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Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: República Federativa do Brasil, About this sound listen (help·info)), is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 190 million people.Nikon D200 Digital Camera Battery

It is the only Portuguese-speaking country in the Americas and the largest lusophone (Portuguese-speaking) country in the world.

Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of over 7,491 kilometers (4,655 mi). It is bordered on the north by Venezuela, Guyana,Suriname and the French overseas department of French Guiana;Acer PA-1650-02 Adapter

on the northwest by Colombia; on the west by Bolivia and Peru; on the southwest byArgentina and Paraguay and on the south by Uruguay. Numerous archipelagos form part of Brazilian territory, such as Fernando de Noronha, Rocas Atoll,Saint Peter and Paul Rocks, and Trindade and Martim Vaz.Sony CYBER-SHOT DSC-T10  Battery

It borders with all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile.

Brazil was a colony of Portugal from the landing of Pedro Álvares Cabral in 1500 until 1815, when it was elevated to United Kingdom with Portugal and Algarves. HP Compaq Business Notebook 6715b Battery

The colonial bond was in fact broken in 1808, when the capital of the Portuguese Kingdom was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro, after Napoleon invaded Portugal. The independence from Portugal was achieved in 1822. Initially independent as the Empire of Brazil, the country has been arepublic since 1889, Kodak KLIC-7004 Battery

although the bicameral legislature, now called Congress, dates back to 1824, when the first constitution was ratified. Its currentConstitution defines Brazil as a Federal Republic.[12] The Federation is formed by the union of the Federal District, the 26 States, and the 5,564Municipalities.Acer Aspire 5920G Adapter

The Brazilian economy is the world's eighth largest economy by nominal GDP and the seventh largest by purchasing power parity.Brazil is one of the world's fastest growing major economies. Economic reforms have given the country new international recognition.Canon Digital IXUS 90 IS   Battery

Brazil is a founding member of theUnited Nations, the G20, CPLP, Latin Union, the Organization of Ibero-American States, Mercosul and the Union of South American Nations, and is one of the BRIC Countries. Brazil is also home to a diversity of wildlife, natural environments, and extensive natural resources in a variety of protected habitats.HP 2133 Mini-Note PC Adapter

Etymology

The etymology of Brazil remains unclear. Traditionally, the word "Brazil" comes from brazilwood, a timber tree that many sailors traded from Brazilian regions to Europe in the 16th century. In Portuguese brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasilcommonly given the etymology "red like an ember,"Toshiba PA3536U-1BRS Battery

formed from Latin brasa ("ember") and the suffix -il (from -iculum or -ilium). This theory is taught as official in schools of Brazil andPortugal.

However, the Brazilian scholar José Adelino da Silva Azevedo has postulated that the word is much older, either of Celtic or Phoenician origin. HP Compaq Business Notebook NX6110 Battery

The Phoenicians traded a red dye extracted from a mineral mined in Celtic lands, from Iberia to Ireland. In Irish mythology there is a Western island calledHy-Brazil, and this is seen by some, including Tolkien, as one of the most likely etymological sources for the name "Brazil." The same theory was also advanced by 16th century scholars. HP Pavilion DV9000 Adapter

In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama." This was the name the natives gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees."

Portuguese colonization

The land now called Brazil was claimed by Portugal in April 1500, on the arrival of the Portuguese fleet commanded by Pedro Álvares Cabral.Dell Studio 1537 battery

The Portuguese encountered stone age natives divided into several tribes, most of whom spoke languages of the Tupi–Guarani family, and fought among themselves.

Though the first settlement was founded in 1532, colonization was effectively begun in 1534, when Dom João III divided the territory into twelve hereditary captaincies, HP PPP009H Adapter

but this arrangement proved problematic and in 1549 the king assigned a Governor-General to administer the entire colony. The Portuguese assimilated some of the native tribes[28] while others were enslaved or exterminated in long wars or by European diseases to which they had no immunity.Sony VGP-BPS8 Battery

By the mid-16th century, sugar had become Brazil's most important export and the Portuguese imported African slaves to cope with the increasing international demand.

Through wars against the French, the Portuguese slowly expanded their territory to the southeast, taking Rio de Janeiro in 1567, and to the northwest, takingSão Luís in 1615.Dell PA-12 Adapter

They sent military expeditions to the Amazon rainforest and conquered British and Dutch strongholds, founding villages and forts from 1669. In 1680 they reached the far south and founded Sacramento on the bank of the Rio de la Plata, in the Eastern Strip region (present-day Uruguay).Sony Cyber-shot DSC-T7/B  Battery

At the end of the 17th century, sugar exports started to decline[39] but beginning in the 1690s, the discovery of gold by explorers in the region that would later be called Minas Gerais (General Mines) in current Mato Grosso and Goiás, saved the colony from imminent collapse.Dell LATITUDE M65 Battery

From all over Brazil, as well as from Portugal, thousands of immigrants came to the mines.

The Spanish tried to prevent Portuguese expansion into the territory that belonged to them according to the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas, and succeeded in conquering the Eastern Strip in 1777. HP Compaq 6720s Adapter

However, this was in vain as the Treaty of San Ildefonso, signed in the same year, confirmed Portuguese sovereignty over all lands proceeding from its territorial expansion, thus creating most of the current Brazilian borders.

In 1808, the Portuguese royal family, fleeing the troops of the French Emperor Napoleon I that were invading Portugal and most of Central Europe, Acer AS07B41 Battery

established themselves in the city of Rio de Janeiro, which thus became the seat of the entire Portuguese Empire.In 1815 Dom João VI, then regent on behalf of his incapacitated mother, elevated Brazil from colony to sovereign Kingdom united with Portugal.Dell Vostro 1310 Battery

In 1809 the Portuguese invaded French Guiana (which was returned to France in 1817) and in 1816 the Eastern Strip, subsequently renamed Cisplatina (but Brazil lost it in 1828 when it became an independent nation known as Uruguay). HP Compaq Business Notebook 6910p Battery

Independence and Empire

King João VI returned to Europe on 26 April 1821, leaving his elder son Prince Pedro de Alcântara as regent to rule Brazil.The Portuguese government attempted to turn Brazil into a colony once again, thus depriving it of its achievements since 1808.Panasonic LUMIX DMC-TZ4S Battery

The Brazilians refused to yield and Prince Pedro stood by them declaring the country's independence from Portugal on 7 September 1822.[49]On 12 October 1822, Pedro was declared the first Emperor of Brazil and crowned Dom Pedro I on 1 December 1822. Dell PA-12 Adapter

At that time most Brazilians were in favour of a monarchy and republicanism had little support. The subsequent Brazilian War of Independence spread through almost the entire territory, with battles in the northern, northeastern, and southern regions. The last Portuguese soldiers surrendered on 8 March 1824 and independence was recognized by Portugal on 29 August 1825.Sony NP-FH100 Battery

The first Brazilian constitution was promulgated on 25 March 1824, after its acceptance by the municipal councils across the country. Pedro I abdicated on 7 April 1831 and went to Europe to reclaim his daughter’s crown, leaving behind his five year old son and heir, who was to become Dom Pedro II.Toshiba Equium M50-192 Battery

As the new emperor could not exert his constitutional prerogatives until he reached maturity, a regency was created.

Disputes between political factions led to rebellions and an unstable, almost anarchical, regency. The rebellious factions, however, were not in revolt against the monarchy, even though some declared the secession of the provinces as independent republics, but only so long as Pedro II was a minor.Apple MacBook Pro Battery

Because of this, Pedro II was prematurely declared of age and "Brazil was to enjoy nearly half a century of internal peace and rapid material progress."

Brazil won three international wars during the 58-year reign of Pedro II (the Platine War, the Uruguayan War and the War of the Triple Alliance, which left over 50,000 dead)Apple PowerBook G4 Battery

and witnessed the consolidation of representative democracy, mainly due to successive elections and unrestricted freedom of the press. Most importantly, slavery was extinguished after a slow but steady process that began with the end of the international traffic in slaves in 1850 and ended with the complete abolition of slavery in 1888.Dell Studio 1537 battery

The slave population had been in decline since Brazil's independence: in 1823, 29% of the Brazilian population were slaves but by 1887 this had fallen to 5%.

When the monarchy was overthrown on 15 November 1889 there was little desire in Brazil to change the form of government and Pedro II was at the height of his popularity among his subjects.Acer BATBL50L6 Battery

However, he "bore prime, perhaps sole, responsibility for his own overthrow." After the death of his two sons, Pedro believed that "the imperial regime was destined to end with him." He cared little for the regime's fate and so neither did anything, nor allowed anyone else to do anything, to prevent the military coup, backed by former slave owners who resented the abolition of slavery.Canon EOS 450D Digital Camera Battery

Early Republic

The "early republican government was little more than a military dictatorship. The army dominated affairs both at Rio de Janeiro and in the states. Freedom of the press disappeared and elections were controlled by those in power". Acer Travelmate 2400 Battery

In 1894 the republican civilians rose to power, opening a "prolonged cycle of civil war, financial disaster, and government incompetence."By 1902, the government began a return to the policies pursued during the Empire, policies that promised peace and order at home and a restoration of Brazil's prestige abroad.Dell Inspiron 1525 Adapter

and was successful in negotiating several treaties that expanded (with the purchase of Acre) and secured the Brazilian boundaries.

In the 1920s the country was plagued by several rebellions caused by young military officers. By 1930 the regime was weakened and demoralized, which allowed the defeated presidential candidate Getúlio Vargas to lead a coup d'état and assume the presidency.Compaq Presario 2100 Adapter

Vargas was supposed to assume the presidency temporarily but instead, he closed the National Congress, extinguished the Constitution, ruled with emergency powers and replaced the states' governors with his supporters.

In 1935 Communists rebelled across the country and made an unsuccessful bid for power.Acer Aspire 1362 Battery

The communist threat, however, served as an excuse for Vargas to launch another coup d'état in 1937 and Brazil became a full dictatorship. The repression of the opposition was brutal with more than 20,000 people imprisoned, internment camps created for political prisoners in distant regions of the country,Toshiba Equium M50-192 Battery

widespread torture by the government agents of repression, and censorship of the press.

Brazil remained neutral during the early years of World War II until the government declared war against the Axis powers in 1942.Dell XPS M1330 Battery

Vargas then forced German, Japanese and Italian immigrants intoconcentration camps, and, in 1944, sent troops to the battlefields in Italy. With the allied victory in 1945 and the end of the Nazi-fascist regimes in Europe, Vargas's position became unsustainable and he was swiftly overthrown in a military coup.Acer Travelmate 2200 Adapter

Democracy was reinstated and General Eurico Gaspar Dutra was elected president and took office in 1946. Vargas returned to power in 1951, this time democratically elected, but he was incapable of either governing under a democracy or of dealing with an active opposition, and he committed suicide in 1954.HP Compaq 6735b Adapter

Contemporary era

Several brief interim governments succeeded after Vargas's suicide. Juscelino Kubitscheck became president in 1956 and assumed a conciliatory posture towards the political opposition that allowed him to govern without major crises. The economy and industrial sector grew remarkably, Dell Vostro 1000 Battery

but his greatest achievement was the construction of the new capital city of Brasília, inaugurated in 1960. His successor was Jânio Quadros, who resigned in 1961 less than a year after taking office. His vice-president, João Goulart, assumed the presidency, but aroused strong political opposition and was deposed in April 1964 by a coup that resulted in a military regime.HP Compaq nx7300 Adapter

The new regime was intended to be transitory but it gradually closed in on itself and became a full dictatorship with the promulgation of the Fifth Institutional Act in 1968. The repression of the dictatorship's opponents, including urban guerrillas, was harsh, but not as brutal as in other Latin American countries.Asus f82 battery

Due to the extraordinary economic growth, known as an "economic miracle", the regime reached its highest level of popularity in the years of repression.

General Ernesto Geisel became president in 1974 and began his project of re-democratization through a process that he said would be "slow, gradual and safe."Dell XPS M1330 Battery

Geisel ended the military indiscipline that had plagued the country since 1889,as well as the torture of political prisoners, censorship of the press, and finally, the dictatorship itself, after he extinguished the Fifth Institutional Act.However, the military regime continued, under his chosen successor General João Figueiredo, to complete the transition to full democracy.HP Compaq Business Notebook 6910p Battery

The civilians fully returned to power in 1985 when José Sarney assumed the presidency but, by the end of his term, he had become extremely unpopular due to the uncontrollable economic crisis and unusually high inflation.Sarney's unsuccessful government allowed the election in 1989 of the almost unknown Fernando Collor,Compaq PRESARIO R3000 Battery

who was subsequently impeached by the National Congress in 1992. Collor was succeeded by his Vice-President Itamar Franco, who appointed Fernando Henrique Cardoso as Minister of Finance.

Cardoso produced a highly successful Plano Real (Royal or Real Plan) that granted stability to the Brazilian economy and he was elected as president in 1994 and again in 1998.HP Compaq Business Notebook NX6110 Battery

The peaceful transition of power to Luís Inácio Lula da Silva, who was elected in 2002 and re-elected in 2006, proved that Brazil had finally succeeded in achieving its long-sought political stability. Lula was succeeded in 2011 by the current president, Dilma Rousseff.Dell Latitude D610 Adapter

Geography

Brazil occupies a large area along the eastern coast of South America and includes much of the continent's interior, sharing land borders with Uruguay to the south; Argentina and Paraguay to the southwest; Bolivia and Peru to the west; Colombia to the northwest; and Venezuela, Suriname, Guyana and theFrench overseas department of French Guiana to the north. Asus Eee PC 701 Adapter

It shares a border with every country in South America except for Ecuador and Chile. It also encompasses a number of oceanic archipelagos, such as Fernando de Noronha, Rocas Atoll, Saint Peter and Paul Rocks, and Trindade and Martim Vaz.[9]Its size, relief, climate, and natural resources make Brazil geographically diverse.HP Compaq Business Notebook NX6325 Battery

Including its Atlantic islands, Brazil lies between latitudes 6°N and34°S, and longitudes 28° and 74°W.

Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world, after Russia, Canada, China and the United States, and third largest in the Americas;Dell Studio XPS 16 battery

with a total area of 8,514,876.599 square kilometers (3,287,612 sq mi), including 55,455 square kilometers (21,411 sq mi) of water.It spans three time zones; from UTC-4in the western states, to UTC-3 in the eastern states (and the official time of Brazil) and UTC-2 in the Atlantic islands.Acer Aspire 5520 Battery

Brazilian topography is also diverse and includes hills, mountains, plains, highlands, and scrublands. Much of the terrain lies between 200 metres (660 ft) and 800 metres (2,600 ft) in elevation. The main upland area occupies most of the southern half of the country.Acer TravelMate 5720 Adapter

The northwestern parts of the plateau consist of broad, rolling terrain broken by low, rounded hills.

The southeastern section is more rugged, with a complex mass of ridges and mountain ranges reaching elevations of up to 1,200 metres (3,900 ft).HP Compaq 6735s Adapter

These ranges include the Mantiqueira and Espinhaço mountains and the Serra do Mar.In the north, the Guiana Highlands form a major drainage divide, separating rivers that flow south into the Amazon Basin from rivers that empty into the Orinoco River system, in Venezuela, to the north. Dell XPS M1330 Battery

The highest point in Brazil is the Pico da Neblina at 2,994 metres (9,823 ft), and the lowest is the Atlantic Ocean.

Brazil has a dense and complex system of rivers, one of the world's most extensive, with eight major drainage basins, all of which drain into the Atlantic.HP Compaq nc6230 Adapter

Major rivers include the Amazon (the world's second-longest river and the largest in terms of volume of water), the Paraná and its major tributary the Iguaçu (which includes the Iguazu Falls), the Negro, São Francisco, Xingu, Madeira andTapajós rivers.Dell T117C battery

Climate

The climate of Brazil comprises a wide range of weather conditions across a large area and varied topography, but most of the country is tropical. According to the Köppen system, Brazil hosts five major climatic subtypes: equatorial, tropical, semiarid,highland tropical, temperate, and subtropical. Asus x5dij-sx039c battery

The different climatic conditions produce environments ranging from equatorial rainforests in the north and semiarid deserts in the northeast, to temperate coniferous forests in the south and tropical savannas in central Brazil. Many regions have starkly different microclimates.Dell Inspiron 1464 battery

An equatorial climate characterizes much of northern Brazil. There is no real dry season, but there are some variations in the period of the year when most rain falls. Temperatures average 25 °C (77 °F), with more significant temperature variation between night and day than between seasons.HP Compaq 6720s Adapter

Over central Brazil rainfall is more seasonal, characteristic of a savanna climate. This region is as extensive as the Amazon basin but has a very different climate as it lies farther south at a higher altitude. In the interior northeast, seasonal rainfall is even more extreme. Dell Latitude D630 Adapter

The semiarid climatic region generally receives less than 800 millimetres (31.5 in) of rain, most of which generally falls in a period of three to five months of the year and occasionally less than this, creating long periods of drought. Brazil's 1877–78 Grande Seca(Great Drought), the most severe ever recorded in Brazil, caused approximately half a million deaths.HP Pavilion dm4 battery

The one from 1915 was devastating too.

South of Bahia, near São Paulo, the distribution of rainfall changes, with rain falling throughout the year . The south enjoys temperate conditions, with cool winters and average annual temperatures not exceeding 18 °C (64.4 °F); winter frosts are quite common, with occasional snowfall in the higher areas.Sony NP-FS11 Battery

Biodiversity

Brazil's large territory comprises different ecosystems, such as the Amazon Rainforest, recognized as having the greatest biological diversity in the world, with the Atlantic Forest and the Cerrado, sustaining the greatest biodiversity. In the south, the Araucaria pine forest grows under temperate conditions.Dell Inspiron 1520 Adapter

The rich wildlife of Brazil reflects the variety of natural habitats. Much of it, however, remains largely undocumented, and new species are regularly found.Scientists estimate that the total number of plant and animal species in Brazil could approach four million.Toshiba PA3399U-1BRS Battery

Larger mammals include pumas, jaguars, ocelots, rare bush dogs, and foxes; peccaries, tapirs, anteaters, sloths, opossums, and armadillos are abundant.Deer are plentiful in the south, and many species of New World monkeys are found in the northern rain forests.Acer Aspire 5920G Adapter

Concern for the environment has grown in response to global interest in environmental issues.

Environment

The natural heritage of Brazil is severely threatened by cattle ranching and agriculture, logging, mining, resettlement, oil and gas extraction, over-fishing, wildlife trade, dams and infrastructure, water contamination, climate change, fire, and invasive species.Acer Aspire 5920 Battery

In many areas of the country, the natural environment is threatened by development.[144]Construction of highways has opened up previously remote areas for agriculture and settlement; dams have flooded valleys and inundated wildlife habitats; and mines have scarred and polluted the landscape.IBM Thinkpad T40 Adapter

At least 70 dams are said to be planned for the Amazon region, including controversial Belo Monte hydroelectric dam.

Politics

The Brazilian Federation is the "indissoluble union" of three distinct political entities: the States, the Municipalities and the Federal District.Nikon COOLPIX 4300 Digital Camera Battery

The Union, the states and the Federal District, and the municipalities, are the "spheres of government." The Federation is set on five fundamental principles: sovereignty,citizenship, dignity of human beings, the social values of labour and freedom of enterprise, and political pluralism. Apple MB771 battery

The classic tripartite branches of government (executive, legislative, and judicial under the checks and balances system), is formally established by the Constitution. The executive and legislative are organized independently in all three spheres of government, while the judiciary is organized only at the federal and state/Federal District spheres.Sony DSC-P5 Digital Camera Battery

All members of the executive and legislative branches are directly elected.Judges and other judicial officials are appointed after passing entry exams. Brazil has a multi-party system for most of its history. Voting is compulsory for the literate between 18 and 70 years old and optional for illiterates and those between 16 and 18 or beyond 70.Dell Inspiron 6400 Adapter

Together with several smaller parties, four political parties stand out: Workers' Party (PT), Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB), Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB), and Democrats (DEM). Almost all governmental and administrative functions are exercised by authorities and agencies affiliated to the Executive.Toshiba PA3534U-1BRS Battery

The form of government is that of a democratic republic, with a presidential system. The president is both head of state and head of government of the Union and is elected for a four-year term,with the possibility of re-election for a second successive term. The current president is Dilma Rousseff who was inaugurated on January 1, 2011.Sony NP-FP50 Battery

The President appoints the Ministers of State, who assist in government. Legislative houses in each political entity are the main source of law in Brazil. The National Congress is the Federation's bicameral legislature, consisting of the Chamber of Deputies and the Federal Senate. Judiciary authorities exercise jurisdictional duties almost exclusively.HP Compaq nx7300 Adapter

15 political parties are represented in Congress. It is common for politicians to switch parties, and thus the proportion of congressional seats held by particular parties changes regularly. The largest political parties are the Workers' Party (PT), Democrats (DEM),Dell Latitude D820 Adapter

Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB-center), Brazilian Social Democratic Party (PSDB), Progressive Party (PP), Brazilian Labor Party (PTB), Liberal Party (PL), Brazilian Socialist Party (PSB), Popular Socialist Party (PPS), Democratic Labor Party (PDT), and the Communist Party of Brazil (PCdoB).Toshiba PA3399U-1BRS Battery

Law

Brazilian law is based on Roman-Germanic traditions and civil law concepts prevail over common law practice. Most of Brazilian law is codified, although non-codified statutes also represent a substantial part, playing a complementary role. Court decisions set out interpretive guidelines;Dell Studio XPS 1640 Battery

however, they are seldom binding on other specific cases. Doctrinal works and the works of academic jurists have strong influence in law creation and in law cases.

The legal system is based on the Federal Constitution, which was promulgated on 5 October 1988, and is the fundamental law of Brazil. Dell Latitude D830 Battery

All other legislation and court decisions must conform to its rules. As of April 2007, there have been 53 amendments. States have their own constitutions, which must not contradict the Federal Constitution. Municipalities and the Federal District have "organic laws" (leis orgânicas), which act in a similar way to constitutions.Toshiba Satellite M65 battery

Legislative entities are the main source of statutes, although in certain matters judiciary and executive bodies may enact legal norms. Jurisdiction is administered by the judiciary entities, although in rare situations the Federal Constitution allows the Federal Senate to pass on legal judgments.Toshiba NB100 Battery

There are also specialized military, labor, and electoral courts. The highest court is the Supreme Federal Court.

This system has been criticised over the last few decades for the slow pace of decision making. Lawsuits on appeal may take several years to resolve, and in some cases more than a decade elapses before definitive rulings.Toshiba Satellite P10 Battery

Nevertheless, the Supreme Federal Tribunal was the first court in the world to transmit its sessions on television, and also via Youtube.[157][158] More recently, in December 2009, the Supreme Court adopted Twitter to display items on the day planner of the ministers, to inform the daily actions of the Court and the most important decisions made by them.Sony VGP-BPS13B/B Battery

Brazil continues to have high crime rates in a number of statistics, despite recent improvements. More than 500,000 people have been killed by firearms in Brazil between 1979 and 2003, according to a new report by the United Nations.[160] In 2010, there were 473,600 people incarcerated in Brazilian prisons and jails.Sony VGN-FW11S Battery

Foreign relations

Brazil is a political and economic leader in Latin America. However, social and economic problems prevent it from becoming an effective global power. Between World War II and 1990, both democratic and military governments sought to expand Brazil's influence in the world by pursuing a state-led industrial policy and an independent foreign policy. Hp pavilion dv6000 battery

More recently, the country has aimed to strengthen ties with other South American countries, and engage in multilateral diplomacy through the United Nations and the Organization of American States.

Brazil's current foreign policy is based on the country's position as: a regional power in Latin America, a leader among developing countries, and an emergingworld power. Sony Vaio VGN-FZ31S battery

In general, current Brazilian foreign policy reflects multilateralism, peaceful dispute settlement, and nonintervention in the affairs of other countries. The Brazilian Constitution also determines that the country shall seek the economic, political, social and cultural integration of the nations of Latin America.Sony Vaio VGN-FZ31S battery

An increasingly well-developed tool of Brazil's foreign policy is providing aid as a donor to other developing countries. Brazil does not just use its growing economic strength to provide financial aid, but it also provides high levels of expertise and most importantly of all, a quiet non-confrontational diplomacy to improve governance levels.HP NX8200 battery

Total aid is estimated to be around $1 billion per year that includes:

  • technical cooperation of around $480 million ($30 million in 2010 provided directly by the Brazilian Cooperation Agency (ABC))
  • an estimated $450 million for in-kind expertise provided by Brazilian institutions specialising in technical cooperationHP NX7400 battery

In addition, Brazil manages a peacekeeping mission in Haiti ($350 million) and makes in-kind contributions to the World Food Programme ($300 million). This is in addition to humanitarian assistance and contributions to multilateral development agencies. The scale of this aid places it on par with China and India and ahead of many western donors.HP NW8440 battery

The Brazilian South-South aid has been described as a "global model in waiting."

Military

The armed forces of Brazil consist of the Brazilian Army, the Brazilian Navy, and the Brazilian Air Force. With a total of 371,199 active personnel, they comprise the largest armed force in Latin America.HP NW8200 battery

The Army is responsible for land-based military operations and has 235,978 active personnel.

The Military Police (States' Military Police) is described as an ancillary force of the Army by the constitution, but is under the control of each state's governor.HP NC6400 battery

The Navy is responsible for naval operations and for guarding Brazilian territorial waters. It is the oldest of the Brazilian armed forces and the only navy in Latin America to operate an aircraft carrier, the NAe São Paulo (formerly FSFoch of the French Navy). The Air Force is the aerial warfare branch of the Brazilian armed forces, and the largest air force in Latin America, with about 700 manned aircraft in service. HP NC6200 battery

Administrative divisions

Brazil is a federation composed of 26 States, one federal district (which contains the capital city, Brasília) and municipalities. States have autonomous administrations, collect their own taxes and receive a share of taxes collected by the Federal government. They have a governor and a unicameral legislative body elected directly by their voters. HP NC6100 battery

They also have independent Courts of Law for common justice. Despite this, states have much less autonomy to create their own laws than in the United States. For example, criminal and civil laws can only be voted by the federal bicameral Congress and are uniform throughout the country.HP NC6000 battery

The states and the federal district may be grouped into regions: Northern, Northeast, Central-West, Southeast and Southern. The Brazilian regions are merely geographical, not political or administrative divisions, and they do not have any specific form of government. HP 6710B battery

Although defined by law, Brazilian regions are useful mainly for statistical purposes, and also to define the application of federal funds in development projects.

Municipalities, as the states, have autonomous administrations, collect their own taxes and receive a share of taxes collected by the Union and state government.HP 6530B battery

Each has a mayor and an elected legislative body, but no separate Court of Law. Indeed, a Court of Law organized by the state can encompass many municipalities in a single justice administrative division called comarca(county).HP 6510B battery

Economy

Brazil is the largest national economy in Latin America, the world's eighth largest economy at market exchange rates and theseventh largest in purchasing power parity (PPP), according to the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. Brazil has a Mixed economy with abundant natural resources. HP Pavilion DV6-1020ED Battery

The Brazilian economy has been predicted to become one of the five largest in the world in the decades to come, the GDP per capita following and growing. Its current GDP (PPP) per capita is $10,200, putting Brazil in the 64th position according to World Bank data.Dell Latitude E6400 battery

It has large and developed agricultural, mining, manufacturing and service sectors, as well as a large labor pool.

Brazilian exports are booming, creating a new generation of tycoons. Major export products include aircraft, electrical equipment, automobiles, ethanol,textiles, footwear, iron ore, steel, coffee, orange juice, soybeans and corned beef.HP Pavilion DV7-1290EO laptop battery

The country has been expanding its presence in international financial and commodities markets, and is one of a group of four emerging economies called the BRIC countries.

Brazil pegged its currency, the real, to the U.S. dollar in 1994.Apple A1281 battery

However, after the East Asian financial crisis, the Russian default in 1998 and the series of adverse financial events that followed it, the Central Bank of Brazil temporarily changed its monetary policy to a managed-float scheme while undergoing acurrency crisis, until definitively changing the exchange regime to free-float in January 1999.Apple A1280 battery

Brazil received an International Monetary Fund rescue package in mid-2002 of $30.4 billion, then a record sum. Brazil's central bank paid back the IMF loan in 2005, although it was not due to be repaid until 2006. One of the issues the Central Bank of Brazil recently dealt with was an excess of speculative short-term capital inflows to the country, Dell LATITUDE D800 battery

which may have contributed to a fall in the value of the U.S. dollar against the real during that period.Nonetheless, foreign direct investment (FDI), related to long-term, less speculative investment in production, is estimated to be $193.8 billion for 2007.Dell Inspiron 6400 AC Adapter

Inflation monitoring and control currently plays a major part in the Central bank's role of setting out short-term interest rates as a monetary policy measure.

Between 1993 and 2010, 7'012 mergers & acquisitions with a total known value of 707 bil. USD with the involvement of Brazlian firms have been announced.Sony Vaio VGN-CR190E/L Battery

The year 2010 was a new record in terms of value with 115 bil. USD of transactions. The largest transaction with involvement of Brazilian companies has been: Cia Vale do Rio Doce acquired Inco in a tender offer valued at 18.9 bil. USD.

Components and energy

Brazil's economy is diverse, encompassing agriculture, industry, and many services.HP 448007-001 battery

The recent economic strength has been due in part to a global boom in commodities prices with exports from beef to soybeans soaring.Agriculture and allied sectors like forestry, logging and fishingaccounted for 5.1% of the gross domestic product in 2007, a performance that puts agribusiness in a position of distinction in terms of Brazil's trade balance, Sony VGP-BPS11 battery

in spite of trade barriers and subsidizing policies adopted by the developed countries.

The industry — from automobiles, steel and petrochemicals to computers, aircraft, and consumer durables— accounted for 30.8% of the gross domestic product.HP Pavilion DV6-1223EO Battery

Industry, which is often technologically advanced, is highly concentrated in metropolitan São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Campinas, Porto Alegre, andBelo Horizonte.

Brazil is the world's tenth largest energy consumer with much of its energy coming from renewable sources, particularly hydroelectricity and ethanol; nonrenewable energy is mainly produced from oil and natural gas.Compaq CQ35-100 battery

A global power in agriculture and natural resources, Brazil experienced tremendous economic growth over the past three decades. It is expected to become a major oil producer and exporter, having recently made huge oil discoveries. The governmental agencies responsible for the energy policy are the Ministry of Mines and Energy,HP DV9700 battery

the National Council for Energy Policy, the National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels, and the National Agency of Electricity.

Science and technology

Technological research in Brazil is largely carried out in public universities and research institutes. But more than 73% of funding for basic research still comes from government sources.Sony VGP-BPS13 battery

Some of Brazil's most notable technological hubs are the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, the Butantan Institute, the Air Force'sAerospace Technical Center, the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation and the INPE. The Brazilian Space Agency has the most advanced space program in Latin America, with significant capabilities in launch vehicles, launch sites and satellite manufacturing.HP Pavilion DV8 battery

Uranium is enriched at the Resende Nuclear Fuel Factory to fuel the country's energy demands and plans are underway to build the country's first nuclear submarine. Brazil is one of the three countries in Latin America with an operational Synchrotron Laboratory, a research facility on physics, chemistry, material science and life sciences.Compaq CQ50 battery

Transport

Brazil has a large and diverse transport network. Roads are the primary carriers of freight and passenger traffic. The road system totaled 1.98 million km (1.23 million mi) in 2002. The total of paved roads increased from 35,496 km (22,056 mi) in 1967 to 184,140 km (114,425 mi) in 2002.HP Pavilion DV7 battery

Brazil's railway system has been declining since 1945, when emphasis shifted to highway construction. The total length of railway track was 30,875 km (19,186 mi) in 2002, as compared with 31,848 km (19,789 mi) in 1970. Most of the railway system belongs to the Federal Railroad Corp., with a majority government interest.Ibm THINKPAD X200 Battery

The government also privatized seven lines in 1997. The São Paulo Metro was the first underground transit system in Brazil. The other metro systems are in Rio de Janeiro, Porto Alegre, Recife, Belo Horizonte, Brasília, Teresina, Fortaleza, and Salvador.Ibm THINKPAD X200 Battery

There are about 2,500 airports in Brazil, including landing fields: the second largest number in the world, after the United States. São Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport, near São Paulo, is the largest and busiest airport, handling the vast majority of popular and commercial traffic of the country and connecting the city with virtually all major cities across the world. Ibm THINKPAD X200 Battery

Coastal shipping links widely separated parts of the country. Bolivia and Paraguay have been given free ports atSantos. Of the 36 deep-water

ports, Santos, Itajaí, Rio Grande, Paranaguá, Rio de Janeiro, Sepetiba, Vitória, Suape, Manaus and São Francisco do Sul are some of the most important.SONY VAIO VGN-FW21E Battery

Demographics

The population of Brazil, as recorded by the 2008 PNAD, was approximately 190 million (22.31 inhabitants per square kilometer), with a ratio of men to women. of 0.95:1 and 83.75% of the population defined as urban.Asus M52N Battery

The population is heavily concentrated in the Southeastern (79.8 million inhabitants) and Northeastern (53.5 million inhabitants) regions, while the two most extensive regions, the Center-West and the North, which together make up 64.12% of the Brazilian territory, have a total of only 29.1 million inhabitants.Dell Latitude E6400 ATG Battery

Brazil's population increased significantly between 1940 and 1970, due to a decline in the mortality rate, even though the birth rate underwent a slight decline. In the 1940s the annual population growth rate was 2.4%, rising to 3.0% in the 1950s and remaining at 2.9% in the 1960s, as life expectancy rose from 44 to 54 years and to 72.6 years in 2007.SONY VAIO VGN-FW21L Battery

It has been steadily falling since the 1960s, from 3.04% per year between 1950–1960 to 1.05% in 2008 and is expected to fall to a negative value of –0.29% by 2050  thus completing the demographic transition.

According to the National Research by Household Sample (PNAD) of 2008, 48.43% of the population (about 92 million) described themselves as White; SONY VAIO VGN-FW21M Battery

43.80% (about 83 million) as Brown (Multiracial), 6.84% (about 13 million) as Black; 0.58% (about 1.1 million) as Asian; and 0.28% (about 536 thousand) as Amerindian, while 0.07% (about 130 thousand) did not declare their race.

In 2007, the National Indian Foundation reported the existence of 67 different uncontacted tribes, up from 40 in 2005. Brazil is believed to have the largest number of uncontacted peoples in the world.SONY VAIO VGN-FW21Z Battery

Most Brazilians descend from the country's indigenous peoples, Portuguese settlers, and African slaves. Since the arrival of the Portuguese in 1500, considerable intermarriage between these three groups has taken place. The brown population (as multiracial Brazilians are officially called;SONY VAIO VGN-FW33GW Battery

pardo in Portuguese) is a broad category that includes Caboclos (descendants of Whites and Indians), Mulattoes (descendants of Whites and Blacks) and Cafuzos (descendants of Blacks and Indians).Caboclos form the majority of the population in the Northern, Northeastern and Central-Western regions.Dell XPS M1210 Battery

A large Mulatto population can be found in the eastern coast of the northeastern region from Bahia to Paraíba and also in northern Maranhão,southern Minas Gerais and in eastern Rio de Janeiro. From the 19th century, Brazil opened its borders to immigration.Dell KM958 battery

About five million people from over 60 countries migrated to Brazil between 1808 and 1972, most of them from Portugal, Italy, Spain, Germany, Japan and the Middle-East.

In 2008, the illiteracy rate was 11.48%  and among the youth (ages 15–19) 1.74%. Dell Studio 1555 battery

It was highest (20.30%) in the Northeast, which had a large proportion of rural poor. Illiteracy was high (24.18%) among the rural population and lower (9.05%) among the urban population.

Religion

Roman Catholicism is the country's predominant faith. Brazil has the world's largest Catholic population.Sony VGP-BPS13 battery

According to the 2000 Demographic Census (the PNAD survey does not inquire about religion), 73.57% of the population followed Roman Catholicism; 15.41% Protestantism; 1.33%Kardecist spiritism; 1.22% other Christian denominations; 0.31% Afro-Brazilian religions; 0.13% Buddhism; 0.05% Judaism; Sony VGP-BPS13/S battery

0.02% Islam; 0.01% Amerindian religions; 0.59% other religions, undeclared or undetermined; while 7.35% have no religion.

However, in the last ten years Protestantism, particularly Pentecostal Protestantism, while the proportion of Catholics has dropped sharply.Sony VGP-BPS13A/B battery

Urbanization

The largest metropolitan areas in Brazil are São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Belo Horizonte — all in the Southeastern Region — with 19.5, 11.5, and 5.1 million inhabitants respectively. Almost all of the state capitals are the largest cities in their states, except for Vitória, the capital of Espírito Santo, and Florianópolis, the capital of Santa Catarina. Sony VGP-BPS13B/B battery

There are also non-capital metropolitan areas in the states of São Paulo (Campinas, Santos and the Paraíba Valley), Minas Gerais (Steel Valley), Rio Grande do Sul (Sinos Valley), and Santa Catarina (Itajaí Valley).

Language

The official language of Brazil is Portuguese, which almost all of the population speaks and is virtually the only language used in newspapers, radio, television, and for business and administrative purposes. Sony VGP-BPL9 battery

The exception to this is in the municipality of São Gabriel da Cachoeira where Nheengatu, an indigenous language of South America, has been granted co-official status with Portuguese. Brazil is the only Portuguese-speaking nation in theAmericas, making the language an important part of Brazilian national identity and giving it a national culture distinct from those of its Spanish-speaking neighbors.Sony VGP-BPS13B/B battery

Brazilian Portuguese has had its own development, influenced by the Amerindian and African languages. As a result, the language is somewhat different, mostly in phonology, from the language of Portugal and other Portuguese-speaking countries. These differences are comparable to those between Americanand British English.Sony VGP-BPL15 battery

In 2008, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), which included representatives from all countries with Portuguese as the official language, reached an agreement on the reform of Portuguese into one international language, as opposed to two diverged dialects of the same language. HP Pavilion dv6000 Battery

All CPLP countries were given from 2009 until 2014 to adjust to the necessary changes.

Minority languages are spoken throughout the nation. One hundred and eighty Amerindian languages are spoken in remote areas and a number of other languages are spoken by immigrants and their descendants.HP Pavilion dv8000 battery

There are significant communities of German (mostly the Hunsrückisch, a High German language dialect) and Italian (mostly the Talian dialect, of Venetian origin) speakers in the south of the country, both of which are influenced by the Portuguese language. Brazil is the first country in South America to offer Esperanto to High School students.HP PAVILION DV6000 Battery

Culture

The core culture of Brazil is derived from Portuguese culture, because of its strong colonial ties with the Portuguese empire. Among other influences, the Portuguese introduced the Portuguese language, Roman Catholicism and colonial architectural styles. HP PAVILION DV8000 Battery

The culture was, however, also strongly influenced by African, indigenous and non-Portuguese European cultures and traditions. Some aspects of Brazilian culture were influenced by the contributions of Italian, German and other European immigrants who arrived in large numbers in the South and Southeast of Brazil.SONY VAIO VGN-FZ Battery

The indigenous Amerindians influenced Brazil's language and cuisine; and the Africans influenced language, cuisine, music, dance and religion.

Brazilian art has developed since the 16th century into different styles that range from BaroqueHP Pavilion DV6000 battery

(the dominant style in Brazil until the early 19th century) toRomanticism, Modernism, Expressionism, Cubism, Surrealism and Abstractionism.

Brazilian cinema dates back to the birth of the medium in the late 19th century and has gained a new level of international acclaim in recent years.HP Pavilion DV8000 battery

Music

Brazilian music encompasses various regional styles influenced by African, European and Amerindian forms. It developed distinctive styles, among them samba,MPB, choro, Sertanejo, brega, forró, frevo, maracatu, bossa nova, and axé.HP Pavilion DV6000 battery

Literature

Brazilian literature dates back to the 16th century, to the writings of the first Portuguese explorers in Brazil, such as Pêro Vaz de Caminha, filled with descriptions offauna, flora and natives that amazed Europeans that arrived in Brazil.HP Pavilion DV8000 battery

Brazil produced significant works in Romanticism — novelists like Joaquim Manuel de Macedo and José de Alencar wrote novels about love and pain. Alencar, in his long career, also treated Indigenous people as heroes in the Indigenist novels O Guarany, Iracema, Ubirajara.SONY VAIO VGN-FW31J Battery

Cuisine

Brazilian cuisine varies greatly by region, reflecting the country's mix of native and immigrant populations. This has created a national cuisine marked by the preservation of regional differences. Examples are Feijoada, considered the country's national dish; and regional foods such as vatapá, moqueca, polenta and acarajé.Sony VAIO VGN-FW21E Battery

Brazil has a variety of candies such as brigadeiros (chocolate fudge balls), cocada(a coconut sweet) and beijinhos (coconut truffles with a guava jam know asgoiabada). Peanut is used to make paçoca, rapadura and pé-de-moleque. Local common fruits like açaí, cupuaçu, mango, papaya, cocoa, cashew, guava,orange, passionfruit, pineapple, and hog plum are turned in juices and used to make chocolates, popsicles and ice cream.Sony VAIO VGN-NR11S/S Battery

Popular snacks are pastel (a pastry), coxinha (chicken croquete), pão de queijo (cheese bread and cassava flour / tapioca), pamonha (corn and milk paste),esfirra (Lebanese pastry), kibbeh (from Arabic cuisine), empanada(pastry) and empada little salt pies filled with shrimps or hearth of palm.Sony VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Battery

But the everyday meal consist mosty of rice and beans with beef and salad. Its common to mix it with cassava flour (farofa). Fried potatoes, fried cassava, fried banana, fried meat and fried cheese are very often eaten in lunch and served in most typical restaurants. Sony VAIO VGN-NR11M/S Battery

The national beverage is coffee and cachaça is Brazil's native liquor. Cachaça is distilled from sugar cane and is the main ingredient in the national cocktail,Caipirinha.

Sports

The most popular sport in Brazil is football (soccer). Sony VAIO VGN-NR11Z/T Battery

The Brazilian national football team is ranked among the best in the world according to the FIFA World Rankings, and has won the World Cup tournament a record five times. Basketball, volleyball, auto racing, and martial arts also attract large audiences.Brazil men's national volleyball team, Sony VGP-BPS8 Battery

for example, currently holds the titles of the World League, World Grand Champions Cup, World Championship and theWorld Cup. Others sports practiced in Brazil are tennis, team handball, swimming, and gymnastics have found a growing number of enthusiasts over the last decades. Some sport variations have their origins in Brazil:Dell Inspiron 1320n Battery

beach football, futsal (indoor football)  and footvolley emerged in Brazil as variations of football. In martial arts, Brazilians developed Capoeira, Vale tudo, and Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu. In auto racing, three Brazilian drivers have won theFormula One world championship eight times.Dell Inspiron 1320n Battery

Brazil has hosted several high-profile international sporting events, including the 1950 FIFA World Cup and has been chosen to host the 2014 FIFA World Cup. The São Paulo circuit, Autódromo José Carlos Pace, hosts the annual Grand Prix of Brazil. Dell Studio 1450 Battery

São Paulo organized the IV Pan American Gamesin 1963, and Rio de Janeiro hosted the XV Pan American Games in 2007. On 2 October 2009, Brazil was selected to host the 2016 Olympic Games, the first to be held in South America.

In May 2010 Brazil launched TV Brasil Internacional, an international television station, initially broadcasting to 49 countries. Dell Studio 1457 Battery

Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, former President of Brazil, described its aim as "presenting Brazil to the world."

The economy of Brazil is the world's seventh largest by nominal GDP and eighth largest by purchasing power parity. Brazil has moderately free markets and an inward-oriented economy.Dell Latitude D610 Battery

Its economy is the largest in Latin American nations and the second largest in the western hemisphere. Brazil is one of the fastest-growing major economies in the world with an average annual GDP growth rate of over 5 percent. InBrazilian reais, its GDP was estimated at R$ 3.143 trillion in 2009. Dell Studio 1457 Battery

The Brazilian economy has been predicted to become one of the five largest economies in the world in the decades to come.

Brazil is a member of diverse economic organizations, such as Mercosul, Unasul, G8+5, G20, WTO, and the Cairns Group. Its trade partners number in the hundreds, with 60 percent of exports mostly of manufactured or semimanufactured goods.Toshiba Satellite M60 battery

Brazil's main trade partners in 2008 were: Mercosul and Latin America (25.9 percent of trade), EU (23.4 percent), Asia (18.9 percent), the United States (14.0 percent), and others (17.8 percent).

According to the World Economic Forum, Brazil was the top country in upward evolution of competitiveness in 2009,Dell Latitude D830 Battery

gaining eight positions among other countries, overcoming Russia for the first time, and partially closing the competitiveness gap with India and China among the BRIC economies. Important steps taken since the 1990s toward fiscal sustainability, as well as measures taken to liberalize and open the economy, have significantly boosted the country’s competitiveness fundamentals, providing a better environment for private-sector development. Dell Latitude D620 Battery

The owner of a sophisticated technological sector, Brazil develops projects that range from submarines to aircrafts and is involved in space research: the country possesses a satellite launching center and was the only country in the Southern Hemisphere to integrate the team responsible for the construction of the International Space Station (ISS).Dell Inspiron Mini 10 Battery

It is also a pioneer in many fields, including ethanol production.

Brazil, together with Mexico, has been at the forefront of the Latin American multinationals phenomenon by which, thanks to superior technology and organization, local companies have successfully turned global.Sony VGN-FW11S Battery

These multinationals have made this transition notably by investing massively abroad, in the region and beyond, and thus realizing an increasing portion of their revenues internationally.

Brazil is also a pioneer in the fields of deep water oil research from where 73 percent of its reserves are extracted.Sony VGN-FW11M Battery

According to government statistics, Brazil was the first capitalist country to bring together the ten largest car assembly companies inside its national territory.

The annual Brasil Investment Summit akes place in São Paulo and is the largest gathering in Brazil of international investment experts covering opportunities in alternative vehicles, infrastructure, and advanced trading strategies.Sony VGN-FW139E/H battery

History

When the Portuguese explorers arrived in the 15th century, the native tribes of current-day Brazil, totaling about 2.5 million people, had lived virtually unchanged since the Stone Age. From Portugal's colonisation of Brazil (1500-1822) until the late 1930s, the market elements of the Brazilian economy relied on the production of primary products for exports. Dell Latitude E5400 Battery

Within the Portuguese Empire, Brazil was a colony subjected to an imperialmercantile policy, which had three main large-scale economic production cycles - sugar, gold and, from the early 19th century on, coffee. The economy of Brazil was heavily dependent on African enslaved labour until the late 19th century (about 3 million imported African enslaved individuals in total).Dell Latitude E4200 Battery

Since then, Brazil experienced a period of strong economic and demographic growth accompanied by mass immigration from Europe(mainly from Portugal, Italy, Spain and Germany) until the 1930s. In the Americas, the United States, Argentina, Brazil, and Canada (in descending order) were the countries that received most immigrants.Dell Inspiron 300M Battery

In Brazil's case, statistics show that 4.5 million people emigrated to the country between 1882 and 1934.

Currently, with a population of 190 million and abundant natural resources, Brazil is one of the ten largest markets in the world, producing tens of millions of tons of steel, 26 million tons of cement, 3.5 million television sets, and 3 million refrigerators. Dell Studio 1737 battery

In addition, about 70 million cubic meters ofpetroleum were being processed annually into fuels, lubricants, propane gas, and a wide range of hundred petrochemicals. Furthermore, Brazil has at least 161,500 kilometers of paved roads and more than 93 Gigawatts of installed electric power capacity.Dell Inspiron E1505 battery

Its real per capita GDP has surpassed US$ 10,500 in 2008, due to the strong and continued appreciation of the real for the first time this decade. Its industrial sector accounts for three fifths of the Latin American economy's industrial production.  The country’s scientific and technologicaldevelopment is argued to be attractive to foreign direct investment,Dell RM791 battery

which has averaged US$ 30 billion per year the last years, compared to only US$ 2 billion per year last decade,  thus showing a remarkable growth. The agricultural sector, locally called the agronegócio (agrobusiness), has also been remarkably dynamic: for two decades this sector has kept Brazil amongst the most highly productive countries in areas related to the rural sector.Acer Aspire One battery 10400mAh

The agricultural sector and the mining sector also supported trade surpluses which allowed for massive currency gains (rebound) and external debt paydown. Due to downturn in Western economies Brazil found itself in 2010 trying to halt the appreciation of the real.[Dell Precision M70 Battery

Components of the economy

The service sector is the largest component of GDP at 66.8 percent, followed by the industrial sector at 29.7 percent (2007 est.). Agriculture represents 3.5 percent of GDP (2008 est.). Brazilian labor force is estimated at 100.77 million of which 10 percent is occupied in agriculture, 19 percent in the industry sector and 71 percent in the service sector.Toshiba Satellite L305 Battery

Agriculture and food production

A performance that puts agribusiness in a position of distinction in terms of Brazil’s trade balance, in spite of trade barriers and subsidizing policies adopted by the developed countries.Toshiba Satellite T4900 Battery

In the space of fifty five years (1950 to 2005), the population of Brazil grew from 51 million to approximately 187 million inhabitants, an increase of over 2 percent per year. In order to meet this demand, it was necessary to take the development of cattle and crop raising activities a step further.Toshiba PA3399U-2BRS battery

Since then, an authentic green revolution has taken place, allowing the country to create and expand a complex agribusiness sector. However, some of this is at the expense of the environment, including the Amazon.Toshiba Satellite A200 Battery

The importance given to the rural producer takes place in the shape of the agricultural and cattle-raising plan and through another specific program geared towards family agriculture (Pronaf), which guarantee financing for equipment and cultivation and encourage the use of new technology, as shown by the use of agricultural land zoning. Toshiba Satellite M300 Battery

With regards to family agriculture, over 800 thousand rural inhabitants are assisted by credit, research and extension programs. The special line of credit for women and young farmers is an innovation worth mentioning, providing an incentive towards the entrepreneurial spirit.Toshiba Satellite 1200 Battery

With The Land Reform Program, on the other hand, the country's objective is to provide suitable living and working conditions for over one million families who live in areas allotted by the State, an initiative capable of generating two million jobs. Through partnerships, SONY VGP-BPS13A/Q Battery

public policies and international partnerships, the government is working towards the guarantee of an infrastructure for the settlements, following the examples of schools and health outlets. The idea is that access to land represents just the first step towards the implementation of a quality land reform program.SONY VGP-BPS13/Q Battery

Over 600,000 km² of land are divided into approximately five thousand areas of rural property; an agricultural area currently with three borders: the Central-western region (savanna), the Northern region(area of transition) and parts of the Northeastern region (semi-arid). Sony VGP-BPS21A/B Battery

At the forefront of grain crops, which produce over 110 million tonnes/year, is the soybean, yielding 50 million tonnes.

In the bovine cattle-raising sector, the "green ox," which is raised in pastures, on a diet of hay and mineralsalts, conquered markets in Asia, Europe and the Americas, particularly after the "mad cow disease" scare period. Sony VGP-BPS21/S Battery

Brazil has the largest cattle herd in the world, with 198 million heads, responsible for exports surpassing the mark of US$ 1 billion/year.

A pioneer and leader in the manufacture of short-fiber timber cellulose, Brazil has also achieved positive results within the packaging sector, in which it is the fifth largest world producer. Sony VGP-BPS21A Battery

In the foreign markets, it answers for 25 percent of global exports of raw cane and refined sugar; it is the world leader in soybean exports and is responsible for 80 percent of the planet's orange juice, and since 2003, has had the highest sales figures for beef and chicken, among the countries that deal in this sector.Sony VGP-BPS21 Battery

Industry

Brazil has the second biggest industrial sector in the Americas. Accounting for 28.5 percent of GDP, Brazil's diverse industries range fromautomobiles, steel and petrochemicals to computers, aircraft, and consumer durables. Dell Inspiron 6400 AC Adapter

With increased economic stability provided by the Plano Real, Brazilian and multinational businesses have invested heavily in new equipment and technology, a large proportion of which has been purchased from U.S. firms.

Brazil has a diverse and relatively sophisticated services industry as well. During the early 1990s, the banking sector accounted for as much as 16 percent of the GDPDell LATITUDE D800 battery

. Although undergoing a major overhaul, Brazil's financial services industry provides local businesses with a wide range of products and is attracting numerous new entrants, including U.S. financial firms. The São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro stock exchanges are undergoing a consolidation and the previously monopolistic reinsurance sector is being opened up to third party companies.Dell Inspiron Mini 12 battery

As of 31 December 2007, there were an estimated 21,304,000 broadband lines in Brazil. Over 75 percent of the broadband lines were via DSL and 10 percent via cable modems.

Proven mineral resources are extensive. Large iron and manganese reserves are important sources of industrial raw materials and export earnings. Dell Inspiron 1720 battery

Deposits of nickel, tin, chromite, uranium, bauxite, beryllium, copper, lead, tungsten, zinc, gold, and other minerals are exploited. High-quality cooking-grade coal required in the steel industry is in short supply.

Energy

The Brazilian government has undertaken an ambitious program to reduce dependence on imported oil.Dell Inspiron 1564 battery

Imports previously accounted for more than 70 percent of the country's oil needs but Brazil became energy independent in 2006. Brazil is one of the world's leading producers of hydroelectric power, with a current capacity of about 260,000 megawatts. Existing hydroelectric power provides 90 percent of the nation's electricity. Dell Inspiron 1464 battery

Two large hydroelectric projects, the 19,900 megawatt Itaipu Dam on the Paraná River (the world's largest dam) and the Tucurui Dam in Pará in northern Brazil, are in operation. Brazil's first commercial nuclear reactor, Angra I, located near Rio de Janeiro, has been in operation for more than 10 years. Dell XPS 1340 battery

Angra II was completed in 2002 and is in operation too. An Angra III has its planned inauguration scheduled for 2014. The three reactors would have combined capacity of 9,000 megawatts when completed. The government also plans to build 19 more nuclear plants by the year 2020.Dell INSPIRON 9100 battery

Economic status

"In Brazil a labor-union leader has presided over an amazing period of social and economic progress. It is also one of the few countries that have successfully managed to reduce economic inequality at a time when everywhere else inequities are deepening.Dell Inspiron N4010 battery

Successive Brazilian governments, of rival political parties, have succeeded in improving education, health and the living standards of millions of impoverished citizens who have now joined a growing middle class. Brazil has an energy policy that has spawned the world's most vibrant biofuels industry. Dell N3010 battery

In 1995, 15 percent of Brazilian school-age children did not go to school. In 2005, this fell to 3 percent, and today Brazil has practically achieved universal basic education."

Sustainable growth

After being discovered by Portugal in 1500, it was only in 1808 that Brazil obtained a permit from the Portuguese colonial government to set up its first factories and manufacturers.HP Pavilion DV6-1210SA battery

In the 21st century, Brazil reached the status of 8th largest economy in the world. Originally, the export list was basic raw and primary goods, such as sugar, rubber and gold. Today, 84 percent of exports consists of manufactured and semi-manufactured products.HP Pavilion DM4 battery

The period of great economic transformation and growth occurred between 1875 and 1975.

In the last decade, domestic production increased by 32.3 percent and agribusiness (agriculture and cattle-raising), which grew by 47 percent or 3.6 percent per year, was the most dynamic sector – even after having weathered international crises that demanded constant adjustments to the Brazilian economy.HP Pavilion DM3 battery

The Brazilian government also launched a program for economic development acceleration called Programa de Aceleração do Crescimento, aiming to spur growth.

Brazil's transparency ranking status in the international world is 75th according to Transparency International. It is equal with Colombia, Peru and Suriname.Compaq CQ35-100 battery

Control and reform

Among measures recently adopted in order to balance the economy, Brazil carried out reforms to its Social security (state and retirement pensions) and Tax systems. These changes brought with them a noteworthy addition: a Law of Fiscal Responsibility which controls public expenditure by the Executive Branches at federal, state and municipal levels. HP DV9700 battery

At the same time, investments were made towards administration efficiency and policies were created to encourage exports, industry and trade, thus creating "windows of opportunity" for local and international investors and producers.HP Compaq 491278-001 battery

With these alterations in place, Brazil has reduced its vulnerability: it doesn't import the oil it consumes; it has halved its domestic debt through exchange rate-linked certificates and has seen exports grow, on average, by 20% a year. The exchange rate does not put pressure on the industrial sector or inflation (at 4% a year), and does away with the possibility of a liquidity crisis. HP Compaq HSTNN-LB51 battery

As a result, the country, after 12 years, has achieved a positive balance in the accounts which measure exports/imports, plus interest payments, services and overseas payment. Thus, respected economists say that the country won't be deeply affected by the current world economic crisis.HP Pavilion ZD8227 battery

Consistent policies

Support for the productive sector has been simplified at all levels; active and independent, Congress and the Judiciary Branch carry out the evaluation of rules and regulations. Among the main measures taken to stimulate the economy are the reduction of up to 30 percent on Manufactured Products Tax (IPI), HP Compaq Business Notebook TC4400 battery

and the investment of $8 billion on road cargo transportation fleets, thus improving distribution logistics. Further resources guarantee the propagation of business and information telecenters.

The Policy for Industry, Technology and Foreign Trade, at the forefront of this sector, for its part,HP Pavilion DV7-2085EL battery

invests $19.5 billion in specific sectors, following the example of the software and semiconductor, pharmaceutical and medicine product, and capital goods sectors.

Mergers & Acquisitions

Between 1993 and 2010, 7.012 mergers & acquisitions with a total known value of $707 billion USD with the involvement of Brazilian firms have been announced.Compaq Presario 300 battery

The year 2010 was a new record in terms of value with $115 bn. of transactions. The largest transaction with involvement of Brazilian companies has been: Cia Vale do Rio Doce acquired Inco in a tender offer valued at $18.9 billions.HP Compaq Business Notebook 6735S battery

Brazil has the largest electricity market in South America, with a power consumption that is more than double the combined consumption of Argentina,Bolivia, Chile and Uruguay. Its installed capacity is comparable to that of Italy and the United Kingdom, although with a much larger transmission network. HP Pavilion DV2820EA battery

The country has the largest capacity for water storage in the world,being highly dependent on hydroelectricity generation capacity, which meets over 80% of its electricity demand. This reduces the country's generation costs relative to countries with more diverse supply mixes. HP Pavilion DV6373EA battery

However, this dependence on hydropower also makes Brazil especially vulnerable to power supply shortages in drought years, as was demonstrated by the 2001-2002 energy crisis.

The National Interconnected System (SIN) comprises the electricity companies in the South, South-East, Center-West, North-East and part of the North region.HP Compaq 572190-001 battery

Only 3.4% of the country's electricity production is located outside the SIN, in small isolated systems located mainly in the Amazonian region.

Installed capacity

Generation capacity in Brazil is dominated by hydroelectric plants, which account for 77% of total installed capacity, with 24 plants above 1,000 MW. Compaq Presario CQ50-105EL battery

About 88 percent of the electricity fed into the national grid is estimated to come from hydroelectric generation, with over 25% coming from a single hydropower plant, the massive 14 GW Itaipu dam facility, located between Brazil and Paraguay on the Paraná River.HP Pavilion DV7-1290EO battery

Natural gas generation is second in importance, representing about 10% of total capacity,  close to the 12% goal for 2010 established in 1993 by the Ministry of Energy and Mines.

This reliance on abundant hydroelectric resources is beneficial for Brazil as this reduces the overall generation costs. Compaq Presario CQ71 battery

However, this large dependence on hydropower makes the country especially vulnerable to supply shortages in low-rainfall years (See The 2001-2002 crisis below).

Hydroelectric plants

The National Agency for Electricity (ANEEL) has commissioned feasibility studies for several hydroelectric plants (small, medium and large) in the period 2006-2008. HP Pavilion DV6000 battery

These studies correspond to a total potential capacity of 31,000MW. The three largest projects studied, Jirau, Santo Antônio and Belo Monte, are already beyond the feasibility phase: In 2007, Ibama, the environmental agency, gave approval for the construction of two new dams, Jirau (3,300 MW) and Santo Antônio (3,150 MW), on the Madeira River in the state of Rondônia.Compaq Presario CQ70 battery

The bid for the Santo Antônio plant was awarded in December 2007 to Madeira Energy, with a 39% participation from state-owned Furnas, while the bid for the Jirau plant will be launched in May 2008. The government is also pursuing development of the controversial 11,000 MW Belo Monte Dam in the state of Pará, on the Xingu River.HP Compaq 491278-001 battery

IBAMA approved Belo Monte's provisional environmental license in February 2010 despite internal uproar from technicians over incomplete data.

Nuclear plants

Also in 2007, Electronuclear was granted permission to resume construction of Angra 3, a 1,350 MW plant, and is currently in the process of selecting a site for a fourth nuclear power plant. HP TouchSmart TX2-1150EG battery

Thermoelectric plants

Currently, the development of gas-fired thermoelectric power is somewhat jeopardized by the lack of secure gas supplies. In fact, having a secure gas contract is a prerequisite to build a newthermoelectric plant and to participate in a new energy auction (See Energy auctions below). HP 520 battery

In order to counter the risk of unavailability of gas supplies, Brazil is in the initial stages of planning to build two LNG terminals that would likely come on-stream around 2010. However, in the meantime, several thermoelectric plants are converting their machinery to dual-fuel capacity (oil and gas).Asus ADP-36EH C Adapter

Demand

Total electricity consumed in 2007 was 410 TWh, while annual consumption per capita for the same year averaged 2,166 kWh) (compare with 12,300 kWh per capita for the United States). The share of consumption by sector was as follows: Dell PA-10 Adapter

  • Residential: 40% (including 6% for the rural sector)
  • Industrial: 25%
  • Commercial: 22%
  • Rural: 6%
  • Public: 13%  Delta ADP-90FB Adapter

Electricity demand is expected to grow an average of 3.6% in the next few years, leading to total estimated consumption of 504 TWh and average per capita consumption of 2,527 kWh (around 18% of that of the United States and 45% of that in the United Kingdom).http://www.battery-pack.co.uk/

Supply vs. demand

In Brazil, capacity addition traditionally lagged behind demand growth.Electricity demand is expected to continue to grow at a quick pace. The income elasticity of demand for electricity is estimated by Eletrobras at above unity. Delta ADP-90FB Adapter

Between 1980 and 2000, electricity demand increased on average by 5.4 per cent per year while GDP grew by 2.4 per cent on average per year. Investment is therefore needed to boost generation and transmission capacity because there is limited excess supply, despite the reduction in demand following the energy rationing programme implemented in 2001 in response to the energy crisis. Dell PA-10 Adapter

Access to electricity

Brazil, together with Chile, is the country with the highest access rate in Latin America. The power sector in Brazil serves more than 50 million customers, which corresponds to about 97% of the country's households, who have access to reliable electricity.Dell PA-12 Adapter

Interruption frequency and duration

Interruption frequency and duration are very close to the averages for the LAC region. In 2005, the average number of interruptions per subscriber was 12.5, while duration of interruptions per subscriber was 16.5 hours. The weighted averages for LAC were 13 interruptions and 14 hours respectively.Asus ADP-36EH C Adapter

Distribution losses

Distribution losses in 2005 were 14%, well in line with the 13.5% average for the LAC region  but about double that of an OECD country such as the Great Britain, with 7% distribution losses.Dell Inspiron 6400 Adapter

Policy and Regulation

The Ministry of Energy and Mines (MME) has the overall responsibility for policy setting in the electricity sector while ANEEL, which is linked to the Ministry of Mines and Energy, is the Brazilian Electricity Regulatory Agency created in 1996 by Law 9427. Dell Inspiron 1520 Adapter

ANEEL's function is to regulate and control the generation, transmission and distribution of power in compliance with the existing legislation and with the directives and policies dictated by the Central Government. The National Council for Energy Policies(CNPE),Dell Inspiron 1525 Charger

is an advisory body to the MME in charge of approving supply criteria and "structural" projects while the Electricity Industry Monitoring Committee (CMSE) monitors supply continuity and security. HP Pavilion DV6000 Adapter

The Operator of the National Electricity System (ONS) is a non-profit private entity created in August 1998 that is responsible for the coordination and control of the generation and transmission installations in the National Interconnected System (SIN). The ONS is under ANEEL's control and regulation. Dell Latitude D820 Charger

The Power Commercialization Chamber (CCEE), successor of MAE (Mercado Atacadista de Energia Electrica), is the operator of the commercial market. The initial role of the operator was to create a single, integrated commercial electricity market, to be regulated under published rules. HP Pavilion DV9000 AC Adapter

This role has become more active since now CCEE is in charge of the auction system. The rules and commercialization procedures that regulate CCEE's activities are approved by ANEEL.

Finally, the Power Research Company (EPE) was created in 2004 with the specific mission of developing an integrated long-term planning for the power sector in Brazil.Sony VGP-BPS8 Battery

Its mission is to carry out studies and research services in the planning of the energy sector in areas such as power, oil and natural gas and its derivates, coal, renewable energy resources and energy efficiency, among others. Its work serves as input for the planning and implementation of actions by the Ministry of Energy and Mines in the formulation of the national energy policySony VGP-BPS9 Battery.

The Brazilian electricity model is fully deregulated, which allows generators to sell all of their "assured energy" via freely negotiated contracts with consumers above 3MW or via energy auctions administered by CCEE (See energy auctions below). . Under this model, distributors are required to contract 100% of their expected demand.Sony VGP-BPS12 Battery

Currently, Brazilian generation supply can be sold under four types of markets:

  • "Old energy"* auction contracts (long term): approximately 41% of the 2006 market
  • "New energy"* auction contracts (long term):delivery starts in 2008  Dell Inspiron 6400 Battery
  • Free-market contracts (long term): approximately 27% of 2006 market
  • Spot Market Sales (size uncertain)

(*The government identifies two types of generation capacity, "old energy" and "new energy". Old energy represents existing plants that were already contracted in the 1990s, while new energy refers to that energy produced by plants that have not yet been built, or by existing plants that meet certain criteria.)Dell Inspiron 1525 Battery

Generation

In Brazil, large government-controlled companies dominate the electricity sector. Federally-owned Eletrobrás holds about 40% of capacity (including 50% of the Itaipu dam), with state-companies CESP, Cemig and Copel controlling 8%, 7% and 5% of generation capacity respectively.Dell XPS M1530 Battery

The situation prior to the reforms: the state-dominated model

The power sector in Brazil was essentially in government's hands until the early 1990s. The sector had seen remarkable development in the 1970s. However, by the late 1980s, the state-ownership model was on the verge of collapse.Dell Inspiron 6000 Battery

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