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The Lord of the Rings is an epic high fantasy novel written by English philologist and University of Oxford professorJ. R. R. Tolkien. The story began as a sequel to Tolkien's earlier, less complex children's fantasy novel The Hobbit(1937), but eventually developed into a much larger work. Sony VAIO PCG-3B1M Battery

It was written in stages between 1937 and 1949, much of it during World War II.[1] It is the third best-selling novel ever written, with over 150 million copies sold.[2]

The title of the novel refers to the story's main antagonist, the Dark Lord Sauron,[note 1] Sony VAIO PCG-3C1T Battery

who had in an earlier agecreated the One Ring to rule the other Rings of Power as the ultimate weapon in his campaign to conquer and rule all ofMiddle-earth. From quiet beginnings in the Shire, a Hobbit land not unlike the English countryside, the story ranges across north-west Middle-earth, Sony VAIO PCG-3D1M Battery

following the course of the War of the Ring through the eyes of its characters, notably the hobbits Frodo Baggins, Samwise "Sam" Gamgee, Meriadoc "Merry" Brandybuck and Peregrin "Pippin" Took, but also the hobbits' chief allies and travelling companions: Aragorn, a Human Ranger; Boromir, a man from Gondor; Sony VAIO PCG-3G2M Battery

Gimli, a Dwarfwarrior; Legolas, an Elven prince; and Gandalf, a Wizard.

The work was initially intended by Tolkien to be one volume of a two-volume set, with the other being The Silmarillion, but this idea was dismissed by his publisher.[4][5] It was decided for economic reasons to publish The Lord of the Ringsas three volumes over the course of a year from 21 July 1954 to October 1955, Sony VAIO PCG-5R1M Battery

thus creating the now familiar Lord of the Rings trilogy.[4][6] The three volumes were entitled The Fellowship of the RingThe Two Towers, and The Return of the King. Structurally, the novel is divided internally into six books, two per volume, with several appendices of background material included at the end of the third volume. Sony VAIO PCG-7141M Battery

The Lord of the Rings has since been reprinted numerous times and translated into many languages.

Tolkien's work has been the subject of extensive analysis of its themes and origins. Although a major work in itself, the story was only the last movement of a larger epic Tolkien had worked on since 1917, in a process he described asmythopoeia.[7] Sony VAIO PCG-7143M Battery

Influences on this earlier work, and on the story of The Lord of the Rings, include philology, mythology, religion and the author's distaste for the effects of industrialization, as well as earlier fantasy works and Tolkien's experiences in World War I.[1] The Lord of the Rings in its turn is considered to have had a great effect on modern fantasy; Sony VAIO PCG-7151M Battery

the impact of Tolkien's works is such that the use of the words "Tolkienian" and "Tolkienesque" has been recorded in the Oxford English Dictionary.[8]

The enduring popularity of The Lord of the Rings has led to numerous references in popular culture, the founding of many societies by fans of Tolkien's works,[9] Sony VAIO PCG-7154M Battery

 and the publication of many books about Tolkien and his works. The Lord of the Rings has inspired, and continues to inspire, artwork, music, films and television, video games, and subsequent literature. Award-winning adaptations of The Lord of the Rings have been made for radio, theatre, and film. Sony VAIO PCG-7162M Battery

Long before the events of the novel, the Dark Lord Sauron forges the One Ring to dominate the other Rings of Power and corrupt those who wear them: the leaders of Men, Elves and Dwarves. He is defeated in battle, and Isildur cuts the One Ring from Sauron's finger, claiming it as an heirloom for his line. Sony VAIO PCG-7181M Battery

Isildur is later ambushed and killed by Orcs in the Gladden fields, and the Ring is lost in the River Anduin. Over two thousand years later, the Ring is found by a river-dwelling hobbit calledDéagol. His relative[11] Sméagol immediately falls under the Ring's spell and strangles Deagol to acquire it, and is banished for his crime. Sony VAIO PCG-41112M Battery

Sméagol hides under the Misty Mountains, where the Ring extends his lifespan and transforms him over the course of hundreds of years into a twisted, corrupted creature calledGollum. He loses the Ring and, as recounted in The Hobbit, Bilbo Baggins finds it.Sony VAIO PCG-7153M Battery

Meanwhile, Sauron remanifests in a new physical form and reoccupies his old realm of Mordor. Gollum sets out in search of the Ring, but is captured by Sauron, who learns from him that Bilbo Baggins now has it. Gollum is set loose and Sauron, who needs the Ring to regain his full power, sends forth his powerful servants, the Nazgûl, to seize it. Sony VAIO PCG-71312M Battery

The novel begins in the Shire, with the hobbit Frodo Baggins inheriting the Ring from Bilbo, his cousin[note 2] and guardian. Both are unaware of its origin, butGandalf the Grey, a wizard and old friend of Bilbo, suspects the Ring's identity. When he becomes certain, he advises Frodo to take it away from the Shire. Sony VAIO PCG-7144M Battery

Frodo leaves, accompanied by his gardener and friend, Samwise ("Sam") Gamgee, and two cousins, Meriadoc ("Merry") Brandybuck and Peregrin ("Pippin") Took. They nearly encounter the Nazgûl while still in the Shire, but shake off pursuit by cutting through the Old Forest, where they are aided by the enigmatic Tom Bombadil, Sony VAIO PCG-7191L Battery

who alone is unaffected by the Ring's corrupting influence. After leaving the forest, they stop in the town of Bree where they meet Aragorn, Isildur's heir. Though initially distrusted, he joins them as guide and protector. They flee from Bree after narrowly escaping another assault, Sony VAIO PCG-3C1M Battery

but the Nazgûl follow and attack them on the hill of Weathertop, wounding Frodo with a Morgul blade. Aragorn leads the hobbits toward the Elven refuge of Rivendell, while Frodo gradually succumbs to the wound. The Ringwraiths nearly overtake Frodo at the Ford of Bruinen, Sony VAIO PCG-3F1M Battery

but flood waters summoned by Elrond, master of Rivendell, rise up and overwhelm them.

Frodo recovers in Rivendell under the care of Elrond. The Council of Elrond reveals much significant history about Sauron and the Ring, as well as the news that Sauron has corrupted Gandalf's fellow wizard, Saruman. Sony VAIO PCG-3H1M Battery

The Council decides that the best course of action is to destroy the Ring, which can only be done by returning it to the flames of Mount Doom in Mordor, where it was forged. Frodo volunteers to take on the daunting task, and a "Fellowship of the Ring" is formed to aid him: Sam, Merry, Pippin, Aragorn, Gandalf, Gimli the Dwarf, Legolas the Elf, and the man Boromir, son of the Ruling Steward Denethor of the realm ofGondor. Sony VAIO PCG-3J1M Battery

After a failed attempt to cross the Misty Mountains via the pass below Caradhras, the company are forced to try a more perilous path through the Mines of Moria. There, they are attacked by Orcs and the Watcher in the Water. They also learn the fate of Balin and his company of dwarves. Sony VAIO PCG-8141M Battery

Gandalf casts an ancient Balroginto a chasm, but is himself dragged in. The others escape and take refuge in the Elven forest of Lothlórien, where they are counseled by the Lady Galadriel andCeleborn.

With boats and gifts from Galadriel, the company then travel down the River Anduin to the hill of Amon Hen. Sony VAIO PCG-8161M Battery

Boromir succumbs to the lure of the Ring and attempts to take it. Frodo flees to continue the quest alone, though Sam guesses his intent and comes along. Meanwhile, Orcs sent by Saruman kill Boromir and kidnap Merry and Pippin.

After agonizing over which pair of hobbits to follow, Aragorn, Gimli and Legolas pursue the Orcs bearing Merry and Pippin to Saruman. Sony VAIO PCG-3C2M Battery

In the kingdom of Rohan, the Orcs are slain by the Rohirrim. Merry and Pippin escape into Fangorn Forest, where they are befriended by Treebeard, the oldest of the tree-like Ents. Aragorn, Gimli and Legolas track the hobbits to Fangorn, and encounter Gandalf, resurrected as the significantly more powerful "Gandalf the White" after giving his life to destroy the Balrog. Sony VAIO PCG-5N2M Battery

After Gandalf assures them that Merry and Pippin are safe, they go to free Théoden, King of Rohan, from the influence of Saruman's henchman Gríma Wormtongue, and to aid the Rohirrim in a stand against Saruman's now unleashed armies. Théoden leads an army to the ancient fortress ofHelm's Deep along with Aragorn, Sony VAIO PCG-5P1M Battery

Legolas, and Gimli, while Gandalf rides off to gather more of the Rohirrim. Helm's Deep is besieged by Saruman's forces, but Gandalf and reinforcements arrive just in time to rout the enemy.

Meanwhile, the Ents, roused from their customarily peaceful ways by Merry and Pippin, Sony VAIO PCG-5S1M Battery

attack Saruman's stronghold of Isengard, trapping the wizard in the tower of Orthanc. Gandalf, Théoden and the others arrive and confront Saruman. When Saruman rejects Gandalf's offer of redemption, Gandalf strips him of his rank and most of his powers.Sony VAIO PCG-9Z1M Battery

Pippin is drawn to look into a palantír, a seeing-stone that Saruman had used to communicate with Sauron; this leads Sauron to think that Pippin is the Ring-bearer and that Saruman has captured him. For Pippin's protection, Gandalf takes him along to Minas Tirith in Gondor. Sony VAIO PCG-7171M Battery

Frodo and Sam capture Gollum, who had been following them since Moria, and force him to guide them to Mordor. Finding Mordor's Black Gate impassable, they travel instead to a secret pass. Torn between his loyalty to Frodo and his desire for the Ring, Gollum eventually betrays Frodo by leading him to the great spider Shelob in the tunnels of Cirith Ungol. Sony VAIO PCG-7186M Battery

Frodo is felled by Shelob's bite, but Sam fights her off. Sam takes the Ring and leaves Frodo, believing him to be dead. When Orcs find Frodo, Sam overhears them say that Frodo is in fact only unconscious. Sam determines to rescue him from Cirith Ungol.

Sauron unleashes a military assault upon Gondor. Sony VAIO PCG-81112M Battery

Gandalf arrives with Pippin at the city of Minas Tirith to alert Denethor of the impending attack. The city isbesieged, and Denethor, under the influence of Sauron through another palantír, despairs and commits suicide, nearly taking his remaining son Faramir with him. Sony VAIO PCG-31311M Battery

With time running out, Aragorn, Legolas and Gimli take the Paths of the Dead, where Aragorn raises an undead army of oath-breakers bound by an ancient curse. The ghostly army help them to defeat the Corsairs of Umbar invading southern Gondor. The forces now freed from the south and Rohan's cavalry break the siege of Minas Tirith. Sony VAIO PCG-8152M Battery

Sam rescues Frodo from the tower of Cirith Ungol, and they cross Mordor. Meanwhile, in order to distract Sauron, Aragorn leads the remaining Gondorian and Rohirrim soldiers in a march on the Black Gate of Mordor. In the climactic battle, the vastly outnumbered alliance of Gondor and Rohan fight desperately against Sauron's armies. Sony VAIO PCG-31111M Battery

At the edge of the Cracks of Doom, Frodo is unable to resist the Ring any longer, and claims it for himself. Gollum suddenly reappears, struggles with Frodo and bites off his finger, Ring and all. Celebrating wildly, Gollum falls into the fire, taking the Ring with him. With the destruction of the One Ring, Sony VAIO PCG-61111M Battery

Sauron perishes along with the Nazgûl, and his armies are thrown into confusion.

With the end of the War of the Ring, Aragorn is crowned Elessar, King of Arnor and Gondor, and marries his longtime love, Arwen, daughter of Elrond.

Saruman escapes from Isengard and enslaves the Shire. Sony VAIO PCG-51112M Battery

The four hobbits, upon returning home, raise a rebellion and overthrow him. Gríma turns on Saruman and kills him, and is in turn killed by hobbit archers. The War of the Ring thus comes to its true end on Frodo's very doorstep. Merry and Pippin are acclaimed heroes, and Sam marries Rosie Cotton, and uses his gifts from Galadriel to restore the Shire. Sony VAIO PCG-51211M Battery

Frodo, however, remains wounded in body and spirit after his difficult journey bearing the weight of the One Ring. Some years later, accompanied by Bilbo and Gandalf, he sails from the Grey Havens west over the Sea to theUndying Lands to find peace. After Rosie's death, Sam gives his daughter the Red Book of WestmarchSony VAIO PCG-51212M Battery

containing the story and adventures of Bilbo, Frodo, Sam, Pippin and Merry. Sam is then said to have himself crossed west over the Sea, the last of the Ring-bearers.

Background

The Lord of the Rings started as a sequel to J. R. R. Tolkien's earlier work, The Hobbit, published in 1937. Sony VAIO PCG-41111M Battery

The popularity of The Hobbit had led George Allen & Unwin, the publishers, to request a sequel. Tolkien warned them that he wrote quite slowly, and responded with several stories he had already developed. Having rejected his contemporary drafts for The Silmarillion, putting on hold Roverandom, and accepting Farmer Giles of HamSony VAIO PCG-41111V Battery

Allen & Unwin thought more stories about hobbits would be popular.[13] So at the age of 45, Tolkien began writing the story that would become The Lord of the Rings. The story would not be finished until 12 years later, in 1949, and would not be fully published until 1955, when Tolkien was 63 years old. Sony VAIO PCG-61412V Battery

Persuaded by his publishers, he started "a new Hobbit" in December 1937.[12] After several false starts, the story of the One Ring emerged. The idea for the first chapter ("A Long-Expected Party") arrived fully formed, although the reasons behind Bilbo's disappearance, Sony VAIO PCG-71112M Battery

the significance of the Ring, and the title The Lord of the Rings did not arrive until the spring of 1938.[12] Originally, he planned to write a story in which Bilbo had used up all his treasure and was looking for another adventure to gain more; however, he remembered the Ring and its powers and decided to write about that instead. Sony VAIO PCG-81111V Battery

Writing was slow, due to Tolkien having a full-time academic position, and needing to earn further money as a university examiner.[14] Tolkien abandoned The Lord of the Rings during most of 1943 and only re-started it in April 1944,as a serial for his son Christopher Tolkien, who was sent chapters as they were written while he was serving in South Africa with the Royal Air Force. Sony VAIO PCG-81111V Battery

Tolkien made another concerted effort in 1946, and showed the manuscript to his publishers in 1947.[12] The story was effectively finished the next year, but Tolkien did not complete the revision of earlier parts of the work until 1949.[12]The original manuscripts, which total 9,250 pages, now reside in the J.R.R. Tolkien Collection at Marquette University. Sony VAIO PCG-81212M Battery

The Lord of the Rings developed as a personal exploration by Tolkien of his interests in philology, religion (particularlyRoman Catholicism[17]), fairy tales, Norse and general Germanic mythology, and also Celtic,Slavic,Persian,[24] Greek,[25] and Finnish mythology. Sony VAIO PCG-81212V Battery

Tolkien acknowledged, and external critics have verified, the influences ofGeorge MacDonald and William Morris[27] and the Anglo-Saxon poem Beowulf.[28] The question of a direct influence of Wagner'sThe Ring Cycle on Tolkien's work is often debated by critics.

Tolkien included neither any explicit religion nor cult in his work. Sony VAIO PCG-51111M Battery

Rather the themes, moral philosophy, and cosmology of the Lord of the Rings reflect his Catholic worldview. In one of his letters Tolkien states, "The Lord of the Rings is of course a fundamentally religious and Catholic work; unconsciously so at first, but consciously in the revision. Sony VAIO VPCS13X9E/B battery

That is why I have not put in, or have cut out, practically all references to anything like 'religion', to cults or practices, in the imaginary world. For the religious element is absorbed into the story and the symbolism."[17]

Some locations and characters were inspired by Tolkien's childhood in Birmingham, Sony VAIO VPCS12V9E/B battery

where he first lived near Sarehole Mill, and later near Edgbaston Reservoir.[29] There are also hints of the Black Country, which is within easy reach of north west Edgbaston. This shows in such names as "Underhill", and the description of Saruman's industrialization of Isengard and The Shire. Sony VAIO VPCS12V9E/B battery

It has also been suggested that The Shire and its surroundings were based on the countryside around Stonyhurst Collegein Lancashire where Tolkien frequently stayed during the 1940s.The work was influenced by the effects of his military service during World War I, to the point that Frodo has been "diagnosed" as suffering from Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Sony VAIO VPCF13M8E/B battery

or "shell-shock," which was first diagnosed at the Battle of the Somme, at which Tolkien served.[31]

Publication history

A dispute with his publisher, George Allen & Unwin, led to the book being offered to Collins in 1950. Sony VAIO VPCF13Z0E/B battery

Tolkien intended The Silmarillion (itself largely unrevised at this point) to be published along with The Lord of the Rings, but A&U were unwilling to do this. After Milton Waldman, his contact at Collins, expressed the belief that The Lord of the Rings itself "urgently wanted cutting", Tolkien eventually demanded that they publish the book in 1952. Sony VAIO VPCM13M1E/L battery

Collins did not; and so Tolkien wrote to Allen and Unwin, saying, "I would gladly consider the publication of any part of the stuff."[12]

For publication, the book was divided into three volumes: The Fellowship of the Ring (Books I, The Ring Sets Out, and II, The Ring Goes South), Sony VAIO VPCM13M1E/W battery

The Two Towers(Books III, The Treason of Isengard, and IV, The Ring Goes East), and The Return of the King (Books V, The War of the Ring, and VI, The End of the Third Age, plus six appendices). This was due largely to post-war paper shortages, as well as being a way to keep down the price of the book. Sony VAIO VPCF22M1E battery

Delays in producing appendices, maps and especially indices led to the volumes being published later than originally hoped — on 21 July 1954, on 11 November 1954 and on 20 October 1955 respectively in the United Kingdom, and slightly later in the United States. The Return of the King was especially delayed. Sony VAIO VPCF11M1E/H battery

Tolkien, moreover, did not especially like the title The Return of the King, believing it gave away too much of the storyline. He had originally suggested The War of the Ring, which was dismissed by his publishers.[33]

The books were published under a profit-sharing arrangement, Sony VAIO VPCF13M0E/B battery

whereby Tolkien would not receive an advance or royalties until the books had broken even, after which he would take a large share of the profits.[34] It has ultimately become the third best-selling novel ever written, with over 150 million copies sold.[2]Only A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens and Sony VAIO VPCYB2M1E battery

The Little Prince by Antoine de Saint-Exupéry have sold more copies worldwide (over 200 million each) while the fourth best-selling novel is Tolkien's The Hobbit.[35][36][37]

Editions and revisions

In the early 1960s Donald A. Wollheim, science fiction editor of the paperback publisher Ace Books, Sony VAIO VPCYB3V1E battery

claimed that The Lord of the Rings was not protected in the United States under American copyright law because Houghton Mifflin, the U.S. hardcover publisher, had neglected to copyright the work in the United States.Ace Books then proceeded to publish an edition, unauthorized by Tolkien and without paying royalties to him. Sony VAIO VPCY11M1E battery

Tolkien took issue with this and quickly notified his fans of this objection.[40] Grass-roots pressure from these fans became so great that Ace Books withdrew their edition and made a nominal payment to Tolkien.Authorized editions followed from Ballantine Books and Houghton Mifflin to tremendous commercial success. Sony VAIO VPCS12L9E/B battery

By the mid-1960s the novel had become a cultural phenomenon. Tolkien undertook various textual revisions to produce a version of the book that would be published with his consent and establish an unquestioned US copyright. This text became the Second Edition of The Lord of the Rings, published in 1965. Sony VAIO VPCF11S1E/B battery

 Houghton Mifflin editions after 1994 consolidate variant revisions by Tolkien, and corrections supervised by Christopher Tolkien, which resulted, after some initial glitches, in a computer-based unified text.[43]

Posthumous publication of drafts

From 1988 to 1992 Christopher Tolkien published the surviving drafts of The Lord of The RingsSony VAIO VPCYB3V1E/R Battery

chronicling and illuminating with commentary the stages of the text's development, in volumes 6–9 of his History of Middle-earth series. The four volumes carry the titles The Return of the ShadowThe Treason of Isengard,The War of the Ring, and Sauron DefeatedSony VAIO VPCF23P1E Battery

The novel has been translated, with various degrees of success, into at least 38 other languages.[44] Tolkien, an expert in philology, examined many of these translations, and made comments on each that reflect both the translation process and his work. As he was unhappy with some choices made by early translators, Sony VAIO VPCF23N1E Battery

such as the Swedish translation by Åke Ohlmarks,[45] Tolkien wrote a "Guide to the Names in The Lord of the Rings" (1967). Because The Lord of the Rings purports to be a translation of the fictitious Red Book of Westmarch, with the English language representing the Westron of the "original", Sony VAIO VPCY21S1E/L Battery

Tolkien suggested that translators attempt to capture the interplay between English and the invented nomenclature of the English work, and gave several examples along with general guidance.

Reception

The Lord of the Rings has received mixed reviews since its inception, Sony VAIO VPCY21S1E/G battery

ranging from terrible to excellent, though recent reviews in various media have been, on the whole, highly positive and Tolkien's literary achievement is slowly being acknowledged as a significant one. On its initial review the Sunday Telegraph felt it was "among the greatest works of imaginative fiction of the twentieth century." Sony VAIO VPCF24M1E battery

The Sunday Times seemed to echo these sentiments when in its review it was stated that "the English-speaking world is divided into those who have read The Lord of the Rings and The Hobbit and those who are going to read them."[46] TheNew York Herald Tribune also seemed to have an idea of how popular the books would become,Sony VAIO VPC CW2MFX/PU Battery

writing in its review that they were "destined to outlast our time."[47] W. H. Auden, an admirer of Tolkien's writings, regarded The Lord of the Rings as a "masterpiece", further stating that in some cases it outdid the achievement of John Milton's Paradise Lost.[48]

New York Times reviewer Judith Shulevitz criticized the "pedantry" of Tolkien's literary style, Sony VAIO VPC S11V9E/B Battery

saying that he "formulated a high-minded belief in the importance of his mission as a literary preservationist, which turns out to be death to literature itself."[49] Critic Richard Jenkyns, writing in The New Republic, criticized the work for a lack of psychological depth. Both the characters and the work itself are, according to Jenkyns, Sony VAIO VPCB119GJ/B Battery

"anemic, and lacking in fibre."[50] Even within Tolkien's literary group, The Inklings, reviews were mixed. Hugo Dyson complained loudly at its readings, and Christopher Tolkien records Dyson as "lying on the couch, and lolling and shouting and saying, 'Oh God, not another Elf!'"Sony VAIO VPCB11AGJ Battery

However, another Inkling, C. S. Lewis, had very different feelings, writing, "here are beauties which pierce like swords or burn like cold iron. Here is a book which will break your heart." Despite these reviews and its lack of paperback printing until the 1960s, The Lord of the Rings initially sold well in hardback. Sony VAIO VPCB11AVJ Battery

In 1957, The Lord of the Rings was awarded the International Fantasy Award. Despite its numerous detractors, the publication of the Ace Books and Ballantinepaperbacks helped The Lord of the Rings become immensely popular in the United States in the 1960s. The book has remained so ever since, Sony VAIO VPCB11V9E Battery

ranking as one of the most popular works of fiction of the twentieth century, judged by both sales and reader surveys.[53] In the 2003 "Big Read" survey conducted in Britain by the BBC, The Lord of the Rings was found to be the "Nation's best-loved book." In similar 2004 polls both Germany[54] and Australia[55] Sony VAIO VPCB11X9E Battery

also found The Lord of the Rings to be their favourite book. In a 1999 poll of Amazon.com customers, The Lord of the Rings was judged to be their favourite "book of the century."[56] The Lord of the Rings was awarded the Prometheus Hall of Fame Award in 2009. Sony VAIO VPCCW18FJ/P Battery

Ethan Gilsdorf, writing for The Boston Globe, commented that while there are movements within academia to approach The Lord of the Rings as a serious literary work, the 2001–2003 film trilogy has contributed to a dumbing down of the reception of the novel by the forces of mass-commercialization.[57] Sony VAIO VPCCW18FJ/R Battery

Although The Lord of the Rings was published in the 1950s, Tolkien insisted that the One Ring was not an allegory for the Atomic Bomb,[58] nor were his works a strict allegory of any kind, but were open to interpretation as the reader saw fit.

A few critics have found what they consider to be racial elements in the story, Sony VAIO VPCCW18FJ/W Battery

generally based upon their views of how Tolkien's imagery depicts good and evil, characters' race (e.g. Elf, Dwarf, Hobbit, Southron, Númenórean, Orc); and that the character's race is seen as determining their behaviour. Counter-arguments note that race-focused critiques often omit relevant textual evidence to the contrary, Sony VAIO VPCCW19FJ/W Battery

cite imagery from adaptations rather than the work itself;[67] ignore the absence of evidence of racist attitudes or events in the author's personal life[64][67][68] and claim that the perception of racism is itself a marginal view.[68]

Critics have also seen social class rather than race as being the determinant factor for the portrayal of good and evil. Sony VAIO VPCCW1AFJ Battery

Commentators such as science fictionauthor David Brin have interpreted the work to hold unquestioning devotion to a traditional elitist social structure.[69] In his essay "Epic Pooh", science fiction and fantasy author Michael Moorcock critiques the world-view displayed by the book as deeply conservative, Sony VAIO VPCCW1AHJ Battery

in both the 'paternalism' of the narrative voice and the power-structures in the narrative.[70] Tom Shippey cites the origin of this portrayal of evil as a reflection of the prejudices of European middle-classes during the inter-war years towards the industrial working class.[71] Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E Battery

The book has been read as fitting the model of Joseph Campbell's "monomyth".

The Lord of the Rings has been adapted for film, radio and stage.

The book has been adapted for radio four times. In 1955 and 1956, the BBC broadcast The Lord of the Rings, a 12-part radio adaptation of the story. Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/B Battery

In the 1960s radio station WBAI produced a short radio adaptation. A 1979 dramatization of The Lord of the Rings was broadcast in the United States and subsequently issued on tape and CD. In 1981, the BBC broadcast The Lord of the Rings, a new dramatization in 26 half-hour instalments. Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/L Battery

This dramatization of The Lord of the Ringshas subsequently been made available on both tape and CD both by the BBC and other publishers. For this purpose it is generally edited into 13 one hour episodes.

Two film adaptations of the book as a whole have been made. Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/P Battery

The first was J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings (1978), by animator Ralph Bakshi, the first part of what was originally intended to be a two-part adaptation of the story; it covers The Fellowship of the Ring and part of The Two Towers. When Bakshi's investors shied away of financing the second film that would complete the story, Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/R Battery

the remainder of the story was covered in an animated television special byRankin-Bass. Stylistically, the two segments are very different. The second and far more critically and commercially successful adaptation was Peter Jackson's live action The Lord of the Rings film trilogy, Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/W Battery

produced by New Line Cinema and released in three installments as The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (2001), The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers (2002), and The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (2003). All three parts received nearly universal acclaim and were each nominated for and won multiple Academy Awards, Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/B Battery

including consecutive Best Picture nominations. The final instalment of this trilogy was the second film to break the one-billion-dollar barrier and won a total of 11 Oscars (something only two other films in history, Ben-Hur and Titanic, have accomplished), including "Best Picture", "Best Director", "Best Adapted Screenplay" and "Best Original Score".Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/L Battery

The Hunt for Gollum, a fan film based on elements of the appendices to The Lord of the Rings, was released on the internet in May 2009 and has been covered in major media.[73]

In 1990, Recorded Books published an audio version of The Lord of the Rings,[74] with British actor Rob Inglis –Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/R Battery

who had previously starred in one-man stage productions of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings – reading. A large-scale musical theatre adaptation, The Lord of the Rings was first staged in Toronto, Ontario, Canada in 2006 and opened in London in May 2007. Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/W Battery

Influences on the fantasy genre

The enormous popularity of Tolkien's epic saga greatly expanded the demand for fantasy fiction. Largely thanks to The Lord of the Rings, the genre flowered throughout the 1960s, and enjoys popularity to the present day. Sony VAIO VPCCW26EC Battery

The opus has spawned many imitators, such as The Sword of Shannara, which Lin Carter called "the single most cold-blooded, complete rip-off of another book that I have ever read".The work also had an influence upon such science fiction authors as Frank Herbert and Arthur C. Clarke[76] and filmmakers such as George Lucas. Sony VAIO VPCCW26FX/B Battery

Dungeons & Dragons, which popularized the role-playing game (RPG) genre in the 1970s, features many races found in The Lord of the Rings, most notably halflings(another term for hobbits), elves, dwarves, half-elves, orcs, and dragons. However, Gary Gygax, lead designer of the game, Sony VAIO VPCCW28EC Battery

maintained that he was influenced very little by The Lord of the Rings, stating that he included these elements as a marketing move to draw on the popularity the work enjoyed at the time he was developing the game.Because D&D has influenced many popular role-playing video games through Dragon WarriorSony VAIO VPCCW28FJ/P Battery

the influence of The Lord of the Ringsextends to many of them as well, with titles such as EverQuest, the Warcraft series, and the Elder Scrolls series of games[81] as well as, quite naturally, video games set in Middle-earth itself.Research also suggests that some consumers of fantasy games derive their motivation from trying to create an epic fantasy narrative which is influenced by the Lord of the Rings. Sony VAIO VPCCW28FJ/R Battery

In 1965, songwriter Donald Swann, who was best known for his collaboration with Michael Flanders as Flanders & Swann, set six poems from The Lord of the Ringsand one from The Adventures of Tom Bombadil ("Errantry") to music. When Swann met with Tolkien to play the songs for his approval, Sony VAIO VPCCW28FJ/W Battery

Tolkien suggested for "Namárië" (Galadriel's lament) a setting reminiscent of plain chant, which Swann accepted.The songs were published in 1967 as The Road Goes Ever On: A Song Cycle,and a recording of the songs performed by singer William Elvin with Swann on piano was issued that same year by Caedmon Records as Poems and Songs of Middle EarthSony VAIO VPCCW29FJ/W Battery

In 1988, Dutch composer and trombonist Johan de Meij completed his Symphony No. 1 "The Lord of the Rings", which encompassed 5 movements, titled "Gandalf", "Lothlórien", "Gollum", "Journey in the Dark", and "Hobbits". In 1989 the symphony was awarded the Sudler Composition Award, awarded biennially for best wind band composition. Sony VAIO VPCCW2AFJ Battery

The Danish Tolkien Ensemble have released a number of albums that feature the complete poems and songs of The Lord of the Rings set to music, with some featuring recitation by Christopher Lee.Rock bands of the 1970s were musically and lyrically inspired by the fantasy embracing counter-culture of the time; Sony VAIO VPCCW2AHJ Battery

British 70s rock band Led Zeppelin recorded several songs that contain explicit references to The Lord of the Rings ("Ramble On", "The Battle of Evermore", "Over the Hills and Far Away", and "Misty Mountain Hop"). In 1970, the Swedish musician Bo Hansson released an instrumental concept album based on the book entitled Sagan om ringen Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E Battery

 (translated as "The Saga of the Ring", which was the title of the Swedish translation of The Lord of the Rings at the time).[86] The album was subsequently released internationally as Music Inspired by Lord of the Rings in 1972.[86] The songs "Rivendell" and "The Necromancer" by the progressive rock band Rush were inspired by Tolkien. Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/B Battery

AndStyx also paid homage to Tolkien on their "Pieces of Eight" album with the song "Lords of the Ring," while Black Sabbath's song, "The Wizard", which appeared on their debut album, was influenced by Tolkien's hero, Gandalf. The heavy metal band Cirith Ungol took their name from a fictional place in Middle-earth of thesame name. Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/L Battery

 Progressive rock group Camel paid homage to the text in their lengthy composition "Nimrodel/The Procession/The White Rider", and Progressive rock band Barclay James Harvest was inspired by the character Galadriel to write a song by that name, and used "Bombadil", Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/P Battery

the name of another character, as a pseudonym under which their 1972 single "Breathless"/"When the City Sleeps" was released; there are other references scattered through the BJH oeuvre.Later, from the 1980s to the present day, many Heavy metal acts have been influenced by Tolkien. Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/R Battery

 Blind Guardian has written many songs relating to Middle-earth, including the full concept album Nightfall in Middle Earth. Almost all of Summoning's songs and the entire discography of Battlelore are Tolkien-themed.Gorgoroth and Amon Amarth take their names from an area of Mordor, and Burzum take their name from the Black Speech of Mordor. Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/W Battery

The Finnish metal band Nightwishand the Norwegian metal band Tristania have also incorporated many Tolkien references into their music. In 2001, the Hungarian metal band Cross Borns released ametal opera with the title Kalandozás Középföldén (Adventure in Middle Earth) based on the story of Lord of the Rings. Sony VAIO VPCCW2S5C CN1 Battery

Due to legal reasons, they couldn't use the original title.

Enya wrote an instrumental piece called "Lothlórien" in 1991, and composed two songs for the film The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring—"May It Be" (sung in English and Quenya) and "Aníron" (sung in Sindarin). Sony VAIO VPCF112FX/B Battery

 

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