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(The merchants) take with them their wives and concubines. It often happens that a man can be in his cabin without others on board realizing it, and they do not see him until the vessel has arrived in some port. The sailors also have their children in such cabins; and (in some parts of the ship) they sew garden herbs, vegetables, and ginger in wooden tubs. Sony VPCY11S1E/S Battery

The Commander of such a vessel is a great Emir; when he lands, the archers and the Ethiops (i.e. black slaves, yet in China these men-at-arms would have most likely been Malays) march before him bearing javelins and swords, with drums beating and trumpets blowing. When he arrives at the guesthouse where he is to stay, they set up their lances on each side of the gate, and mount guard throughout his visit. Sony VPCW1 Battery

During the Song Dynasty there was also great amount of attention given to the building of efficient automotive vessels known as paddle wheel craft. The latter had been known in China perhaps since the 5th century,[84] and certainly by the Tang Dynasty in 784 with the successful paddle wheel warship design of Li Gao. Sony VPCW1E8R/BU Battery

In 1134 the Deputy Transport Commissioner ofZhejiang, Wu Ge, had paddle wheel warships constructed with a total of nine wheels and others with thirteen wheels.[85]However, there were paddle wheel ships in the Song that were so large that 12 wheels were featured on each side of the vessel. Sony VPCY11AGJ Battery

In 1135 the famous general Yue Fei (1103–1142) ambushed a force of rebels under Yang Yao, entangling their paddle wheel craft by filling a lake with floating weeds and rotting logs, thus allowing them to board their ships and gain a strategic victory. In 1161, gunpowder bombs and paddle wheel crafts were used effectively by the Song Chinese in theBattle of Tangdao and the Battle of Caishi against the Jurchen Jin Dynasty, Sony VPCY11AHJ Battery

who made an unsuccessful invasion of the Southern Song along the Yangtze River.[85] In 1183 the Nanjing naval commander Chen Tang was given a reward for constructing ninety paddle wheel craft and other warships. In 1176, Emperor Xiaozong of Song (r. 1162–1189) issued an imperial order to the Nanjing official Guo Gang Sony VPCY11AVJ Battery

(who desired to convert damaged paddle wheel craft into junk ships and galleys) not to limit the number of paddle wheel craft in the navy's dockyards, since he had high esteem for the fast assault craft that won the Chinese victory at Caishi.[87] However, paddle wheel craft found other uses besides effective assaults in warfare. Sony VPCY11M1E Battery

The Arabor Persian Commissioner of Merchant Shipping for Quanzhou, the Muslim Pu Shougeng (who served from 1250–1275) noted that paddle wheel ships were also used by the Chinese as tugboats for towing.

The art of metallurgy during the Song Dynasty built upon the efforts of earlier Chinese dynasties, Sony VPCY11S1E Battery

while new methods were incorporated. The Chinese of the ancient Han Dynasty (202 BCE–220 CE) figured out how to create steel by smelting together the carbon intermediary of wrought iron and cast iron by the 1st century BCE. However, there were two new Chinese innovations of the Song Dynasty to create steel during the 11th century. Sony VPCY11V9E Battery

This was the "berganesque" method that produced inferior, inhomogeneous steel, while the other was a precursor to the modern Bessemer process that utilized partial decarbonization via repeated forging under a cold blast.

The per capita iron output rose sixfold between 806 and 1078, and by 1078 Song China was producing 127,000,000 kg (125,000 long tons; 127,000 tSony VPCY11V9E/S Battery

) in weight of iron per year.[93][94] The historian Donald B. Wagner points out that this estimate was based upon the total number of government tax receipts on iron from the various iron-producing prefectures in the empire.In the smelting process of using huge bellows driven by hydraulics (i.e. large waterwheels), Sony VPCY219FJ/S Battery

massive amounts of charcoal were used in the production process, leading to a wide range of deforestation in northern China.However, by the end of the 11th century the Chinese discovered that using bituminous coke could replace the role of charcoal, hence many acres of forested land and prime timber in northern China were spared by the steel and iron industry with this switch of resources tocoal. Sony VPCY21AFJ Battery

This massive increase in output of the iron and steel industry in China was the result of the Song Dynasty's needs for military expansion, private commercial demands for metal products such as cooking utensils found in the market and a wide variety of agricultural tools, and by new canals linking major centers of iron and steel production to the capital city's bustling market.Sony VPCY21AGJ Battery

The many uses for manufactured iron products in the Song period included iron for weapons,[94] implements,[94] coins,[94] architectural elements,[94] musical bells,[94] artistic statues,[94] and components for machinery such as the hydraulic-powered trip hammer, which had been known since the 1st century BCE during the ancient Han Dynasty, Sony VPCY21AHJ Battery

and used extensively during the Song Dynasty.[99] Due to the enormous amount of production, the economic historian Robert Hartwell noted that Chinese iron and coal production in the following 12th century was equal to if not greater than England's iron and coal production in the early phase of the Industrial Revolutionduring the late 18th century. Sony VPCY21AVJ Battery

However, the Chinese of the Song period did not harness the energy potential of coal in ways that would generate power mechanically, as in the later Industrial Revolution that would originate in the West.[79] There were certain administrative prefectures during the Song era where the Chinese iron industry was mostly concentrated. For example, the poet and statesman Su Shi wrote a memorial to the throne in 1078 that specified 36 ironwork smelters, Sony VPCY21S1E/L Battery

each employing a work force of several hundred people, in the Liguo Industrial Prefecture (under his governance while he administered Xuzhou).

The effect of wind power was appreciated in China long before the introduction of the windmill during the Song period. It is uncertain when the ancient Chinese used their very first inflatable bellows as wind-blowing machines for kilns and furnaces.Sony VPCY21S1E/P Battery

They existed perhaps as far back as the Shang Dynasty (1600 BCE–1050 BCE), due to the intricate bronze casting technology of the period. They were certainly used since the advent of the blast furnace in China from the 6th century BCE onwards, since cast iron farm tools and weapons were widespread by the 5th century BCE. Sony VPCY21S1E/SI Battery

In 31 the Han Dynasty governmental prefect and engineer Du Shi(d. 38) employed the use of horizontal waterwheels and a complex mechanical gear system to operate the large bellows that heated the blast furnace in smeltingcast iron. Bellows continued in use for purposes of metallurgy, but other sources of wind power were discovered and harnessed. Sony VPCCW1E8R/WU Battery

The Han Dynasty artisan Ding Huan (fl. 180) not only pioneered the invention of the cardan suspension, but also the rotary fan,[104] which could be used as a simple air conditioner.This employed seven wheel each about 3 m (10 ft) in diameter and manually powered, Sony VPCCW1S1E Battery

but by the Tang Dynasty (618–907) palaces featured water-powered rotary fans for air conditioning, and in the Song Dynasty, states Needham, "the refrigerant effects of artificial draught seem to have been appreciated ever more widely." There was also an intricate Chinese rotary fan winnowing machine depicted in Sony VAIO PCG-5S1M Battery

Wang Zhen's agricultural treatise of the Nong Shu of 1313 (although the earliest depiction of a winnowing machine was from a Han Dynasty tomb model dated from the 2nd century BCE to the 2nd century).[107][108] After these innovations, the windmill was finally introduced to China in the early 13th century via the Jin Dynasty in northern China, during the late Song Dynasty.Sony VAIO PCG-9Z1M Battery

The Persian scholar Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari wrote c. 850 that the earlier Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab was murdered in 644 by the technician Abu Lu'lu'a, who claimed to construct mills driven by the power of wind.[109] More reliable than this account were the windmills of the Banu Musa brothers (850 to 870), Sony VAIO PCG-7171M Battery

while there are also several authors confirming the windmills of Sistan (Iran), written of by Abu Ishaq al-Istakhri and Abu al-Qasim ibn Hauqal.[110] The northern Chinese under the rule of the Jurchen Jin Dynasty became acquainted with the windmills of the Islamic world in the early 13th century. Sony VAIO PCG-7186M Battery

This is seen in an account of the Shu Zhai Lao Xue Cong Tan (Collected Talks of the Learned Old Man of the Shu Studio), written by Sheng Ruozi.

In the collection of the private works of the 'Placid Retired Scholar' (Zhan Ran Ju Shi), there are ten poems on Hechong Fu. Sony VAIO PCG-81112M Battery

One of these describes the scenery of that place […] and says that 'the stored wheat is milled by the rushing wind and the rice is pounded fresh by hanging pestles. The westerners (i.e. Turks) there use windmills (feng mo) just as the people of the south (i.e. Southern Song Dynasty) use watermills (shui mo). And when they pound they have the pesltes hanging vertically'. Sony VAIO PCG-31111M Battery

Here Sheng Ruozi quotes a written selection about windmills from the 'Placid Retired Scholar', who is actually Yelü Chucai (1190–1244), a prominent Jin andYuan statesman (after the Jin fell in 1234 to the Mongols). The passage refers to Yelü's journey to Turkestan (modern Xinjiang) in 1219, and Hechong Fu is actually Samarkand (in modern Uzbekistan). Sony VAIO PCG-31311M Battery

Afterwards, the Chinese applied the 'fore-and-aft' sail riggings of typical Chinese junk ships to horizontal windmills. These windmills were used to operate the square-pallet chain pumps used in Chinese irrigation since the ancient Han Dynasty. Windmills of this nature were still in use during modern times in Tianjin and along the Yangtze River. Sony VAIO PCG-8152M Battery

The first European to view Chinese windmills was Jan Nieuhoff, who spotted them in Jiangsu while traveling along the Grand Canal in 1656, as part of the Dutch embassy to Beijing. The first European windmills written of were those of Dean Herbert of East Anglia in 1191, who competed with the mills of the Abbey of Bury St Edmunds. Sony VAIO PCG-61111M Battery

After the windmill, wind power applications in other devices and even vehicles were found in China. There was the 'sailing carriage' that appeared by at least the Ming Dynasty in the 16th century (although it could have been known beforehand). European travelers to China in the late 16th century were surprised to find large single-wheel Sony PCG-71213M Battery

passenger and cargo wheelbarrows not only pulled by mule or horse, but also mounted with ship-like masts and sails to help push them along by the wind.During the early half of the Song Dynasty (960–1279), the study of archaeology developed out of the antiquarian interests of the educated gentry and their desire to revive the use of ancient vessels in state rituals and ceremonies. Sony PCG-71311M Battery

This and the belief that ancient vessels were products of 'sages' and not common people was criticized by Shen Kuo, who discussed metallurgy, optics, astronomy, geometry, and ancient music measures in addition to archeology. His contemporary Ouyang Xiu (1007–1072) compiled an analytical catalogue of ancient rubbings on stone and bronze. Sony PCG-71312M Battery

In accordance with the beliefs of the laterLeopold von Ranke (1795–1886), some Song gentry —such as Zhao Mingcheng (1081–1129)— valued archaeological evidence over historical works written after the fact, finding written records unreliable when they failed to match with the archaeological discoveries. Sony PCG-71212M Battery

Hong Mai (1123–1202) used ancient Han Dynasty era vessels to debunk what he found to be fallacious descriptions of Han vessels in the Bogutu archaeological catalogue compiled during the latter half of Huizong's reign (1100–1125).

Shen Kuo also made hypotheses in regards to geology and climatology in his Dream Pool Essays of 1088. Sony VAIO PCG-5J4M Battery

Shen believed that land was reshaped over time due to perpetual erosion, uplift, and deposition of silt, and cited his observance of horizontal strata of fossils embedded in a cliffside at Taihang as evidence that the area was once the location of an ancient seashore that had shifted hundreds of miles east over an enormous span of time. Sony VAIO PCG-5K1M Battery

Shen also wrote that since petrified bamboos were found underground in a dry northern climate zone where they had never been known to grow, climates naturally shifted geographically over time.Movable type is the system of printing and typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document (usually individual letters or punctuation). Sony VAIO PCG-5K2M Battery

The world's first known movable type printing press technology was invented in China around 1040 A.D. by the Han Chineseprinter Bi Sheng (990–1051) during the Song Dynasty, China; following the transmission of this technology to theChinese Tributary State of Korea, further technological improvements were made and the first metal movable-type system for printing was developed in Korea during the Goryeo Dynasty in 1234. Sony VAIO PCG-5J5M Battery

This led to the printing of the Jikji in 1377, the oldest extant movable metal print book. The diffusion of both movable-type systems was, however, limited:[2] They were expensive, and required an enormous amount of labour involved in manipulating the thousands of ceramic tablets, or in the case of Korea, Sony VAIO PCG-5L2M Battery

metal tablets required for scripts based on the ancient Chinese writing system, which have thousands of hieroglyphic-type characters.

Around 1450, the German printer Johannes Gutenberg invented the first European printing press and independently developed a movable type system, along with innovations, Sony VAIO PCG-6S4M Battery

specifically tailored to the German and Latin alphabets, in casting the type based on a matrix and hand mould. The more limited number of characters needed for European languages was an important factor.[3] Gutenberg was the first to create his type pieces from an alloy of lead, tin, and antimony—the same components still used today.[4] Sony VAIO PCG-6W1M Battery

For alphabetic scripts, movable-type page setting was quicker and more durable than woodblock printing. The metal type pieces were more durable and the lettering was more uniform, leading to typography and fonts. The printing press was especially efficient for limited alphabets. Sony VAIO PCG-6W2M Battery

The high quality and relatively low price of the Gutenberg Bible (1455) established the superiority of movable type in Europe and the use of printing presses spread rapidly. The printing press may be regarded as one of the key factors fostering the Renaissance[5] and due to its effectiveness, its use spread around the globe. Sony VAIO PCG-7Z1M Battery

The 19th-century invention of hot metal typesetting and its successors caused movable type to decline in the 20th century.

The technique of imprinting multiple copies of symbols or glyphs with a master type punch made of hard metal first developed around3000 BC in ancient Sumer. Sony VAIO PCG-8Y2M Battery

Bricks for buildings and bars or ingots of precious metal were imprinted with a distinctive stamped design; the act of stamping the ingots certified them as currency[citation needed] by the power of the authority symbolized by the type image. These metal punch types can be seen as precursors of the letter punches adapted in later millennia to printing with movable metal type.Sony VAIO PCG-8Y3M Battery

Cylinder seals were also used to "sign" documents and mark objects as the owner's property.

By 650 BC the ancient Greeks were using larger diameter punches to imprint small page images onto coins and tokens. Cylinder seals were a related form of early typography capable of printing small page designs in relief (cameo) on wax or clay—a miniature forerunner of rotogravure printing used by wealthy individuals to seal and certify documents.was made in 2003Sony VAIO PCG-8Z1M Battery

The designs of the artists who made the first coin punches were stylized with a degree of skill that could not be mistaken for common handiwork—salient and very specific types designed to be reproduced ad infinitum. Unlike the first typefaces used to print books in the thirteenth century, Sony VAIO PCG-8Z2M Battery

coin types were neither combined nor printed with ink on paper, but "published" in metal—a more durable medium—and survived in substantial numbers. As the portable face of ruling authority, coins were a compact form of standardized knowledge issued in large editions, an early mass medium that stabilized trade and civilization throughout the Mediterranean world ofantiquity. Sony VAIO PCG-8Z3M Battery

The enigmatic Minoan Phaistos Disc of 1800–1600 BC has been considered by one scholar as an early example of a body of text being reproduced with reusable characters: it may have been produced by pressing pre-formed hieroglyphic "seals" into the soft clay. A few authors even view the disc as technically meeting all definitional criteria to represent an early, Sony VAIO PCG-7112M Battery

if not the earliest incidence of movable-type printing.[6][7] Recently it has been alleged by Jerome Eisenberg that the disk is a forgery.

Following the invention of paper in the Han Dynasty, writing materials became more portable and economical than the bones, shells, bamboo slips, metal or stone tablets, silk, etc. previously used. Sony VGP-BPL15/B Battery

Yet copying books by hand was still labour-consuming. Not until the Xiping Era (172-178 AD), towards the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty did sealing print and monotype appear. It was soon used for printing designs on fabrics, and later for printing texts.

Woodblock printing worked as follows. First, the neat hand-copied script was stuck on a relatively thick and smooth board,Sony VGP-BPS15/B Battery

with the front of the paper, which was so thin that it was nearly transparent, sticking to the board, and characters showing in opposite, so distinctly that every stroke could be easily recognized. Then, carvers cut the parts with no character off the board with knives, so that the characters were cut in relief, completely different from those cut in intaglio. Sony VGP-BPL15/S Battery

When printing, the bulging characters would have some ink spread on them and be covered by paper. With workers’ hands moving on the back of paper gently, characters would be printed on the paper. By the Song Dynasty, woodblock printing came to its heyday. Although woodblock printing played an influential role in spreading culture, there remained some apparent drawbacks. Sony VGP-BPS15/S Battery

Firstly, carving the printing plate required considerable time, labour and materials; secondly, it was not convenient to store these plates; and finally, it was difficult to correct mistakes.

With woodblock printing, one printing plate could be used for tens of hundreds of books, playing a magnificent role in spreading culture. Yet carving the plate was time and labour consuming. Sony VGP-BPS15 Battery

Huge books cost years of effort. The plates needed a lot of storage space, and were often damaged by deformation, worms and corrosion. If books had a small print run, and were not reprinted, the printing plates would become nothing but waste; and worse, if a mistake was found, Sony VGP-BPL15 Battery

it was difficult to correct it without discarding the whole plate.When he wished to print, he took an iron frame and set it on the iron plate. In this he placed the types, set close together. When the frame was full, the whole made one solid block of type. He then placed it near the fire to warm it. Sony VGN-P series Battery

When the paste [at the back] was slightly melted, he took a smooth board and pressed it over the surface, so that the block of type became as even as a whetstone.

For each character there were several types, and for certain common characters there were twenty or more types each, in order to be prepared for the repetition of characters on the same page. Sony VGN-P11Z/Q Battery

When the characters were not in use he had them arranged with paper labels, one label for each rhyme-group, and kept them in wooden cases.

If one were to print only two or three copies, this method would be neither simple nor easy. But for printing hundreds or thousands of copies, it was marvelously quick. Sony VGN-P11Z/R Battery

As a rule he kept two forms going. While the impression was being made from the one form, the type was being put in place on the other. When the printing of the one form was finished, the other was then ready. In this way the two forms alternated and the printing was done with great rapidity. Sony VGN-P11Z/W Battery

In 1193, Zhou Bida, an officer of Southern Song Dynasty, made a set of clay movable-type method according to the method described by Shen Kuo in his Dream Pool Essays, and printed his book Notes of The Jade Hall 《玉堂杂记》.[12]

As late as 1844 there were still books printed in China with ceramic movable types. Sony VGN-P21S/W Battery

However, Bi Sheng's fragile clay types were not practical for large-scale printing.[13] Sohn Pow-Key claimed that Bi Sheng's baked clay was "fragile" was refuted by facts and experiments, Bao Shicheng (1775–1885) wrote that baked clay moveable type was "as hard and tough as horn"; Sony VGN-P21Z/G Battery

experiments show that baked clay moveable type is hard and difficult to break, a clay moveable type dropped from a height of two metres onto a marble floor remained intact. Korea could have tried clay movable type, but with little success, probably due to misinterpration of Shen Kua's description "as thin as coin", Sony VGN-P21Z/R Battery

which referred to the depth of the mould, not the total length of the moveable type. The length of clay movable types in China was 1 to 2 centimetres, not 2mm, thus hard as horn.

Wooden movable type was also first developed around 1040 AD by Bi Sheng (毕昇) (990–1051), as described by the Chinese scholar Shen Kuo (1031–1095), Sony VGN-P29VN/Q Battery

but was abandoned in favour of clay movable types due to the presence of wood grains and the unevenness of the wooden type after being soaked in ink.[15] In 1298, Wang Zhen, a governmental official of Jingde, Anhuiprovince, China, re-invented a method of making movable wooden types. Sony VGP-BPS18 Battery

He made more than 30,000 wooden movable types and printed 100 copies of Records of Jingde County (旌德县志), a book of more than 60,000 Chinese characters. Soon afterwards, he summarized his invention in his book A method of making moveable wooden types for printing books. Sony VGP-BPL18 Battery

Although the wooden type was more durable under the mechanical rigors of handling, repeated printing wore the character faces down, and the types could only be replaced by carving new pieces. This system was later enhanced by pressing wooden blocks into sand and casting metal types from the depression in copper, bronze, iron or tin.[9] Sony VAIO VGN-SR19XN Battery

The set of wafer-like metal stamp types could be assembled to form pages, inked, and page impressions taken from rubbings on cloth or paper.[9] In 1322,a Fenghua county officer Ma Chengde(马称德) in Zhejiang, made 100,000 wooded movable types and printed 43 volume Daxue Yanyi (大学衍义). Sony VAIO VGN-SR21M/S Battery

Wooden movable types were used continually in China. Even as late as 1733, a 2300 volume, 《武英殿聚珍版丛书》, was printed with 253500 wooden movable type on order of the Yongzheng Emperor, and completed in one year.

A number of books printed in Tangut script during the Western Xia (1038–1227) period are known, Sony VAIO VGN-SR21RM/H Battery

of which the Auspicious Tantra of All-Reaching Union that was discovered in the ruins of Baisigou Square Pagoda in 1991 is believed to have been printed sometime during the reign of Emperor Renzong of Western Xia (1139–1193).[16] It is considered by many Chinese experts to be the earliest extant example of a book printed using wooden movable type. Sony VAIO VGN-SR29VN Battery

Transition from wood type to metal type occurred in 1234 during the Goryeo Dynasty ofKorea and is credited to Choe Yun-ui. A set of ritual books, Sangjeong Gogeum Yemun were printed with the movable metal type in 1234.[18][19] Examples of this metal type are on display in the Asian Reading Room of the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C. Sony VAIO VGN-SR31M Battery

The oldest extant movable metal print book is the Jikji, printed in Korea in 1377.[21]

The techniques for bronze casting, used at the time for making coins (as well as bells and statues) were adapted to making metal type. The following description of the Korean font casting process was recorded by the Joseon dynasty scholar Seong Hyeon (성현, 成俔, 1439–1504): Sony Vaio VGN-SR4MR/P Battery

At first, one cuts letters in beech wood. One fills a trough level with fine sandy [clay] of the reed-growing seashore. Wood-cut letters are pressed into the sand, then the impressions become negative and form letters [molds]. At this step, placing one trough together with another, one pours the molten bronze down into an opening. Sony Vaio VGN-SR4MR/S Battery

The fluid flows in, filling these negative molds, one by one becoming type. Lastly, one scrapes and files off the irregularities, and piles them up to be arranged.

A potential solution to the linguistic and cultural bottleneck that held back movable type in Korea for two hundred years appeared in the early 15th century—Sony Vaio VGN-SR4MR/W Battery

a generation before Gutenberg would begin working on his own movable-type invention in Europe—when King Sejong the Great devised a simplified alphabet of 24 characters (hangul) for use by the common people, which could have made the typecasting and compositing process more feasible. But Sejong's brilliant creation did not receive the attention it deserved.Sony Vaio VGN-SR4VR/H Battery

Adoption of the new alphabet was stifled by the inertia of Korea's cultural elite, who were"...appalled at the idea of losing Chinese, the badge of their elitism."[9]

Proliferation of movable type was also obstructed by a "Confucian prohibition on the commercialization of printing" restricted the distribution of books produced using the new method to the government. Sony Vaio VGN-CS11S/P Battery

The technique was restricted to use by the royal foundry for official state publications only, where the focus was on reprinting Chinese classics lost in 1126 when Korea's libraries and palaces had perished in a conflict between dynasties.

In the early fifteenth century, however, the Koreans invented a form of movable type that has been described by the French scholar Henri-Jean Martin as '[extremely similar] to Gutenberg's'; Sony Vaio VGN-CS11S/W Battery

the Western invention may have been stimulated by what had happened in the East.

In the beginning of the twelfth century, movable type was used in large scale for the printing of paper money issued by the Northern Song Dynasty. A copper block printed paper money dated between 1215-1216 in the collection of Luo Zhenyu's Pictorial Paper Money of the Four Dynasties, Sony Vaio VGN-CS11Z/R Battery

1914, shows two special characters one called Ziliao, the other called Zihao for the purpose of preventing counterfeit; over the Ziliao there is a small character (輶) printed with movable copper type, while over the Zihao there is an empty square hole, apparently the associated copper metal type was lost. Sony Vaio VGN-CS11Z/T Battery

Another sample of Song dynasty money of the same period in the collection of Shanghai Museum has two empty square holes aboveZiliao as well as Zihou, due to lost of the two copper movable types. Song dynasty bronze block embedded with bronze metal movable type printed paper money was issued in large scale and in circulation for a long time. Sony Vaio VGN-CS21S/P Battery

In the 1298 book Zao Huozi Yinshufa (造活字印书法/造活字印書法) of the Chinese official Wang Zhen, there is mention of tin movable type, but this was largely experimental.[25] There's also some claims of more early Chinese metal movable type, some dates back to 1148 AD.

In 1574 the massive 1000 volume encyclopedia Imperial Readings of the Taiping Era 《太平御览》/《太平御覧》 were printed with bronze movable type. Sony Vaio VGN-CS21S/R Battery

In1725,the Qing Dynasty government made 250,000 bronze movable-type characters and printed 64 sets of the encyclopedic Gujin Tushu Jicheng Complete Collection of Illustrations and Writings from the Earliest to Current Times 《古今图书集成》/《古今圖書集成》. Each set consisted of 5040 volumes, making a total of 322,560 volumes printed using movable type. Sony Vaio VGN-CS21Z/Q Battery

During the Mongol Empire (1206–1405), printing using movable type spread from China to Central Asia.[clarification needed] TheUyghurs of Central Asia used movable type, their script type adopted from the Mongol language, some with Chinese words printed between the pages, a strong evidence that the books were printed in China. Sony Vaio VGN-CS31S/R Battery

Johannes Gutenberg of Mainz is acknowledged as the first to invent a metal movable-type printing system in Europe, the printing press. Gutenberg was a goldsmith familiar with techniques of cutting punches for making coins from moulds. Between 1436 and 1450 he developed hardware and techniques for casting letters from matrices using a device called the hand mould.Sony Vaio VGN-AW21M/H Battery

Gutenberg's key invention and contribution to movable-type printing in Europe, the hand mould was the first practical means of making cheap copies of letterpunches in the vast quantities needed to print complete books, making the movable-type printing process a viable enterprise.

Before Gutenberg, books were copied out by hand on scrolls and paper, or printed from hand-carved wooden blocks. Sony Vaio VGN-AW21S/B Battery

It was extremely time-consuming, even a small book could take months to complete, and the carved letters or blocks were very flimsy and the susceptibility of wood to ink gave such blocks a limited lifespan.

Gutenberg and his associates developed oil-based inks ideally suited to printing with apress on paper, and the first Latin typefaces. Sony Vaio VGN-AW21Z/B Battery

His method of casting type may have been different from the hand mould used in subsequent decades. Detailed analysis of the type used in his 42-line Bible has revealed irregularities in some of the

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