Church. Presbyterians, Pentecostals,Congregationalists, and Episcopalians each composed 1–3% of the population as of 2001.[126] TheEpiscopal Diocese of Virginia, Southern Virginia, and Southwestern Virginia support the variousEpiscopal churches. HP Pavilion DV6-1160EJ Battery

In November 2006, 15 conservative Episcopal churches voted to split from the Diocese of Virginia over the ordination of openly gay bishops and clergy in other dioceses of the Episcopal Church; HP Pavilion DV6-1160EN Battery

these churches continue to claim affiliation with the larger Anglican Communion through other bodies outside the United States. Though Virginia law allows parishioners to determine their church's affiliation, the diocese claims the secessionist churches' properties. The resulting property law case is a test for Episcopal churches nationwide.[127] HP Pavilion DV6-1170ED Battery

Among other religions, adherents of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints constitute 1% of the population, with 190congregations in Virginia as of 2010.[128] Fairfax Station is the site of the Ekoji Buddhist Temple, of the Jodo Shinshu school, and the Hindu Durga Temple. HP Pavilion DV6-1170EG Battery

While the state's Jewish population is small, organized Jewish sites date to 1789 with Congregation Beth Ahabah.[129] Muslims are a growing religious group throughout the Commonwealth through immigration.[130] Megachurches in the Commonwealth include Thomas Road Baptist Church, Immanuel Bible Church, and McLean Bible Church.[131] Several Christian universities are also based in the state, including Regent University, Liberty University, and Lynchburg College. HP Pavilion DV6-1170EO Battery

Economy

Virginia's economy is balanced, with diverse sources of income, including government and military, farming, and business. Virginia has 4.1 million civilian workers, and one-third of the jobs are in the service sector.[133][134] The unemployment rate was 6.3% as of April 2011.[135] HP Pavilion DV6-1170ES Battery

The Gross Domestic Product of Virginia was $363 billion in 2009.[136] According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, Virginia had the most counties in the top 100 wealthiest in the United States based upon median income in 2007.[137] HP Pavilion DV6-1180ED Battery

Virginia has the highest concentration of technology workers of any state.[138] Computer chips became the state's highest-grossing export in 2006, surpassing its traditional top exports of coal and tobacco combined.[7] Northern Virginia, once considered the state's dairy capital, now hosts software, communication technology, and consulting companies, particularly in the Dulles Technology Corridor. HP Pavilion DV6-1180EJ Battery

Northern Virginia's data centers currently carry more than 50% of the nation's internet traffic, and by 2012Dominion Power expects that 10% of all its electricity in Northern Virginia will be used by data centers.[139] Loudounand Fairfaxcounties in Northern Virginia have the highest and second highest median household income, respectively, of all counties in the United States as of 2011.[98] HP Pavilion DV6-1180EO Battery

Virginia companies received the fourth-highest amount of venture capital funding in the first half of 2011 after California,Massachusetts, and New York.[140] In 2009, Forbes Magazine named Virginia the best state in the nation for business for the fourth year in a row,[141] while CNBCnamed it the top state for business in 2007, 2009, and 2011.[142] Virginia has 20 Fortune 500 companies, ranking the state eighth nationwide.[143] HP Pavilion DV6-1180ES Battery

Virginia has the highest defense spending of any state per capita, providing the Commonwealth with around 900,000 jobs, and 10% of all U.S. federal procurement money is spent in Virginia.[144][145] Virginia has over 800,000 veterans, more than any other state, and is second to California in total Department of Defense employees.[145][146] Many Virginians work for federal agencies in Northern Virginia, HP Pavilion DV6-1185EO Battery

which include the Central Intelligence Agency and the Department of Defense, as well as the National Science Foundation, the United States Geological Survey and the United States Patent and Trademark Office. Many others work for government contractors, including defense and security firms, which hold more than 15,000 federal contracts.[147] HP Pavilion DV6-1190EG Battery

The Hampton Roads area has the largest concentration of military bases and facilities of any metropolitan area in the world. The largest of the bases is Naval Station Norfolk.[94] HP Pavilion DV6-1190EN Battery

Agriculture occupies 24% of the land in Virginia. As of 2007, about 357,000 Virginian jobs were in agriculture, with over 47,000 farms, averaging 171 acres (0.27 sq mi; 0.69 km2), in a total farmland area of 8.1 million acres (12,656 sq mi; 32,780 km2). Though agriculture has declined significantly since 1960 when there were twice as many farms, it remains the largest single industry in Virginia.[148] HP Pavilion DV6-1190EO Battery

Tomatoes surpassed soy as the most profitable crop in Virginia in 2006, with peanuts and hay as other agricultural products.[149]Although it is no longer the primary crop, Virginia is still the fifth-largest producer of tobacco nationwide.[150] HP Pavilion DV6-1199EE Battery

Eastern oyster harvests are an important part of the Chesapeake Bay economy, but declining oyster populations from disease, pollution, and overfishing have diminished catches.[151] Wineries and vineyards in the Northern Neck and along the Blue Ridge Mountains also have begun to generate income and attract tourists.[152] HP Pavilion DV6-1199EG Battery

Virginia collects personal income tax in five income brackets, ranging from 3.0% to 5.75%. The state sales and use tax rate is 4%, while the tax rate on food is 1.5%. There is an additional 1% local tax, for a total of a 5% combined sales tax on most Virginia purchases and 2.5% on most food.[153] HP Pavilion DV6-1200EH Battery

Virginia's property tax is set and collected at the local government level and varies throughout the Commonwealth. Real estate is also taxed at the local level based on 100% of fair market value. Tangible personal property also is taxed at the local level and is based on a percentage or percentages of original cost.[154] HP Pavilion DV6-1200SH Battery

Culture

Virginia's historic culture was popularized and spread across America and the South by figures such as George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Robert E. Lee. Their homes in Virginia represent the birthplace of America and the South. Modern Virginia culture has many sources, and is part of the culture of the Southern United States.[155][156] The Smithsonian Institution divides Virginia into nine cultural regions.[157] HP Pavilion DV6-1200SL Battery

The Piedmont region is one of the most famous for its dialect's strong influence on Southern American English. While a more homogenized American English is found in urban areas, various accents are also used, including theTidewater accent, the Old Virginia accent, and the anachronistic Elizabethan of Tangier Island.[158][159] HP Pavilion DV6-1200SQ Battery

Literature in Virginia often deals with the state's extensive and sometimes troubled past. The works of Pulitzer Prize winnerEllen Glasgow often dealt with social inequalities and the role of women in her culture.[160] Glasgow's peer and close friendJames Branch Cabell wrote extensively about the changing position of gentry in the Reconstruction era, and challenged its moral code with Jurgen, A Comedy of Justice.[161] HP Pavilion DV6-1201AU Battery

William Styron approached history in works such as The Confessions of Nat Turner andSophie's Choice.[162] Tom Wolfe has occasionally dealt with his southern heritage in bestsellers like I Am Charlotte Simmons.[163]Virginia also names a state Poet Laureate, currently Kelly Cherry of Halifax County, who will serve until 2012.[164] HP Pavilion DV6-1201AX Battery

Besides the general cuisine of the Southern United States, Virginia maintains its own particular traditions. Virginia wine is made in many parts of the state.[152]Smithfield ham, sometimes called "Virginia ham", is a type of country ham which is protected by state law, and can only be produced in the town of Smithfield.[165] HP Pavilion DV6-1201TX Battery

Virginia furniture and architecture are typical of American colonial architecture. Thomas Jefferson and many of the state's early leaders favored the Neoclassical architecture style, leading to its use for important state buildings. The Pennsylvania Dutch and their style can also be found in parts of the state.[111] HP Pavilion DV6-1202AU Battery

Fine and performing arts

Though rich in cultural heritage, Virginia ranks near the bottom of U.S. states in terms of public spending on the arts, at nearly half of the national average.[166] The state government does fund some institutions, including the Virginia Museum of Fine Artsand the Science Museum of Virginia. HP Pavilion DV6-1202AX Battery

Other museums include the popular Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center of the National Air and Space Museum and the Chrysler Museum of Art.[167] Besides these sites, many open-air museums are located in the Commonwealth, such asColonial Williamsburg, the Frontier Culture Museum, and various historic battlefields.[168] The Virginia Foundation for the Humanities works to improve the Commonwealth's civic, cultural, and intellectual life.[169] HP Pavilion DV6-1202TU Battery

Theaters and venues in the Commonwealth are found both in the cities and suburbs. Wolf Trap National Park for the Performing Artsis located in Vienna and is the only national park intended for use as a performing arts center.[170] The Harrison Opera House, inNorfolk, is home of the Virginia Opera. The Virginia Symphony Orchestra operates in and around Hampton Roads.[171HP Pavilion DV6-1202TX Battery

Resident and touring theater troupes operate from the American Shakespeare Center in Staunton.[172] The Barter Theatre in Abingdon won the first ever Regional Theatre Tony Award in 1948, while the Signature Theatre in Arlington won it in 2009. There's also a Children's Theater of Virginia, HP Pavilion DV6-1203AU Battery

Theatre IV, which is the second largest touring troupe nationwide.[173] Virginia has launched many award-winning traditional musical artists and internationally successful popular music acts, as well as Hollywood actors.[1] Notable performance venues include The Birchmere, the Landmark Theater, and Jiffy Lube Live.[174] HP Pavilion DV6-1203AX Battery

Many counties and localities host county fairs and festivals. The Virginia State Fair is held at the Meadow Event Park every September. Also in September is the Neptune Festival in Virginia Beach, which celebrates the city, the waterfront, and regional artists. HP Pavilion DV6-1203EE Battery

Norfolk's Harbor fest, in June, features boat racing and air shows.[175] Fairfax County also sponsors Celebrate Fairfax! with popular and traditional music performances.[176] The Virginia Lake Festival is held during the third weekend in July in Clarksville.[177] Wolf Trap hosts the Wolf Trap Opera Company, which produces an opera festival every summer.[170] HP Pavilion DV6-1203TU Battery

On the Eastern Shore island of Chincoteague the annual Pony Swim & Auction of feral Chincoteague ponies at the end of July is a unique local tradition expanded into a week-long carnival. The Shenandoah Apple Blossom Festival is a six-day festival held annually in Winchester that includes parades and bluegrass concerts. HP Pavilion DV6-1203TX Battery

The Old Time Fiddlers' Convention in Galax, begun in 1935, is one of the oldest and largest such events worldwide. Two important film festivals, the Virginia Film Festival and the VCU French Film Festival, are held annually in Charlottesville and Richmond, respectively.[175] HP Pavilion DV6-1204AU Battery

Media

The Hampton Roads area is the 43rd-largest media market in the United States as ranked by Nielsen Media Research, while theRichmond-Petersburg area is 57th and Roanoke-Lynchburg is 66th as of 2010.[178] Northern Virginia is part of the much larger Washington, D.C. media market. HP Pavilion DV6-1204AX Battery

There are 36 television stations in Virginia, representing each major U.S. network, part of 42 stations which serve Virginia viewers.[179] More than 720 FCC-licensed FM radio stations broadcast in Virginia, with about 300 such AM stations.[180][181] The nationally available Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is headquartered in Arlington. HP Pavilion DV6-1204TX Battery

The Arlington PBS member station WETA-TVproduces programs such as the PBS NewsHour and Washington Week. Commonwealth Public Broadcasting Corporation, which produces MHz Networks, is a non-profit corporation which owns PBS-affiliated TV and NPR-affiliated radio stations in Richmond and Charlottesville, along with 2 MHz affiliated TV stations in Northern Virginia.[182] HP Pavilion DV6-1205EE Battery

The most circulated native newspapers in the Commonwealth are Norfolk's The Virginian-Pilot (156,968 daily subscribers), theRichmond Times-Dispatch (118,489), The Roanoke Times (75,740), and Newport News' Daily Press (63,366), as of 2010.[183]SeveralWashington, D.C. papers are based in Northern Virginia, such as The Washington Examiner and Politico. LION DV6-1205ER laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/hp-pavilion-dv6-1205er-battery-14535.htm">HP Pavilion DV6-1205ER Battery

The paper with the nation's widest circulation, USA Today, with 1.83 million daily subscriptions, is headquartered in McLean.[184]Besides traditional forms of media, Virginia is the home base for telecommunication companies such as Voxant and XO Communications. In Northern Virginia, The Washington Post is the dominant newspaper, since Northern VA is located in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. HP Pavilion DV6-1205SF Battery

Education

Virginia's educational system consistently ranks in the top ten states on the U.S. Department of Education's National Assessment of Educational Progress, with Virginia students outperforming the average in all subject areas and grade levels tested.[186] The 2011 Quality Counts report ranked Virginia's K–12 education fourth best in the country.[187] HP Pavilion DV6-1205SG Battery

All school divisions must adhere to educational standards set forth by the Virginia Department of Education, which maintains an assessment and accreditation regime known as the Standards of Learning to ensure accountability.[188] In 2010, 85% of high school students graduated on-time after four years.[189] Between 2000 and 2008, school enrollment increased 5%, the number of teachers 21%.[190] HP Pavilion DV6-1205SL Battery

Public K–12 schools in Virginia are generally operated by the counties and cities, and not by the state. As of April 2011, a total of 1,267,063 students were enrolled in 1,873 local and regional schools in the Commonwealth, including three charter schools, and an additional 109 alternative and special education centers across 132 school divisions.[191][192] HP Pavilion DV6-1205TX Battery

Besides the general public schools in Virginia, there are Governor's Schools and selective magnet schools. The Governor's Schools are a collection of more than 40 regional high schools and summer programs intended for gifted students.[193] The Virginia Council for Private Education oversees the regulation of 320 state accredited and 130 non-accredited private schools.[194][195] An additional 24,682 students receive homeschooling.[196] HP Pavilion DV6-1206AU Battery

As of 2011, there are 176 colleges and universities in Virginia.[197] In the U.S. News and World Report ranking of public colleges, the University of Virginia is second and The College of William & Mary is sixth.[198][199] Virginia Commonwealth University is ranked the top public graduate school in fine arts, while James Madison University has been recognized as the top regional public master's program in The South since 1993.[200][201] HP Pavilion DV6-1206TX Battery

The Virginia Military Institute is the oldest state military college and a top ranked public liberal arts college.[202][203] George Mason University is the largest university in Virginia with over 32,000 students.[204] Virginia Tech and Virginia State University are the state's land-grant universities. HP Pavilion DV6-1207AU Battery

Virginia also operates 23 community colleges on 40 campuses serving over 260,000 students.[205] There are 129 private institutions, including Washington and Lee University, Hampden–Sydney College, Emory & Henry College, Roanoke College, and the University of Richmond.[197] HP Pavilion DV6-1207AX Battery

Virginia has a mixed health record, and is ranked as the 22nd overall healthiest state according to the 2010 United Health Foundation's Health Rankings.[206] Virginia also ranks 21st among the states in the rate of premature deaths, 7,104 per 100,000. In 2008, Virginia reached its lowest ever rate of infant mortality, at 6.7 deaths per 1,000.[207] HP Pavilion DV6-1207SF Battery

There are however racial and social health disparities, with African Americans experiencing 27.9% more premature deaths than whites, while 12.7% of Virginians lack any health insurance.[206] According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2009 survey, 25.5% of Virginians are obese and another 35.1% are overweight. HP Pavilion DV6-1207TX Battery

78.1% of residents claim to have exercised once in the past three months.[208][209] About 30% of Virginia's 10- to 17-year-olds are overweight or obese.[210] Virginia banned smoking in bars and restaurants in January 2010.[211] 19% of Virginians smoke tobacco.[206] HP Pavilion DV6-1208CA Battery

There are 89 hospitals in Virginia listed with the United States Department of Health and Human Services.[212] Notable examples include Inova Fairfax Hospital, the largest hospital in the Washington Metropolitan Area, and the VCU Medical Center, located on the medical campus of Virginia Commonwealth University. HP Pavilion DV6-1210EE Battery

The University of Virginia Medical Center, part of the University of Virginia Health System, is highly ranked in endocrinology according to U.S.News & World Report.[213] Sentara Norfolk General Hospital, part of the Hampton Roads based Sentara Health System and a teaching institution of Eastern Virginia Medical School, was the site of the first successfulin-vitro fertilization birth.[214][215] HP Pavilion DV6-1210EG Battery

Virginia has a ratio of 124 primary care physicians per 10,000 residents, which is the 13th highest nationally.[206] Virginia was one of five states to receive a perfect score in disaster preparedness according to a 2008 report by the Trust for America's Health, based on criteria such as detecting pathogens and distributing vaccines and medical supplies.[216] HP Pavilion DV6-1210EK Battery

Transportation

Because of the 1932 Byrd Road Act, the state government controls most of Virginia's roads, instead of a local county authority as is usual in other states.[217] As of 2011, the Virginia Department of Transportation owns and operates 57,867 miles (93,128 km) of the total 70,105 miles (112,823 km) of roads in the state, HP Pavilion DV6-1210ER Battery

making it the third largest state highway system in the United States.[218]Although the Washington Metropolitan Area, which includes Northern Virginia, has the second worst traffic in the nation, Virginia as a whole has the 21st-lowest congestion and the average commute time is 26.9 minutes.[219][220] HP Pavilion DV6-1210ES Battery

Virginia has Amtrak passenger rail service along several corridors, and Virginia Railway Express (VRE) maintains two commuter lines into Washington, D.C. from Fredericksburg and Manassas. HP Pavilion DV6-1210ET Battery

VRE is one of the nation's fastest growing commuter rail services, handling nearly 20,000 passengers a day.[221] The Washington Metro rapid transit system serves Northern Virginia as far west as communities along I-66 in Fairfax County, with expansion plans to reach Tysons Corner by 2013, and Loudoun County by 2017.[222] HP Pavilion DV6-1210EW Battery

Major freight railroads in Virginia include Norfolk Southern and CSX Transportation. Commuter buses include the Fairfax Connector and the Shenandoah Valley Commuter Bus. The Virginia Department of Transportation operates several free ferries throughout Virginia, the most notable being the Jamestown-Scotland ferry which crosses the James River in Surry County.[223] HP Pavilion DV6-1210EZ Battery

Virginia has five major airports: Washington Dulles International handling over 23 million passengers a year, Reagan Washington National, Norfolk Internationalserving the Hampton Roads area, Richmond International, and Newport News/Williamsburg International Airport. Several other airports, for exampleCharlottesville/Albemarle Airport (CHO), offer limited commercial passenger service. HP Pavilion DV6-1210SA Battery

Sixty-six public airports serve the state's aviation needs.[224] The Virginia Port Authority's main seaports are those in Hampton Roads, which carried 17,726,251 short tons (16,080,984 t) of bulk cargo in 2007, the sixth most of United States ports.[225] HP Pavilion DV6-1210SB Battery

The Eastern Shore of Virginia is the site of Wallops Flight Facility, a rocket testing center owned by NASA, and the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport, a commercial spaceport.[226][227] Space tourism is also offered through Vienna-based Space Adventures.[228] HP Pavilion DV6-1210SF Battery

In colonial Virginia, free men elected the lower house of the legislature, called the House of Burgesses, which together with the Governor's Council, made the "General Assembly". Founded in 1619, the Virginia General Assembly is still in existence as the oldest legislature in the Western Hemisphere.[229] HP Pavilion DV6-1210SL Battery

The modern government is ranked by the Pew Center on the States with an A? in terms of its efficiency, effectiveness, and infrastructure. This is the second time Virginia received the highest grade in the nation, which it shares with two others.[6] HP Pavilion DV6-1210SR Battery

Since 1971, the government has functioned under the seventh Constitution of Virginia, which provides for a strong legislature and a unified judicial system. Similar to the federal structure, the government is divided in three branches: legislative, executive, and judicial. HP Pavilion DV6-1210SV Battery

The legislature is the General Assembly, a bicameral body whose 100-member House of Delegates and 40-member Senate write the laws for the Commonwealth. The Assembly is stronger than the executive, as it selects judges and justices. The Governor and Lieutenant Governor are elected every four years in separate elections. HP Pavilion DV6-1210TX Battery

Incumbent governors cannot run for re-election, however the Lieutenant Governor and Attorney General can, and governors may serve non-consecutive terms.[230] The judicial system, the oldest in America, consists of a hierarchy from the Supreme Court of Virginia and the Court of Appeals of Virginiato the lower general district and circuit courts.[231] HP Pavilion DV6-1211AX Battery

The Code of Virginia is the statutory law, and consists of the codified legislation of the General Assembly. The Virginia State Police is the largest law enforcement agency in Virginia. The Virginia Capitol Police is the oldest police department in the United States.[232]HP Pavilion DV6-1211ER Battery

The Virginia National Guard consists of 7,500 soldiers in the Virginia Army National Guard and 1,200 airmen in the Virginia Air National Guard.[233] Since the resumption of capital punishment in Virginia in 1982, 107 people have been executed, the second highest number in the nation.[234] HP Pavilion DV6-1211SG Battery

The "total crime risk" is 28% lower than the national average.[235] Since Virginia ended prisoner parole in 1995, the rate of recidivism has fallen to 28.3%, among the lowest nationwide.[236] HP Pavilion DV6-1211SA Battery

Politics

Over the 20th century, Virginia shifted from a largely rural, politically Southern and conservative state to a more urbanized, pluralistic, and politically moderate environment. Up until the 1970s, Virginia was a racially divided single-party state dominated by the Byrd Organization.[237] HP Pavilion DV6-1211TX Battery

African Americans were effectively disfranchised until after passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-1960s.[238]Enfranchisement and immigration of other groups, especially Hispanics, have placed growing importance on minority voting.[239]Regional differences play a large part in Virginia politics.[240] HP Pavilion DV6-1212SL Battery

Rural southern and western areas moved to support the Republican Party in response to its "southern strategy", while urban and growing suburban areas, including much of Northern Virginia, form the Democratic Partybase.[241][242] Democratic support also persists in union-influenced parts of Southwest Virginia, college towns such as Charlottesville and Blacksburg, and the southeastern Black Belt Region.[243] HP Pavilion DV6-1212TX Battery

Political party strength in Virginia has likewise been in flux. In the 2007 state elections, Democrats regained control of theState Senate, and narrowed the Republican majority in the House of Delegates to eight seats.[244] HP Pavilion DV6-1213AX Battery

Yet elections in 2009 resulted in the election of Republican Robert McDonnell as governor by a 17 point margin, the election of a Republican Lieutenant Governor and Attorney General, as well as Republican gains of six seats in the House of Delegates.[245] State election seasons traditionally start with the annual Shad Planking event in Wakefield.[246] HP Pavilion DV6-1213TX Battery

In federal elections since 2006, both parties have seen success. In the 2006 Senate election, Democrat Jim Webb won on a populistplatform over the Republican incumbent following a very close race.[247] The party took both U.S. Senate seats with the electionof former Governor Mark Warner to replace retiring Republican John Warner.[248] HP Pavilion DV6-1214AX Battery

Virginia, which has 13 electoral votes, was won by Democrat Barack Obama in 2008, after being won by Republican candidates in the previous ten presidential elections.[249] In the2010 elections, Republicans picked up three House seats from Democrats. Of the state's 11 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives, Republicans hold eight and Democrats hold three. Virginia may be considered a "swing state" in future presidential elections.[5] HP Pavilion DV6-1214SL Battery

Sports

Virginia is the most populous U.S. state without a major professional sports league franchise.[251] The reasons for this include the lack of any dominant city or market within the state and the proximity of teams in Washington, D.C.[252] Virginia has several minor league clubs, especially in baseball and soccer, HP Pavilion DV6-1214TX Battery

and the Virginia Destroyers of the United Football League are set to start play in 2011. Additionally, the Washington Redskins have Redskins Park, their headquarters and training facility, in Ashburn and the Washington Capitals train at Kettler Capitals Iceplex in Ballston.[253] HP Pavilion DV6-1215AX Battery

Virginia has many professional caliber golf courses including the Greg Norman course at Lansdowne Resort and Kingsmill Resort, home of the Michelob ULTRA Open. HP Pavilion DV6-1215EI Battery

NASCAR currently schedules Sprint Cup races on two tracks in Virginia: Martinsville Speedway and Richmond International Raceway. Current Virginia drivers in the series include Jeff Burton, Denny Hamlin, and Elliott Sadler.[254] HP Pavilion DV6-1215EE Battery

The Washington Nationals and Baltimore Orioles also have followings due to their proximity, and both are broadcast in the state onMASN.[255] When the New York Mets ended their long affiliation with the Norfolk Tides in 2007, the Orioles adopted the minor league club as their top level (AAA) minor league affiliate.[256] HP Pavilion DV6-1215ER Battery

The San Francisco Giants' AA team, the Richmond Flying Squirrels, began play at The Diamond in 2010, replacing the AAA Richmond Braves, who relocated after 2008.[257] Additionally, the Nationals, Orioles, Pittsburgh Pirates, Boston Red Sox, Seattle Mariners, Chicago White Sox, and Atlanta Braves also have Single-A and Rookie-level farm teams in Virginia.[258] HP Pavilion DV6-1215EW Battery

Virginia does not allow state appropriated funds to be used for either operational or capital expenses for intercollegiate athletics.[259] Despite this, both the Virginia Cavaliers and Virginia Tech Hokies have been able to field competitive teams in the Atlantic Coast Conference and maintain modern facilities. HP Pavilion DV6-1215EZ Battery

Their rivalry is followed statewide. Several other universities compete in NCAA Division I, particularly in the Colonial Athletic Association. Three historically black schools compete in the Division II Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association, and two others compete in the Division I Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference. HP Pavilion DV6-1215SA Battery

Several smaller schools compete in the Old Dominion Athletic Conference and the USA South Athletic Conference of NCAA Division III. The NCAA currently holds its Division III championships in football, men's basketball, volleyball and softball in Salem.[260] HP Pavilion DV6-1215SD Battery

The state nickname is its oldest symbol, though it has never been made official by law. Virginia was given the title "Dominion" by King Charles II of England at the time of The Restoration, because it had remained loyal to the crown during the English Civil War, and the present moniker, "Old Dominion" is a reference to that title. The other nickname, "Mother of Presidents", is also historic, as eight Virginians have served as President of the United States, including four of the first five.[1] HP Pavilion DV6-1215SF Battery

The state's motto, Sic Semper Tyrannis, translates from Latin as "Thus Always to Tyrants", and is used on the state seal, which is then used on the flag. While the seal was designed in 1776, and the flag was first used in the 1830s, both were made official in 1930.[1] The majority of the other symbols were made official in the late 20th century.[261] The Virginia reel is among the square dancesclassified as the state dance.[14] HP Pavilion DV6-1215SG Battery

Virginia currently has no state song. In 1940, Virginia made "Carry Me Back to Old Virginny" the state song, but it was retired in 1997 and reclassified as the state song emeritus.[262] Various alternatives, including a version of "Oh Shenandoah", have met with resistance in the Virginia House of Delegates.[263] HP Pavilion DV6-1215SL Battery

Zhuzhou (Chinese: ??; pinyin: Zh?zh?u), formerly Jianning, is a city in Hunan Province, China, southeast ofChangsha beside the Xiangjiang River. It is part of the "ChangZhuTan Golden Triangle" (comprising the cities of Changsha, Zhuzhou and Xiangtan). HP Pavilion DV6-1215SS Battery

The city has jurisdiction over 5 counties (Yanling, Chaling, Youxian, Liling, Zhuzhou) and four districts (Hetang, Lusong, Shifengand Tianyuan, a high-tech industrial development zone), and covers an area of 11,420 km². Its current population is 3.65 million (last available statistics as at July 2004).[1] HP Pavilion DV6-1215TX Battery

Zhuzhou is located in a subtropical monsoon climate zone and with its abundant mineral and organic resources has one of the highest agricultural yields in Hunan Province.

Zhuzhou is a very important transportation junction in South China. The Beijing-Guangzhou Railway, the Zhejiang-Jiangxi Railwayand the Hunan-Guizhou Railway meet here, HP Pavilion DV6-1216AX Battery

which makes Zhuzhou railway station one of the five special class passenger & goods transportation stations in China. There is a train passing by on average every three minutes. Zhuzhou North Station is the biggest goods transportation marshalling station in South China, with 110 trains and more than 30 thousand passengers passing through every day. HP Pavilion DV6-1216ER Battery

Besides the comprehensive railway system, Zhuzhou is connected to the rest of the country by 106 National Highway, 320 National Highway, 211 Provincial Highway,the Beijing-Zhuhai expressway, the Shanghai-Ruili expressway, and three highways linking south Fujian, south Jiangxi and south Hunan Province. HP Pavilion DV6-1216SA Battery

Zhuzhou is 37 kilometers away from Changsha Huanghua International Airport. It takes about 30 minutes to drive to the airport by the Changsha-Zhuzhou Highway.

Xiangjiang River runs through Zhuzhou, which makes it one of the eight harbours in Hunan Province. HP Pavilion DV6-1216SL Battery

Zhuzhou is the second largest city in Hunan Province, and it's an industrial city with four key industries are metallurgy, machine manufacture, chemicals and building materials.

Zhuzhou became one of the eight key national-wide industrial cities in the 1st Five-Year-Plan. 4 out of 156 key projects were set up in Zhuzhou. Later on, more than 20 important factories were built in Zhuzhou. HP Pavilion DV6-1216TX Battery

Zhuzhou's high-tech industrial development zone was approved by the State Council in December 1992 and was designated in a 35 km² area next to the Xiangjiang River.[2] HP Pavilion DV6-1217AX Battery

The high-tech industrial development zone is located less than 10km from national highway G320,[3] and provides incentives to encourage investment in biotechnology and pharmaceuticals; construction materials production, food and agricultural processing, heavy industry, and telecommunications equipment production.[4][5] HP Pavilion DV6-1217ER Battery

Changzhou (Chinese: ??; pinyin: Chángzh?u; Wade–Giles: Ch'ang-chou; Gwoyeu Romatzyh: Charng jou; formerly romanized as Changchow) is a prefecture-level city in southern Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China. It was previously known as Yanling, Lanling, Jinling, HP Pavilion DV6-1217SS Battery

and Wujin. Located on the southern bank of the Yangtze River, Changzhou borders the provincial capital of Nanjing to the west, Zhenjiang to the northwest, Wuxi to the east, and the province ofZhejiang to the south. The city is situated in the affluent Yangtze Delta region of China. HP Pavilion DV6-1217TX Battery

"The Ruins of Yancheng" (Chinese: ????), comprise the remains of a walled city located in the Wujin district of Changzhou that was founded over 3000 years ago at the beginning of the Western Zhou dynasty. The earliest record of a settlement on the site of modern Changzhou is as a commandery founded in 221 BC at the beginning of the Qin Dynasty. HP Pavilion DV6-1218CA Battery

Changzhou got its present name meaning "ordinary prefecture" in AD 589. Following construction of the Grand Canal in AD 609, Changzhou became a canal port and transshipment point for locally-grown grain, and has maintained these roles ever since. The rural counties surrounding Changzhou are noted for the production of rice, fish, tea, silk, bamboo and fruit. HP Pavilion DV6-1218SS Battery

During the Taiping Rebellion of the 1850s, one of five palaces housing the leaders of the so-called "Kingdom of Celestial Peace" was constructed in Changzhou. Today the ruins of the "King's Palace" can be found near the People's No.1 Hospital. HP Pavilion DV6-1218TX Battery

In the 1920s, Changzhou started to attract cotton mills. The cotton industry got a boost in the late 1930s when businesses began relocating outside of Shanghai due to the Japanese occupation. Unlike many Chinese cities, HP Pavilion DV6-1219EZ Battery

Changzhou continued to prosper even during the upheavals of the cultural revolution of 1966-76. Today it is an important industrial center for textiles, food processing, engineering (diesel engines, generators, transformers and other machinery), and high technology. HP Pavilion DV6-1219TX Battery

Climate

Changzhou's traditional role has been that of a commercial center and in particular a distribution center for agricultural produce, which was shipped by canal to the north and later, to Shanghai. The city began to develop a cotton textile industry in the 1920s, and cotton mills were established in the late 1930s, when Japaneseattacks drove many Chinese businesses to invest outside Shanghai. HP Pavilion DV6-1220EC Battery

The city has remained a textile center and the most important location in Jiangsu Province for weaving[citation needed]. It also has large food-processing plants as well as flour-milling, rice-polishing, and oil-pressing industries. After 1949 it also developed as a centre of the engineering industry. HP Pavilion DV6-1220EG Battery

Qishuyan, some 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) southeast of Changzhou, has one of the largest locomotive and rolling stock plants in China. Other engineering works in Changzhou produce diesel engines, generators, transformers along with agricultural and textile machinery. At the time of the Great Leap Forward in 1958 a steel plant was also built to provide raw material for heavy industry. HP Pavilion DV6-1220EI Battery

Since 1908, Changzhou has been linked by rail with Shanghai and Nanjing (see below for transportation).

Up until now, Changzhou has remained one of the most developed cities in Jiangsu, ranked third after Suzhou and Wuxi. The city's 2009 GDP per capita of ¥70,103 in 2009, less than that of Suzhou and Wuxi but more than the capital city Nanjing, ranked the city third in Jiangsu, . HP Pavilion DV6-1220EK Battery

Changzhou is also one of the top business cities in China. According to Forbes ranking, Changzhou was the 9th best business city in mainland China in 2008.

Changzhou National Hi-Tech District (CND) is a state-level high-tech industrial development zone. HP Pavilion DV6-1220ER Battery

It is located in the northern part of Changzhou city. With a population of 500,000 and an area of 439 square km, the district is {{convert/{{{2}}}|160km|0|||||||r=re|d=LoffAoffDbSoff|s=}} from Shanghai to the east and 110 kilometres (68 mi) from Nanjing to the west. The district represents the highest-level and most sophisticated industrial park in Changzhou. HP Pavilion DV6-1220EZ Battery

More than 1,300 foreign companies and over 5,000 local industrial enterprises have been registered within the district of which around 40% are from European and American countries. HP Pavilion DV6-1220EV Battery

Industries encouraged include engineering machinery, transformer & transmission equipment, automotive, locomotive & locomotive components, parts, precision machinery, biotechnology, pharmaceuticals, HP Pavilion DV6-1220SA Battery

photo-voltaic (PV) and new materials, chemicals, garment and textiles production, computer software and research & development. Some major investors include Terex, Komatsu, Ashland Chemical, Johnson, Caltex Oil Corp., Disa, +GF+, Rieter and General Electronics.[3] HP Pavilion DV6-1220EW Battery

Bus Rapid Transport System

Use of the Bus Rapid Transit System costs one yuan (or, if a Changzhou Bus Card is used, either three or six jiao depending on the type of card) and provides access throughout Changzhou. HP Pavilion DV6-1220SB Battery

The BRT has the following specifications: separate bus lanes or bus-only roadways, a vast network of routes and corridors, high capacity buses operating both outside and inside these corridors, greater passenger volume as compared to that in mixed traffic lanes (-3000 pphpd), enhanced station environments (not just simple bus shelters), HP Pavilion DV6-1220SD Battery

automated pre-boarding fare collection and fare verification, street level boarding and alighting, low emission vehicle technology (Euro III or higher), weather protection on station platforms, centralized system controls, real-time next bus information display, a distinctive marketing identity, HP Pavilion DV6-1220SH Battery

high-quality passenger service at bus stations, segregated bike lanes along main corridor(s) as well as station access for disabled persons. The BRT is also located in the following cities: Beijing, Chongqing, Dalian, Changzhou, Guangzhou, Jinan, Hangzhou, Hefei, Kunming, and Xiamen, Zhengzhou.[4] HP Pavilion DV6-1220SO Battery

Changzhou is the home of the China Dinosaur Park (simplified Chinese: ?????; traditional Chinese: ?????; pinyin:Chángzh?u K?nglóng Yuán) located in the Xinbei District of the city. The 5A rated Dinosaur Park has a collection of dinosaur bones and fossils from all over China. HP Pavilion DV6-1220SP Battery

The park has 50 various fossils and more than 30 amusement programs including the Brontosaurus Roller Coaster and the Whirling Dinosaur Carriage. The fossils are located in a museum housed in a single building and the amusement rides are spread throughout the park which is categorized into six themed areas. Besides fossils and family oriented rides, Dinosaur Park is home to a giant panda and sea lions.[5] HP Pavilion DV6-1220SS Battery

The city is also home to the Tianning Temple— one of the largest Zen Buddhist temple and monasteries in China. The city recently rebuilt the Tianning pagoda in the temple grounds, which are adjacent to Hongmei Park. The pagoda, called the Tianning Baota, was first built during the Tang Dynasty (AD 618 907). HP Pavilion DV6-1220ST Battery

Since that time it has been destroyed and rebuilt five times. The current reconstruction is built to the height specification of 153.79 metres (504.6 ft). This makes it the tallest pagoda in China and perhaps also the world. Both the Hongmei Park and Tianning Temple are located just to the east of the city centre.[6] HP Pavilion DV6-1220TX Battery

As Changzhou is noted for its combs, the city has reconstructed its Bamboo Comb Lane area with contemporary architecture. Changzhou combs can be purchased in most places in the city. HP Pavilion DV6-1221AX Battery

Another site in Changzhou is Hong Mei Park, which includes a small children's amusement park, a zoo, a rose garden and many scenic waterways. Of historical interest in the park is a historical pavilion with exhibits related to the Changzhou comb industry. In addition, there is another pavilion which displays locally produced root carvings. HP Pavilion DV6-1221EO Battery

The park attracts large numbers of people during holidays and is often dotted with a variety of vendors.

Other sites include Changzhou's sunken city and area of archaeological ruins from the Spring and Autumn Period. HP Pavilion DV6-1221SL Battery

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