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The movement began around 1790, gained momentum by 1800, and, after 1820 membership rose rapidly among Baptist and Methodist congregations, whose preachers led the movement. It was past its peak by the 1840s.[61]

It enrolled millions of new members in existing evangelical denominations and led to the formation of new denominations. HP Pavilion dv3-2155mx laptop keyboard

Many converts believed that the Awakening heralded a new millennial age. The Second Great Awakening stimulated the establishment of many reform movements—including abolitionism and temperance designed to remove the evils of society before the anticipated Second Coming of Jesus Christ. TOSHIBA PK130BH2A00 laptop keyboard

After 1840 the growing abolitionist movement redefined itself as a crusade against the sin of slave ownership. It mobilized support (especially among religious women in the Northeast affected by the Second Great Awakening).William Lloyd Garrison published the most influential of the many anti-slavery newspapers, SONY VAIO VGN-CR123E laptop keyboard

The Liberator, whileFrederick Douglass, an ex-slave, began writing for that newspaper around 1840 and started his own abolitionist newspaper North Star in 1847.[63] The great majority of anti-slavery activists, such as Abraham Lincoln, rejected Garrison's theology and held that slavery was an unfortunate social evil, not a sin. Lenovo ThinkPad T510-4339 laptop keyboard

The American colonies and the new nation grew very rapidly in population and area, as pioneers pushed the frontier of settlement west.[66] The process finally ended around 1890-1910 as the last major farmlands and ranch lands were settled. Native American tribes in some places resisted militarily, HP Pavilion dv6-2130ca laptop keyboard

but they were overwhelmed by settlers and the army and after 1830 were relocated to reservations in the west. The highly influential "Frontier Thesis" argues that the frontier shaped the national character, with its boldness, violence, innovation, individualism, and democracy.[67]

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Recent historians have emphasized the multicultural nature of the frontier. Enormous popular attention in the media focuses on the "Wild West" of the second half of the 19th century. As defined by Hine and Faragher, "frontier history tells the story of the creation and defense of communities, the use of the land, the development of markets, and the formation of states". HP Pavilion DV6z artist edition 2 Laptop Keyboard

They explain, "It is a tale of conquest, but also one of survival, persistence, and the merging of peoples and cultures that gave birth and continuing life to America."[67]

Through wars and treaties, establishment of law and order, building farms, ranches, and towns, marking trails and digging mines, and pulling in great migrations of foreigners, HP G42-364LA Laptop Keyboard

the United States expanded from coast to coast fulfilling the dreams of Manifest Destiny. As the American frontier passed into history, the myths of the west in fiction and film took firm hold in the imagination of Americans and foreigners alike. America is exceptional in choosing its iconic self-image.  DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard

"No other nation," says David Murdoch, "has taken a time and place from its past and produced a construct of the imagination equal to America’s creation of the West."[68]

From the early 1830s to 1869, the Oregon Trail and its many offshoots were used by over 300,000 settlers. '49ers (in the California Gold Rush), ranchers, farmers, SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard,HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard

and entrepreneurs and their families headed to California, Oregon, and other points in the far west. Wagon-trains took five or six months on foot; after 1869, the trip took 6 days by rail.

Manifest Destiny was the belief that American settlers were destined to expand across the continent. HP G42-364LA Laptop Keyboard

This concept was born out of "A sense of mission to redeem the Old World by high example... generated by the potentialities of a new earth for building a new heaven."[70] The phrase itself meant many different things to many different people and was rejected by modernizers who wanted to build cities and factories—not more farms.  TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 Laptop Keyboard

 Howe argues that, "Nevertheless American imperialism did not represent an American consensus; it provoked bitter dissent within the national polity."[71]That is, Democrats favored expansion, and most Whigs were opposed. Manifest destiny did, however, provide the rhetorical tone for the largest acquisition of U.S. territory. HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard

After a bitter debate in Congress the Republic of Texas was annexedin 1845, which Mexico had warned meant war. War broke out in 1846, with the homefront polarized as Whigs opposed and Democrats supported the war. The U.S. army, using regulars and large numbers of volunteers, Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard

easily won the Mexican-American War (1846–48) were at its beginning the term American Empire was coined. Public sentiment in the US was divided as Whigs and anti-slavery elements opposed the war. The 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ceded California, New Mexico, DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard

Arizona, Nevada, and adjacent areas to the United States, with the residents given full citizenship. Simultaneously gold was discovered, pulling over 100,000 men to northern California in a matter of months in the California Gold Rush.

The central issue after 1848 was the expansion of slavery, pitting the anti-slavery elements that were a majority in the North, Lenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard

against the pro-slavery elements that overwhelmingly dominated the white South. A small number of very active Northerners were abolitionists who declared that ownership of slaves was a sin (in terms of Protestant theology) and demanded its immediate abolition. Much larger numbers were against the expansion of slavery,  HP Pavilion zv6223ea Laptop Keyboard

seeking to put it on the path to extinction so that America would be committed to free land (as in low-cost farms owned and cultivated by a family), free labor (no slaves), and free speech (as opposed to censorship rampant in the South.) Southern whites insisted that slavery was of economic social and cultural benefit to all whites (and even to the slaves themselves), and denounced all antislavery spokesmen as "abolitionists."[73]  Lenovo Thinkpad T520 Laptop Keyboard

Religious activists split on slavery, with the Methodists and Baptists dividing into northern and southern denominations. In the North, the Methodists, Congregationalists and Quakers included many abolitionists, especially among women activists. The Catholic, Episcopal and Lutheran denominations largely ignored the slavery issue.[74] ACER Aspire 4736Z laptop keyboard

The issue of slavery in the new territories was seemingly settled by the Compromise of 1850 brokered by Whig Henry Clay and Democrat Stephen Douglas; the Compromise included admission of California as a free state. The sore point was the Fugitive Slave Act to make it easier for masters to reclaim runaway slaves.  HP Pavilion DV7t-3100 laptop keyboard

Abolitionists fastened on the Act to attack slavery, as in Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe.[75]

The Compromise of 1820 was repealed in 1854 with the Kansas-Nebraska Act, promoted by Senator Douglas in the name of "popular sovereignty" and democracy. It permitted settlers to decide on slavery in each territory, HP Pavilion dv6-2150es laptop keyboard

and allowed Douglas to say he was neutral on the slavery issue. Antislavery forces rose in anger and alarm, forming the new Republican Party. Pro and anti-forces rushed to Kansas to vote slavery up or down, resulting in a mini civil war called Bleeding Kansas. HP Pavilion dv6-3107ax laptop keyboard

By the late 1850s the young Republican Party dominated nearly all northern states and thus the electoral college, and insisted that slavery would never be allowed to expand (and thus would slowly die out).[76]

The southern slave societies had become wealthy based on their cotton and other commodity production,  SONY VAIO VGN-FS415E laptop keyboard

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and some particularly profited from the internal slave trade. They were tied to northern cities such as Boston and New York by banking, shipping, and manufacturing. By 1860, there were four million slaves in the South, nearly eight times as many as the total slaves nationwide in 1790. SONY VAIO VGN-NW25GF laptop keyboard

The plantations were highly profitable because of the heavy European demand for raw cotton; most of the profits were invested in new lands and new slaves drawn from the declining tobacco regions. For 50 of the nation's first 72 years a slaveholder served as president of the United States and, during that period, Compaq Presario CQ71-317EA laptop keyboard

only slaveholding presidents were re-elected to second terms.[77] In addition, southern states benefited by their increased apportionment in Congress due to the partial counting of slaves in their populations.

Slave rebellions were planned or actually took place —including by Gabriel Prosser (1800), HP Pavilion dv6-2129ev laptop keyboard

Denmark Vesey (1822), Nat Turner (1831), and John Brown (1859) —but they all failed. They led southern states to establish tighter slave oversight as well as reducing rights of free blacks. The Supreme Court's 1857 decision inDred Scott v. Sandford took the Southern position of making slavery legal everywhere, which outraged northerners. FUJITSU Lifebook P1610 laptop keyboard

After Abraham Lincoln won the 1860 election, seven Southern states seceded from the union between late 1860 and 1861, establishing a new government, the Confederate States of America, on February 8, 1861. When Lincoln called for troops to suppress the Confederacy in April 1861, four more states seceded and joined the Confederacy. SONY VAIO VGN-FS640/W laptop keyboard

Along with the northwestern portion of Virginia, which becameWest Virginia, four of the five northernmost "slave states" did not secede and became known as the Border States.

The Civil War began on April 12, 1861, when Confederate forces attacked a U.S. military installation at Fort Sumter in South Carolina.  HP 405963-001 laptop keyboard

In response to the attack, on April 15, Lincoln called on the states to send detachments totaling 75,000 troops to recapture forts, protect the capital, and "preserve the Union", which in his view still existed intact despite the actions of the seceding states. The two armies had their first major clash at the First Battle of Bull Run,  HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard

ending in a Union defeat, but, more importantly, proved to both the Union and Confederacy that the war would be much longer and bloodier than originally anticipated.[79]

The war soon divided into two theaters: Eastern and Western. In the western theater, the Union was quite successful, with major battles, such as Perryville and Shiloh, SONY VAIO VGN-FS315M Laptop Keyboard

producing strategic Union victories and destroying major Confederate operations.

Warfare in the Eastern theater started poorly for the Union as the Confederates won at Manassas Junction (Bull Run), just outside Washington. Major General George B. McClellan was put in charge of the Union armies. TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard

 After reorganizing the new Army of the Potomac, McClellan failed to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia in his Peninsula Campaign and retreated after attacks from newly appointed Confederate General Robert E. Lee.[81] SONY VGN-FE21H laptop keyboard

Feeling confident in his army after defeating the Union at Second Bull Run, Lee embarked on an invasion of the north that was stopped by McClellan at the bloody Battle of Antietam. Despite this, McClellan was relieved from command for refusing to pursue Lee's crippled army.  HP G72-b60SF laptop keyboard

The next commander, General Ambrose Burnside, suffered a humiliating defeat by Lee's smaller army at the Battle of Fredericksburg late in 1862, causing yet another change in commanders. Lee won again at the Battle of Chancellorsville in May 1863, while losing his top aide, Stonewall Jackson. HP Mini 110-3180sv laptop keyboard

But Lee pushed too hard and ignored the Union threat in the west. Lee invaded Pennsylvania in search of supplies and to cause war weariness in the North. In perhaps the turning point of the war, Lee's army was badly beaten at the Battle of Gettysburg, July 1–3, 1863, and barely made it back to Virginia. LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 laptop keyboard

Simultaneously on July 4, 1863, Union forces under the command of General Ulysses S. Grantgained control of the Mississippi River at the Battle of Vicksburg, thereby splitting the Confederacy. Lincoln made General Grant commander of all Union armies.

The last two years of the war were bloody for both sides, with Grant launching a war of attrition against General Lee's Army of Northern Virginia. HP Mini 110-3180sv laptop keyboard

This war of attrition was divided into three main campaigns. The first of these, the Overland Campaign forced Lee to retreat into the city of Petersburg where Grant launched his second major offensive, the Richmond-Petersburg Campaign in which he besieged Petersburg. After a near ten-month siege, Petersburg surrendered. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E125 laptop keyboard

However, the defense of Fort Gregg allowed Lee to move his army out of Petersburg. Grant pursued and launched the final, Appomattox Campaign which resulted in Lee surrendering his Army of Northern Virginia on April 9, 1865, at Appomattox Court House. Other Confederate armies followed suit and the war ended with no postwar insurgency. HP Pavilion dv6-3230us laptop keyboard

Based on 1860 census figures, about 8% of all white males aged 13 to 43 died in the war, including 6% from the North and 18% from the South,[83] establishing the American Civil War as the deadliest war in American history. Its legacy includes ending slavery in the United States, restoring the Union, and strengthening the role of the federal government. ACER K052030A1 laptop keyboard, DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard

Reconstruction lasted from Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation of January 1, 1863 to the Compromise of 1877.[84]

The major issues faced by Lincoln were the status of the ex-slaves (called "Freedmen"), the loyalty and civil rights of ex-rebels, the status of the 11 ex-Confederate states, TOSHIBA NSK-TAJ01 Laptop Keyboard

the powers of the federal government needed to prevent a future civil war, and the question of whether Congress or the President would make the major decisions.

The severe threats of starvation and displacement of the unemployed Freedmen were met by the first major federal relief agency, the Freedman's Bureau, operated by the Army.[85] ACER Aspire 7741G Laptop Keyboard

Three "Reconstruction Amendments" were passed to expand civil rights for black Americans: the Thirteenth Amendment outlawed slavery; the Fourteenth Amendment guaranteed equal rights for all and citizenship for blacks; the Fifteenth Amendmentprevented race from being used to disfranchise men.SONY KFRMBA152B Laptop Keyboard,HP Pavilion dv6-3001so Laptop Keyboard

Ex-Confederates remained in control of most Southern states for over two years, but that changed when the Radical Republicansgained control of Congress in the 1866 elections. President Andrew Johnson, who sought easy terms for reunions with ex-rebels, was virtually powerless; he escaped by one vote removal through impeachment. HP HDX18-1100 CTO Laptop Keyboard

Congress enfranchised black men and stripped many ex-Confederate leasers of the right to hold office. New Republican governments came to power based on a coalition of Freedmen made up of Carpetbaggers (new arrivals from the North), andScalawags (native white Southerners).  TOSHIBA Satellite C655-S9521D Laptop Keyboard

They were backed by the US Army. Opponents said they were corrupt and violated the rights of whites. State by state they lost power to a conservative-Democratic coalition, which gained control of the entire South by 1877. In response to Radical Reconstruction, the Ku Klux Klan(KKK) emerged in 1867 as a white-supremacist organization opposed to black civil rights and Republican rule. HP G42-380LA Laptop Keyboard

President Ulysses Grant's vigorous enforcement of the Ku Klux Klan Act of 1870 shut down the Klan, and it disbanded. However, there were other paramilitary groups, such as the White League and Red Shirts that worked to regain white political power in states across the South during the 1870s.[86] GATEWAY NV-53 Laptop Keyboard

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Reconstruction ended after the disputed 1876 election between Republican candidate Rutherford B. Hayes and Democratic candidate Samuel J. Tilden. With a compromise Hayes won the election, the federal government withdrew its troops from the South, and Southern Democrats re-entered the national political scene.[87]After 1890 southern states effectively disfranchised black voters. Blacks were segregated in public places and remained second class citizens in a system known as Jim Crow until the successes of the Civil Rights movement in 1964-65.  ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard

The latter half of the nineteenth century was marked by the United States' development and settlement of the West, first by wagon trains and then aided by the completion of the transcontinental railroad and frequent wars with Native Americans as settlers encroached on their traditional lands. HP AEUT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard

Gradually the US purchased their lands and extinguished their claims, forcing most tribes onto restricted reservations. According to the U.S. Bureau of the Census (1894),

The Indian wars under the government of the United States have been more than 40 in number. ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard

They have cost the lives of about 19,000 white men, women and children, including those killed in individual combats, and the lives of about 30,000 Indians.。

The "Gilded Age" was a term that Mark Twain used to describe the period of the late 19th century when there had been a dramatic expansion of American wealth and prosperity. Reform of the Age included the Civil Service Act,  HP AEUT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard

which mandated a competitive examination for applicants for government jobs. Other important legislation included the Interstate Commerce Act, which ended railroads' discrimination against small shippers, and the Sherman Antitrust Act, which outlawed monopolies in business. APPLE A1278 Laptop Keyboard

Twain believed that this age was corrupted by such elements as land speculators, scandalous politics, and unethical business practices.[91]

By 1890 American industrial production and per capita income exceeded those of all other world nations. ACER 9J.N0F82.A1D Laptop Keyboard

In response to heavy debts and decreasing farm prices, wheat and cotton farmers joined the Populist Party.[92] An unprecedented wave of immigration from Europe served to both provide the labor for American industry and create diverse communities in previously undeveloped areas. HP G72-b66US Laptop Keyboard

From 1880 to 1914, peak years of immigration, more than 22 million people migrated to the United States.[93] The workers' demand for control of their workplace led to the often-violent rise of the labor movement in the cities and mining camps. Industrial leaders included John D. Rockefeller in oil and Andrew Carnegie in steel; ACER 9J.N0F82.A1D Laptop Keyboard

both became leaders of philanthropy, giving away their fortunes to create the modern system of hospitals, universities, libraries, and foundations.

A severe nationwide depression broke out in 1893; it was called the Panic of 1893 and impacted farmers, workers, and businessmen who saw prices, wages, and profits fall.[95]  HP G72-b66US Laptop Keyboard

Many railroads went bankrupt. The resultant political reaction fell on the Democratic Party, whose leader President Grover Cleveland shouldered much of the blame. Labor unrest involved numerous strikes, most notably the violent Pullman Strike of 1894, which was shut down by federal troops under Cleveland's orders. HP Mini 110-3180sv Laptop Keyboard

The Populist Party gained strength among cotton and wheat farmers, as well as coal miners, but was overtaken by the even more popular Free Silver movement, which demanded using silver to enlarge the money supply, leading to inflation that the silverites promised would end the depression.[96] Lenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard

he financial, railroad, and business communities fought back hard, arguing that only the gold standard would save the economy. In the most intense election in the nation's history, conservative Republican William McKinley defeated silverite William Jennings Bryan, who ran on the Democratic, Populist, and Silver Republican tickets. DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard

Bryan swept the South and West, but McKinley ran up landslides among the middle class, industrial workers, cities, and among upscale farmers in the Midwest.[97]

Prosperity returned under McKinley, the gold standard was enacted, and the tariff was raised. By 1900 the US had the strongest economy on the globe.  DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard

Apart from two short recessions (in 1907 and 1920) the overall economy remained prosperous and growing until 1929. Republicans, citing McKinley's policies, took the credit.

Dissatisfaction on the part of the growing middle class with the corruption and inefficiency of politics as usual, and the failure to deal with increasingly important urban and industrial problems, HP Pavilion dv6-2125ef laptop keyboard

led to the dynamic Progressive Movement starting in the 1890s. In every major city and state, and at the national level as well, and in education, medicine, and industry, the progressives called for the modernization and reform of decrepit institutions, the elimination of corruption in politics, and the introduction of efficiency as a criterion for change. HP Pavilion dv6-2110ev laptop keyboard

Leading politicians from both parties, most notably Theodore Roosevelt,Charles Evans Hughes, and Robert LaFollette on the Republican side, and William Jennings Bryan on the Democratic side, took up the cause of progressive reform. Women became especially involved in demands for woman suffrage, prohibition, and better schools; SONY VAIO VGN-N31Z/W laptop keyboard

their most prominent leader was Jane Addams of Chicago. Progressives implemented anti-trust laws and regulated such industries of meat-packing, drugs, and railroads. Four new constitutional amendments—the Sixteenththrough Nineteenth—resulted from progressive activism, bringing the federal income tax, ACER TravelMate 6252 laptop keyboard

direct election of Senators, prohibition, and woman suffrage.[99] The Progressive Movement lasted through the 1920s; the most active period was 1900–1918.

The United States emerged as a world economic and military power after 1890. The main episode was the Spanish–American War, which began when Spain refused American demands to reform its oppressive policies in Cuba.[101] SONY VGN-FE11M laptop keyboard

The "splendid little war", as one official called it, involved a series of quick American victories on land and at sea. At the Treaty of Paris peace conference the United States acquired the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam.[102]

Cuba became an independent country, under close American tutelage. TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4NX1 laptop keyboard

Although the war itself was widely popular, the peace terms proved controversial. William Jennings Bryan led his Democratic Party in opposition to control of the Philippines, which he denounced as imperialism unbecoming to American democracy.[102]President William McKinley defended the acquisition and was riding high as the nation had returned to prosperity and felt triumphant in the war. ASUS X53S laptop keyboard

McKinley easily defeated Bryan in a rematch in the 1900 presidential election.[103]

After defeating an insurrection by Filipino nationalists, the United States engaged in a large-scale program to modernize the economy of the Philippines and dramatically upgrade the public health facilities.[104] Acer eMachines E640 laptop keyboard

By 1908, however, Americans lost interest in an empire and turned their international attention to the Caribbean, especially the building of the Panama Canal. In 1912 when Arizona became the final state of the mainland USA the American Frontier came to an end. The canal opened in 1914 and increased trade with Japan and the rest of the Far East. TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5107 laptop keyboard

A key innovation was the Open Door Policy, whereby the imperial powers were given equal access to Chinese business, with not one of them allowed to take control of China.

As World War I raged in Europe from 1914, President Woodrow Wilson took full control of foreign policy, HP Pavilion DV6z artist edition 2 laptop keyboard

declaring neutrality but warning Germany that resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare against American ships supplying goods to Allied nations would mean war. Germany decided to take the risk and try to win by cutting off supplies to Britain; the U.S. declared war in April 1917.[106] SONY VAIO VGN-N250E/B laptop keyboard

American money, food, and munitions arrived quickly, but troops had to be drafted and trained; by summer 1918 American soldiers under General John J. Pershing arrived at the rate of 10,000 a day, while Germany was unable to replace its losses.[107]

The result was Allied victory in November 1918. HP Pavilion DV7-3067nr laptop keyboard

President Wilson demanded Germany depose the Kaiser and accept his terms, theFourteen Points. Wilson dominated the 1919 Paris Peace Conference but Germany was treated harshly by the Allies in the Treaty of Versailles (1919) as Wilson put all his hopes in the new League of Nations. HP Pavilion dv6-3001so laptop keyboard

Wilson refused to compromise with Senate Republicans over the issue of Congressional power to declare war, and the Senate rejected the Treaty and the League.

The women's suffrage movement began with the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention, organized by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott, aHP HDX18-1100 CTO laptop keyboard

nd the Declaration of Sentiments demanding equal rights for women. Many of the activists became politically aware during the abolitionist movement. The women's rights campaign during "first-wave feminism" was led by Mott, Stanton, and Susan B. Anthony, among many others. SONY VAIO VGN-N21E/W laptop keyboard

The movement reorganized after the Civil War, gaining experienced campaigners, many of whom had worked for prohibition in the Women's Christian Temperance Union. By the end of the 19th century a few western states had granted women full voting rights,[109] though women had made significant legal victories, gaining rights in areas such as property and child custody.[110] HP Pavilion dv5-1118tx laptop keyboard

Around 1912 the feminist movement, which had grown sluggish, began to reawaken, putting an emphasis on its demands for equality and arguing that the corruption of American politics demanded purification by women because men could not do that job.[111] Protests became increasingly common as suffragette Alice Paul led parades through the capital and major cities. HP AEUT5U00010 laptop keyboard

Paul split from the largeNational American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA), which favored a more moderate approach and supported the Democratic Party and Woodrow Wilson, led by Carrie Chapman Catt, and formed the more militant National Woman's Party. HP Mini 110-3504tu laptop keyboard

Suffragists were arrested during their "Silent Sentinels" pickets at the White House, the first time such a tactic was used, and were taken as political prisoners.[112]

The old anti-suffragist argument that only men could fight a war, and therefore only men deserve the right to vote, was refuted by the enthusiastic participation of tens of thousands of American women on the home front in World War I. HP Pavilion dv6-2159tx laptop keyboard

Across the world, grateful nations gave women the right to vote. Furthermore, most of the Western states had already given the women the right to vote in state and national elections, and the representatives from those states, including the first woman Jeannette Rankin of Montana, demonstrated that woman suffrage was a success. DELL 0M711P laptop keyboard

 The main resistance came from the south, where white leaders were worried about the threat of black women voting. Congress passed the Nineteenth Amendment in 1919, and women could vote in 1920.[113]

NAWSA became the League of Women Voters, and the National Woman's Party began lobbying for full equality and the Equal Rights Amendment, HP Pavilion dv6-2160ep laptop keyboard

which would pass Congress during the second wave of the women's movement in 1972. Politicians responded to the new electorate by emphasizing issues of special interest to women, especially prohibition, child health, and world peace.[114][115] The main surge of women voting came in 1928, HP COMPAQ NX6310 Laptop Keyboard

when the big-city machines realized they needed the support of women to elect Al Smith, a Catholic from New York City. Meanwhile Protestants mobilized women to support Prohibition and vote for Republican Herbert Hoover.

In the 1920s the U.S. grew steadily in stature as an economic and military world power.  DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard

The United States Senate did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles imposed by its Allies on the defeated Central Powers; instead, the United States chose to pursue unilateralism.[117] The aftershock of Russia's October Revolution resulted in real fears of communism in the United States, leading to a Red Scare and the deportation of aliens considered subversive. GATEWAY M-6319 Laptop Keyboard

While public health facilities grew rapidly in the Progressive Era, and hospitals and medical schools were modernized,[118]the nation in 1918 lost 675,000 lives to the Spanish flu pandemic.[119]

In 1920, the manufacture, sale, import and export of alcohol were prohibited by the Eighteenth Amendment, Prohibition. HP 634139-001 Laptop Keyboard

The result was that in cities illegal alcohol became a big business, largely controlled by racketeers. The second KKK grew rapidly in 1922-25, then collapsed. Immigration laws were passed to strictly limit the number of new entries. The 1920s were called the Roaring Twenties due to the great economic prosperity during this period. TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5083 Laptop Keyboard

Jazz became popular among the younger generation, and thus the decade was also called the Jazz Age.

The Great depression (1929–39) and the New Deal (1933–36) were decisive moments in American political, economic, and social history that reshaped the nation.[120]  ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

During the 1920s, the nation enjoyed widespread prosperity, albeit with a weakness in agriculture. A financial bubble was fueled by an inflated stock market, which later led to the Stock Market Crash on October 29, 1929.[121] This, along with many other economic factors, triggered a worldwide depression known as the Great Depression. HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard

During this time, the United States experienced deflationas prices fell, unemployment soared from 3% in 1929 to 25% in 1933, farm prices fell by half, and manufacturing output plunged by one-third.

In 1932, Democratic presidential nominee Franklin D. Roosevelt promised "a New Deal for the American people, TOSHIBA Satellite A300 Laptop Keyboard

" coining the enduring label for his domestic policies. The desperate economic situation, along with the substantial Democratic victories in the 1932 elections, gave Roosevelt unusual influence over Congress in the "First Hundred Days" of his administration. TOSHIBA Satellite A110 Series Laptop Keyboard

He used his leverage to win rapid passage of a series of measures to create welfare programs and regulate the banking system, stock market, industry, and agriculture, along with many other government efforts to end the Great Depression and reform the American economy. The New Deal regulated much of the economy, especially the financial sector. Lenovo IdeaPad Y710 Laptop Keyboard

It provided relief to the unemployed through numerous programs, such as the Works Progress Administration (WPA) and (for young men) the Civilian Conservation Corps. Large scale spending projects designed to provide high paying jobs and rebuild the infrastructure were under the purview of the Public Works Administration. DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard

Roosevelt turned left in 1935–36, building up labor unions through the Wagner Act. Unions became a powerful element of the mergingNew Deal Coalition, which won reelection for Roosevelt in 1936, 1940, and 1944 by mobilizing union members, blue collar workers, relief recipients, HP Mini 110-3504tu laptop keyboard

big city machines, ethnic, and religious groups (especially Catholics and Jews) and the white South, along with blacks in the North (where they could vote). Some of the programs were dropped in the 1940s when the conservatives regained power in Congress through the Conservative Coalition. Lenovo Thinkpad T520 Laptop Keyboard

Of special importance is the Social Security program, begun in 1935.

In the Depression years the United States remained focused on domestic concerns while democracy declined across the world and many countries fell under the control of dictators. Imperial Japan asserted dominance in East Asia and in the Pacific.  Lenovo Thinkpad T520 laptop keyboard

Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy militarized to and threatened conquests, while Britain and France attempted appeasement to avert another war in Europe. US legislation in the Neutrality Acts sought to avoid foreign conflicts; however, policy clashed with increasing anti-Nazi feelings following the German invasion of Poland in September 1939 that started World War II. Compaq Presario CQ71-403SA laptop keyboard

Roosevelt positioned the US as the "Arsenal of Democracy," pledging full-scale financial and munitions support for the Allies—-but no soldiers.[123] Japan tried to neutralize America's power in the Pacific by attacking Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, which catalyzed American support to enter the war and seek revenge.[124] HP Pavilion dv6-2150us laptop keyboard

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The main contributions of the US to the Allied war effort comprised money, industrial output, food, petroleum, technological innovation, and (especially 1944–45), soldiers. Much of the focus in Washington was maximizing the economic output of the nation. The overall result was a dramatic increase in GDP, TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5083 laptop keyboard

the export of vast quantities of supplies to the Allies and to American forces overseas, the end of unemployment, and a rise in civilian consumption even as 40% of the GDP went to the war effort. This was achieved by tens of millions of workers moving from low-productivity occupations to high efficiency jobs, TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5160 laptop keyboard

 improvements in productivity through better technology and management, and the move into the active labor force of students, retired people, housewives, and the unemployed, and an increase in hours worked. It was exhausting; leisure activities declined sharply. HP Pavilion dv6-3050tx laptop keyboard

People tolerated the extra work because of patriotism, the pay, and the confidence that it was only "for the duration," and life would return to normal as soon as the war was won. Most durable goods became unavailable, and meat, clothing, and gasoline were tightly rationed. In industrial areas housing was in short supply as people doubled up and lived in cramped quarters. HP Pavilion DV6-1160ed laptop keyboard

 Prices and wages were controlled, and Americans saved a high portion of their incomes, which led to renewed growth after the war instead of a return to depression.

The Allies—-the US, Britain, and the Soviet Union, as well as China, Canada and other countries—-fought the Axis powers of Germany, Italy, and Japan. TOSHIBA Satellite L505-S5993 laptop keyboard

The Allies saw Germany as the main threat and gave highest priority to Europe. The US dominated the war against Japan and stopped Japanese expansion in the Pacific in 1942. After losing Pearl Harbor and in the Philippines to the Japanese, and drawing the Battle of the Coral Sea (May 1942), the American Navy inflicted a decisive blow at Midway(June 1942). TOSHIBA Satellite L200 laptop keyboard

American ground forces assisted in the North African Campaign that eventually concluded with the collapse of Mussolini's fascist government in 1943, as Italy switched to the Allied side. A more significant European front was opened onD-Day, June 6, 1944, in which American and Allied forces invaded Nazi-occupied France from Britain. HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard

On the home front, mobilization of the US economy was managed by Roosevelt's War Production Board. The wartime production boom led to full employment, wiping out this vestige of the Great Depression. Indeed, labor shortages encouraged industry to look for new sources of workers, finding new roles for women and blacks.[127] HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard

However, the fervor also inspired anti-Japanese sentiment, which was handled by removing everyone of Japanese descent from the West Coast war zone.[128] Research and developmenttook flight as well, best seen in the Manhattan Project, a secret effort to harness nuclear fission to produce highly destructive atomic bombs.[129]  HP Mini 1010LA Laptop Keyboard

The Allied pushed the Germans out of France but faced an unexpected counterattack at the Battle of the Bulge in December. The final German effort failed, and, as Allied armies in East and West were converging on Berlin, the Nazis hurriedly tried to kill the last remaining Jews. HP Pavilion dv5-1211tx Laptop Keyboard

The western front stopped short, leaving Berlin to the Soviets as the Nazi regime formally capitulated in May 1945, ending the war in Europe.[130] Over in the Pacific, the US implemented an island hopping strategytoward Tokyo, establishing airfields for bombing runs against mainland Japan from the Mariana Islands and achieving hard-fought victories at Iwo Jima and Okinawa in 1945.[131] COMPAQ Presario CQ60-104TU Laptop Keyboard

Bloodied at Okinawa, the U.S. prepared to invade Japan's home islands when B-29s dropped two atomic bombs on Japanese cities, forcing the empire's surrender in a matter of days and thus ending World War II.[132] The US occupied Japan (and part of Germany), sendingDouglas MacArthur to restructure the Japanese economy and political system along American lines.[133] HP G42-245BR laptop keyboard

Though the nation lost more than 400,000 soldiers,[134] the mainland prospered untouched by the devastation of war that inflicted a heavy toll on Europe and Asia.

Participation in postwar foreign affairs marked the end of predominant American isolationism. The awesome threat of nuclear weapons inspired both optimism andfear. DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard

 Nuclear weapons were never used after 1945, as both sides drew back from the brink and a "long peace" characterized the Cold War years, 1947–1991. There were, however, regional wars in Korea and Vietnam.

Following World War II, the United States emerged as one of the two dominant superpowers, the USSR being the other. HP Pavilion DV9243EA Laptop Keyboard

The U.S. Senate on a bipartisan vote approved U.S. participation in the United Nations (UN), which marked a turn away from the traditional isolationism of the U.S. and toward increased international involvement.

The primary American goal of 1945–48 was to rescue Europe from the devastation of World War II and to contain the expansion of Communism, represented by the Soviet Union. HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard

The Truman Doctrine of 1947 provided military and economic aid to Greece and Turkey to counteract the threat of Communist expansion in the Balkans. In 1948, the United States replaced piecemeal financial aid programs with a comprehensive Marshall Plan, which pumped money into the economy of Western Europe, TOSHIBA Satellite P300 Laptop Keyboard

and removed trade barriers, while modernizing the managerial practices of businesses and governments.[136]

The Plan's $13 billion budget was in the context of a US GDP of $258 billion in 1948 and was in addition to the $12 billion in American aid given to Europe between the end of the war and the start of the Marshall Plan. DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard

Soviet head of state Joseph Stalin prevented his satellite states from participating, and from that point on, Eastern Europe, with inefficient centralized economies, fell further and further behind Western Europe in terms of economic development and prosperity. In 1949, the United States, Lenovo Thinkpad T520 Laptop Keyboard

rejecting the long-standing policy of no military alliances in peacetime, formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) alliance, which continues into the 21st century. In response the Soviets formed the Warsaw Pact of communist states.[136]  HP Pavilion DV7-3186cl Laptop Keyboard

In August 1949 the Soviets tested their first nuclear weapon, thereby escalating the risk of warfare. Indeed, the threat ofmutually assured destruction prevented both powers from going too far, and resulted in proxy wars, especially in Korea andVietnam, in which the two sides did not directly confront each other.[135] IBM Thinkpad T60 Laptop Keyboard

 Within the United States, the Cold War prompted concerns about Communist influence. The unexpected leapfrogging of American technology by the Soviets in 1957 with Sputnik, the first Earth satellite, began theSpace Race, won by the Americans as Apollo 11 landed astronauts on the moon in 1969. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

The angst about the weaknesses of American education led to large-scale federal support for science education and research.[137]

In the decades after World War II, the United States became a global influence in economic, political, military, cultural, and technological affairs. HP G42T-200 CTO Laptop Keyboard

 Beginning in the 1950s, middle-class culture became obsessed with consumer goods. White Americans made up nearly 90% of the population in 1950.

In 1960, the charismatic politician John F. Kennedy was elected as the first and—thus far—only Roman Catholic President of the United States. HP AEAT8TPU017 Laptop Keyboard

The Kennedy family brought a new life and vigor to the atmosphere of the White House. His time in office was marked by such notable events as the acceleration of the United States' role in the Space Race, escalation of the American role in the Vietnam War, the Cuban missile crisis, the Bay of Pigs Invasion,  HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard

the jailing of Martin Luther King, Jr. during the Birmingham campaign, and the appointment of his brother Robert F. Kennedy to his Cabinet as Attorney General. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas, on November 22, 1963, leaving the nation in profound shock. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X200 laptop keyboard

The climax of liberalism came in the mid-1960s with the success of President Lyndon B. Johnson (1963–69) in securing congressional passage of his Great Societyprograms.[140] They included civil rights, the end of segregation, Medicare, extension of welfare, federal aid to education at all levels, DELL Inspiron N4050 laptop keyboard

subsidies for the arts and humanities, environmental activism, and a series of programs designed to wipe out poverty.[141][142] As recent historians have explained:

Gradually, liberal intellectuals crafted a new vision for achieving economic and social justice. The liberalism of the early 1960s contained no hint of radicalism, HP G72-227WM laptop keyboard

little disposition to revive new deal era crusades against concentrated economic power, and no intention to fast and class passions or redistribute wealth or restructure existing institutions. Internationally it was strongly anti-Communist. It aimed to defend the free world, to encourage economic growth at home, and to ensure that the resulting plenty was fairly distributed. HP Pavilion dv6-2155dx laptop keyboard

Their agenda-much influenced by Keynesian economic theory-envisioned massive public expenditure that would speed economic growth, thus providing the public resources to fund larger welfare, housing, health, and educational programs.

Johnson was rewarded with an electoral landslide in 1964 against conservative Barry Goldwater,  HP Pavilion dv6-3015tx laptop keyboard

which broke the decades-long control of Congress by the Conservative coalition. However, the Republicans bounced back in 1966 and elected Richard Nixon in 1968. Nixon largely continued the New Deal and Great Society programs he inherited; conservative reaction would come with the election of Ronald Reagan in 1980.[144] HP 590527-001 laptop keyboard

 Meanwhile, the American people completed a great migration from farms into the cities and experienced a period of sustained economic expansion. HP G71-343US Laptop Keyboard,HP Pavilion G7-1150US Laptop Keyboard,HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard, HP G62-a20SQ laptop keyboard

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