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16 mars 2012 5 16 /03 /mars /2012 13:26

he had his adoptive son Wang Zongwan (???), then the military governor of Wuding, meet with Sima, and Wang Zongwan publicly stated, on Wang Jian's behalf, openly breaking with Zhu:[18] Sony VGN-AW41ZF Battery

The officers and soldiers of the Shu region had enjoyed the grace of Tang Dynasty for generations. Last year, when we heard that the emperor's train had gone east, we submitted 20 petitions and received no responses. Sony VGN-AW50DB/H Battery

Only until deserters from Bian Prefecture [(??, Xuanwu's capital)] arrived did we find out that the late emperor has been murdered by Zhu Quanzhong. The officers and soldiers of Shu have been preparing their arms day and night, Sony VGN-AW51JGB Battery

seeking to avenge the emperor. I do not know what you will be announcing here, imperial messenger. You should consider what is best for yourself. Sony VGN-AW52JGB Battery

In late 906, Wang also official established a mobile imperial government, with himself as its head. He ceremonially danced toward the east (in a sign of respect to the emperor) and stated that he was exercising authority on the emperor's behalf, under the precedents of Li Sheng and Zheng Tian.[18] Sony VGN-AW53FB Battery

In 907, Zhu Quanzhong (who had changed his name to Zhu Huang by that point) forced Emperor Ai to yield the throne to him, ending Tang and establishing a new Later Liang Dynasty. Sony VGN-AW70B/Q Battery

Most of the circuit governors in the former Tang emperor, whether actually under Zhu's authority or not, recognized Zhu as the new emperor, with the exceptions of Wang, Sony VGN-AW71JB Battery

Li Keyong (the Prince of Jin), Li Maozhen (the Prince of Qi), and Yang Xingmi's son and successor Yang Wo (the Prince of Hongnong). Wang and Yang initially issued declarations claiming that they would rendezvous with Li Keyong and Li Maozhen to reestablish Tang, Sony VGN-AW72JB Battery

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but the other circuits who recognized Zhu did not respond. Wang thereafter decided that he should claim imperial title as well and tried to encourage Li Keyong to do so as well; Sony VGN-AW80NS Battery

Li Keyong refused, but that did not sway Wang, and neither did contrary advice from Feng Juan. Wang thereafter declared himself emperor of a new state of Shu (known to historians as Former Shu to distinguish it from the later Later Shu).[4] Sony VGN-AW80S Battery

Early reign

It was said that while Wang Jian was illiterate, he favored talking with the intelligentsia, and was often retaining members of Tang aristocratic families so that they could pass on their knowledge. Sony VGN-AW80US Battery

However, as his oldest son Wang Zongren (???) was disabled from his childhood, he created his second son Wang Zongyi initially the Prince of Sui while creating no other son imperial princes, hinting that Wang Zongyi was to be his heir.[4] Sony VGN-AW81DS Battery

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(He would not create his other sons imperial princes until late 910; a few, but not most, of his adoptive sons would be created imperial princes as well then.)[19] Sony VGN-AW81YS Battery

Wang Jian made Wang Zongji and Wei Zhuang his chancellors. However, Wang Zongji viewed himself as the oldest among the adoptive sons and a potential heir, Sony VGN-AW82DS Battery

and he was arrogant toward all other officials, including Wang Jian's close associate Tang Daoxi the director of palace communications. In 908, unhappy about this situation, Sony VGN-AW82JS Battery

Wang Jian gave Wang Zongji the honorific title of Taishi (??) but stripped him of his chancellor status, replacing him with Zhang Ge. When Wang Zongji submitted a petition in which he challenged Wang Jian to name either him or Wang Zongyi crown prince, Sony VGN-AW82YS Battery

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Wang Jian was offended; when Wang Zongji further offended him at a face-to-face meeting, Wang Jian had Wang Zongji put to death and then created Wang Zongyi crown prince.[4] Sony VGN-AW83GS Battery

In late 908, Qi, Former Shu, and Jin forces launched a joint attack on Chang'an, but after the Later Liang generals Liu Zhijun and Wang Zhongshi (???) defeated Qi forces, the Former Shu and Jin forces withdrew.[4] Sony VGN-AW83HS Battery

Also in 908, Wang Jian created his wife Lady Zhou empress. He would also create his concubines Consort Zhang (Wang Zongyi's mother) Guifei and two Consorts Xu (who were sisters) Xianfei and Defei respectively; he thereafter favored the Consorts Xu greatly.[19] Sony VGN-AW90NS Battery

In 910, Wang Zongyi and Tang began to have disputes with each other. Not wanting to see an open struggle between them, Wang Jian sent Tang out of the capital to serve as the military governor of Shannan West. Sony VGN-AW90S Battery

Meanwhile, he continued his alliance with Qi, sending Qi such supplies as tea, silk, and textiles, but when Li Maozhen requested that he cede Ba (??, in modern Bazhong, Sichuan) aSony VGN-AW90US Battery

and Jian (??, in modern Guangyuan) Prefectures, he refused. In 911, though, the Shu-Qi alliance would break up over marital relations — as Wang's daughter, who had married Li Jichong and whom Wang had created the Princess of Puci, Sony VGN-AW91CDS Battery

wrote a letter to Wang complaining of Li Jichong's arrogance and drunkedness. Wang thus summoned her back to Chengdu, ostensibly just to visit the family. When she arrived at Chengdu, he kept her and refused to return her to Li Jichong. Li Maozhen, in anger, broke off the alliance with Shu.[19] Sony VGN-AW91CJS Battery

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Later in the year, Li Maozhen amassed troops on the Shu-Qi border. Wang Jian reacted by mobilizing a large force and commissioning Wang Zongkan as the overall commander, with Wang Zongyou, Sony VGN-AW91DS Battery

Wang Zonghe, and Tang as his deputies, to counteract the Qi move. Qi forces subsequently attacked Xingyuan but were repelled by Tang. Wang Jian himself headed for Li Prefecture, Sony VGN-AW91JS Battery

while leaving Wang Zongyi in command at Chengdu. After several victories by Shu forces over Qi forces, Wang Jian returned to Chengdu and left Wang Zonghui in charge at Li Prefecture. Sony VGN-AW91YS Battery

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After he did, however, Li Jichong and Liu Zhijun (who had by this point surrendered to Qi and was serving as a Qi general) jointly attacked Xingyuan, nearly capturing it. Sony VGN-AW92CJS Battery

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Wang Jian sent Wang Zonghui and Wang Zongbo to relieve the siege, and they defeated Qi forces in conjunction with Tang. However, Qi forces continued to threaten Xingyuan and the nearby Anyuan Base (??), Sony VGN-AW92DS Battery

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and it was not until Wang Jian himself went to Xingyuan late in the year to aid the Xingyuan and Anyuan forces that Shu forces were able to decisively defeat Qi forces, forcing them to withdraw. Sony VGN-AW92YS Battery

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(Hearing of the war between Qi and Shu, Zhu Quanzhong wanted to take advantage of it, and sent messengers to Wang Jian, calling him "older brother." There was no record of what Wang Jian's reactions were.)[20][21] Sony VGN-AW93GS Battery

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Late reign

In 913, Tang Daoxi returned from Shannan West and again served as director of palace communications. His old rivalry with Wang Zongyi (whose name had been changed to Wang Yuanying by this point) soon flared up, Sony VGN-AW93ZFS Battery

as Wang Yuanying accused him of crimes that made it inappropriate to again serve that point. Wang Jian, while displeased, gave Tang the honorary post of advisor to Wang Yuanying instead.[20] Sony VGN-AW93ZGS Battery

In fall 913, Wang Jian planned a vacation away from Chengdu for the Qixi Festival. Also for the occasion, the night before Wang Yuanying held a feast for the imperial princes and high-level officials, Sony VGN-AW93ZHS Battery

but three invitees — Wang Jian's adoptive son Wang Zonghan (???) the Prince of Ji, and the officials Pan Qiao (??, who succeeded Tang as the director of palace communications) and Mao Wenxi (???, the chief imperial scholar) — did not attend. Sony VPCB119GJ Battery

Wang Yuanying, in anger, accused Pan and Mao in absentia of alienating his brothers from him. Meanwhile, Wang Yuanying's trusted officers Xu Yao (??) and Chang Qian (??) were gazing at Tang. Tang, in fear, fled from the feast. Sony VGN-CS11S/Q Battery

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The next day, both Wang Yuanying and Tang made accusations against each other, and the accusations soon flared up into military confrontations, Sony VGN-CS11Z/R Battery

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as Wang Jian agreed to Tang's request to mobilize the regular troops to defend the palace (rather than the imperial guards, who were formally under Wang Yuanying's command). Sony VGN-CS13H/P Battery

Upon hearing that the regular troops had been mobilized, Wang Yuanying mobilized his own Tianwu Army (???) and attacked Tang. Tang initially resisted, but tried to retreat when an arrow hit him. Sony VGN-CS13H/Q Battery

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The crown prince's troops then routed his, killing him, and many of the troops under Tang were killed. In response, at Pan Kang's suggestion, Wang Jian summoned his adoptive sons Wang Zongkan (???), Sony VGN-CS13H/W Battery

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Wang Zonghe (???), and Wang Zonglu (???), ordering them to launch an attack against Wang Yuanying's troops. They did so, along with another adoptive son, Wang Zong'an (???). Sony VGN-CS16T/P Battery

They killed Xu in battle. Chang and Wang Yuanying fled to Longyao Pond (???) and hid on a boat there. The next morning, Wang Yuanying came out of hiding and requested food from the boat owner. Sony VGN-CS16T/Q Battery

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This was reported to Wang Jian, and he dispatched Wang Zonghan to try to comfort Wang Yuanying. However, before Wang Zonghan arrived at Longyao Pond, Wang Yuanying was killed by his own guard. Sony VGN-CS16T/T Battery

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Wang Jian initially mourned Wang Yuanying bitterly, but later decided that without declaring Wang Yuanying a renegade, he could not comfort the people, and therefore demoted Wang Yuanying to commoner rank, Sony VGN-CS17H/Q Battery

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although, apparently at Wang Jian's direction, Wang Zonghan had Wang Yuanying's killer executed. Many of Wang Yuanying's associates were killed or exiled.[20]Sony VGN-CS19/P Battery

Late in the year, Wang Jian considered whom to create as the new crown prince, as Pan repeatedly requested him to. He initially considered Wang Zonglu (???) the Prince of Ya, Sony VGN-CS19/Q Battery

whom he considered most like himself, and Wang Zongjie (???) the Prince of Xin, whom he considered the most talented. However, Consort Xu theXianfei wanted her son Wang Zongyan the Prince of Zheng, Sony VGN-CS19/R Battery

the youngest, created crown prince. She thus entered into an alliance with Tang Wenyi (???) the overseer of the imperial stables and Zhang Ge. Zhang falsely informed a number of high level officials, Sony VGN-CS19/W Battery

including Wang Zongkan, that Wang Jian had settled on Wang Zongyan but wanted their public support. He then drafted a petition to have Wang Zongyan made crown prince, Sony VGN-CS190EUP Battery

and had Wang Zongkan and the others sign the petition. When Wang Jian received the petition, believing that Wang Zongyan did have the high level officials' support, he, despite his doubts about Wang Zongyan's abilities, created Wang Zongyan crown prince.[20] Sony VGN-CS190EUQ Battery

In 914, Gao Jichang the Later Liang military governor of Jingnan Circuit wanted to attack Former Shu to recapture the four prefectures that previously belonged to Jingnan. Sony VGN-CS190EUR Battery

He first started by attacking Kui Prefecture. The prefect of Kui Prefecture, Wang Chengxian (???), despite the refusal by his superior Wang Zongshou (???) the Prince of Jia (Wang Jian's nephew) to provide supplies, Sony VGN-CS190EUW Battery

was able to repel the Jingnan attack. When he subsequently tried to submit a secret report to Wang Jian accusing Wang Zongshou of holding back supplies, though, Sony VGN-CS190JTP Battery

Wang Zongshou intercepted the report, arrested him, and executed him. Later in the year, Wang considered reacting by destroying a dam to flood Jingnan, but at Mao's urging, Sony VGN-CS190JTQ Battery

under the argument that there would be too many civilian casualties, he did not do so. Also late in 914, when Changhe (also known as Nanzhao) attacked Li Prefecture (??, in modern Ya'an, Sichuan), Sony VGN-CS190JTR Battery

Wang Jian sent his adoptive sons Wang Zongfan (???) and Wang Zongbo, as well as Wang Zongshou, to respond, and they defeated Changhe forces, forcing their withdrawal. When Wang Zongfan, Sony VGN-CS190JTT Battery

Wang Zongbo, and Wang Zongshou considered further advancing into Changhe territory, Wang Jian recalled them. It was said that thereafter, Changhe did not dare to again attack Shu territory.[22] Sony VGN-CS190JTW Battery

In fall 915, Wang Jian launched a major attack against Qi, sending Wang Zongwan, assisted by Wang Zongbo, to attack Qin Prefecture (??, the capital of Tianxiong), and Wang Zongyao, assisted by Wang Zonghan, to attack Feng Prefecture (??, in modern Baoji). Sony VGN-CS190JVQ/C Battery

Both attacks were successful, as Feng Prefecture fell, and Li Jichong surrendered Qin. With his wife and children among the captives at Qin, Liu Zhijun, who was commanding Qi forces in resisting the Shu attack, also surrendered, leaving Qi with little more territory than its capital Fengxiang.[22] Sony VGN-CS215J/Q Battery

In fall 916, Wang Jian prepared another major attack against Qi, sending Wang Zongwan, assisted by Wang Zonghan and Wang Zongshou to launch their attack from Feng, while sending Wang Zongbo, assisted by Liu, Wang Zongchou (???), Sony VGN-CS215J/R Battery

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and Tang Wenyi's brother Tang Wenyi (???, note different character), to launch their attack from Qin. They captured Baoji (??, in modern Baoji) and put Fengxiang under siege. Sony VGN-CS21S/R Battery

The siege, however, was hampered by snowstorms, and Wang Jian decided to lift the siege and recall the forces. He then declared a change of the state's name from Shu to Han.[22] Sony VGN-CS21S/T Battery

In 917, a power struggle developed between Tang Wenyi, who was aligned with Zhang, and Mao. Based on Tang's accusations, Wang Jian exiled Mao and confiscated his assets, and also demoted the chancellor Yu Chuansu (???). Also, fearing Liu's abilities, he falsely accused Liu of treason and executed Liu.[3] Sony VGN-CS21S/V Battery Sony VGN-CS21S/W Battery

In early spring 918, Wang Jian changed the name of the state from Han back to Shu.[3] Sony VGN-CS21Z/Q Battery

That year, Wang Jian, who began to see that Wang Zongyan (whose name was changed to just Wang Yan by that point so that his brothers and adoptive brothers would not have a problem observing naming taboo) Sony VGN-CS220DP Battery

was not an appropriate crown prince due to Wang Yan's obsession with gaming and feasting, and thus became resentful of Zhang — but with Consort Xu supporting Zhang, Sony VGN-CS220DQ Battery

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he did not remove Zhang from his chancellor post. He did, however, consider replacing Wang Yan with Wang Zongjie. When Wang Zongjie died suddenly, he became very suspicious that the death was the result of foul play, but thereafter took no further action to replace Wang Yan.[3] Sony VGN-CS220DT Battery

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Wang Jian became very ill in summer 918, and he summoned a group of high level officials to entrust Wang Yan to them. Tang, however, wanted to eliminate the high level officials so that he could take power by himself. Sony VGN-CS230J/Q Battery

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The high level officials realized this, and they forced their way into the palace to inform Wang Jian. Wang Jian thus exiled Tang, while issuing a final edict in which he put the eunuch Song Guangsi (???), Sony VGN-CS23G/Q Battery

as well as Wang Zongbi, Wang Zongyao, Wang Zongwan, and Wang Zongkui (???) in charge of assisting Wang Yan in his reign. He also left instructions that the family of Consort Xu's family was not to be given military commands. He soon died, and Wang Yan took the throne as emperor.[3] Sony VGN-CS23G/W Battery

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As crown prince

In 908, Wang Jian created Wang Zongyi crown prince.[2] In 909, Wang Jian made him the titular commander of the imperial guards, and established headquarters for him, Sony VGN-CS23H/B Battery

naming the headquarters Yonghe Hall (???). Wang Jian also selected a number of officials to serve on his staff.[5] Wang Zongyi was said to be ugly in appearance, Sony VGN-CS23H/S Battery

but talented in many things, particularly archery.[1] However, he was also said to be arrogant and violent,[5] paying no heed to the counsel of the officials Wang Jian put on his staff.[1] Sony VGN-CS23H Battery

He soon came into conflict with Wang Jian's close associate Tang Daoxi the director of palace communications, as he often made fun of Tang, leading to their mutually accusing each other of crimes. Sony VGN-CS23T/Q Battery

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Wang Jian, not wanting them to be in constant conflict, made Tang the military governor (Jiedushi) of Shannan West Circuit (????, headquartered in modern Hanzhong, Shaanxi) in 910 to separate them. Later in 910, Wang Jian renamed him Wang Yuantan.[5] Sony VGN-CS25H/C Battery

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Subsequently, when Wang Jian made two tours away from the capital Chengdu to Li Prefecture (??, in modern Guangyuan, Sichuan) in 911 in response to attacks by Former Shu's northern neighbor Qi, he had Wang Yuantan serve as regent at Chengdu.[4] Sony VGN-CS25H/Q Battery

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In 912, apparently in reaction to an incident where Wang Yuantan found a bronze medallion on the outskirts of the city, which Wang Jian considered a sign of divine favor,[1] Sony VGN-CS25H/W Battery

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Wang Jian renamed him Wang Yuanying. In 913, when Tang completed his term as the military governor of Shannan West and returned to Chengdu to again serve as the director of palace communications, Sony VGN-CS260DQ Battery

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Wang Yuanying submitted accusations against Tang and declared that Tang should not be again in charge of palace communications, Wang Jian was displeased, but subsequently reacted by making Tang an advisor to Wang Yuanying.[4] Sony VGN-CS26GW Battery

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Uprising against Tang Daoxi and death

In fall 913, Wang Jian planned a vacation away from Chengdu for the Qixi Festival[4] (on August 11 that year).[3] The night before (August 10), Wang Yuanying held a feast for the imperial princes and high-level officials, Sony VGN-CS26T/P Battery

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but three invitees — Wang Jian's adoptive son Wang Zonghan (???) the Prince of Ji, and the officials Pan Qiao (??, who succeeded Tang Daoxi as the director of palace communications) and Mao Wenxi (???, the chief imperial scholar) — did not attend. Sony VGN-CS26T/R Battery

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Wang Yuanying, in anger, accused Pan and Mao in absentia of alienating his brothers from him. Meanwhile, Wang Yuanying's trusted officers Xu Yao (??) and Chang Qian (??) were gazing at Tang. Tang, in fear, fled from the feast.[4]Sony VGN-CS26T/V Battery

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The morning next day (August 11, the date of the Qixi Festival), Wang Yuanying went to see his father Wang Jian and accused Pan and Mao of alienating him from his brothers. Sony VGN-CS27/C Battery

Wang Jian, believing the accusations, ordered Pan and Mao demoted, making Pan Kang (??) the new director of palace communications. However, after Wang Yuanying then left the palace, Sony VGN-CS27/P Battery

Tang arrived, and Tang made the counteraccusation that Wang Yuanying was planning to rebel, and, as part of his planning, was planning to put the princes and the officials under arrest. Sony VGN-CS27/R Battery

Wang Jian, with his suspicions aroused, cancelled the Qixi vacation plans. Further, he agreed to Tang's request to mobilize the regular troops to defend the palace (rather than the imperial guards, Sony VGN-CS27/W Battery

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who were formally under Wang Yuanying's command). Upon hearing that the regular troops had been mobilized, Wang Yuanying mobilized his own Tianwu Army (???). He arrested Pan Qiao and Mao and almost battered them to death, in addition to arresting Pan Jiao (??) the mayor of Chengdu.[4] Sony VGN-CS28/Q Battery

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The next day (August 12), Xu, Chang, and Yan Lin (??), under Wang Yuanying's direction, attacked Tang's forces. Tang initially resisted, but tried to retreat when an arrow hit him. Sony VGN-CS280J/R Battery

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The crown prince's troops then routed his, killing him, and many of the troops under Tang were killed. In response, at Pan Kang's suggestion, Wang Jian summoned his adoptive sons Wang Zongkan (???), Wang Zonghe (???), Sony VGN-CS290JEC Battery

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and Wang Zonglu (???), ordering them to launch an attack against Wang Yuanying's troops. They did so, along with another adoptive son, Wang Zong'an (???). They killed Xu in battle. Chang and Wang Yuanying fled to Longyao Pond (???) and hid on a boat there.[4] Sony VGN-CS290JEQ Battery

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The next morning (August 13), Wang Yuanying came out of hiding and requested food from the boat owner. This was reported to Wang Jian, and he dispatched Wang Zonghan to try to comfort Wang Yuanying. Sony VGN-CS290JEW Battery

However, before Wang Zonghan arrived at Longyao Pond, Wang Yuanying was killed by his own guard. Wang Jian initially mourned Wang Yuanying bitterly, but later decided that without declaring Wang Yuanying a renegade, Sony VGN-CS290NCB Battery

he could not comfort the people, and therefore demoted Wang Yuanying to commoner rank, although, apparently at Wang Jian's direction, Wang Zonghan had Wang Yuanying's killer executed. Many of Wang Yuanying's associates were killed or exiled.[4] Sony VGN-CS290NFB Battery

Service under Wang Jian during Tang Dynasty

Later, during Wang Jian's campaigns that eventually allowed him to gain control of the modern Sichuan and Chongqing region, Wang Zongji served under him with distinction.[3] Sony VGN-CS2CN1 Battery

As a result, in 899, when, under Wang Jian's request, five prefectures were carved out of Dongchuan Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Mianyang,Sichuan), Sony VGN-CS31S/P Battery

which Wang Jian had just conquered by defeating Gu Yanhui, to establish a new Wuxin Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Suining, Sichuan), Wang Zongji was made its military governor (Jiedushi).[4] Sony VGN-CS31S/R Battery

In 901, after the powerful eunuch Han Quanhui forced then-reigning Emperor Zhaozong of Tang to leave Chang'an to go to the territory of Han's ally Li Maozhen the military governor of Fengxiang Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Baoji, Shaanxi), Sony VGN-CS31S/T Battery

Zhu Quanzhong the military governor of Xuanwu Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Kaifeng, Henan), whom Emperor Zhaozong's chancellor Cui Yin had just summoned in order to carry out Cui's plot of slaughtering the eunuchs (and whose plot Han was reacting to), Sony VGN-CS31S/V Battery

attacked Fengxiang to try to recapture the emperor. Both Li and Zhu sought aid from Wang Jian. Wang Jian tried to play both sides by outwardly agreeing with Zhu and rebuking Li, Sony VGN-CS31S/W Battery

but sent secret messengers to Fengxiang to encourage Li to hold out — while sending Wang Zongji and another adoptive son, Wang Zongdi, north to attack Shannan West Circuit (????, headquartered in modern Hanzhong, Shaanxi), Sony VGN-CS31Z/Q Battery

which Li possessed at the time.[5] In 902, Li's adoptive son Li Jimi (???) the military governor of Shannan West surrendered it, allowing Wang Jian to take it under possession. Sony VGN-CS320J/P Battery

Wang Jian initially commissioned Wang Zongdi as the military governor of Shannan West, but Wang Zongji and several other generals, jealous of Wang Zongdi, submitted false accusations against Wang Zongdi, Sony VGN-CS320J/Q Battery

eventually leading to Wang Jian's recalling Wang Zongdi to his capital Chengdu and putting Wang Zongdi to death.[6] Sony VGN-CS320J/R Battery

Wang Zongji's activities for the next few years are lost to history, although at some point he must have served as the military governor of Dongchuan, as that was later referred to as a former office he held.[2] Sony VGN-CS320J/W Battery

During Wang Jian's reign

In 907, after Zhu Quanzhong forced Emperor Zhaozong's son and successor Emperor Ai to yield the throne to him, ending Tang Dynasty and establishing Later Liang Dynasty as its Emperor Taizu, Sony VGN-CS33H/B Battery

Wang Jian, after initially declaring that he, along with several other military governors who refused to recognize the Later Liang emperor's authority (Li Keyong, Li Maozhen, and Yang Wo) would jointly attack Zhu to reestablish Tang, decided to declare himself emperor as well. Sony VGN-CS33H/Z Battery

Late that year, he declared a new state of Shu (known to later historians as Former Shu) as its emperor. He made Wang Zongji a chancellor with the title of Zhongshu Ling (???). Sony VGN-CS33H Battery

(Initially, Wang Zongji was the only fully titled chancellor, as Wei Zhuang, also made a chancellor, was not given a full chancellor title).[2] He also created Wang Zongji the Duke of Jin.[3] Sony VGN-CS35GNB Battery

Soon, however, Wang Zongji and a close associate of Wang Jian's, Tang Daoxi, who was made the director of palace communications, became rivals, as Wang Zongji was said to be arrogant and rude on account of his accomplishments and his status as Wang Jian's oldest adoptive son, Sony VGN-CS36GJ/C Battery

offending Tang by addressing Tang by name rather than by his proper titles. Wang Jian also became apprehensive of Wang Zongji, as Wang Zongji was creating a group of followers around himself. Sony VGN-CS36GJ/I Battery

In spring 908, Wang Jian removed him from his chancellor post while giving him the titularly greater title of Taishi (??).[2Sony VGN-CS36GJ/P Battery

]

Resentful of his removal, Wang Zongji was said to continue to foster his group of followers and consider a coup. Further, challenging Wang Jian's initial failure to name an heir —Sony VGN-CS36GJ/Q Battery

as Wang Jian created his second son Wang Zongyi the Prince of Sui but did not create him crown prince (Wang Jian's oldest biological son Wang Zongren (???) was disabled and therefore considered by Wang Jian to be unfit to serve as heir), Wang Zongji submitted an irreverent petition to Wang Jian:[2] Sony VGN-CS36GJ/R Battery

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I, your subject, am a major official in title, but close to you as your oldest son. Whatever happens to the state and the imperial house is for me to share. Right now, no crown prince has been named, Sony VGN-CS36GJ/U Battery

and this will surely bring disturbances. If Your Imperial Majesty believes that Zongyi's abilities are fit for him to serve as heir, you should create him crown prince as soon as possible. You can then make me the supreme commander of the armed forces, to command the six armies. Sony VGN-CS36GJ/W Battery

If you believe that the times are difficult and that Zongyi is too young, your subject will not dare to yield those responsibilities. Since Your Imperial Majesty has taken the throne and faces the south,[7] Sony VGN-CS36GJJ Battery

you should entrust the matters of the military to your subject. I urge that you establish a headquarter for the supreme commander, with seals to command the six armies, and put your subject in charge of giving marching orders to the armies.Sony VGN-CS36H/C Battery

The Crown Prince can attend to your meals in the morning and the evening, while your subject can command the soldiers to protect you. This is important for your eternal realm. May Your Imperial Majesty rule on this. Sony VGN-CS36H/P Battery

Wang Jian was incensed, but did not initially publicly express displeasure. When he discussed the matter with Tang, Tang, in order to inflame him more, stated, "Zongji's reputation is so grand such that both people inside and outside the palace fear him. Sony VGN-CS36H/Q Battery

He would be a suitable commander." This caused Wang Jian to be further suspicious of Wang Zongji. Soon thereafter, on an occasion Wang Zongji was in the palace to greet Wang Jian, Wang Zongji spoke arrogantly. When Wang Jian rebuked him, Sony VGN-CS36H/R Battery

he refused to yield. Wang Jian, in anger, ordered the guards to batter him to death. He also exiled Wang Zongji's associates Zheng Qian (??) and Li Gang (??), and further ordered them to commit suicide on their journey to exile.[2][8]Sony VGN-CS36H/W Battery

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Wang Zongdi

Wang Zongdi (???) (d. 902), né Hua Hong (??), was an officer who, during the late years of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, served under Wang Jian, Sony VGN-CS36TJ/C Battery

the eventual founder of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Former Shu, who adopted him as a son. Because of his contributions to Wang Jian's cause, he, Sony VGN-CS36TJ/J Battery

like few under Wang Jian's command, was given military governorships (Jiedushi), but Wang Jian eventually became suspicious of his intentions and put him to death. Sony VGN-CS36TJ/P Battery

Background and initial service under Wang Jian

It is not known when Hua Hong was born, but it is known that he was originally from Yingchuan (??, in modern Xuchang, Henan).[1] (As Wang Jian himself started his military career at Zhongwu Circuit (??), Sony VGN-CS36TJ/Q Battery

which was headquartered at Yingchuan, Hua probably became Wang's follower while Wang served as an officer there.)[2] Sony VGN-CS36TJ/R Battery

The first reference in history to a campaign involving Hua was in 891, soon after Wang had taken control of Xichuan Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Chengdu,Sichuan), Sony VGN-CS36TJ/T Battery

with the assistance of his ally Gu Yanlang the military governor of Dongchuan Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Mianyang, Sichuan). That winter, after Gu Yanlang died and was succeeded by his brother Gu Yanhui, Sony VGN-CS36TJ/U Battery

Yang Shouliang the military governor of Shannan West Circuit (????, headquartered in modern Hanzhong,Shaanxi), Sony VGN-CS36TJ/V Battery

who had recently joined a campaign of resistance against Emperor Zhaozong of Tang headed by his adoptive uncle, the eunuch Yang Fugong, attacked Dongchuan with the intent of seizing it from Gu Yanhui. Sony VGN-CS36TJ/W Battery

Gu sought aid from Wang, and Wang sent Hua, along with the officer Li Jian (??) and his adoptive sons Wang Zongkan (???) and Wang Zongbi, to assist Gu against Yang Shouliang's forces. Sony VGN-CS39/J Battery

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Wang Jian, however, secretly informed the Xichuan officers that he sent that, after they defeated Yang's forces, Gu would invite them to a feast, and that they should seize Gu at the feast so that he could take over Dongchuan without a campaign. Sony VGN-CS39 Battery

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After Wang Zongkan subsequently defeated Yang Shouliang's brother Yang Shouhou (???) to force Shannan West forces' retreat, however, Wang Zongbi leaked Wang Jian's instructions to Gu, and Gu took precautions and so was never seized by the Xichuan forces.[3] Sony VGN-CS390JCQ Battery

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In 892, when Wang Jian sent his nephew Wang Zongyu (???), Wang Zongkan, and Hua to attack Yang Sheng (??) the military governor of Weirong Circuit (??, also headquartered in modern Chengdu) at Weirong's capital Peng Prefecture (??), Sony VGN-CS390JCW Battery

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Yang Shouliang tried to come to Yang Sheng's aid by sending his officer Fu Zhao (??) to attack Xichuan's capital Chengdu. Wang Jian summoned Hua back to Chengdu to resist against Fu's attack. Hua led his forward troops personally and rushed back toward Chengdu, Sony VGN-CS50B/W Battery

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but pretended to have a much larger army by having his soldiers beat drums loudly. Fu, believing incorrectly that the Xichuan forces had all returned from Peng Prefecture, withdrew. Sony VGN-CS51B/W Battery

Later in the year, when Wang Jian sent Hua to attack Yang Shouliang's forces at Lang Prefecture (??, in modern Nanchong, Sichuan), Hua defeated Yang's forces there.[4] Sony VGN-CS51B Battery

In winter 895, Wang Jian began his campaign against Gu in earnest. As part of the operations at that time, Hua inflicted a great defeat against Dongchuan forces at Qiulin (??, modern location unknown), killing or capturing tens of thousands of Dongchuan soldiers.[5] Sony VGN-CS52JB/W Battery

As Wang continued the campaign, Hua continued to be a major participant, and it was during the campaign, in 896, that Wang formally adopted him as a son (as Wang did with many officers), changing his name to Wang Zongdi.[6] Sony VGN-CS60B/P Battery

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