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27 septembre 2013 5 27 /09 /septembre /2013 04:48

The history of Russia between 1922 and 1991 is essentially the history of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or Soviet Union. This ideologically based union, established in December 1922 by the leaders of the Russian Communist Party,[120] was roughly coterminous with Russia before the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. HP Pavilion dv6-2030ev laptop keyboard

At that time, the new nation included four constituent republics: the Russian SFSR, the Ukrainian SSR, Belarusian SSR, and the Transcaucasian SFSR.[121]

The constitution, adopted in 1924, established a federal system of government based on a succession of soviets set up in villages, factories, and cities in larger regions. HP G61-465SL laptop keyboard

This pyramid of soviets in each constituent republic culminated in the All-Union Congress of Soviets. But while it appeared that the congress exercised sovereign power, this body was actually governed by the Communist Party, which in turn was controlled by the Politburo from Moscow, the capital of the Soviet Union, just as it had been under the tsars before Peter the Great.  LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 laptop keyboard

The period from the consolidation of the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917 until 1921 is known as the period of war communism.[122] Land, all industry and small businesses were nationalized and the money economy was restricted. Strong opposition soon developed.[122] The peasants wanted cash payments for their products and resented having to surrender their surplus grain to the government as a part of its civil war policies. SONY VAIO VGN-FS315M laptop keyboard

Confronted with peasant opposition, Lenin began a strategic retreat from war communism known as the New Economic Policy (NEP).[122] The peasants were freed from wholesale levies of grain and allowed to sell their surplus produce in the open market. Commerce was stimulated by permitting private retail trading. HP Mini 110-1150EV laptop keyboard

The state continued to be responsible for banking, transportation, heavy industry, and public utilities.

Although the left opposition among the Communists criticized the rich peasants or kulaks who benefited from the NEP, the program proved highly beneficial and the economy revived.[122] The NEP would later come under increasing opposition from within the party following Lenin's death in early 1924. HP Envy 15-1090eg laptop keyboard

While the Russian economy was being transformed, the social life of the people underwent equally drastic changes. From the beginning of the revolution, the government attempted to weaken patriarchal domination of the family. Divorceno longer required court procedure;[123] and to make women completely free of the responsibilities of childbearing, abortionwas made legal as early as 1920.[124] SONY Vaio VGN-FW390 laptop keyboard

As a side effect, the emancipation of the women increased the labor market. Girls were encouraged to secure an education and pursue a career in the factory or the office. Communal nurseries were set up for the care of small children and efforts were made to shift the center of people's social life from the home to educational and recreational groups, the soviet clubs. TOSHIBA Satellite M105-S3004 laptop keyboard

The regime abandoned the tsarist policy of discriminating against national minorities in favor of a policy of incorporating the more than two hundred minority groups into Soviet life. Another feature of the regime was the extension of medical services. Campaigns were carried out against typhus, cholera, and malaria; GATEWAY MX8715 laptop keyboard

the number of doctors was increased as rapidly as facilities and training would permit; and infant mortality rates rapidly decreased while life expectancy rapidly increased.

In accordance with Marxist theory, the government also promoted atheism and materialism. It opposed organized religion, especially to break the power of the Russian Orthodox Church, SONY Vaio VGN-AW330J laptop keyboard

a former pillar of the old tsarist regime and a major barrier to social change. Many religious leaders were sent to internal exile camps. Members of the party were forbidden to attend religious services and the education system was separated from the Church. Religious teaching was prohibited except in the home and atheist instruction was stressed in the schools. SONY Vaio PCG-K315S Laptop Keyboard

The years from 1929 to 1939 comprised a tumultuous decade in Soviet history—a period of massive industrialization and internal struggles as Joseph Stalin established near total control over Soviet society, wielding virtually unrestrained power. Following Lenin's death Stalin wrestled to gain control of the Soviet Union with rival factions in the Politburo, especially Leon Trotsky's. HP Business Notebook nx9000 Laptop Keyboard

By 1928, with the Trotskyists either exiled or rendered powerless, Stalin was ready to put a radical programme of industrialisation into action.[125]

In 1929 Stalin proposed the First Five-Year Plan.[122] Abolishing the NEP, it was the first of a number of plans aimed at swift accumulation of capital resources through the buildup of heavy industry,  HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard

the collectivization of agriculture, and the restricted manufacture of consumer goods.[122] For the first time in history a government controlled all economic activity.

As a part of the plan, the government took control of agriculture through the state and collective farms (kolkhozes).[126]  IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 Laptop Keyboard

By a decree of February 1930, about one million individual peasants (kulaks) were forced off their land. Many peasants strongly opposed regimentation by the state, often slaughtering their herds when faced with the loss of their land. In some sections they revolted, and countless peasants deemed "kulaks" by the authorities were executed.[127] HP 519004-001 Laptop Keyboard

The combination of bad weather, deficiencies of the hastily established collective farms, and massive confiscation of grain precipitated a serious famine,[126] and several million peasants died of starvation, mostly in Ukraine and parts of southwestern Russia.[126] The deteriorating conditions in the countryside drove millions of desperate peasants to the rapidly growing cities, fueling industrialization, and vastly increasing Russia's urban population in the space of just a few years.  ACER Aspire One D150-1577 Laptop Keyboard

The plans received remarkable results in areas aside from agriculture. Russia, in many measures the poorest nation in Europe at the time of the Bolshevik Revolution, now industrialized at a phenomenal rate, far surpassing Germany's pace of industrialization in the 19th century and Japan's earlier in the 20th century.  FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard

While the Five-Year Plans were forging ahead, Stalin was establishing his personal power. The NKVD gathered in tens of thousands of Soviet citizens to face arrest, deportation, or execution. Of the six original members of the 1920 Politburo who survived Lenin, all were purged by Stalin.  HP G61-465SL Laptop Keyboard

Old Bolsheviks who had been loyal comrades of Lenin, high officers in the Red Army, and directors of industry were liquidated in the Great Purges.[128] Purges in other Soviet republics also helped centralize control in the USSR.

Stalin's repressions led to the creation of a vast system of internal exile, of considerably greater dimensions than those set up in the past by the tsars.[129] HP Pavilion ze5715ca Laptop Keyboard

Draconian penalties were introduced and many citizens were prosecuted for fictitious crimes of sabotage and espionage. The labor provided by convicts working in the labor camps of the Gulag system became an important component of the industrialization effort, especially in Siberia.  GATEWAY MX8715 Laptop Keyboard

An estimated 18 million people passed through the Gulag system, and perhaps another 15 million had experience of some other form of forced labor.

The Soviet Union viewed the 1933 accession of fervently anti-Communist Hitler's government to power in Germany with great alarm from the onset, DELL Vostro 1015 Laptop Keyboard

especially since Hitler proclaimed the Drang nach Osten as one of the major objectives in his vision of the German strategy of Lebensraum.[134] The Soviets supported the republicans of Spain who struggled against fascist German and Italian troops in the Spanish Civil War[135][136] In 1938–1939, TOSHIBA Satellite L455 Laptop Keyboard

immediately prior to WWII, the Soviet Union successfully fought against Imperial Japan in the Soviet-Japanese Border Wars in the Russian Far East, which led to Soviet-Japanese neutrality and the tense border peace that lasted until August 1945.[137][138]

In 1938 Germany annexed Austria and, together with major Western European powers, Lenovo 39T7417 laptop keyboard

signed the Munich Agreement following which Germany, Hungary and Poland divided Czechoslovakia between themselves. German plans for further eastward expansion, as well as the lack of resolve from Western powers to oppose it, became more apparent. Despite the Soviet Union strongly opposing the Munich deal and repeatedly reaffirming its readiness to militarily back commitments given earlier to Czechoslovakia, ACER TravelMate 8204WLMi laptop keyboard

the Western Betrayal led to the end of Czechoslovakia and further increased fears in the Soviet Union of a coming German attack. This led the Soviet Union to rush the modernization of its military industry and to carry out its own diplomatic maneuvers. In 1939 the Soviet Union signed a Non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany dividing Eastern Europe into two separate spheres of influence.[139]  HP Mini 110-3102sl laptop keyboard

Following the pact, the USSR normalized relations with Nazi Germanyand resumed Soviet-German trade.

On 17 September 1939, seventeen days after the start of World War II and victorious German advance deep into the Polish territory, the Red Army invaded eastern portions of Poland stating the "need to protect Ukrainians and Belarusians" there, TOSHIBA Satellite P300-1EI laptop keyboard

after the "cessation of existence" of the Polish state as the justification of the action.[142][143] As a result, the Belarusian and Ukrainian Soviet republics' western borders were moved westward and the new Soviet western border was drawn close to the original Curzon line.  HP Pavilion dv6-2114sa laptop keyboard

In the meantime the negotiations with Finland about the Soviet-proposed land swap that would redraw the Soviet-Finnish border further away from Leningrad failed; and in December 1939 the USSR started a campaign against Finland, known as the Winter War (1939–40). The war took a heavy death toll on the Red Army but forced Finland to sign a Moscow Peace Treaty and cede the Karelian Isthmus and Ladoga Karelia.[144][145] HP Mini 110-1116NR laptop keyboard

 In summer 1940 the USSR issued anultimatum to Romania forcing it to cede the territories of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina. At the same time, the Soviet Union also occupied the three formerly independent Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania).[146][147][148]

The peace with Germany was tense, as both sides were preparing for the military conflict,[149][150] HP Pavilion dv6-3106tu laptop keyboard

and abruptly ended when the Axis forces led by Germany swept across the Soviet border on 22 June 1941. By the autumn the German army had seized Ukraine, laid a siege of Leningrad, and threatened to capture the capital, Moscow, itself.[ Despite the fact that in December 1941 the Red Army threw off the German forces from Moscow in a successful counterattack, SONY VAIO VGN-CS31Z/Q laptop keyboard

the Germans retained the strategic initiative for approximately another year and held a deep offensive in the south-eastern direction, reaching the Volga and the Caucasus. However, two major German defeats in Stalingrad and Kursk proved decisive and reversed the course of the entire World War as Germans never regained the strength to sustain their offensive operations and the Soviet Union recaptured the initiative for the rest of the conflict.[154] SONY VAIO VGN-SR290 laptop keyboard

 By the end of 1943, the Red Army had broken through the German siege of Leningrad and liberated much of Ukraine, much of Western Russia and moved into Belarus.[155] By the end of 1944, the front had moved beyond the 1939 Soviet frontiers into eastern Europe. Soviet forces drove into eastern Germany, capturing Berlin in May 1945.[156] The war with Germany thus ended triumphantly for the Soviet Union. SONY VAIO VGN-CS31S/R laptop keyboard

As agreed at the Yalta Conference, three months after the Victory Day in Europe the USSR launched the Soviet invasion of Manchuria, defeating the Japanese troops in neighboring Manchuria, the last Soviet battle of World War II.[157]

Although the Soviet Union was victorious in World War II, the war resulted in around 26–27 million Soviet deaths (estimates vary)[158] IBM 42T3297 laptop keyboard

and had devastated the Soviet economy in the struggle. Some 1,710 towns and 70 thousand settlements were destroyed.[159] The occupied territories suffered from the ravages of German occupation and deportations of slave labor in Germany.[160] Thirteen million Soviet citizens became victims of a repressive policy of Germans and their allies on an occupied territory,  HP Pavilion dv6-2135er laptop keyboard

where people died because of mass murders, famine, absence of elementary medical aid and slave labor.The Nazi Genocide of the Jews carried by German Einsatzgruppen, along the local collaborators resulted in almost complete annihilation of the Jewish population over the entire territory temporary occupied by Germany and its allies., HP Pavilion G7T-1000 Series laptop keyboard

 During occupation, Russia's Leningrad, now Saint Petersburg, region lost around a quarter of its population.[164] Soviet Belarus lost from a quarter to a third of its population. 3.6 million Soviet prisoners of war (of 5.5 million) died in German camps.

Collaboration among the major Allies had won the war and was supposed to serve as the basis for postwar reconstruction and security. ASUS X53S laptop keyboard

However, the conflict between Soviet and U.S. national interests, known as the Cold War, came to dominate the international stage in the postwar period.

In October 1905, Nicholas reluctantly issued the famous October Manifesto, which conceded the creation of a national Duma (legislature) to be called without delay.[107] SONY Vaio PCG-K23 laptop keyboard

The right to vote was extended, and no law was to go into force without confirmation by the Duma. The moderate groups were satisfied;[107] but the socialists rejected the concessions as insufficient and tried to organize new strikes. By the end of 1905, there was disunity among the reformers, and the tsar's position was strengthened for the time being. ACER PK1306F0200 laptop keyboard

The Cold War emerged from a conflict between Stalin and U.S. President Harry Truman over the future of Eastern Europe during the Potsdam Conference in the summer of 1945.[170] Russia had suffered three devastating Western onslaughts in the previous 150 years during the Napoleonic Wars, HP G42-164LA Laptop Keyboard

the First World War, and the Second World War, and Stalin's goal was to establish a buffer zone of states between Germany and the Soviet Union.[171] Truman charged that Stalin had betrayed the Yaltaagreement. With Eastern Europe under Red Army occupation, Stalin was also biding his time, as his own atomic bomb project was steadily and secretly progressing.[172][173]  HP Pavilion dv6-2157sb Laptop Keyboard

In April 1949 the United States sponsored the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), a mutual defense pact in which most Western nations pledged to treat an armed attack against one nation as an assault on all. The Soviet Union established an Eastern counterpart to NATO in 1955, dubbed the Warsaw Pact.[ HP Mini 1116NR Laptop Keyboard

The division of Europe into Western and Soviet blocks later took on a more global character, especially after 1949, when the U.S. nuclear monopoly ended with the testing ofa Soviet bomb and the Communist takeover in China.

The foremost objectives of Soviet foreign policy were the maintenance and enhancement of national security and the maintenance of hegemony over Eastern Europe. HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard

The Soviet Union maintained its dominance over the Warsaw Pact through crushing the Hungarian Revolution of 1956,[177] suppressing the Prague Spring in Czechoslovakia in 1968, and supporting the suppression of the Solidarity movement in Poland in the early 1980s. The Soviet Union opposed the United States in a number of proxy conflicts all over the world, including Korean War and Vietnam War. HP Pavilion dv5-1104tu Laptop Keyboard

As the Soviet Union continued to maintain tight control over its sphere of influence in Eastern Europe, the Cold War gave way to Détente and a more complicated pattern of international relations in the 1970s in which the world was no longer clearly split into two clearly opposed blocs. ACER Aspire 7520 Laptop Keyboard

Less powerful countries had more room to assert their independence, and the two superpowers were partially able to recognize their common interest in trying to check the further spread and proliferation of nuclear weapons in treaties such as SALT I, SALT II, and the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty. DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard

U.S.-Soviet relations deteriorated following the beginning of the nine-year Soviet War in Afghanistan in 1979 and the 1980 election of Ronald Reagan, a staunchanti-communist, but improved as the communist bloc started to unravel in the late 1980s. With the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Russia lost the superpower status that it had won in the Second World War. HP G62-a30SP Laptop Keyboard

In the power struggle that erupted after Stalin's death in 1953, his closest followers lost out. Nikita Khrushchev solidified his position in a speech before the Twentieth Congress of the Communist Party in 1956 detailing Stalin's atrocities.[178]

In 1964 Khrushchev was impeached by the Communist Party's Central Committee, DELL FM8 Laptop Keyboard

charging him with a host of errors that included Soviet setbacks such as the Cuban Missile Crisis.[178] After a period of collective leadership led by Leonid Brezhnev, Alexei Kosygin and Nikolai Podgorny, a veteran bureaucrat, Brezhnev, took Khrushchev's place as Soviet leader.[179] Brezhnev followed emphasis on heavy industry,[180] Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard

instituted the Soviet economic reform of 1965,[181] and also attempted to ease relationships with the United States.[180] In the 1960s the USSR became a leading producer and exporter of petroleum and natural gas.Khrushchev and Brezhnev years were time when Soviet science and industry peaked. The world's first nuclear power plant was established in 1954 in Obninsk.Baikal Amur Mainline was built.  Lenovo 3000 C100 Laptop Keyboard

The Soviet space program, founded by Sergey Korolev, was especially successful. On 4 October 1957 Soviet Union launched the first space satellite Sputnik.[182]On 12 April 1961 Yuri Gagarin became the first human to travel into space in the Soviet spaceship Vostok 1.[183] Other achievements of Russian space program include: DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard

the first photo of the far side of the Moon; exploration of Venus; the first spacewalk by Alexey Leonov; first female spaceflight by Valentina Tereshkova. More recently, the Soviet Union produced the world's first space station, Salyut which in 1986 was replaced by Mir, the first consistently inhabited long-term space station, that served from 1986 to 2001. ASUS F3F Laptop Keyboard

Two developments dominated the decade that followed: the increasingly apparent crumbling of the Soviet Union's economic and political structures, and the patchwork attempts at reforms to reverse that process. After the rapid succession of former KGB Chief Yuri Andropov and Konstantin Chernenko, transitional figures with deep roots in Brezhnevite tradition,  HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard

 Mikhail Gorbachev announced perestroika in an attempt to modernize Soviet communism, and made significant changes in the party leadership. However, Gorbachev's social reforms led to unintended consequences. Because of his policy of glasnost, which facilitated public access to information after decades of government repression,  COMPAQ Presario CQ60-104TU Laptop Keyboard

social problems received wider public attention, undermining the Communist Party's authority. In the revolutions of 1989 the USSR lost its allies in Eastern Europe. Glasnost allowed ethnic and nationalist disaffection to reach the surface. Many constituent republics, especially the Baltic republics, Georgian SSR and Moldavian SSR, sought greater autonomy, HP G42-380LA Laptop Keyboard

which Moscow was unwilling to provide. Gorbachev's attempts at economic reform were not sufficient, and the Soviet government left intact most of the fundamental elements of communist economy. Suffering from low pricing of petroleum and natural gas, ongoing war in Afghanistan, outdated industry and pervasive corruption, Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

the Sovietplanned economy proved to be ineffective, and by 1990 the Soviet government had lost control over economic conditions. Due to price control, there were shortages of almost all products, reaching their peak in the end of 1991, when people had to stand in long lines and to be lucky enough to buy even the essentials. HP G42-380LA Laptop Keyboard

Control over the constituent republics was also relaxed, and they began to assert their national sovereignty over Moscow.

The tension between Soviet Union and Russian SFSR authorities came to be personified in the bitter power struggle between Gorbachev and Boris Yeltsin.[184]Squeezed out of Union politics by Gorbachev in 1987,  TOSHIBA NB200-10J Laptop Keyboard

Yeltsin, who represented himself as a committed democrat, presented a significant opposition to Gorbachev authority. In a remarkable reversal of fortunes, he gained election as chairman of the Russian republic's new Supreme Soviet in May 1990.[185] The following month, he secured legislation giving Russian laws priority over Soviet laws and withholding two-thirds of the budget. DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard

In the first Russian presidential election in 1991 Yeltsin became president of the Russian SFSR. At last Gorbachev attempted to restructure the Soviet Union into a less centralized state. However, on 19 August 1991, a coup against Gorbachev, conspired by senior Soviet officials, was attempted. The coup faced wide popular opposition and collapsed in three days, but disintegration of the Union became imminent. DELL Vostro 1510 Laptop Keyboard

The Russian government took over most of the Soviet Union government institutions on its territory. Because of the dominant position of Russians in the Soviet Union, most gave little thought to any distinction between Russia and the Soviet Union before the late 1980s. In the Soviet Union, only Russian SFSR lacked even the paltry instruments of statehood that the other republics possessed, HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard

such as its own republic-level Communist Party branch, trade union councils, Academy of Sciences, and the like.[186] The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was banned in Russia in 1991–1992, although no lustration has ever taken place, and many of its members became top Russian officials. HP Pavilion dv6-3080tx Laptop Keyboard

However, as the Soviet government was still opposed to market reforms, the economic situation continued to deteriorate. By December 1991, the shortages had resulted in the introduction of food rationing in Moscow and Saint Petersburg for the first time since World War II. Russia received humanitarian food aid from abroad. DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard

After the Belavezha Accords, the Supreme Soviet of Russia withdrew Russia from the Soviet Union on 12 December. The Soviet Union officially ended on 25 December 1991,[187] and the Russian Federation (formerly the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic)[188] took power on 26 December.[187] SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard

The Russian government lifted price control on January 1992. Prices rose dramatically, but shortages disappeared.

Although Yeltsin came to power on a wave of optimism, he never recovered his popularity after endorsing Yegor Gaidar's "shock therapy" of ending Soviet-era price controls, drastic cuts in state spending, DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard

and an open foreign trade regime in early 1992 (see Russian economic reform in the 1990s). The reforms immediately devastated the living standards of much of the population. In the 1990s Russia suffered an economic downturn that was, in some ways, more severe than the United States or Germany had undergone six decades earlier in the Great Depression.[189] DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard

Hyperinflation hit the ruble, due to monetary overhang from the days of the planned economy.

Meanwhile, the profusion of small parties and their aversion to coherent alliances left the legislature chaotic. During 1993, Yeltsin's rift with the parliamentary leadership led to the September–October 1993 constitutional crisis. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

The crisis climaxed on 3 October, when Yeltsin chose a radical solution to settle his dispute with parliament: he called up tanks to shell the Russian White House, blasting out his opponents. As Yeltsin was taking the unconstitutional step of dissolving the legislature, Russia came close to a serious civil conflict. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard

Yeltsin was then free to impose the current Russian constitution with strong presidential powers, which was approved by referendum in December 1993. The cohesion of the Russian Federation was also threatened when the republic of Chechnyaattempted to break away, leading to the First and Second Chechen Wars. HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard

Economic reforms also consolidated a semi-criminal oligarchy with roots in the old Soviet system. Advised by Western governments, the World Bank, and theInternational Monetary Fund, Russia embarked on the largest and fastest privatization that the world had ever seen in order to reform the fully nationalizedSoviet economy. HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard

By mid-decade, retail, trade, services, and small industry was in private hands. Most big enterprises were acquired by their old managers, engendering a new rich (Russian tycoons) in league with criminal mafias or Western investors.[190] That being said, there were corporate raiders such as Andrei Volgin engaged in hostile takeovers of corrupt corporations by the mid-1990s. TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 Laptop Keyboard

 By the mid-1990s Russia had a system of multiparty electoral politics.[191] But it was harder to establish a representative government because of two structural problems—the struggle between president and parliament and the anarchic party system.

Meanwhile, the central government had lost control of the localities, bureaucracy, and economic fiefdoms; tax revenues had collapsed. Lenovo ThinkPad T410-2516 Laptop Keyboard

Still in deep depression by the mid-1990s, Russia's economy was hit further by the financial crash of 1998. After the 1998 financial crisis, Yeltsin was at the end of his political career. Just hours before the first day of 2000, Yeltsin made a surprise announcement of his resignation, leaving the government in the hands of the little-known Prime Minister Vladimir Putin, TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7332 Laptop Keyboard

a former KGB official and head of the FSB, the KGB's post-Soviet successor agency.[192] In 2000, the new acting president defeated his opponents in the presidential election on 26 March, and won a landslide 4 years later.[193]International observers were alarmed by late 2004 moves to further tighten the presidency's control over parliament, civil society, and regional officeholders.[194] COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard

In 2008 Dmitri Medvedev, a former Gazprom chairman and Putin's head of staff, was elected new President of Russia. In 2012, Putin was once again elected as President.

Russia has had difficulty attracting foreign direct investment and has experienced large capital outflows in the past several years. HP Mini 110-3120se laptop keyboard

Russia's long-term problems also include a shrinking workforce, rampant corruption, and underinvestment in infrastructure.[195] Nevertheless, reversion to a socialist command economy seemed almost impossible.[196] Russia ended 2006 with its eighth straight year of growth, averaging 6.7% annually since the financial crisis of 1998. HP Mini 210-1066SB laptop keyboard

Although high oil prices and a relatively cheap ruble initially drove this growth, since 2003 consumer demand and, more recently, investment have played a significant role.[195] Russia is well ahead of most other resource-rich countries in its economic development, with a long tradition of education, science, and industry.  SAMSUNG Q320 laptop keyboard,Lenovo 45N2036 laptop keyboard, HP Pavilion dv4-1131tx laptop keyboard

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