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The miniature towers bear finer and more elegant details, indicating that architectural ideas traveled fast from the north to the south.[62]  HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

Decoration and ornamentation had evolved from a moulded form to a chiseled form, the sharpness sometimes giving it a three-dimensional effect. The foliage decorations changed from bulky to thin, and a change in the miniature towers on dual pilasters is seen. The 11th century miniatures consisted of a cornice (kapota), a floor (vyalamala), a balustrade (vedika) and a roof (kuta) with a voluptuous moulding, while in the 12th century, HP 493001-001 CPU Fan

detailed dravida miniature towers with many tiny tiers (tala) came into vogue.[41] Some 12th-century temples such as the Kallesvara Temple at Hirehadagalli have miniature towers that do not stand on pilasters but instead are supported by balconies, which have niches underneath that normally contain an image of a deity.

The Western Chalukyan kings Shaivas (worshippers of the Hindu god Shiva) dedicated most of their temples to that God. Toshiba BFB0605HA CPU Fan

They were however tolerant of the Vaishnava or Jain faiths and dedicated some temples to Vishnu and the Jain tirthankaras respectively. There are some cases where temples originally dedicated to one deity were converted to suit another faith. In such cases, the original presiding deity can sometimes still be identified by salient clues.[26] HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca CPU Fan

While these temples shared the same basic plan andarchitectural sensibilities, they differed in some details, such as the visibility and pride of place they afforded the different deities.

As with all Indian temples, the deity in the sanctum was the most conspicuous indicator of the temple's dedication. The sanctum (Garbhagriha or cella) of a Shaiva temple would contain a Shiva linga, the universal symbol of the deity.[64] Toshiba Satellite A110-101 CPU Fan

An image of Gaja Lakshmi (consort of the Hindu god Vishnu) or an image of Vishnu riding on Garuda, or even just the Garuda, signifies a Vaishnava temple. Gaja Lakshmi, however, on account of her importance to the Kannada-speaking regions,[26] is found on the lintel of the entrance to the mantapa (pillared hall) in all temples irrespective of faith. HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca CPU Fan

The carving on the projecting lintel on the doorway to the sanctum has the image of a linga or sometimes of Ganapati (Ganesha), the son of Shiva in the case of Shaiva temples or of a seated or upright Jain saint (Tirthankar) in the case of Jain temples.[26]

The great arched niche at the base of the superstructure (Sikhara or tower) also contains an image indicative of the dedicators' sect or faith.[26] HP 535442-001 CPU Fan

Above the lintel, in a deep and richly wrought architrave can be found images of the Hindu trimurti (the Hindu triad of deities) Brahma, Shiva and Vishnu beneath arched rolls of arabesque. Shiva or Vishnu occupies the centre depending on the sect the temple was dedicated to.

Occasionally, Ganapati and his brother Kartikeya (Kumara, Subramanya) or the saktis, the female counterparts, can be found at either end of this carving. HP Pavilion dv6-3049tx CPU Fan

Carvings of the river Goddesses Ganga and Yamuna are found at either end of the foot of the doorway to the shrine in early temples.

The Western Chalukya dynastic rule ended in the late 12th century, but its architectural legacy was inherited by the temple builders in southern Karnataka, a region then under the control of the Hoysala empire.[65] ACER Aspire 5730Z Series CPU Fan

Broadly speaking, Hoysala architecture is derived from a variant of Western Chalukya architecture that emerged from the Lakshmeshwar workshops.[66] The construction of the Chennakesava Temple at Belur was the first major project commissioned by Hoysala King Vishnuvardhana in 1117 CE. This temple best exemplifies the Chalukyan taste the Hoysala artisans inherited.  HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

Avoiding overdecoration, these artists left uncarved spaces where required, although their elaborate doorjambs are exhibitionistic. Here, on the outer walls, the sculptures are not overdone, yet they are articulate and discretely aesthetic.[18][67] The Hoysala builders used soapstone almost universally as building material, a trend that started in the middle of the 11th century with Chalukyan temples.[32] HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

Other common artistic features between the two Kanarese dynasties are the ornate Salabhanjika (pillar bracket figures), the lathe-turned pillars and the makara torana (lintel with mythical beastly figure).[18] The tower over the shrine in a Hoysala temple is a closely moulded form of the Chalukya style tower.[68]

When the Vijayanagara Empire was in power in the 15th and 16th centuries, its workshops preferred granite over soapstone as the building material for temples. Toshiba Satellite L650-1MT CPU Fan

However, an archaeological discovery within the royal center at Vijayanagara has revealed the use of soapstone for stepped wells. These stepped wells are fashioned entirely of finely finished soapstone arranged symmetrically, with steps and landings descending to the water on four sides. This design shows strong affinities to the temple tanks of the Western Chalukya–Hoysala period. SONY Vaio VGN-NW350F CPU Fan

Unlike the Badami Chalukyan temples featured in detailed studies by Henry Cousens (1927), Gary Tartakov (1969) and George Michell (1975), Western Chalukyan architecture suffered neglect despite its importance and wider use. Recently however, scholars have returned to the modern Karnataka region to focus on a longer chronology, Toshiba Satellite M35X-S329 CPU Fan

investigating a larger geographical area, making detailed studies of epigraphs and giving more importance to individual monuments dating from the 11th through 13th centuries.[3]

The first detailed study of Western Chalukya architecture was by M.A. Dhaky (1977), who used as a starting point two medieval epigraphs that claimed the architects were masters of various temple forms. SONY Vaio VGN-TX2XP/B CPU Fan

This study focused in particular on the riches of the Western Chalukya miniature wall shrines (aedicules). An important insight gained from this work was that the architects of the region learned about temple forms from other regions. These forms to them appeared "exotic", but they learned to reproduce them with more or less mastery, depending on the extent of their familiarity with the other regions' building traditions.[70]  LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 Laptop Keyboard

This conscious eclectic attempt to freely use elements from other regions in India was pointed out by Sinha (1993) as well.[71]

A seminal work by Adam Hardy (1995) examined the Karnataka temple-building tradition over a period of 700 years, from the 7th century to the 13th century, and reviewed more than 200 temples built by four dynasties; Badami Chalukya, Rashtrakuta, Western Chalukya and Hoysala.  DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard

The study covered dravida and nagara style monuments and the differences between the dravida tradition in modern Karnataka and that of neighbouring Tamil Nadu and made it possible to interpret the many architectural details as part of a larger scheme.[3][71]

Today, the temples and epigraphs of the Western Chalukyas are protected by the Archaeological Survey of India and the Directorate of Archaeology and Museums–Government of Karnataka.[72TOSHIBA PK130260100 Laptop Keyboard

][73] In the words of historian S. Kamath (2001), "The Western Chalukyas left behind some of the finest monuments of artistic merit. Their creations have the pride of place in Indian art tradition".

The Mahadeva Temple at Itagi dedicated to Shiva is among the larger temples built by the Western Chalukyas and perhaps the most famous. Inscriptions hail it as the 'Emperor among temples'.[74] Lenovo 45N2205 Laptop Keyboard

Here, the main temple, the sanctum of which has a linga, is surrounded by thirteen minor shrines, each with its own linga. The temple has two other shrines, dedicated to Murthinarayana and Chandraleshwari, parents of Mahadeva, the Chalukya commander who consecrated the temple in 1112 CE.[75]

The Siddheshwara temple in the Haveri district has sculptures of deities of multiple faiths. HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard

The temple may have been consecrated first as a Vaishnava temple, later taken over by Jains and eventually becoming a Shaiva temple.[28] The hall in the temple contains sculptures ofUma Mahesvara (Shiva with his consort Uma), Vishnu and his consort Lakshmi, Surya (the sun god), Naga-Nagini (the snake goddess), and the sons of Shiva, Ganapati and Kartikeya. HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard

Shiva is depicted with four arms, holding his attributes: the damaru (drum), the aksamala (chain of beads) and the trishul (trident) in three arms. His lower left arm rests on Uma, who is seated on Shiva's lap, embracing him with her right arm while gazing into his face. The sculpture of Uma is well decorated with garlands, large earrings and curly hair.[76] HP 517865-031 Laptop Keyboard

Some temples, in a departure from the norm, were dedicated to deities other than Shiva or Vishnu. These include the Surya (portrayed as 'Suryanarayana') shrine at the Kasi Vishveshwara temple complex and a Jain temple dedicated to Mahavira, both at Lakkundi; the Taradevi temple (built in a Buddhist architectural style) at Dambal in the Gadag district; HP Compaq NC8430 Laptop Keyboard

the Mahamaya temple dedicated to a tantric goddess at Kuknur in the Koppal district, and the Durga temple at Hirekerur in the Haveri district.

Whaam! is a 1963 diptych painting by the American artist Roy Lichtenstein. It is one of the best-known works of pop art, and among Lichtenstein's most important paintings. SAMSUNG NP-N102-JA01DX Laptop Keyboard

Whaam! was first exhibited at the Leo Castelli Gallery in New York City in 1963, and purchased by the Tate Gallery, London, in 1966. It has been on permanent display at Tate Modern since 2006.

The left-hand panel shows a fighter plane firing a rocket that, in the right-hand panel, hits a second plane which explodes in flames. Lichtenstein conceived the image from several comic-book panels. DELL V119525BS1 Laptop Keyboard

He transformed his primary source, a panel from a 1962 war comic book, by presenting it as a diptych while altering the relationship of the graphical and narrative elements. Whaam! is regarded for the temporal, spatial and psychological integration of its panels. The painting's title is integral to the action and impact of the painting, and displayed in large onomatopoeia in the right panel. TOSHIBA Satellite P500 Laptop Keyboard

Lichtenstein studied as an artist before and after serving in the United States Army during World War II. He practiced anti-aircraft drills during basic training, and he was sent for pilot training but the program was canceled before it started. Among the topics he tackled after the war were romance and war. He depicted aerial combat in several works.  Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

Whaam! is part of a series on war that he worked on between 1962 and 1964, and along with As I Opened Fire (1964) is one of his two large war-themed paintings.

In 1943 Lichtenstein left his study of painting and drawing at Ohio State University to serve in the U.S. Army, where he remained until January 1946. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard

After entering training programs for languages, engineering, and piloting, all of which were canceled, he served as an orderly, draftsman and artist in noncombat roles.[1][2] One of his duties at Camp Shelby was enlarging Bill Mauldin's Stars and Stripes cartoons.[1] He was sent to Europe with an engineer battalion, but did not see active combat.[1] DELL AEFM8U00310 Laptop Keyboard

As a painter, he eventually settled on an abstract-expressionist style with parodist elements.[3] Around 1958 he began to incorporate hidden images of cartoon characters such as Mickey Mouse and Bugs Bunny into his abstract works.[4]

By the late 1950s and early 1960s, the American art world had grown accustomed to and tired of the subjective angst and "hot" look of abstract expressionism.[5][  DELL 0P445M Laptop Keyboard

6]A new generation of artists emerged with a more objective, "cool" approach characterized by the art movements known today as minimalism,[7] hard-edge painting,[8]color field painting,[9] the neo-Dada movement,[10] Fluxus,[11] and pop art, all of which re-defined the avant-garde contemporary art of the time.  TOSHIBA Mini NB 255-SP1002L Laptop Keyboard

Pop art and neo-Dada re-introduced and changed the use of imagery by appropriating subject matter from commercial art, consumer goods, art history and mainstream culture.[12][13]Lichtenstein achieved international recognition during the 1960s as one of the initiators of the pop art movement in America.[14] Regarding his use of imagery MoMAcurator Bernice Rose observed that Lichtenstein was interested in "challenging the notion of originality as it prevailed at that time."[15] SONY Vaio VGN-SZ73B/B CPU Fan

Lichtenstein's early comics-based works such as Look Mickey focused on popular animated characters. By 1963 he had progressed to more serious, dramatic subject matter, typically focusing on romantic situations or war scenes.[16] Comic books as a genre were held in low esteem at the time. Public antipathy led in 1954 to examination of alleged connections between comic books and youth crime during Senate investigations into juvenile delinquency;[ Dell Latitude E6510 CPU Fan

17] by the end of that decade, comic books were regarded as material of "the lowest commercial and intellectual kind", according to Mark Thistlethwaite of the Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth.[17]Lichtenstein was not a comic-book enthusiast as a youth,[18] but was enticed as an artist by the challenge of creating art based on a subject remote from the typical "artistic image".[19] SONY UDQFRZH13CF0 CPU Fan

Lichtenstein admitted he was "very excited about, and very interested in, the highly emotional content yet detached impersonal handling of love, hate, war, etc., in these cartoon images."[16]

Lichtenstein's romance and war comic-based works took heroic subjects from small source panels and monumentalized them.[20] HP Pavilion dv6-3370ca CPU Fan

Whaam! is comparable in size to the generally large canvases painted at that time by the abstract expressionists.[21] It is one of Lichtenstein's many works with an aeronautical theme.[22] He said that "the heroes depicted in comic books are fascist types, but I don't take them seriously in these paintings—maybe there is a point in not taking them seriously, a political point. I use them for purely formal reasons." HP G62-341NR CPU Fan

Whaam! adapts a panel by Irv Novick from the "Star Jockey" story from issue #89 of DC Comics' All-American Men of War (Feb. 1962).[24][25][26] The original forms part of a dream sequence in which fictional World War II P-51 Mustang pilot Johnny Flying Cloud, "the Navajo ace", foresees himself flying a jet fighter while shooting down other jet planes.[27][28] HP 535438-001 CPU Fan

In Lichtenstein's painting, both the attacking and target planes are replaced by different types of aircraft. Paul Gravettsuggests that Lichtenstein substituted the attacking plane with an aircraft from "Wingmate of Doom" illustrated by Jerry Grandenetti in the subsequent issue (#90, April 1962),[29] and that the target plane was borrowed from a Russ Heath drawing in the third panel of page 3 of the "Aces Wild" story in the same issue #89.[30] Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

The painting also omits the speech bubble from the source in which the pilot exclaims "The enemy has become a flaming star!"A smaller, single-panel oil painting by Lichtenstein around the same time, Tex!, has a similar composition, with a plane at the lower left shooting an air-to-air missile at a second plane that is exploding in the upper right, with a word bubble.[32] DELL XPS M170 CPU Fan

The same issue of All-American Men of War was the inspiration for at least three other Lichtenstein paintings, Okay Hot-Shot, Okay!Brattata and Blam, in addition to Whaam! andTex![33] The graphite pencil sketch, Jet Pilot was also from that issue.[34] Several of Lichtenstein's other comics-based works are inspired by stories about Johnny Flying Cloud written by Robert Kanigher and illustrated by Novick, including Okay Hot-Shot, Okay!Jet Pilot and Von Karp.[28] SONY Vaio VGN-SZ2XP/C CPU Fan

Lichtenstein repeatedly depicted aerial combat between the United States and the Soviet Union.[2] In the early and mid-1960s, he produced "explosion" sculptures, taking subjects such as the "catastrophic release of energy" from paintings such as Whaam! and depicting them in freestanding and relief forms.[35] In 1963, he was parodying a variety of artworks, from advertising and comics and to "high art" modern masterpieces byCézanne, Mondrian, Picasso and others. HP Pavilion dv6z-3100 CTO CPU Fan

At the time, Lichtenstein noted that "the things that I have apparently parodied I actually admire."[36]

Lichtenstein's first solo exhibition was held at the Leo Castelli Gallery in New York City, from February 10 to March 3, 1962. It sold out before its opening.[37]The exhibition included Look Mickey,[38] Engagement RingBlam and The Refrigerator.[39] HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

According to the Lichtenstein Foundation website, Whaam! was part of Lichtenstein's second solo exhibition at the Leo Castelli Gallery from September 28 to October 24, 1963, that also included Drowning GirlBaseball ManagerIn the CarConversation, and Torpedo...Los![1][37] Marketing materials for the show included the lithograph artwork, Crak![40][41] SONY Vaio VPC-EB2S1E/WI CPU Fan

The Lichtenstein Foundation website says that Lichtenstein began using his opaque projector technique in 1962.[1] in 1967 he described his process for producing comics-based art as follows:I do them as directly as possible. If I am working from a cartoon, photograph or whatever, I draw a small picture—the size that will fit into my opaque projector ...  Dell Vostro 3500 CPU Fan

I don't draw a picture in order to reproduce it—I do it in order to recompose it ... I go all the way from having my drawing almost like the original to making it up altogether.

Whaam! was purchased by the Tate Gallery in 1966.[1] In 1969, Lichtenstein donated his initial graphite-on-paper drawing Drawing for 'Whaam!', describing it as a "pencil scribble".[43] ASUS BFB0705HA CPU Fan

According to the Tate, Lichtenstein claimed that this drawing represented his "first visualization of Whaam! and that it was executed just before he started the painting."[44] Although he had conceived of a unified work of art on a single canvas, he made the sketch on two sheets of paper of equal size—measuring 14.9 cm × 30.5 cm (5.9 in × 12.0 in).[44] The painting has been displayed at Tate Modern since 2006.[45HP Pavilion dv6720er CPU Fan

] In 2012–13, both works were included in the largest Lichtenstein retrospective that visited the Art Institute of Chicago, the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., the Tate Modern in London and the Centre Pompidou.

haam! depicts a fighter aircraft in the left panel firing a rocket into an enemy plane in the right panel, which disintegrates in a vivid red-and-yellow explosion. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

The cartoon style is emphasized by the use of the onomatopoeic lettering "WHAAM!" in the right panel, and a yellow-boxed caption with black lettering at the top of the left panel. The textual exclamation "WHAAM!" can be considered the graphic equivalent of a sound effect.[48] This was to become a characteristic of his work—like others of his onomatopoeic paintings that contain exclamations such as Bratatat! and Varoom![49] DELL Inspiron 1720 laptop keyboard

Whaam! is one of Lichtenstein's series of war images, typically combining vibrant colors with an expressive narrative.[50] Whaam! is very large, measuring 1.7 m × 4.0 m (5 ft 7 in × 13 ft 4 in).[24] It is less abstract than As I Opened Fire, another of his war scenes.[48] Lichtenstein employs his usual comic-book style: stereotyped imagery in bright primary colors with black outlines, coupled with imitations of mechanical printer's Ben-Day dots.[51] TOSHIBA Satellite A300-1BZ laptop keyboard

The use of these dots, which were invented by Benjamin Day to simulate color variations and shading, are considered Lichtenstein's "signature method".[52] Whaam!departs from Lichtenstein's earlier diptychs such as Step-on-Can with Leg and Like New, in that the panels are not two variations of the same image.

Although Lichtenstein strove to remain faithful to the source images, HP COMPAQ NC6120 laptop keyboard

he constructed his paintings in a traditional manner, starting with a sketch which he adjusted to improve the composition and then projected on to a canvas to make the finished painting.[53] In the case of Whaam!, the sketch is on two pieces of paper, and the finished work is painted with Magna acrylicand oil paint on canvas.[32] DELL Inspiron 1564 laptop keyboard

Although the transformation from a single-panel conception into a diptych painting occurred during the initial sketch, the final work varies from the sketch in several ways. The sketch suggests that the "WHAAM!" motif would be colored white, although it is yellow in the finished work.[43][44] Lichtenstein enlarged the main graphical subject of each panel (the plane on the left and the flames on the right), bringing them closer together as a result.[44]  Lenovo 45N2205 laptop keyboard

Lichtenstein built up the image with multiple layers of paint. The paint was applied using a scrub brush and handmade metal screen to produce Ben-Day dots via a process that left physical evidence behind.[54][55] The Ben-Day dots technique enabled Lichtenstein to give his works a mechanically reproduced feel. Lichtenstein said that the work is "supposed to look like a fake, and it achieves that, I think".[52] COMPAQ Presario CQ40-133TU laptop keyboard

Lichtenstein split the composition into two panels to separate the action from its consequence.[26] The left panel features the attacking plane—placed at a diagonal to create a sense of depth—below the text balloon, which Lichtenstein has relegated to the margin above the plane.[26] In the right panel, the exploding plane—depicted head-on—is outlined by the flames, accompanied by the bold exclamation "WHAAM!".[26]  HP Pavilion DV7-3173nr laptop keyboard

Although separate, with one panel containing the missile launch and the other its explosion, representing two distinct events,[56] the two panels are clearly linked spatially and temporally, not least by the horizontal smoke trail of the missile.[57] Lichtenstein commented on this piece in a July 10, 1967, letter: "I remember being concerned with the idea of doing two almost separate paintings having little hint of compositional connection, DELL 9Z.N1K82.C01 laptop keyboard

and each having slightly separate stylistic character. Of course there is the humorous connection of one panel shooting the other."Lichtenstein altered the composition to make the image more compelling, by making the exploding plane more prominent compared to the attacking plane than in the original.[26] The smoke trail of the missile becomes a horizontal line.  IBM ThinkPad T42 2375 Laptop Keyboard

The flames of the explosion dominate the right panel,[26] but the pilot and the airplane in the left panel are the narrative focus.[48] They exemplify Lichtenstein's painstaking detailing of physical features such as the aircraft's cockpit.[59] The other element of the narrative content is a text balloon that contains the following text: "I pressed the fire control ... and ahead of me rockets blazed through the sky ..."[54] GATEWAY MT6919 Laptop Keyboard

This is among the text believed to have been written by All-American Men of War editor Robert Kanigher.[29][60][61] The yellow word "WHAAM!", altered from the red in the original comic-book panel and white in the pencil sketch, links the yellow of the explosion below it with the textbox to the left and the flames of the missile below the attacking plane.  COMPAQ Presario CQ45-208TU Laptop Keyboard

Lichtenstein's borrowings from comics mimicked their style while adapting their subject matter.[62] He explained that "Signs and comic strips are interesting as subject matter. There are certain things that are usable, forceful and vital about commercial art." Rebecca Bengal at PBS wrote that Whaam!'s graphic clarity exemplifies the ligne claire style associated with Hergé, a cartoonist whose influence Lichtenstein acknowledged.[63Lenovo 3000 Y500 Laptop Keyboard

] Lichtenstein was attracted to using a cool, formal style to depict emotive subjects, leaving the viewer to interpret the artist's intention.[53] He adopted a simplified color scheme and commercial printing-like techniques. The borrowed technique was "representing tonal variations with patterns of colored circles that imitated the half-tone screens of Ben Day dots used in newspaper printing, and surrounding these with black outlines similar to those used to conceal imperfections in cheap newsprint."[62 HP Mini 110-3105tu Laptop Keyboard

] Lichtenstein once said of his technique: "I take a cliche and try to organize its forms to make it monumental."

The painting was, for the most part, well received by art critics when first exhibited. A November 1963 Art Magazine review by Donald Judd described Whaam! as one of the "broad and powerful paintings" of the 1963 exhibition at Castelli's Gallery.[37] Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard

In his review of the exhibition, The New York Times art critic Brian O'Doherty described Lichtenstein's technique as "typewriter pointillism ... that laboriously hammers out such moments as a jet shooting down another jet with a big BLAM". According to O'Doherty, the result was "certainly not art, [but] time may make it so", depending on whether it could be "rationalized ...  TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

and placed in line for the future to assimilate as history, which it shows every sign of doing."[64] The Tate Gallery in London acquired the work in 1966, leading to heated argument amongst their trustees and some vocal members of the public. The purchase was made from art dealer Ileana Sonnabend, whose asking price of £4,665 (£75,821 in 2014 currency) was reduced by negotiation to £3,940 (£64,037 in 2014 currency).[65] HP Pavilion dv4-1030ee Laptop Keyboard

Some Tate trustees opposed the acquisition, among them sculptor Barbara Hepworth, painter Andrew Forge and the poet and critic Herbert Read.[65] Defending the acquisition, art historian Richard Morphet, then an assistant keeper at the Tate, suggested that the painting addresses several issues and painterly styles at the same time: "history painting, Baroque extravagance, and the quotidian phenomenon of mass-circulation comic strips."[66] HP COMPAQ NX6310 Laptop Keyboard

The Times in 1967 described the acquisition as a "very large and spectacular painting".[67] The Tate's director, Norman Reid, later said that the work aroused more public interest than any of its acquisitions since World War II.[68]

In 1968, Whaam! was included in the Tate's first solo exhibition of Lichtenstein's work.[68] HP AELX6U00210 Laptop Keyboard

The showing attracted 52,000 visitors, and was organized with theStedelijk Museum in Amsterdam,[65] which later hosted the exhibition from November 4 to December 17, 1967, before it traveled to three other museums.

For José Pierre, Whaam! represents Lichtenstein's 1963 expansion "into the 'epic' vein".[69] Keith Roberts, in a 1968 Burlington Magazine article, described the explosion as combining "art nouveau elegance with a nervous energy reminiscent of Abstract Expressionism".[70] HP Probook 4520S Laptop Keyboard

Wendy Steiner believes the work is Lichtenstein's most successful and harmonious comic-based composition. She sees the narrative and graphic elements as complementary: the action and spatial alignment lead the viewer's eye from left to right so as to emphasize the relationship between the action and its explosive consequence. The ellipses of the text balloon present a progression which culminates with a "WHAAM!". DELL Precision M4500 Laptop Keyboard

The "coincidence of pictorial and verbal order" are clear for the Western viewer with the explanatory text beginning in the upper left and action vector moving from the left foreground to the right background, culminating in a graphical explosion in tandem with a narrative exclamation.[71] Steiner says the striking incongruity of the two panels—the left panel appearing to be "truncated", while the right depicts a centralized explosion—enhances the work's narrative power. SAMSUNG Q320 Laptop Keyboard

Lichtenstein's technique has been characterized by Ernst A. Busche as "the enlargement and unification of his source material ... on the basis of strict artistic principles".[62] Extracted from a larger narrative, the resulting stylized image became in some cases a "virtual abstraction". By recreating their minimalistic graphic techniques, Lichtenstein reinforced the artificial nature of comic strips and advertisements. HP Mini 110-3004tu Laptop Keyboard

Lichtenstein's magnification of his source material made his impersonally drawn motifs seem all the more empty. Busche also says that although a critique of modern industrial America may be read into these images, Lichtenstein "would appear to accept the environment as revealed by his reference material as part of American capitalist industrial culture".[62] SONY 147963021 Laptop Keyboard

David McCarthy contrasted Lichtenstein's "dispassionate, detached and oddly disembodied" presentation of aerial combat with the work of H.C. Westermann, for whom the experience of military service in World War II instilled a need to horrify and shock. In contrast, Lichtenstein registers his "comment on American civilization" by scaling up inches-high comic book images to the oversized dimensions of history painting.[2] TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

Laura Brandon saw an attempt to convey "the trivialization of culture endemic in contemporary American life" by depicting a shocking scene of combat as a banal Cold War act.[72]

Carol Strickland and John Boswell say that by magnifying the comic book panels to an enormous size with dots, "Lichtenstein slapped the viewer in the face with their triviality."[51] Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard

H. H. Arnason noted that Whaam! presents "limited, flat colors and hard, precise drawing," which produce "a hard-edge subject painting that documents while it gently parodies the familiar hero images of modern America."[73] The flat and highly finished style of planned brushstrokes can be seen as pop art's reaction against the looseness of abstract expressionism.[74] DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard

Alastair Sooke says that the work can be interpreted as a symbolic self-portrait in which the pilot in the left panel represents Lichtenstein "vanquishing his competitors in a dramatic art-world dogfight" by firing a missile at the colorful "parody of abstract painting" in the right panel.[66]

According to Ernesto Priego, while the work adapts a comic-book source, the painting is neither a comic nor a comics panel, and "its meaning is solely referential and post hoc. HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard

" It directs the attention of its audience to features such as genre and printing methods. Visually and narratively, the original panel was the climactic element of a dynamic page composition. Lichtenstein emphasizes the onomatopoeia while playing down articulated speech by removing the speech balloon. According to Priego, "by stripping the comics panel from its narrative context, APPLE A1278 Laptop Keyboard

Whaam! is representative in the realm of fine art of the preference of the image-icon over image-narrative".[61]

Whaam! is sometimes said to belong to the same anti-war genre as Picasso's Guernica, a suggestion dismissed by Bradford R. Collins. Instead, Collins views the painting as a revenge fantasy against Lichtenstein's first wife Isabel, conceived as it was during their bitter divorce battle (the couple separated in 1961 and divorced in 1965). HP G62-b04SL CPU Fan

Marla F. Prather observed that Whaam!'s grand scale and dramatic depiction contributed to its position as a historic work of pop art.[74] With As I Opened Fire, Lichtenstein's other monumental war painting, Whaam! is regarded as the culmination of Lichtenstein's dramatic war-comics works, according to Diane Waldman.[76] It is widely described as either Lichtenstein's most famous work,[  Dell Vostro 3500 CPU Fan

] or, along with Drowning Girl, as one of his two most famous works.[80][81] Andrew Edgar and Peter Sedgwick describe it, along with Warhol's Marilyn Monroe prints, as one of the most famous works of pop art.[82] Gianni Versace once linked the two iconic pop art images via his gown designs.[83] According to Douglas Coupland, the World Book Encyclopedia used pictures of Warhol's Monroes and Whaam! to illustrate its Pop art entry. DELL Inspiron N3010 Series CPU Fan

Comic books were in turn affected by the cultural impact of pop art. By the mid-1960s, some comic books were displaying a new emphasis on garish colors, emphatic sound effects and stilted dialogue—the elements of comic book style that had come to be regarded as camp—in an attempt to appeal to older, college-age readers who appreciated pop art.[85] HP 550 CPU Fan

Gravett observed that the "simplicity and outdatedness [of comic books] were ripe for being mocked".[29]

Whaam! was one of the key works exhibited in a major Lichtenstein retrospective in 2012–2013 that was designed, according to Li-mei Hoang, to demonstrate "the importance of Lichtenstein's influence, his engagement with art history and his enduring legacy as an artist".[86HP 646578-001 CPU Fan

] In his review of the Lichtenstein Retrospective at the Tate Modern, Adrian Searle of The Guardian—who was generally unenthusiastic about Lichtenstein's work—credited the work's title with accurately describing its graphic content: "Whaam! goes the painting, as the rocket hits, and the enemy fighter explodes in a livid, comic-book roar."[87] DELL Vostro A860 CPU Fan

Daily Telegraph critic Alastair Smart wrote a disparaging review in which he acknowledged Lichtenstein's reputation as a leading figure in "Pop Art's cheeky assault on the swaggering, self-important Abstract Expressionists", whose works Smart said Whaam! mimicked by its huge scale. Smart said the work was neither a positive commentary on the fighting American spirit nor a critique, but was notable for marking "Lichtenstein's incendiary impact on the US art scene".[21] HP Pavilion dv6-3125ej CPU Fan

Critics have raised concerns over Lichtenstein's appropriation, in that he directly references imagery from other sources[88] in Whaam! and other works of the period.[29] Some have denigrated it as mere copying, to which others have countered that Lichtenstein altered his sources in significant, creative ways.[66] In response to claims of plagiarism, Compaq Presario A916NR CPU Fan

the Roy Lichtenstein Foundation has noted that publishers have never sued for copyright infringement, and that they never raised the issue when Lichtenstein's comics-derived work first gained attention in the 1960s.[89] Other criticism centers on Lichtenstein's failure to credit the original artists of his sources;[66][90][91] Ernesto Priego implicates National Periodicals in the case of Whaam!, as the artists were never credited in the original comic books.[61] HP 532614-001 CPU Fan

In Alastair Sooke's 2013 BBC Four documentary that took place in front of Whaam! at the Tate Modern, British comic book artist Dave Gibbons disputed Sooke's assertion that Lichtenstein's painting improved upon Novick's panel, saying: "This to me looks flat and abstracted, to the point of view that to my eyes it's confusing. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

Whereas the original has got a three-dimensional quality to it, it's got a spontaneity to it, it's got an excitement to it, and a way of involving the viewer that this one lacks."[29] Gibbons has parodied Lichtenstein's derivation of the Novick work. SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L CPU Fan, HP 489126-001 CPU Fan, HP Envy 17-2290nr CPU Fan

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