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Luxembourg, officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (Luxembourgish: Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg, French:Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, German: Großherzogtum Luxemburg), is a landlocked country in western Europe, bordered by Belgium, France, andGermany.Dell Studio XPS 1640 Battery

Luxembourg has a population of over half a million people in an area of approximately 2,586 square kilometres (999 sq mi).A representative democracy with a constitutional monarch, it is ruled by a grand duke. It is the world's only remaining sovereign grand duchy. Dell Latitude D830 Battery

The country has a highly developed economy, with the world's highest GDP (nominal) per capita according to the IMF. Its historic and strategic importance dates back to its founding as a Roman era fortress site and Frankish count's castle site in the Early Middle Ages.Toshiba Satellite M65 battery

It was an important bastion along the Spanish Roadwhen Spain was the principal European power influencing the whole western hemisphere and beyond in the 16th–17th centuries.

Luxembourg is a member of the European Union, NATO, OECD, the United Nations, Benelux, and the Western European Union, reflecting the political consensus in favour of economic, political, and military integration. Toshiba NB100 Battery

The city of Luxembourg, the capital and largest city, is the seat of several institutions and agencies of the European Union.

Luxembourg culture is a mix of Romance Europe and Germanic Europe, borrowing customs from each of the distinct traditions. Luxembourg is a trilingualcountry; Toshiba Satellite P10 Battery

German, French and Luxembourgish are official languages. Although a secular state, Luxembourg is predominantly Roman Catholic.

History

The recorded history of Luxembourg begins with the acquisition of Lucilinburhuc (today Luxembourg Castle) bySiegfried, Count of Ardennes in 963.Sony VGP-BPS13B/B Battery

Around this fort, a town gradually developed, which became the centre of a small state of great strategic value. In the 14th and early 15th centuries three members of the House of Luxembourg reigned as Holy Roman Emperors. In 1437, the House of Luxembourg suffered a succession crisis, precipitated by the lack of a male heir to assume the throne, which led to the territory being sold by Duchess Elisabeth to Philip the Good ofBurgundy. Sony VGN-FW11S Battery

In the following centuries, Luxembourg's fortress was steadily enlarged and strengthened by its successive occupants, the Bourbons, Habsburgs, Hohenzollerns, and the French, among others. After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, Luxembourg was disputed between Prussia and the Netherlands.Hp pavilion dv6000 battery

The Congress of Vienna formed Luxembourg as aGrand Duchy in personal union with the Netherlands. Luxembourg also became a member of the German Confederation, with a Confederate fortress manned by Prussian troops.

The Belgian Revolution of 1830–1839 reduced Luxembourg's territory by more than half, as the predominantlyfrancophone western part of the country was transferred to Belgium. Sony Vaio VGN-FZ31S battery

Luxembourg's independence was reaffirmed by the 1839 First Treaty of London. In the same year, Luxembourg joined the Zollverein. Luxembourg's independence and neutrality were again affirmed by the 1867 Second Treaty of London, after the Luxembourg Crisis nearly led to war between Prussia and France.Sony Vaio VGN-FZ31S battery

After the latter conflict, the Confederate fortress was dismantled.

The King of the Netherlands remained Head of State as Grand Duke of Luxembourg, maintaining personal unionbetween the two countries until 1890. HP NX8200 battery

At the death of William III, the Dutch throne passed to his daughter Wilhelmina, while Luxembourg (at that time restricted to male heirs by the Nassau Family Pact) passed to Adolph of Nassau-Weilburg.

During World War I Luxembourg was invaded and occupied by Germany, but was allowed to maintain its independence and political mechanisms.HP NX7400 battery

During World War II, Luxembourg was unable to maintain its policy of neutrality when in 1940 Nazi Germany invaded and occupied the country, due to its strategic location on the invasion route into France. In contrast to the First World War experience, Luxembourg was treated as a Germanic territory and informally annexed to an adjacent province of the Third Reich in 1940.HP NW8440 battery

A government in exile based in London fought alongside the Allies, sending a small group of volunteers who participated in the Normandy invasion. Luxembourg was liberated in September 1944. It became a founding member of the United Nations in 1946, and of NATO in 1949.HP NW8200 battery

In 1957, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the European Economic Community (later theEuropean Union), and, in 1999, it joined the euro currency era. In 2005, a referendum on the EU treaty establishing a constitution for Europe was held in Luxembourg.HP NC6400 battery

Politics

Luxembourg is a parliamentary democracy headed by a constitutional monarch. Under the constitution of 1868, executive power is exercised by the Grand Duke and the cabinet, which consists of several other ministers. HP NC6200 battery

The Governor has the power to dissolve thelegislature and reinstate a new one, as long as the Grand Duke has judicial approval. However, since 1919, sovereignty has resided with the Supreme Court.

Legislative power is vested in the Chamber of Deputies, a unicameral legislature of sixty members, who are directly elected to five-year terms from four constituencies. HP NC6100 battery

A second body, the Council of State (Conseil d'État), composed of twenty-one ordinary citizens appointed by the Grand Duke, advises the Chamber of Deputies in the drafting of legislation.

The Grand Duchy has three lower tribunals (justices de paix; in Esch-sur-Alzette, the city of Luxembourg, and Diekirch),HP NC6000 battery

two district tribunals (Luxembourg and Diekirch) and a Superior Court of Justice (Luxembourg), which includes the Court of Appeal and the Court of Cassation. There is also an Administrative Tribunal and an Administrative Court, as well as a Constitutional Court, all of which are located in the capital.HP NC4400 battery

Administrative divisions

Luxembourg is divided into 3 districts, which are further divided into 12 cantons and then 116 communes. Twelve of the communes have city status, of which the city of Luxembourg is the largest.The districts are Diekirch, Grevenmacher, and Luxembourg.HP 6710B battery

Foreign relations

Luxembourg has long been a prominent supporter of European political and economic integration. In efforts foreshadowing European integration, Luxembourg and Belgium in 1921 formed the Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union (BLEU) to create an inter-exchangeable currency and a common customs regime.HP 6530B battery

Luxembourg is a member of the Benelux Economic Union and was one of the founding members of the European Economic Community (now the European Union). It also participates in the Schengen Group (named after the Luxembourg village where the agreements were signed), whose goal is the free movement of citizens among member states. HP 6510B battery

At the same time, the majority of Luxembourgers have consistently believed that European unity makes sense only in the context of a dynamic transatlantic relationship, and thus have traditionally pursued a pro-NATO, pro-US foreign policy.HP Pavilion DV6-1020ED Battery

Luxembourg is the site of the European Court of Justice, the European Court of Auditors, the Statistical Office of the European Communities (Eurostat) and other vital EU organs. The Secretariat of the European Parliament is located in Luxembourg, but the Parliament usually meets in nearby Strasbourg.Dell Latitude E6400 battery

Military

The contribution Luxembourg makes to its defence and to NATO consists of a small army (currently consisting of around 800 people). As a landlocked country, it has no navy.

Luxembourg also lacks an air force, though the seventeen NATO AWACS aeroplanes are for convenience registered as aircraft of Luxembourg.Apple A1281 battery

In accordance with a joint agreement with Belgium, both countries have put forth funding for one A400M military cargo plane, currently on order. Luxembourg still jointly maintains three NATO Boeing 707 model TCAs (for cargo and training purposes) based at NATO Air Base Geilenkirchen. Apple A1280 battery

Geography

Luxembourg is one of the smallest countries in Europe, and ranked 175th in size of all the 194 independent countries of the world; the country is about 2,586 square kilometres (998 sq mi) in size, and measures 82 km (51 miles) long and 57 km (35 miles) wide. It lies between latitudes 49° and 51° N, and longitudes5° and 7° E.Dell LATITUDE D800 battery

To the east, Luxembourg borders the German Bundesländer of Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland, and, to the south, it borders the French région of Lorraine. The Grand Duchy borders the Belgian Walloon Region, in particular the latter's provinces of Luxembourg and Liège, more in particular the German-speaking Community of Belgium, to the west and to the north respectively.Dell Inspiron 6400 AC Adapter

The northern third of the country is known as the 'Oesling', and forms part of the Ardennes. It is dominated by hills and low mountains, including the Kneiffnear Wilwerdange, which is the highest point, at 560 metres (1,837 ft). Other mountains are the 'Buurgplaaz' at 559 metres near Huldange and the 'Napoléonsgaard' at 548 metres near Rambrouch.Sony Vaio VGN-CR190E/L Battery

The region is sparsely populated, with only one town (Wiltz) with a population of more than four thousand people.

The southern two-thirds of the country is called the "Gutland", and is more densely populated than the Oesling. It is also more diverse, and can be divided into five geographic sub-regions. HP 448007-001 battery

The Luxembourg plateau, in south-central Luxembourg, is a large, flat, sandstone formation, and the site of the city of Luxembourg. Little Switzerland, in the east of Luxembourg, has craggy terrain and thick forests. The Moselle valley is the lowest-lying region, running along the southeastern border.Sony VGP-BPS11 battery

The Red Lands, in the far south and southwest, are Luxembourg's industrial heartland and home to many of Luxembourg's largest towns.

The border between Luxembourg and Germany is formed by three rivers: the Moselle, the Sauer, and the Our.HP Pavilion DV6-1223EO Battery

Other major rivers are the Alzette, the Attert, the Clerve, and the Wiltz. The valleys of the mid-Sauer and Attert form the border between the Gutland and the Oesling.

Climate

Luxembourg has an oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb), marked by high precipitation, particularly in late summer.Compaq CQ35-100 battery

Economy

Luxembourg's stable, high-income economy features moderate growth, low inflation, and low unemployment. The industrial sector, which was dominated until the 1960s by steel, has diversified to include chemicals, rubber, and other products. During the past decades, growth in the financial sector has more than compensated for the decline in steel.HP DV9700 battery

Services, especially banking and other financial exports, account for the majority of economic output. In March 2010, the Sunday Telegraph reported that most of Kim Jong-Il's $4bn in secret accounts is in Luxembourg banks. Luxembourg is the world's second largest investment fund center (after the United States), Sony VGP-BPS13 battery

the most important private banking center in the Eurozone and Europe's leading center for reinsurance companies. Moreover, the Luxembourgish government has tried to attract internet start-ups. Skype and eBay are two of the many internet companies that have shifted their regional headquarters to Luxembourg.HP Pavilion DV8 battery

Concern about Luxembourg's banking secrecy laws, and its reputation as a tax haven, led in April 2009 to it being added to a "grey list" of nations with questionable banking arrangements by the G20. Luxemburg adapted some months later the OECD standards on exchange of information and moved into the category of 'Jurisdictions that have substantially implemented the internationally agreed tax standard.' Compaq CQ50 battery

Agriculture is based on small, family-owned farms. Luxembourg has especially close trade and financial ties to Belgium and the Netherlands (see Benelux), and as a member of the EU it enjoys the advantages of the open European market. HP Pavilion DV7 battery

Luxembourg possesses the highest GDP per capita in the world (US$87,995 as of 2006), the 24th highest Human Development Index, and the 4th highest rated in the quality of life index.As of March 2006, unemployment is 4.8% of the labor force. For the fiscal year of 2005 and 2006, Ibm THINKPAD X200 Battery

Luxembourg ran a budget deficit for the first time in many years, mostly because of slower international economic growth. The country ranks with 80 billion $ of U.S. Treasury securities (November 2010) twelfth in the world. Ibm THINKPAD X200 Battery

The ranking is however imperfect as some foreign owners entrust the safekeeping of their securities to institutions that are neither in the United States nor in the owner's country of residence. Luxembourg is promoting economic relations with foreign firms and countries. Ibm THINKPAD X200 Battery

Transport

Luxembourg has efficient road, rail and air transport facilities and services. The road network has been significantly modernized in recent years with 147 km of motorways connecting the capital to adjacent countries. SONY VAIO VGN-FW21E Battery

The advent of the high-speed TGV link to Paris has led to renovation of the city's railway station while a new passenger terminal at Luxembourg Airport has recently been opened. There are plans to introduce trams in the capital and light-rail lines in adjacent areas within the next few years.Asus M52N Battery

Communications

The telecommunications industry in Luxembourg is liberalized and the electronic communications networks are significantly developed. Competition between the different operators is guaranteed by the legislative framework Paquet Telecom of the Government of 2005 which transposes the European Telecom Directives into Luxembourgean law. Dell Latitude E6400 ATG Battery

This encourages the investment in networks and services. The regulator ILR - Institut Luxembourgeois de Régulation ensures the compliance to these legal rules

Luxembourg has modern and widely deployed optical fibre and cable networks throughout the country. SONY VAIO VGN-FW21L Battery

With its central position in Europe, stable economy and low taxes, Luxembourg is an ideal gateway to the European telecommunication markets.

It ranks 2nd in the world in the development of the Information and Communication Technologies in the ITU ICT Development Index and 8th in the Global Broadband Quality Study 2009 by the University of Oxford and the University of Oviedo. SONY VAIO VGN-FW21M Battery

Luxembourg is connected to all major European Internet Exchanges (AMS-IX Amsterdam, DE-CIX Frankfurt, LINX London), datacenters and POPs through redundant optical networks. In addition, the country is connected to the virtual meetme room services (vmmr) of the international data hub operator Ancotel.SONY VAIO VGN-FW21Z Battery

This enables Luxembourg to interconnect with all major telecommunication operators and data carriers worldwide. The interconnection points are in Frankfurt, London, New York and Hong Kong.

Several providers interconnect Luxembourg to the major European data hubsSONY VAIO VGN-FW33GW Battery

  • Teralink (P&TLuxembourg, also called EPT Luxembourg: incumbent operator)
  • LuxConnect (shareholder : Government)
  • Artelis/Cegecom (alternative telecommunications provider in Luxembourg and Saarland)Dell XPS M1210 Battery
  • Satellite connectivity - Teleports (SES Astra),Broadcasting Center Europe and P&T Luxembourg-Uplink Cloche d'Or.

Ten data center operators are established in Luxembourg.Dell KM958 battery

Luxembourg is connected through Teralink to several Tier 1 upstream providers like Level3 and Global Crossing. The Internet IPV6 protocol has been introduced to the country by Restena and P&T Luxembourg.

Luxembourg has two Internet exchange points.Dell Studio 1555 battery

  • LIX is a neutral Internet exchange operated by the RESTENA Foundation. Its aim is to easily interconnect the different Internet Service Providers (ISPs) within Luxembourg.
  • LUX-CIX is Luxembourg's neutral and commercial Internet Exchange Point which was founded in 2009 by Cegecom,Sony VGP-BPS13 battery
  •  Datacenter Luxembourg, Global Media Systems, INEXIO, LuxConnect, P&T Luxemboug and Root eSolutions. It offers a short, fast and efficient route to the major European Internet networks. Sony VGP-BPS13/S battery

The online portal De Guichet of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is a single one-stop online shop for citizens and companies to realize different sorts of administrative steps (procedures, online forms, downloadable forms and advices) by Internet.

PSA Peugeot Citroën, with P&T Luxembourg as its partner, has introduced an integrated mobile telecommunication solution for the development of its telematic services in Europe.Sony VGP-BPS13A/B battery

Ethnicity

The people of Luxembourg are called Luxembourgers. The native population has a Celtic base with a French and Germanic blend. The immigrant population increased in the twentieth century due to the arrival of immigrants from Belgium, France, Italy, Germany, and Portugal, with the majority coming from this latter. Sony VGP-BPS13B/B battery

In the 2001 census, there were 58,657 inhabitants with Portuguesenationality.

Since the beginning of the Yugoslav wars, Luxembourg has seen many immigrants from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, and Serbia. Sony VGP-BPL9 battery

Annually, over 10,000 new immigrants arrive in Luxembourg, mostly from the EU states, as well and Eastern Europe. As of 2000, there were 162,000 immigrants in Luxembourg, accounting for 37% of the total population. There were an estimated 5,000 illegal immigrants, including asylum seekers, in Luxembourg as of 1999. Sony VGP-BPS13B/B battery

Language

Three languages are recognised as official in Luxembourg: French, German, and Luxembourgish, a Franconian language of the Moselle region that is also spoken in neighbouring parts of France and Germany.Sony VGP-BPL15 battery

Though Luxembourgish is part of the West Central German group of High German languages, more than 5,000 words in the Luxembourgish have their origin in the French language. The first printed sentences in Luxembourgisch were released by the weekly journal the 'Luxemburger Wochenblatt' in the second edition of the 14. April 1821.HP Pavilion dv6000 Battery

Apart from being one of the three official languages, Luxembourgish is also considered the national language of the Grand Duchy; it is the mother tongue or "language of the heart" for nearly all Luxembourgers.

Each of the three languages is used as the primary language in certain spheres. HP Pavilion dv8000 battery

Luxembourgish is the language that Luxembourgers generally use to speak to each other, but it is not often used as the written language. Since the 1980s, an increasing number of novels have however been written in Luxembourgish. Most official (written) business is carried out in French. HP PAVILION DV6000 Battery

German is usually the first language taught in school and is the language of much of the media and of the church.

Luxembourg's education system is trilingual: the first years of primary school are in Luxembourgish, before changing to German, while in secondary school, the language of instruction changes to French.HP PAVILION DV8000 Battery

However, as proficiency in all three languages is required for graduation from secondary school, half the students leave school without a certified qualification, with the children of immigrants being particularly disadvantaged. SONY VAIO VGN-FZ Battery

In addition to the three official languages, English is taught in the compulsory schooling and much of the population of Luxembourg can speak English, at any rate in Luxembourg City. Portuguese, the language of the largest immigrant community, is also spoken by large parts of the population, but by relatively few from outside their community.HP Pavilion DV6000 battery

Religion

Luxembourg is a secular state, but the state recognises certain religions as officially mandated religions. This gives the state a hand in religious administration and appointment of clergy, in exchange for which the state pays certain running costs and wages.HP Pavilion DV8000 battery

Currently, religions covered by such arrangements are Roman Catholicism, Judaism, Greek Orthodoxy, Anglicanism, Russian Orthodoxy, Lutheranism, Mennonitism and Islam.

Since 1980 it has been illegal for the government to collect statistics on religious beliefs or practices.HP Pavilion DV6000 battery

An outdated estimation by the CIA Factbook for the year 2000 is that 87% of Luxembourgers are Catholics, including the royal family, the remaining 13% being made up of Muslims, Protestants, Orthodox Christians, Jews, and those of other or no religion.HP Pavilion DV8000 battery

According to the most recent Eurobarometer Poll 2005, 44% of Luxembourg citizens responded that "they believe there is a God", whereas 28% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 22% that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, god, or life force".SONY VAIO VGN-FZ18 Battery

Health

Luxembourg sells the most alcohol in Europe per capita. However, the large proportion of alcohol purchase by customers from neighbouring countries contributes to the statistically high level of alcohol sales per capita; SONY VAIO VGN-FZ21E Battery

this level of alcohol sales is thus not representative of the actual alcohol consumption of the Luxembourg population.

Culture

Luxembourg has been overshadowed by the culture of its neighbours, although, having been for much of its history a profoundly rural country, it retains a number of folk traditions.SONY VAIO VGN-FW31J Battery

There are several notable museums, mostly located in the capital; these include the National Museum of History and Art (MNHA), the Luxembourg City History Museum, and the new Grand Duke Jean Museum of Modern Art (Mudam). The National Museum of Military History (MNHM) in Diekirch is especially known for its representations of the Battle of the Bulge. SONY VAIO VGN-FW31J Battery

The city of Luxembourg itself is on the UNESCO World Heritage List, on account of the historical importance of its fortifications.

The country has produced some internationally known artists, including the painters Théo Kerg, Joseph Kutter and Michel Majerus, as well as the photographerEdward Steichen. SONY VAIO VGN-FW21E Battery

Steichen's The Family of Man exhibition is now permanently housed in Clervaux, and it has been placed on UNESCO's Memory of the Worldregister. Movie star Loretta Young was of Luxembourgian descent.

Luxembourg was the first city to be named European Capital of Culture twice. SONY VAIO VGN-NR11S/S Battery

The first time was in 1995. In 2007, the European Capital of Culture was to be a cross-border area consisting of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Rheinland-Pfalz and Saarland in Germany, the Walloon Region and the German-speaking part of Belgium, and the Lorraine area in France. SONY VAIO VGN-NR11M/S Battery

The event was an attempt to promote mobility and the exchange of ideas, crossing borders in all areas, physical, psychological, artistic and emotional.

Luxembourg was represented at the World Expo 2010 in Shanghai, China from 1 May to 31 October 2010 with its own pavilion.SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Battery

The pavilion was based on the translation of the word Luxembourg into Chinese, which means ‘Lu Sen Bao’: Forest and Fortress. It represented Luxembourg as the ‘Green Heart in Europe'.

Media

Luxembourg is known in Europe for its radio and television stations (Radio Luxembourg, RTL Group). Sony VAIO VGN-FW21E Battery

It is also the uplink home of SES Astra, carrier of major European satellite services for Germany and Britain.

Due to the audiovisual law of 1988, which established a special tax regime for audiovisual investment, the film and co-production in Luxembourg has grown steadily.Sony VAIO VGN-NR11S/S Battery

There exists approximately 30 by agreed production companies in Luxembourg.

Luxemburg is a village in Kewaunee County, Wisconsin, United States. The population was 1,935 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Green BayMetropolitan Statistical Area. The village is located within the town of Luxemburg.Sony VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Battery

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 1,935 people, 719 households, and 524 families residing in the village. The population density was 935.7 people per square mile (360.9/km²). There were 754 housing units at an average density of 364.6 per square mile (140.6/km²). Sony VAIO VGN-NR11M/S Battery

The racial makeup of the village was 98.86% White, 0.10% Black or African American, 0.10% Native American, 0.26% Asian, 0.26% from other races, and 0.41% from two or more races. 0.47% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.Sony VAIO VGN-NR11Z/T Battery

There were 719 households out of which 39.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.5% were married couples living together, 9.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 27.1% were non-families. 22.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older.SONY VAIO VGN-FZ180E Battery

The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.11.

In the village the population was spread out with 28.2% under the age of 18, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 32.8% from 25 to 44, 16.4% from 45 to 64, and 13.9% who were 65 years of age or older. SONY VAIO VGN-FZ220E Battery

The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 98.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.4 males.

The median income for a household in the village was $45,000, and the median income for a family was $50,795.SONY VAIO VGN-FZ340E Battery

Males had a median income of $32,813 versus $23,897 for females. The per capita income for the village was $17,856. About 2.6% of families and 5.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.8% of those under age 18 and 17.2% of those age 65 or over.SONY VAIO VGN-FZ460E Battery

History

Luxemburg was settled in the 1850’s by the Arendt and Colle families on the north end of town and the Kaut and Merens families on the south side. They came from the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. A few years later the Daul, Peot, and Wahl families arrived from Germany.SONY VAIO VGN-FZ480E Battery

The railroad passed through Luxemburg, connecting Sturgeon Bay, WI, and Green Bay, WI, in the early 1890s bringing growth and new business opportunities. Edward Decker conceived the idea of connecting the two cities with a rail line. It was through his efforts the Ahnapee & Western Railway Co. was formed. SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31E Battery

The line passed through wooded areas and “swampers” cleared the brush and felled trees. Any laborer handy with pick and shovel was able to secure work. Hand laborers received from $1.00 to $1.25 for a ten-hour day. A farmer with team and scraper received $3.00 per day. SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31B Battery

The first full car of freight came over the line to Ahnapee (now Algoma, WI) in September 1892. Fare was three cents a mile.

The first business in Luxemburg was erected close to the railroad tracks in 1892 by Hector Boncher, called the “Wisconsin House” soon followed in 1894 with "The Transit House" built by Desire Colle, which is known today as "The Ale House."SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31J Battery

(est.2009) The village of Luxemburg expanded rapidly with the establishment of Jule Petry’s lumber yard and shingle mill in 1902. Also in 1902, telephone service arrived connecting the community with nearby business centers. Homes and stores were built, the grain elevator was erected, and the bank received its charter in 1903, giving the town a firm foundation for progress.SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31M Battery

In 1903 Nick Kaut plotted out the west side of Main Street into lots and Desire Colle, owner of the opposite side of Main Street, followed suit a year later.

About this time Dr. Felix Moraux was the first physician.SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31Z Battery

Victor Kaye had charge of the Cargill elevator. Joe Rothe decided to open a furniture store, Fred Radue gave haircuts and shaves in a small building in the rear of the Wisconsin House, and Vojta Nuhlicek opened the first harness shop. A cider press was operated in back of Casper Loberger’s store to quench one’s thirst. SONY VAIO VGN-FZ38M Battery

In rapid order came other projects, including John Linzmeier’s butcher shop, John Dupont’s jewelry store and Desire Colle’s tavern.

The village formed its school district in 1906 and occupied a room of the Felix VanDrisse building on Main Street with F.J. Kelliher wielding the birch rod. SONY VGP-BPS8 Battery

As Luxemburg grew the need for fire protection, street improvements, and other public services set the stage for incorporation in 1908. In 1911 the village population was 402.

In 1911 the Kewaunee branch of Green Bay & Western Railroad constructed a new turntable at Casco Junction SONY VGP-BPS13/S Battery

(now the Town of Casco, WI) to handle the new Mogul locomotive, but the station was later abandoned in favor of connecting in Luxemburg. A Luxemburg station dock was constructed in 1913 and upgraded three years later with a cement platform and refrigerator compartment facilitating trade to the area.SONY VGP-BPS13A/B Battery

From 1917 to 1919 some of the business establishments installed gas lighting systems for better vision. Work was started on the electric power line from Green Bay, WI to Sturgeon Bay, WI in 1920. Electricity was available for residents as of April 5, 1921. Street lights were installed on poles along the side of Main Street that same year.SONY VGP-BPS13B/B Battery

Citizens of Luxemburg voted for sewer and water in July 1943 and work was started in 1947 for the village pumping station. South Luxemburg requested sewer service for 14 homes, 2 taverns, St. Mary’s School and a cheese factory in August 1948.SONY VGP-BPS13A/S Battery

Luxemburg is a city in Dubuque County, Iowa, United States. It is part of the 'Dubuque, Iowa Metropolitan Statistical Area'. The population was 246 at the 2000 census. The White Pine Hollow State Forest is located four miles to the northwest of Luxemburg.SONY VGP-BPS13AS Battery

Geography

Luxemburg is located at 42°36?17?N 91°4?36?W (42.604830, -91.076542) .

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.5 square miles (1.2 km²), all of it land.Dell Inspiron 1320n Battery

Demographics

As of the census[2] of 2000, there were 246 people, 92 households, and 72 families residing in the city. The population density was 540.2 people per square mile (206.5/km²). There were 94 housing units at an average density of 206.4 per square mile (78.9/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 100.00% White.SONY VGP-BPS13AS Battery

There were 92 households out of which 31.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 70.7% were married couples living together, 4.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 21.7% were non-families. 20.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. Dell Inspiron 1320n Battery

The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.10.

In the city the population was spread out with 27.6% under the age of 18, 6.1% from 18 to 24, 27.2% from 25 to 44, 18.7% from 45 to 64, and 20.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years.Dell Studio 1450 Battery

For every 100 females there were 100.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.0 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $35,833, and the median income for a family was $46,667. Males had a median income of $26,042 versus $19,643 for females. Dell Studio 1457 Battery

The per capita income for the city was $15,314. None of the population or families were below the poverty line.

Rosa Luxemburg (Rosalia Luxemburg, Polish: Ró?a Luksemburg; 5 March 1871,Zamo??, Vistula Land, Russia – 15 January 1919, Berlin, Germany)Dell Latitude D610 Battery

was a Marxist theorist, philosopher, economist and activist of Polish Jewish descent who became a naturalized German citizen. She was successively a member of the Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania (SDKPiL), the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), the Independent Social Democratic Party (USPD), and the Communist Party of Germany (KPD).Dell Studio 1457 Battery

In 1915, after the SPD supported German involvement in World War I, she co-founded, with Karl Liebknecht, the anti-war Spartakusbund (Spartacist League). On 1 January 1919 the Spartacist League became the Communist Party of Germany (KPD).Toshiba Satellite M60 battery

In November 1918, during the German Revolutionshe founded the Die Rote Fahne (The Red Flag), the central organ of the Spartacist movement.

She regarded the Spartacist uprising of January 1919 in Berlin as a blunder, but supported it after Liebknecht ordered it without her knowledge. Dell Latitude D830 Battery

When the revolt was crushed by the social democrat government and the Freikorps (World War I veterans defending the Weimar Republic), Luxemburg, Liebknecht and some of their supporters were captured and murdered. Luxemburg was drowned in the Landwehr Canal in Berlin. Dell Latitude D620 Battery

After their deaths, Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht became martyrs for Marxists. According to the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution, commemoration of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht continues to play an important role among the German far-left.Dell Inspiron Mini 10 Battery

Poland

Luxemburg was born to a Jewish family in Zamo??, in Russian-controlled Congress Poland. She was the fifth child of timber trader Eliasz Luxemburg and Line Löwenstein. After being bedridden with a hip ailment at the age of five, she was left with a permanent limp.Sony VGN-FW11S Battery

On her family's moving to Warsaw, Luxemburg attended a Gymnasium from 1880. From 1886 onward, she belonged to the Polish, left-wing Proletariat party (founded in 1882, anticipating the Russian parties by twenty years). She began in politics by organizing a general strike; Sony VGN-FW11M Battery

this resulted in four of its leaders being put to death and the party being disbanded, though remaining members, Luxemburg among them, met in secret. In 1887, she passed her Matura examinations. After fleeing toSwitzerland to escape detention in 1889, she attended Zürich University (as did the socialists Anatoli Lunacharsky and Leo Jogiches)Sony VGN-FW139E/H battery

studying philosophy, history, politics, economics, and mathematics. She specialized in Staatswissenschaft (the science of forms of state), the Middle Ages, and economic and stock exchange crises.

In 1893, with Leo Jogiches and Julian Marchlewski (alias Julius Karski), Dell Latitude E5400 Battery

Luxemburg founded the newspaper Sprawa Robotnicza ("The Workers' Cause"), to oppose the nationalist policies of the Polish Socialist Party, believing that only through socialist revolution in Germany, Austria, and Russia could an independent Poland exist. She maintained that the struggle should be against capitalism, and not just for an independent Poland. Dell Latitude E4200 Battery

Her position denying a national right of self-determination under socialism provoked philosophic tension with Vladimir Lenin. She and Leo Jogiches co-founded the Social Democratic Party of the Kingdom of Poland (SDKP) (later Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania [SDKPiL]) by merging with Lithuania's social democratic organization. Dell Inspiron 300M Battery

Despite living in Germany for most of her adult life, Luxemburg was the principal theoretician of the Polish Social Democrats, and led the party in a partnership with Jogiches, its principal organizer.

Nor was she especially concerned with the plight of Jews. Dell Studio 1737 battery

She said, “Why do you come to me with your special Jewish sorrows? I feel just as sorry for the wretched Indian victims in Putamayo, the Negroes in Africa. . . . I cannot find a special corner in my heart for the ghetto. I feel at home in the entire world wherever there are clouds and birds and human tears.” Dell Inspiron E1505 battery

Germany

The recently published Letters of Rosa Luxemburg shed important light on Rosa Luxemburg’s life in Germany. As Irene Gammel writes in a review of the English translation of the book in the Globe and Mail: “The three decades covered by the 230 letters in this collection provide the context for her major contributions as a political activist, feminist and writer. Dell RM791 battery

In her controversial tome of 1913, The Accumulation of Capital, as well as through her work as a co-founder of the radical Spartacus League, Luxemburg helped to shape Germany’s young democracy by advancing an international, rather than a nationalist, outlook. Acer Aspire One battery 10400mAh

This farsightedness partly explains her remarkable popularity as a socialist icon and its continued resonance in movies, novels and memorials dedicated to her life and oeuvre.” Gammel also notes that for Rosa, “the revolution was a way of life,” and yet the letters also challenge the stereotype of “Red Rosa” as a ruthless fighter. Dell Precision M70 Battery

Before World War I

In 1898 Luxemburg married Gustav Lübeck, obtained German citizenship, and moved to Berlin. There, she was active in the left wing of theSocial Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), in which she sharply defined the border between her faction and the Revisionism Theory ofEduard Bernstein by attacking him in an 1899 brochure titled Social Reform or Revolution. SONY VGN -FZ210CE Battery

Luxemburg's rhetorical skill made her a leading spokeswoman in denouncing the SPD's reformist parliamentary course. She argued that the critical difference between capital and labourcould only be countered if the proletariat assumed power and effected revolutionary changes in production methods. Toshiba Satellite L305 Battery

She wanted the Revisionists ousted from the SPD. That did not occur, but Karl Kautsky's leadership retained a Marxist influence on its programme.

From 1900 Luxemburg published analyses of contemporary European socio-economic problems in newspapers. Toshiba Satellite T4900 Battery

Foreseeing war, she vigorously attacked what she saw as German militarism and imperialism. She wanted a general strike to rouse the workers to solidarity and prevent the coming war; the SPD leaders refused, and she broke with Karl Kautsky in 1910. Between 1904 and 1906 she was imprisoned for her political activities on three occasions. Toshiba PA3399U-2BRS battery

In 1907, she went to the Russian Social Democrats' Fifth Party Day in London, where she met V.I. Lenin. At the Second International (Socialist) Congress, in Stuttgart, she moved a resolution, which w

as accepted, that all European workers' parties should unite in attempting to stop the war.Sony VGP-BPS10 battery

Luxemburg taught Marxism and economics at the SPD's Berlin training centre. A student of hers, Friedrich Ebert later became SPD leader, and later the Weimar Republic's first president. In 1912 she was the SPD representative at the European Socialists congresses.Sony VGP-BPS9 battery

With French socialist Jean Jaurès, she argued that European workers' parties should effect a general strike when war broke out. In 1913 she told a large meeting: "If they think we are going to lift the weapons of murder against our French and other brethren, then we shall shout: Sony VGP-BPS11 battery

'We will not do it!'" But in 1914, when nationalist crises in the Balkans erupted to violence and then war, there was no general strike and the SPD majority supported the war – as did the French Socialists. The Reichstag unanimously agreed to financing the war.Sony VGP-BPS22 battery

The SPD voted in favour of that and agreed to a truce (Burgfrieden) with the Imperial government, promising to refrain from any strikes during the war. This led Luxemburg to contemplate suicide: The "revisionism" she had fought since 1899 had triumphed.Sony VGP-BPL8 battery

In response Luxemburg organised anti-war demonstrations in Frankfurt, calling for conscientious objection to military conscription and the refusal to obey orders. On that account, she was imprisoned for a year for "inciting to disobedience against the authorities' law and order".Sony VGP-BPS14 battery

During the war

In August 1914 Luxemburg, along with Karl Liebknecht, Clara Zetkin, and Franz Mehring, founded the Die Internationale group; it became the Spartacist League in January 1916. They wrote illegal, anti-war pamphlets pseudonymously signed "Spartacus" (after the slave-liberating Thracian gladiator who opposed the Romans);Sony VGP-BPS21 battery

Luxemburg's pseudonym was "Junius" (after Lucius Junius Brutus, founder of the Roman Republic).

The Spartacist League vehemently rejected the SPD's support for the war, trying to lead Germany's proletariat to an anti-war general strike. Toshiba Satellite A200 Battery

As a result, in June 1916 Luxemburg was imprisoned for two and a half years, as was Karl Liebknecht. During imprisonment, she was twice relocated, first to Posen (nowPozna?), then to Breslau (now Wroc?aw).

Friends smuggled out and illegally published her articles. Toshiba Satellite M300 Battery

Among them was "The Russian Revolution", criticising the Bolsheviks, presciently warning of theirdictatorship. Nonetheless, she continued calling for a "dictatorship of the proletariat", albeit not the One Party Bolshevik model. In that context, she wrote "Freiheit ist immer die Freiheit des Andersdenkenden" ("Freedom is always the freedom of the one who thinks differently"). Toshiba Satellite 1200 Battery

Another article, written in 1915 and published in June 1916, was "Die Krise der Sozialdemokratie" ("The Crisis of Social Democracy").

In 1917 the Spartacist League was affiliated with the Independent Social Democratic Party (USPD) (anti-war, ex-SPD members, founded by Hugo Haase). SONY VGP-BPS13A/Q Battery

In November 1918 the USPD and the SPD assumed power in the new republic upon the Kaiser's abdication. This followed the German revolution begun in Kiel, when Workers' and Soldiers' Councils seized most of Germany, to put an end to WWI and to the monarchy.SONY VGP-BPS13A/Q Battery

The USPD and most of the SPD members supported the councils, while the SPD leaders feared, they could found a Räterepublik("Council Republic"), in emulation of the system of Soviets of the Russian revolutions of 1905 and 1917.SONY VGP-BPS13/Q Battery

German Revolution of 1918-19 and murder

Luxemburg was freed from prison in Breslau on 8 November 1918. One day later Karl Liebknecht, who had also been freed from prison, proclaimed the Freie Sozialistische Republik (Free Socialist Republic) in Berlin. SONY VGP-BPS13/Q Battery

He and Luxemburg reorganised the Spartacus League and founded the Red Flag newspaper, demanding amnesty for all political prisoners and the abolition of capital punishment. On 14 December 1918 they published the new programme of the Spartacist League.SONY VGP-BPS21A/B Battery

From 29–31 December 1918, they took part in a joint congress of the Spartacist League, independent Socialists, and the International Communists of Germany (IKD), that led to the foundation of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD) under the leadership of Karl Liebknecht and Luxemburg on 1 January 1919. SONY VGP-BPS21/S Battery

She supported the new KPD's participation in the Weimar National Assembly that founded the Weimar Republic; but she was out-voted.

In January 1919 a second revolutionary wave swept Berlin. Unlike Liebknecht, Luxemburg rejected this violent attempt to seize power. But theRed Flag encouraged the rebels to occupy the editorial offices of the liberal press.SONY VGP-BPS21B Battery

In response to the uprising, Social Democratic leader Friedrich Ebert ordered the Freikorps to destroy the left-wing revolution. Luxemburg and Liebknecht were captured in Berlin on 15 January 1919 by the Freikorps' Garde-Kavallerie-Schützendivision.SONY VGP-BPS21A Battery

Its commander, Captain Waldemar Pabst (1880–1970), along with Horst von Pflugk-Hartung questioned them violently and then gave the order to execute them. Luxemburg was knocked down with a rifle butt by Otto Runge (1875–1945), then shot in the head by lieutenant Hermann Souchon (1894–1982);SONY VGP-BPS21 Battery

her body was flung into Berlin's Landwehr Canal. In the Tiergarten Karl Liebknecht was shot and his body, without a name, brought to a morgue.

After the murders, a new series of violent outrages in Berlin and whole Germany started, with thousands of KPD members, other revolutionaries and civilians being killed. Sony VGP-BPS21A/B Battery

Finally Workers' and Soldiers' councils and the People's Navy Division (Volksmarinedivision), who had positioned themselves to the left side meanwhile, disbanded.

The German revolution went to its terminal phase, with numbers of armed outrages and strikes all over Germany up to May 1919,Sony VGP-BPS21/S Battery

including Berlin, Bremen Soviet Republik, Saxony, Saxony Gotha, Hamburg, the Rhinelands and the Ruhr region. Last to stand was the Munich Soviet Republic until 2 May 1919.

More than four months after the murders, on 1 June 1919 Luxemburg's corpse was found and identified after an autopsy at the Berlin Charité hospital.Sony VGP-BPS21A Battery

For her murder, Otto Runge was imprisoned for two years, while Pabst and Souchon went unpunished. The Nazis later compensated Runge for having been jailed, and they merged the Garde-Kavallerie-Schutzendivision into the SA. In an interview given to the German news magazine "Der Spiegel" in 1962 and again in his memoirs,Sony VGP-BPS21 Battery

Pabst maintained that two SPD leaders, defense ministerGustav Noske and chancellor Friedrich Ebert, had approved of his actions. This statement has never been confirmed, since neither parliament nor the courts examined the case.

Luxemburg and Liebknecht were buried at Friedrichsfelde Central Cemetery in Berlin, where socialists and communists commemorate them every year, on the second Sunday of January.SONY VAIO VGN-FW31J Battery

Mystery of body

On 29 May 2009 Spiegel online, the internet branch of news magazine Der Spiegel, reported the possibility that someone else's remains had mistakenly been identified as Luxemburg's and buried as hers.SONY VAIO VGN-FW31E Battery

Forensic pathologist Michael Tsokos, head of the Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences at the Berlin Charité, had recently discovered a preserved corpse lacking head, feet, or hands, in the cellar of the Charité's medical history museum. He considered the corpse's autopsy report suspicious and decided to perform computer tomography on the remains. SONY VAIO VGN-FW31B Battery

The body showed signs of having been waterlogged at some point, and CT scans showed that it was the body of a woman of 40–50 years of age who suffered from osteoarthritis and had legs of differing length. At the time of her murder Rosa Luxemburg was 47 years old, and furthermore suffered from a congenital dislocation of the hip which resulted in her legs being of different lengths.SONY VAIO VGN-FW31M Battery

A laboratory in Kiel also tested the corpse usingcarbon dating techniques and confirmed that it dated from the same period as Luxemburg's murder.

The original autopsy performed on 13 June 1919 on the body that was eventually buried at Friedrichsfelde showed certain inconsistencies which supported Tsokos' hypothesis. SONY VAIO VGN-FW31Z Battery

The autopsy explicitly noted an absence of hip damage, and stated that there was no evidence that the legs were of different lengths. Additionally, the autopsy showed no traces on the upper skull of the two blows by rifle butt inflicted upon Luxemburg.Dell Inspiron 6400 AC Adapter

Finally, while the 1919 examiners noted a hole in the corpse's head between left eye and ear, they did not find an exit wound or the presence of a bullet within the skull.

Assistant pathologist Paul Fraenckel appeared to have had doubts at the time that the corpse he had examined was that of Rosa Luxemburg, and in a signed addendum distanced himself from his colleague's conclusions;Dell LATITUDE D800 battery

it was this addendum and the inconsistencies between the autopsy report and the known facts that persuaded Tsokos to examine the remains more closely. As regards the missing hands and feet, according to eyewitnesses, when Luxemburg's body was thrown into the canal, Dell Inspiron Mini 12 battery

weights were wired to her ankles and wrists which could have caused her extremities to become severed in the months her corpse spent in the water.

Tsokos realized that the optimum way to confirm or deny the identity of the body as that of Luxemburg's was to use DNA testing. Dell Inspiron 1720 battery

His team had initially hoped to find traces of DNA on old postage stamps that Luxemburg had licked, but it transpired that Luxemburg had never done this, preferring to moisten stamps with a damp cloth instead. Dell Inspiron 1564 battery

They therefore opted to find a surviving blood relative and in July 2009 the German Sunday newspaper Bild am Sonntag reported that a great-niece of Rosa Luxemburg's had been located, 79-year old Irene Borde, who donated some strands of her hair for purposes of DNA comparison testing.Dell Inspiron 1464 battery

In December 2009 it was reported that Berlin authorities had seized the corpse to perform an autopsy before burying it in Luxemburg's grave.

Dialectic of Spontaneity and Organisation

The Dialectic of Spontaneity and Organisation was the central feature of Luxemburg's political philosophy, wherein "spontaneity" is a grass roots approach to organising a party-oriented class struggle.Dell XPS 1340 battery

Spontaneity and organisation, she argued, are not separable or separate activities, but different moments of one political process; one does not exist without the other. These beliefs arose from her view that class struggle evolves from an elementary, spontaneous state to a higher level:Dell INSPIRON 9100 battery

"The working classes in every country only learn to fight in the course of their struggles ... Social democracy ... is only the advance guard of the proletariat, a small piece of the total working masses; blood from their blood, and flesh from their flesh. Social democracy seeks and finds the ways, and particular slogans, Dell Inspiron N4010 battery

of the workers' struggle only in the course of the development of this struggle, and gains directions for the way forward through this struggle alone."

Luxemburg did not hold "spontaneism" as an abstraction, but developed the Dialectic of Spontaneity and Organisation under the influence of mass strikes in Europe, especially the Russian Revolution of 1905.Dell N3010 battery

Unlike the social democratic orthodoxy of the Second International, she did not regard organisation as product of scientific-theoretic insight to historical imperatives, but as product of the working classes' struggles:HP Pavilion DV6-1210SA battery

"Social democracy is simply the embodiment of the modern proletariat's class struggle, a struggle which is driven by a consciousness of its own historic consequences. The masses are in reality their own leaders, dialectically creating their own development process. HP Pavilion DM4 battery

The more that social democracy develops, grows, and becomes stronger, the more the enlightened masses of workers will take their own destinies, the leadership of their movement, and the determination of its direction into their own hands. HP Pavilion DM3 battery

And as the entire social democracy movement is only the conscious advance guard of the proletarian class movement, which in the words of the Communist Manifesto represent in every single moment of the struggle the permanent interests of liberation and the partial group interests of the workforce vis à vis the interests of the movement as whole,Compaq CQ35-100 battery

so within the social democracy its leaders are the more powerful, the more influential, the more clearly and consciously they make themselves merely the mouthpiece of the will and striving of the enlightened masses, merely the agents of the objective laws of the class movement."HP DV9700 battery

and

"The modern proletarian class does not carry out its struggle according to a plan set out in some book or theory; the modern workers' struggle is a part of history, a part of social progress, and in the middle of history, in the middle of progress, in the middle of the fight, we learn how we must fight... HP Compaq 491278-001 battery

That's exactly what is laudable about it, that's exactly why this colossal piece of culture, within the modern workers' movement, is epoch-defining: that the great masses of the working people first forge from their own consciousness, from their own belief, and even from their own understanding the weapons of their own liberation."HP Compaq HSTNN-LB51 battery

Criticism of the October Revolution

In an article published just before the October Revolution, Luxemburg characterized the Russian February Revolution of 1917 as a "revolution of the proletariat", and said that the "liberal bourgeoisie" were pushed to movement by the display of "proletarian power."HP Pavilion ZD8227 battery

The task of the Russian proletariat, she said, was now to end the "imperialist" world war, in addition to struggling against the "imperialist bourgeoisie." The world war made Russia ripe for a socialist revolution. Therefore "the German proletariat are also ... posed a question of honour, and a very fateful question." HP Compaq Business Notebook TC4400 battery

In several works, including an essay written from jail and published posthumously by her last companion, Paul Levi (publication of which precipitated his expulsion from the Third International) entitled "The Russian Revolution",Luxemburg sharply criticized some Bolshevik policies, such as their suppression of theConstituent Assembly in January 1918,HP Pavilion DV7-2085EL battery

their support for the partition of the old feudal estates to the peasant communes, and their policy of supporting the purported right of all national peoples to "self-determination." According to Luxemburg, the Bolsheviks' strategic mistakes created tremendous dangers for the Revolution, such as its bureaucratisation.Compaq Presario 300 battery

Her sharp criticism of the October Revolution and the Bolsheviks was lessened insofar as she explained the errors of the revolution and of the Bolsheviks with the "complete failure of the international proletariat"

Bolshevik theorists such as Lenin and Trotsky responded to this criticism by arguing that Luxemburg's notions were classical Marxist ones, but did not fit Russia in 1917. HP Compaq Business Notebook 6735S battery

They stated that the lessons of actual experience, such as the confrontation with the bourgeois parties, had forced them to revise the Marxian strategy. As part of this argument, it was pointed out that after Luxemburg herself got out of jail, she was also forced to confront the National Assembly in Germany – a step which they compared with their own conflict with the Constituent Assembly.HP Pavilion DV2820EA battery

"In this erupting of the social divide in the very lap of bourgeois society, in this international deepening and heightening of class antagonism lies the historical merit of Bolshevism, and with this feat – as always in large historic connections – the particular mistakes and errors of the Bolsheviks disappear without trace.HP Pavilion DV6373EA battery

After the October Revolution, it becomes the "historic responsibility" of the German workers to carry out a revolution for themselves, and thereby end the war. When a revolution also broke out in Germany in November, of 1918, Luxemburg immediately began agitating for a social revolution:HP Compaq 572190-001 battery

"The abolition of the rule of capital, the realization of a socialist social order – this, and nothing less, is the historical theme of the present revolution. It is a formidable undertaking, and one that will not be accomplished in the blink of an eye just by the issuing of a few decrees from above.Compaq Presario CQ50-105EL battery

Only through the conscious action of the working masses in city and country can it be brought to life, only through the people's highest intellectual maturity and inexhaustible idealism can it be brought safely through all storms and find its way to port."HP Pavilion DV7-1290EO battery

The social revolution demands that power is in the hands of the masses, in the hands of the workers' and soldiers' councils. This is the program of the revolution. It is, however, a long way from soldier – from the "Guards of the Reaction" (Gendarmen der Reaktion) – to revolutionary proletarian.Compaq Presario CQ71 battery

Last words: belief in the revolution

Luxemburg's last known words, written on the evening of her murder, were about her belief in the masses, and in what she saw as the inevitability of revolution:

"The leadership has failed. Even so, the leadership can and must be recreated from the masses and out of the masses. HP Pavilion DV6000 battery

The masses are the decisive element, they are the rock on which the final victory of the revolution will be built. The masses were on the heights; they have developed this 'defeat' into one of the historical defeats which are the pride and strength of international socialism. Compaq Presario CQ70 battery

And that is why the future victory will bloom from this 'defeat'.
'Order reigns in Berlin!' You stupid henchmen! Your 'order' is built on sand. Tomorrow the revolution will already 'raise itself with a rattle' and announce with fanfare, to your terror:
I was, I am, I shall be!" HP Compaq 491278-001 battery

Quotations

  • Luxemburg's best-known quotation is: Freedom is always the freedom of dissenters (Freiheit ist immer Freiheit der Andersdenkenden), usually cited as Freedom is always and exclusively freedom for the one who thinks differently; this is from a fuller quotation:HP TouchSmart TX2-1150EG battery
Freedom only for the supporters of the government, only for the members of a party – however numerous they may be – is no freedom at all. Freedom is always the freedom of the dissenter. Not because of the fanaticism of "justice", but rather because all that is instructive, HP 520 battery
wholesome, and purifying in political freedom depends on this essential characteristic, and its effects cease to work when "freedom" becomes a privilege.
  • "Without general elections, without unrestricted freedom of press and assembly, Asus ADP-36EH C Adapter
  • without a free struggle of opinion, life dies out in every public institution, becomes a mere semblance of life, in which only the bureaucracy remains as the active element".
  • "For us there is no minimal and no maximal program; socialism is one and the same thing: this is the minimum we have to realize today".Dell PA-10 Adapter
  • "We stand today ... before the awful proposition: either the triumph of imperialism and the destruction of all culture, and, as in ancient Rome, depopulation, desolation, degeneration, a vast cemetery; or, the victory of socialism."Delta ADP-90FB Adapter

Memorials

In Berlin Mitte, the Rosa-Luxemburg-Platz and a U-Bahn station were named in her honour by the East German government. The Volksbühne (People's Theatre) is in Rosa-Luxemburg-Platz. The names remain unchanged since reunification in 1989.http://www.battery-pack.co.uk/

In Warsaw's Wola district, a manufacturing facility of electric lamps, was established and named after " Ró?y Luksemburg" in the PRL.

In 1919, Bertolt Brecht wrote the poetic memorial Epitaph honouring Rosa Luxemburg, and, in 1928, Kurt Weill set it to music as The Berlin Requiem:Delta ADP-90FB Adapter

The British New Left historian Isaac Deutscher wrote of Rosa: "In her assassination Hohenzollern Germany celebrated its last triumph and Nazi Germany its first".

A different viewpoint, however, was common among the Russian White emigres who settled in Weimar Berlin.Dell PA-10 Adapter

According to one,

"Infamous, that fifteen thousand Russian officers should have let themselves be slaughtered by the Revolution without raising a hand in self-defense! Why didn't they act like the Germans, who killed Rosa Luxemburg in such a way that not even a smell of her has remained?"Dell PA-12 Adapter

Rosa Luxemburg Memorial

At the edge of the Tiergarten, on the Katharina-Heinroth-Ufer, which runs between the southern bank of the Landwehr Canal and the bordering Zoologischer Garten (Zoological Garden) a memorial has been installed on which the name of Rosa Luxemburg appears in raised capital letters, marking the spot where her body was thrown into the canal by Freikorps troops.Asus ADP-36EH C Adapter

Works

  • The Accumulation of Capital. trans. A. Schwarzschild in 1951. Routledge Classics edition, 2003. Originally published as Die Akkumulation des Kapitals in 1913.
  • The Accumulation of Capital: an Anticritique written in 1915.Dell Inspiron 6400 Adapter
  • Gesammelte Werke ("Collected Works"), 5 volumes, Berlin 1970–1975.
  • Gesammelte Briefe ("Collected Letters"), 6 volumes, Berlin 1982–1997.
  • Politische Schriften ("Political Writings"), edited and preface by Ossip K. Flechtheim, 3 volumes, Frankfurt am Main 1966 ff.
  • The Complete Works of Rosa Luxemburg, 14 volumes, London and New York 2011-.Dell Inspiron 1520 Adapter

Popular culture and literature

  • Die Geduld der Rosa Luxemburg (1986), in German & Polish, Directed by Margarethe von Trotta. The film, which stars Barbara Sukowa as Luxemburg, was the winner of the Best Actress Award at the 1986 Cannes Film Festival. Geduld der Rosa Luxemburg, Die (1986) at the Internet Movie Database  Dell Inspiron 1525 Charger
  • Rainer Werner Fassbinder was planning a film on Luxemburg at the time of his death in 1982, and was said to want Jane Fonda for the lead.
  • In 2010, French song-writer Claire Diterzi created a musical "Rosa la Rouge" (Rosa the red), inspired by the life of Rosa Luxemburg.HP Pavilion DV6000 Adapter
  • "Rosa" a novel by Jonathan Rabb published in 2005, gives a fictional account of the events leading to Luxemburg's murder.

Luxemburgism (also written Luxembourgism) is a specific revolutionary theory within Marxism, based on the writings of Rosa Luxemburg. Dell Latitude D820 Charger

According to M. K. Dziewanowski, the term was originally coined by Bolshevik leaders denouncing the deviations of Luxemburg's followers from traditional Leninism, but it has since been adopted by her followers themselves.

Luxemburgism is a Libertarian socialist interpretation of Marxism which, while supporting the Russian Revolution, HP Pavilion DV9000 AC Adapter

as Rosa Luxemburg did, agrees with her criticisms of the politics of Lenin and Trotsky; she did not see their concept of "democratic centralism" as democracy.

Luxemburgism as democratic revolutionary socialism

The chief tenets of Luxemburgism are committed to democracy and the necessity of the revolution taking place as soon as possible.Sony VGP-BPS8 Battery

In this regard, it is similar toCouncil Communism, but differs in that, for example, Luxemburgists do not reject elections by principle. It resembles anarchism in its insistence that only relying on the people themselves as opposed to their leaders can avoid an authoritarian society, Sony VGP-BPS9 Battery

but differs in that it sees the importance of a revolutionary party, and mainly the centrality of the working class in the revolutionary struggle. It resembles Trotskyism in its opposition to the totalitarianism of Stalinist government while simultaneously avoiding the reformist politics of Social Democracy, Sony VGP-BPS12 Battery

but differs from Trotskyism in arguing that Lenin and Trotsky also made undemocratic errors.

In "The Russian Revolution", written in a German jail during WWI, Luxemburg critiqued Bolsheviks' absolutist political practice and opportunist policies—i.e., their suppression of the Constituent Assembly in January 1918, their support for the partition of the old feudal estates to the peasant communes. Dell Inspiron 6400 Battery

She derived this critique from Marx's original concept of the "revolution in permanence." Marx outlines this strategy in his March 1850 "Address of the Central Committee to the Communist League." As opposed to the Bolsheviks neo-Blanquist interpretation of permanent revolution,Dell Inspiron 1525 Battery

Marx argued that the role of the working class revolutionary party was not to create a one-party state, nor to give away land—even in semi-feudal countries like Germany in 1850—or Russia in 1917—where the working class was in the minority.

Rather, Marx argued that the role of the working class was, Dell XPS M1530 Battery

WITHIN structures of radical democracy, to organize, arm and defend themselves in workers councils and militias, to campaign for their own socialist political program, to expand workers rights, and to seize and farm collectively the feudal estates. Because the Bolsheviks failed to fulfil this Marxian program,Dell Inspiron 6000 Battery

Luxemburg argued, the Revolution bureaucratized, the cities starved, and the peasant soldiers in the Army were demoralized and deserted in order to get back home for the land grab. Thus the Germans easily invaded and took Ukraine. They justified this, during the Brest-Litovsk treaty negotiations, Dell Inspiron 9400 Battery

in the very same terms of "national self-determination" (for the Ukrainian bourgeoisie) that the Bolsheviks had promoted as an aid to socialist revolution, and that Luxemburg critiqued, years earlier, in her "The National Question," and in this document.Dell latitude D600 Battery

Luxemburg criticized Lenin's ideas on how to organize a revolutionary party as likely to lead to a loss of internal democracy and the domination of the party by a few leaders. Ironically, in her most famous attack on Lenin's views, the 1904 Organizational Questions of the Russian Social Democracy, or, Leninism or Marxism?,a response to Lenin's 1903 What Is To Be Done?,Dell Inspiron 8600 Battery

Luxemburg was more worried that the authoritarianism she saw in Leninism would lead to sectarianism and irrelevancy than that it would lead to a dictatorship after a successful revolution - although she also warned of the latter danger. Luxemburg died before Stalin's assumption of power, Dell Latitude D610 Battery

and never had a chance to come up with a complete theory of Stalinism, but her criticisms of the Bolsheviks have been taken up by many writers in their arguments about the origins of Stalinism, including many who are otherwise far from Luxemburgism.Dell Inspiron 1520 Battery

Luxemburg's idea of democracy, which Stanley Aronowitz calls "generalized democracy in an unarticulated form", represents Luxemburgism's greatest break with "mainstream communism", since it effectively diminishes the role of the Communist Party, but is in fact very similar to the views of Karl Marx Dell XPS M1710 Battery

("The emancipation of the working classes must be conquered by the working classes themselves"). According to Aronowitz, the vagueness of Luxembourgian democracy is one reason for its initial difficulty in gaining widespread support. However, since the fall of the Soviet Union, Luxemburgism has been seen by some socialist thinkers as a way to avoid the totalitarianism of Stalinism. Dell XPS M1330 Battery

Early on, Luxemburg attacked undemocratic tendencies present in the Russian Revolution:

Without general elections, without unrestricted freedom of press and assembly, without a free struggle of opinion, life dies out in every public institution, becomes a mere semblance of life, in which only the bureaucracy remains as the active element. Dell XPS M1210 Battery

Public life gradually falls asleep, a few dozen party leaders of inexhaustible energy and boundless experience direct and rule. Among them, in reality only a dozen outstanding heads do the leading and an elite of the working class is invited from time to time to meetings where they are to applaud the speeches of the leaders, Apple A1185 Battery

and to approve proposed resolutions unanimously – at bottom, then, a clique affair – a dictatorship, to be sure, not the dictatorship of the proletariat but only the dictatorship of a handful of politicians, that is a dictatorship in the bourgeois sense,Apple Powerbook G4 Battery

in the sense of the rule of the Jacobins (the postponement of the Soviet Congress from three-month periods to six-month periods!) Yes, we can go even further: such conditions must inevitably cause a brutalization of public life: attempted assassinations, shooting of hostages, etc. (Lenin’s speech on discipline and corruption.)"Apple MacBook Pro 17 inch Battery

The strategic contribution of Luxemburgism is principally based on her insistence on socialist democracy:

Freedom only for the supporters of the government, only for the members of one party – however numerous they may be – is no freedom at all. Asus EEE PC Battery

Freedom is always and exclusively freedom for the one who thinks differently. Not because of any fanatical concept of "justice" but because all that is instructive, wholesome and purifying in political freedom depends on this essential characteristic, and its effectiveness vanishes when "freedom" becomes a special privilege.Compaq V6000 Battery

But socialist democracy is not something which begins only in the promised land after the foundations of socialist economy are created; it does not come as some sort of Christmas present for the worthy people who, in the interim, have loyally supported a handful of socialist dictators.HP 6715B Battery

Socialist democracy begins simultaneously with the beginnings of the destruction of class rule and of the construction of socialism."

Dialectic of Spontaneity and Organisation

The Dialectic of Spontaneity and Organisation was the central feature of Rosa Luxemburg's political philosophy, wherein "spontaneity" is a grass roots, even anarchistic, approach to organising a party-oriented class struggle. HP 6910P Battery

Spontaneity and organisation, she argued, are not separable or separate activities, but different moments of one political process; one does not exist without the other. These beliefs arose from her view that there is an elementary, spontaneous class struggle from which class struggle evolves to a higher level:HP NX6325 Battery

"The working classes in every country only learn to fight in the course of their struggles ... Social democracy ... is only the advance guard of the proletariat, a small piece of the total working masses; blood from their blood, and flesh from their flesh. HP NC6400 Battery

Social democracy seeks and finds the ways, and particular slogans, of the workers' struggle only in the course of the development of this struggle, and gains directions for the way forward through this struggle alone."

Organisation mediates spontaneity; organisation must mediate spontaneity. HP NX6110 Battery

It would be wrong to accuse Rosa Luxemburg of holding "spontaneism" as an abstraction . She developed the Dialectic of Spontaneity and Organisation under the influence of mass strikes in Europe, especially the Russian Revolution of 1905. Unlike the social democratic orthodoxy of the Second International, HP DV6000 Battery

she did not regard organisation as product of scientific-theoretic insight to historical imperatives, but as product of the working classes' struggles:

"Social democracy is simply the embodiment of the modern proletariat's class struggle, a struggle which is driven by a consciousness of its own historic consequences. HP DV9000 Battery

The masses are in reality their own leaders, dialectically creating their own development process. The more that social democracy develops, grows, and becomes stronger, the more the enlightened masses of workers will take their own destinies, the leadership of their movement, and the determination of its direction into their own hands. HP Pavilion ZE4400 Battery

And as the entire social democracy movement is only the conscious advance guard of the proletarian class movement, which in the words of the Communist Manifesto represent in every single moment of the struggle the permanent interests of liberation and the partial group interests of the workforce vis à vis the interests of the movement as whole,ibm x60s battery

so within the social democracy its leaders are the more powerful, the more influential, the more clearly and consciously they make themselves merely the mouthpiece of the will and striving of the enlightened masses, merely the agents of the objective laws of the class movement."ibm t60 battery

and

"The modern proletarian class does not carry out its struggle according to a plan set out in some book or theory; the modern workers' struggle is a part of history, a part of social progress, and in the middle of history, in the middle of progress, in the middle of the fight, we learn how we must fight... ibm z60t battery

That's exactly what is laudable about it, that's exactly why this colossal piece of culture, within the modern workers' movement, is epoch-defining: that the great masses of the working people first forge from their own consciousness, from their own belief, and even from their own understanding the weapons of their own liberation."Sony VGP-BPS2 Battery

Other Luxemburg criticism of Lenin and Trotsky

Rosa Luxemburg also criticized Lenin's views on the right of the oppressed nations of the former Czarist Empire to self-determination. Sony VGP-BPS5 Battery

She saw this as a ready-made formula for imperialist intervention in those countries on behalf of bourgeois forces hostile to socialism. Proponents of Lenin's position on the nationalities argue that it was in fact what brought many members of the different nationalities of the former Czarist Empire together in supporting the Bolshevik-led revolution.Sony VGP-BPS3 Battery

Luxemburgism as opposition to imperialist war and capitalism

While being critical of the politics of the Bolsheviks, Rosa Luxemburg saw the behaviour of the Social Democratic Second International as a complete betrayal of socialism.Toshiba PA3465U-1BRS Battery

As she saw it, at the outset of the First World War the Social Democratic Parties around the world betrayed the world's working class by supporting their own individual bourgeoisies in the war. This included her own Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), the majority of whose delegates in the Reichstag voted for war credits.Toshiba PA3331U-1BRS Battery

Rosa Luxemburg opposed the sending of the working class youth of each country to what she viewed as slaughter in a war over which of the national bourgeoisies would control world resources and markets. She broke from the Second International, viewing it as nothing more than an opportunist party that was doing administrative work for the capitalists. Toshiba PA3399U-1BRS Battery

Rosa Luxemburg, with Karl Liebknecht, organized a strong movement in Germany with these views, but was imprisoned and, after her release, killed for her work during the failed German Revolution of 1919 - a revolution which the German Social Democratic Party violently opposed.Toshiba PA3166U-1BRS Battery

Present-day Luxemburgism

There are presently very few active Luxemburgist revolutionary movements. There are two small international networks that claim to be Luxemburgists : Communist Democracy (Luxemburgist), founded in 2005, and the International Luxemburgist Network, founded in 2008.Toshiba PA3479U-1BRS Battery

There is also widespread interest in her ideas particularly among feminists and Trotskyists as well as among leftists in Germany. It has been seen as a corrective to revolutionary theory by distinguished modern Marxist thinkers such as Ernest Mandel, who has even been characterised as "Luxemburgist".Canon LP-E5 Battery

In 2002 ten thousand people marched in Berlin for Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht and another 90,000 people laid carnations on their graves.

To many socialists, whether they see themselves as Luxemburgist or not, Rosa Luxemburg was a martyr for revolutionary socialism.Canon EOS 450D Battery

For Luxemburgists, her stalwart dedication to democracy and vigorous repudiation of capitalism exemplifies the socialist concept of democracy that is viewed as the essential element of socialism rather than a contradiction of it.Canon MV700 Battery

Many socialist currents today, particularly Trotskyists, consider Rosa Luxemburg to have been an important influence on their theory and politics. However, while respecting Luxemburg, these organizations do not consider themselves "Luxemburgist."Sony NP-BD1 Battery

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