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17 mai 2011 2 17 /05 /mai /2011 08:09

The Principality of Liechtenstein s adoubly landlocked alpine country in Central Europe , bordered by Switzerland to the west and south and by Austria to the east. Its area is just over 160 km² (about 61.7 square miles), and it has an estimated population of 35,000. Dell Studio XPS 1640 Battery

Its capital is Vaduz; the biggest town is Schaan. Liechtenstein has thehighest gross domestic product per person in the world.

Liechtenstein is the smallest yet the richest (by measure of GDP per capita) German-speaking country in the world and the only country to lie entirely within the Alps. Dell Latitude D830 Battery

It is the only predominantly German-speaking country not to share a common border with Germany. It is a constitutional monarchy divided into 11 municipalities. Much of Liechtenstein's terrain is mountainous, making it a winter sports destination. Many cultivated fields and small farms characterize its landscape both in the south (Oberland, upper land) and in the north (Unterland, lower land).Toshiba Satellite M65 battery

The country has a strong financial sectorlocated in the capital, Vaduz, and has been identified as a tax haven. It is a member of the European Free Trade Association and part of the European Economic Area but not of the European Union.Toshiba NB100 Battery

History

At one time, the territory was part of the ancient Roman province of Raetia. For centuries this territory, geographically removed from European strategic interests, had little impact on European history. Prior to the reign of its current dynasty, the region was enfeoffed to a line of the counts of Hohenems.Toshiba Satellite P10 Battery

The Liechtenstein dynasty, from which the principality takes its name, comes from Castle Liechtenstein in Lower Austria, which the family possessed from at least 1140 until he 13th century, and from 1807 onward. Through the centuries, the dynasty acquired vast tracts of land,Sony VGP-BPS13B/B Battery

predominantly in Moravia,Lower Austria, Silesia, and Styria, though these territories were all held in fief under other more senior feudal lords, particularly under various lines of theHabsburg family, whom several Liechtenstein princes served as close advisers.Sony VGN-FW11S Battery

Thus, without any territory held directly under the Imperial throne, the Liechtenstein dynasty was unable to meet a primary requirement to qualify for a seat in the Imperial diet (parliament), the Reichstag.Hp pavilion dv6000 battery

The family yearned for the added power a seat in the Imperial government would bring and therefore sought to acquire lands that would be unmittelbar, or held without any feudal personage other than the Holy Roman Emperor having rights on the land.Sony Vaio VGN-FZ31S battery

After some time, the family was able to arrange the purchase of the minuscule Herrschaft ("Lordship") of Schellenberg and county of Vaduz (in 1699 and 1712 respectively) from the Hohenems. Tiny Schellenberg and Vaduz had exactly the political status required: no feudal lord other than theircomital sovereign and the suzerain Emperor.Sony Vaio VGN-FZ31S battery

On 23 January 1719, after the lands had been purchased, Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, decreed that Vaduz and Schellenberg were united and elevated the newly formed territory to the dignity of Fürstentum(principality) with the name "Liechtenstein" in honour of "[his] true servant, Anton Florian of Liechtenstein". HP NX8200 battery

It was on this date that Liechtenstein became a sovereign member state of the Holy Roman Empire. It is a testament to the pure political expediency of the purchases that the Princes of Liechtenstein did not set foot in their new principality for over 120 years.HP NX7400 battery

As a result of the Napoleonic Wars, by 1806 the Holy Roman Empire was under the control of French emperorNapoleon I. Napoleon dissolved the empire; this had broad consequences for Liechtenstein: imperial, legal and political mechanisms broke down. The state ceased to owe obligations to any feudal lord beyond its borders.HP NW8440 battery

Modern publications generally (although incorrectly) attribute Liechtenstein's sovereignty to these events. In reality, its prince merely became suzerain, as well as remaining sovereign lord. From 25 July 1806 when theConfederation of the Rhine was founded, the Prince of Liechtenstein was a member, in fact a vassal of its hegemon, HP NW8200 battery

styled protector, French Emperor Napoleon I, until the dissolution of the confederation on 19 October 1813.

Soon afterward, Liechtenstein joined the German Confederation (20 June 1815 – 24 August 1866) which was presided over by the Emperor of Austria.HP NC6400 battery

Then, in 1818, Johann I granted the territory a limited constitution. 1818 also saw the first visit of a member of the house of Liechtenstein, Prince Alois; however, the first visit by a sovereign prince would not occur until 1842.

Developments during the 19th century included:HP NC6200 battery

  • In 1836, the first factory was opened, making ceramics.
  • In 1861, the Savings and Loans Bank was founded, as was the first cotton-weaving mill.
  • Two bridges over the Rhine were built in 1868, and in 1872 a railway line across Liechtenstein was constructed.HP NC6100 battery

20th century

Until the end of World War I, Liechtenstein was closely tied first to the Austrian Empire and later to Austria-Hungary; the ruling princes continued to derive much of their wealth from estates in the Habsburg territories, and they spent much of their time at their two palaces in Vienna. HP NC6000 battery

The economic devastation caused by this war forced the country to conclude a customs and monetary union with its other neighbour, Switzerland. Liechtenstein's army was disbanded in 1868 for financial reasons.

At the time of the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, it was argued that Liechtenstein, as a feoff of the Holy Roman Empire,HP NC4400 battery

was no longer bound to the emerging independent state of Austria, since the latter did not consider itself as the legal successor to the empire. This is partly contradicted by thecoeval Liechtenstein perception that the dethroned Austro-Hungarian Emperor still maintained an abstract heritage of the Holy Roman Empire.HP 6710B battery

In early 1938, just after the annexation of Austria into Greater Nazi Germany, 84 year old Prince Franz I abdicated, naming his 31-year-old third cousin,Prince Franz Joseph, as his successor. His wife Elisabeth von Gutmann, whom he had married in 1929, was a wealthy Jewish woman from Vienna, and local Liechtenstein Nazis had already identified her as their Jewish "problem". HP 6530B battery

Although Liechtenstein had no official Nazi party, a Nazi sympathy movement had been simmering for years within its National Union party.

During World War II, Liechtenstein remained officially neutral, looking to neighboring Switzerland for assistance and guidance, while family treasures within the war zone were taken to Liechtenstein for safekeeping. HP 6510B battery

At the close of the conflict, Czechoslovakia and Poland, acting to seize what they considered to be German possessions, expropriated the entirety of the Liechtenstein dynasty's hereditary lands and possessions in Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia — the princes of Liechtenstein lived in Vienna until the Anschluss of 1938.HP Pavilion DV6-1020ED Battery

The expropriations (subject to modern legal dispute at the International Court of Justice) included over 1,600 km2 (618 sq mi) of agricultural and forest land, and several family castles and palaces.

Citizens of Liechtenstein were forbidden to enter Czechoslovakia during the Cold War. Dell Latitude E6400 battery

More recently the diplomatic conflict revolving around the controversial post-war Beneš decrees resulted in Liechtenstein not sharing international relations with the Czech Republic or Slovakia. Diplomatic relations were established between Liechtenstein and the Czech Republic on 13 July 2009, and with Slovakia on 9 December 2009.Apple A1281 battery

Liechtenstein gave asylum to about 501 soldiers of the First Russian National Army (a collaborationist Russian force within the German Wehrmacht) at the close of World War II; this is commemorated by a monument at the border town of Hinterschellenberg.Apple A1280 battery

The act of granting asylum was no small matter as the country was poor and had difficulty feeding and caring for such a large group of refugees. Eventually, Argentina agreed to resettle the asylum seekers permanently. In contrast, the British and Americans repatriated the Russians who had fought for Germany to the USSR, and many of them perished in the Gulag.Dell LATITUDE D800 battery

In dire financial straits following the war, the Liechtenstein dynasty often resorted to selling family artistic treasures, including the priceless portrait "Ginevra de' Benci" by Leonardo da Vinci, which was purchased by the National Gallery of Art of the United States in 1967. Dell Inspiron 6400 AC Adapter

Liechtenstein prospered, however, during the decades following, as it used its low corporate tax rates to draw many companies to the country.

The Prince of Liechtenstein is the world's sixth wealthiest leader with an estimated wealth of USD $5 billion.The country's population enjoys one of the world's highest standards of living.Sony Vaio VGN-CR190E/L Battery

Government

Liecthenstein is governed under a constitutional monarchy. It has a form of mixed constitution, in which power is shared by the monarch and an elected parliament. The Constitution of Liechtenstein was adopted in March 2003, HP 448007-001 battery

replacing the previous 1921 constitution which had established Liechtenstein as a constitutional monarchy headed by the reigning prince of the Princely House of Liechtenstein. A parliamentary system had been established, although the reigning Prince retained substantial political authority.Sony VGP-BPS11 battery

The reigning Prince is the head of state and represents Liechtenstein in its international relations (although Switzerland has taken responsibility for much of Liechtenstein's diplomatic relations). The Prince may veto laws adopted by parliament.HP Pavilion DV6-1223EO Battery

The Prince can call referendums, propose new legislation, and dissolve parliament, although dissolution of parliament may be subject to a referendum.

Executive authority is vested in a collegiate government comprising the head of government (prime minister) and four government councilors (ministers). Compaq CQ35-100 battery

The head of government and the other ministers are appointed by the Prince upon the proposal and concurrence of parliament, thus reflecting the partisan balance of parliament. The constitution stipulates that at least two members of the government be chosen from each of the two regions.HP DV9700 battery

The members of the government are collectively and individually responsible to parliament; parliament may ask the Prince to remove an individual minister or the entire government.

Legislative authority is vested in the unicameral Landtag made up of 25 members elected for maximum four-year terms according to a proportional representation formula. Sony VGP-BPS13 battery

Fifteen members are elected from the "Oberland" (Upper Country or region) and ten members are elected from the "Unterland" (Lower Country or region).Parties must receive at least 8% of the national vote to win seats in parliament. Parliament proposes and approves a government, which is formally appointed by the Prince. HP Pavilion DV8 battery

Parliament may also pass votes of no confidence in the entire government or individual members.

Parliament elects from among its members a "Landesausschuss" (National Committee) made up of the president of the parliament and four additional members. Compaq CQ50 battery

The National Committee is charged with performing parliamentary oversight functions. Parliament can call for referendums on proposed legislation. Parliament shares the authority to propose new legislation with the Prince and with the number of citizens required for an initiative referendum.HP Pavilion DV7 battery

Judicial authority is vested in the Regional Court at Vaduz, the Princely High Court of Appeal at Vaduz, the Princely Supreme Court, the Administrative Court, and the State Court. The State Court rules on the conformity of laws with the constitution and has five members elected by parliament.Ibm THINKPAD X200 Battery

New constitution

In a national referendum in March 2003, nearly two-thirds of the electorate voted in support of Hans-Adam II's proposed new constitution to replace the 1921 one. Ibm THINKPAD X200 Battery

The proposed constitution was criticised by many, including the Council of Europe, as expanding the powers of the monarchy (continuing the power to veto any law, and allowing the Prince to dismiss the government or any minister). The Prince threatened that if the constitution failed, he would, among other things, Ibm THINKPAD X200 Battery

convert some of the royal property for commercial use and move to Austria. The royal family and the Prince enjoy tremendous public support inside the nation, and the resolution passed with about 64% in favour.SONY VAIO VGN-FW21E Battery

Geography

Liechtenstein is situated in the Upper Rhine valley of the European Alps and is bordered to the east by Austria and to the south and west by Switzerland. The entire western border of Liechtenstein is formed by the Rhine. Measured south to north and, the country is about which is 24 km (15 mi) long. Asus M52N Battery

Its highest point, the Grauspitz, is 2,599 m (8,527 ft). Despite its Alpine location, prevailing southerly winds make the climate of Liechtenstein comparatively mild. In winter, the mountain slopes are well suited to winter sports.Dell Latitude E6400 ATG Battery

New surveys using more accurate measurements of the country's borders in 2006 have set its area at 160 km2 (61.776 sq mi), with borders of 77.9 km (48.4 mi). Thus, Liechtenstein discovered in 2006 that its borders are 1.9 km (1.2 mi) longer than previously thought.SONY VAIO VGN-FW21L Battery

Liechtenstein is one of only two doubly landlocked countries in the world[22]—being a landlocked country wholly surrounded by other landlocked countries (the other is Uzbekistan). Liechtenstein is the sixth-smallest independent nation in the world by land area.SONY VAIO VGN-FW21M Battery

The principality of Liechtenstein is divided into 11 communes called Gemeinden (singular Gemeinde). The Gemeinden mostly consist only of a single town or village. Five of them (Eschen, Gamprin, Mauren, Ruggell, and Schellenberg) fall within the electoral district Unterland (the lower county), SONY VAIO VGN-FW21Z Battery

and the remainder (Balzers, Planken, Schaan, Triesen, Triesenberg, and Vaduz) within Oberland (the upper county).

Economy

Despite (or perhaps because of) its limited natural resources, Liechtenstein is one of the few countries in the world with more registered companies than citizens; SONY VAIO VGN-FW33GW Battery

it has developed a prosperous, highly industrialized free-enterprise economy and boasts a financial service sector as well as a living standard which compares favorably with those of the urban areas of Liechtenstein's large European neighbours.

Relatively low business taxes—the maximum tax rate is 20% —Dell XPS M1210 Battery

as well as easy Rules of Incorporation have induced about 73,700 holding (or so-called 'letter box') companies to establish registered offices in Liechtenstein. This provides about 30% of Liechtenstein's state revenue. Liechtenstein also generates revenue from Stiftungen ("foundations"),Dell KM958 battery

which are financial entities created to increase the privacy of nonresident foreigners' financial holdings. The foundation is registered in the name of a Liechtensteiner, often a lawyer.

Recently, Liechtenstein has shown strong determination to prosecute international money-launderers and has worked to promote the country's image as a legitimate finance center. Dell Studio 1555 battery

In February 2008, the country's LGT Bank was implicated in a tax-fraud scandal in Germany, which strained the ruling family's relationship with the German government. Crown Prince Alois has accused the German government of trafficking in stolen goods.Sony VGP-BPS13 battery

This refers to its $7.3 million purchase of private banking information illegally offered by a former employee of LGT Group. However, the United States Senate's subcommittee on tax haven banks said that the LGT bank, which is owned by the royal family, and on whose board they serve, Sony VGP-BPS13/S battery

"is a willing partner, and an aider and abettor to clients trying to evade taxes, dodge creditors or defy court orders."

Liechtenstein participates in a customs union with Switzerland and employs the Swiss franc as national currency. The country imports more than 90% of its energy requirements. Sony VGP-BPS13A/B battery

Liechtenstein has been a member of the European Economic Area (an organization serving as a bridge between the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) and the European Union) since May 1995. The government is working to harmonize its economic policies with those of an integrated Europe. Since 2002, Liechtenstein's rate of unemployment has doubled. Sony VGP-BPS13B/B battery

In 2004, it stood at 2.2% in the third quarter. Currently, there is only one hospital in Liechtenstein, the Liechtensteinisches Landesspital in Vaduz. The gross domestic product (GDP) on a purchasing power parity basis is $4.16 billion, or $118,000 per person.Sony VGP-BPL9 battery

Liechtenstein is a large producer of ceramics and is the world's largest producer of sausage casings, potassium storage units and false teeth. Other industries include electronics, textiles, precision instruments, metal manufacturing, power tools, anchor bolts, calculators, Sony VGP-BPS13B/B battery

pharmaceuticals, and food products. Its most recognizable international company and largest employer is Hilti, a manufacturer of direct fastening systems and other high-end power tools. Liechtenstein produces wheat, barley, corn, potatoes, dairy products, livestock, and wine. Tourism accounts for a large portion of the country's economy.Sony VGP-BPL15 battery

Taxation

The government of Liechtenstein taxes both personal and business income and principal (wealth). The basic rate of personal income tax is 1.2%. When combined with the additional income tax imposed by the communes, the combined income tax rate is 17.82%.HP Pavilion dv6000 Battery

An additional income tax of 4.3% is levied on all employees under the country's social security program. This rate is higher for the self-employed, up to a maximum of 11%, making the maximum income tax rate about 29% in total. The basic tax rate on wealth is 0.06% per annum, and the combined total rate is 0.89%. The maximum business income tax rate is 18–20%.HP Pavilion dv8000 battery

Liechtenstein's gift and estate taxes vary depending on the relationship the recipient has to the giver and the amount of the inheritance. The tax ranges between 0.5% and 0.75% for spouses and children and 18% to 27% for non-related recipients. The estate tax is progressive.HP PAVILION DV6000 Battery

The 2008 Liechtenstein tax affair is a series of tax investigations in numerous countries whose governments suspect that some of their citizens may have evaded tax obligations by using banks and trusts in Liechtenstein; the affair broke open with the biggest complex of investigations ever initiated for tax evasion in the Federal Republic of Germany.HP PAVILION DV8000 Battery

It was also seen as an attempt to put pressure on Liechtenstein, then one of the remaining uncooperative tax havens – along with Andorra and Monaco – as identified by the Paris-based Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development in 2007.On 27 May 2009 the OECD removed Liechtenstein from the blacklist of uncooperative countries.SONY VAIO VGN-FZ Battery

In August 2009, the British Government Department, HM Revenue & Customs, agreed with the Alpine tax haven to start exchanging information. It is believed that up to 5,000 British investors have roughly £3billion stashed in accounts and trusts in the country.HP Pavilion DV6000 battery

Demographics

Liechtenstein is the fourth smallest country of Europe, after Vatican City, Monaco, and San Marino. Its population is primarily Alemannic-speaking, although its resident population is approximately one third foreign-born, primarily German speakers from Germany,HP Pavilion DV8000 battery

Austria, andSwitzerland, other Swiss, Italians, and Turks. Foreign-born people make up two-thirds of the country's workforce.

The official language is German; most speak Alemannic, a dialect of German that is highly divergent from Standard German but closely related to those dialects spoken in neighbouring regions such as Vorarlberg, Austria. HP Pavilion DV6000 battery

In Triesenberg, a dialect promoted by the municipality is spoken. According to the 2000 census, 87.9% of the population is Christian, of whom 78.4% adhere to the Roman Catholic faith, while about 8% areProtestant. Compared to the 1990 census, the percentage of Christians fell, whereas Muslims and the undeclared more than doubled in size.HP Pavilion DV8000 battery

According to a 2009 Pew Research Center report, Muslims constitute approximately 4.8% of the population.

Liechtensteiners have an average life expectancy at birth of 79.68 years (76.1 for males; 83.28 for females). The infant mortality rate is 4.64 deaths per 1,000 live births, according to recent estimates. The literacy rate of Liechtenstein is 100%.SONY VAIO VGN-FZ18 Battery

The Programme for International Student Assessment, coordinated by the OECD, currently ranks Liechtenstein's education as the 10th best in the world.

Transport

There are about 250 km (155 mi) of paved roadway within Liechtenstein, with 90 km (56 mi) of marked bicycle paths.SONY VAIO VGN-FZ21E Battery

9.5 km (5.9 mi) of railway connects Austria and Switzerland through Liechtenstein. The country's railways are administered by the Austrian Federal Railways as part of the route between Feldkirch, Austria, and Buchs, Switzerland. Liechtenstein is nominally within the Austrian Verkehrsverbund Vorarlberg tariff region. SONY VAIO VGN-FW31J Battery

There are four stations in Liechtenstein, namely Schaan-Vaduz, Forst Hilti, Nendeln, and Schaanwald, served by an irregularly stopping train service that runs between Feldkirch and Buchs provided by the Austrian Federal Rail Service. SONY VAIO VGN-FW31J Battery

While EuroCity and other long distance international trains also travel along the route, they do not normally stop at the stations within the borders of Liechtenstein.

Liechtenstein Bus is a subsidiary of the Swiss Postbus system, but separately run, and connects to the Swiss bus network at Buchs and at Sargans. Buses also run to the Austrian town of Feldkirch.SONY VAIO VGN-FW21E Battery

Liechtenstein has no airport; the nearest large airport is Zürich Airport near Zürich, Switzerland. There is a small heliport at Balzersavailable for charter helicopter flights.SONY VAIO VGN-NR11S/S Battery

Culture

As a result of its small size, Liechtenstein has been strongly affected by external cultural influences, most notably those originating in the southern German-speaking areas of Europe, including Austria, Bavaria, Switzerland, and specifically Tirol and Vorarlberg. SONY VAIO VGN-NR11M/S Battery

The "Historical Society of the Principality of Liechtenstein" plays a role in preserving the culture and history of the country.

The largest museum is the Kunstmuseum Liechtenstein, an international museum of modern and contemporary art with an important international art collection.SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Battery

The building by the Swiss architects Morger, Degelo and Kerez is a landmark in Vaduz. It was completed in November 2000 and forms a "black box" of tinted concrete and black basalt stone. The museum collection is also the national art collection of Liechtenstein.Sony VAIO VGN-FW21E Battery

The other important museum is the Liechtenstein National Museum (Liechtensteinisches Landesmuseum) showing permanent exhibition on the cultural and natural history of Liechtenstein as well as special exhibitions. There is also a stamp museum and a ski museum.Sony VAIO VGN-NR11S/S Battery

The most famous historical sites are Vaduz Castle, Gutenberg Castle, the Red House and the ruins of Schellenberg.

Music and theatre are an important part of the culture. There are numerous music organizations such as the Liechtenstein Musical Company, the annual Guitar Days and the International Josef Gabriel Rheinberger Society, which play in two main theatres.Sony VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Battery

The Private Art Collection of the Prince of Liechtenstein, one of the world's leading private art collections, is shown at the Liechtenstein Museum in Vienna.

Amateur radio is a hobby of some nationals and visitors. However, unlike virtually every other sovereign nation, Liechtenstein does not have its own ITU Prefix. It uses Switzerland's callsign prefixes (typically "HB") followed by a zero.Sony VAIO VGN-NR11M/S Battery

Sports

Liechtenstein football teams play in the Swiss football leagues. The Liechtenstein Cup allows access for one Liechtenstein team each year to the UEFA Europa League; Sony VAIO VGN-NR11Z/T Battery

FC Vaduz, a team playing in the Swiss Challenge League, the second division in Swiss football, is the most successful team in the Cup, and scored their greatest success in the European Cup Winners' Cup in 1996 when they tied and defeated the Latvian team FC Universitate Riga by 1–1 and 4–2, to go on to a lucrative fixture against Paris St Germain, which they lost 0–4 and 0–3.SONY VAIO VGN-FZ180E Battery

The Liechtenstein national football team is regarded as an easy target for any team drawn against them; this was the basis for a book about Liechtenstein's unsuccessful qualifying campaign for the 2002 World Cup by British author, Charlie Connelly. In one surprising week during autumn 2004, however,SONY VAIO VGN-FZ220E Battery

the team managed a 2–2 draw with Portugal, who only a few months earlier had been the losing finalists in the European Championships. Four days later, the Liechtenstein team traveled to Luxembourg, where they defeated the home team 4-0 in a 2006 World Cup qualifying match. SONY VAIO VGN-FZ340E Battery

In the qualification stage of the European Championship 2008, Liechtenstein beat Latvia 1-0, a result which prompted the resignation of the Latvian coach. They went on to beat Iceland 3-0 on 17 October 2007, which is considered one of the most dramatic losses of the Icelandic national football team. SONY VAIO VGN-FZ460E Battery

On 7 September 2010, they came within seconds of a famous 1–1 draw against Scotland in Glasgow, having led 1–0 for most of the second half. They lost 2–1 thanks to a Scotland goal by Stephen McManus in the 97th minute.

As an alpine country, the main sporting opportunity for Liechtensteiners to excel is in winter sports such as downhill skiing:SONY VAIO VGN-FZ480E Battery

the country's single ski area is Malbun.Hanni Wenzel won two gold medals and one silver medal in the 1980 Winter Olympics (she won bronze in 1976), and her brother Andreas won one silver medal in 1980 and one bronze medal in 1984 in the giant slalom event.SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31E Battery

With nine medals overall (all in alpine skiing), Liechtenstein has won more Olympic medals per capita than any other nation.It is the smallest nation to win a medal in any Olympics, Winter or Summer, and the only nation to win a medal in the Winter Games but not in the Summer Games.SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31B Battery

Other notable skiers from Liechtenstein are Marco Büchel, Willi Frommelt, Paul Frommelt and Ursula Konzett.

Security and defense

The Liechtenstein National Police is responsible for keeping order within the country. It consists of 87 field officers and 33 civilian staff. All officers are equipped with small arms.SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31J Battery

The country has one of the world's lowest crime rate, with the last murder having taken place, according to an officer who was serving in 2007, “about ten years ago.” Liechtenstein's prison holds few, if any, inmates, and those with sentences over two years are transferred to Austrian jurisdiction.SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31M Battery

The Liechtenstein National Police maintains a trilateral treaty with Austria and Switzerland that enables close cross-border cooperation among the police forces of the three countries.

Liechtenstein follows a policy of neutrality and is one of few countries in the world that maintains no military. SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31Z Battery

The army was abolished soon after the Austro-Prussian War in which Liechtenstein fielded an army of 80 men, although they were not involved in any fighting. The demise of the German Confederation in that war freed Liechtenstein from its international obligation to maintain an army, and parliament seized this opportunity and refused to provide funding for an army.SONY VAIO VGN-FZ38M Battery

The Prince objected, as such a move would leave the country defenseless, but relented on 12 February 1868 and disbanded the force. The last soldier to serve under the colours of Liechtenstein died in 1939 at age 95.

The bisztró is an inexpensive restaurant often with self-service. The büfé is the cheapest place, although one may have to eat standing at a counter. SONY VGP-BPS8 Battery

Pastries, cakes and coffee are served at the confectionery calledcukrászda, while an eszpresszó is a cafeteria.

Pálinka: is a fruit brandy, distilled from fruit grown in the orchards situated on the Great Hungarian Plain. It is a spirit native to Hungary and comes in a variety of flavours including apricot (barack) and cherry (cseresznye). SONY VGP-BPS13/S Battery

However, plum (szilva) is the most popular flavour. Beer: Beer goes well with many traditional Hungarian dishes. The five main Hungarian brands are: Borsodi, Soproni, Arany Ászok, Kõbányai, and Dreher.

Wine: As Hugh Johnson says in The History of Wine, the territory of Hungary is ideal for wine-making. Since the fall of communism there has been a renaissance of Hungarian wine-making. SONY VGP-BPS13A/B Battery

The choice of good wine is widening from year to year. The country can be divided to six wine regions: North-Transdanubia, Lake Balaton, South-Pannónia, Duna-region or Alföld, Upper-Hungary and Tokaj-Hegyalja. Hungarian wine regions offer a great variety of style: SONY VGP-BPS13B/B Battery

the main products of the country are elegant and full-bodied dry whites with good acidity, although complex sweet whites (Tokaj), elegant (Eger) and full-bodied robust reds (Villány and Szekszárd). The main varieties are: Olaszrizling,Hárslevel?, Furmint, Pinot gris or Szürkebarát, Chardonnay (whites), Kékfrankos (or Blaufrankisch in German),SONY VGP-BPS13A/S Battery

Kadarka, Portugieser, Zweigelt, Cabernet sauvignon,Cabernet franc and Merlot. The most famous wines from Hungary are Tokaji Aszú and Egri Bikavér.

Tokaji: Tokaji, meaning "of Tokaj", or "from Tokaj" in Hungarian, is used to label wines from the wine region of Tokaj-Hegyalja in Hungary. SONY VGP-BPS13AS Battery

Tokaji wine has received accolades from numerous great writers and composers including Beethoven, Liszt, Schubert and Goethe; Joseph Haydn's favorite wine was a Tokaji. Louis XV andFrederick the Great tried to outdo one another in the excellence of the vintages they stocked when they treated guests like Voltaire to some Tokaji.Dell Inspiron 1320n Battery

Napoleon III, the last Emperor of the French, ordered 30–40 barrels of Tokaji for the Court every year. Gustav III, King of Sweden, never had any other wine to drink. In Russia, customers included Peter the Great and Empress Elizabeth of Russia.SONY VGP-BPS13AS Battery

Zwack Unicum: For over 150 years, a blend of 40 Hungarian herbs has been used to create the liqueur Unicum. Unicum is a bitter, dark-coloured liqueur that can be drunk as an apéritif or after a meal, thus helping the digestion. The recipe is held secret by the Zwack family.Dell Inspiron 1320n Battery

Recreation

Hungary is a land of thermal water. A passion for spa culture and Hungarian history have been connected from the very beginning. Hungarian spas featureRoman, Greek, Turkish, and northern country architectural elements.Dell Studio 1450 Battery

Because of an advantageous geographical location thermal water can be found with good quality and in great quantities on over 80% of Hungary's territory. Approximately 1,500 thermal springs can be found in Hungary. There are approximately 450 public baths in Hungary.Dell Studio 1457 Battery

The Romans heralded the first age of spa in Hungary, the remains of their bath complexes are still to be seen in Óbuda, to this day. The spa culture was revived during the Turkish Invasion who used the thermal springs of Buda for the construction of a number of bathhouses, some of which are still functioning (Király Baths, Rudas Baths).Dell Latitude D610 Battery

In the 19th century the advancement in deep drilling and medical science provided the springboard for a further leap in bathing culture. Grand spas such asGellért Baths, Lukács Baths, Margaret Island, and Széchenyi Medicinal Bath are a reflection of this resurgence in popularity.Dell Studio 1457 Battery

Folk art

Ugrós (Jumping dances): Old style dances dating back to the Middle Ages. Solo or couple dances accompanied by old style music, shepherd and other solo man's dances from Transylvania, and marching dances along with remnants of medieval weapon dances belong in this group.Toshiba Satellite M60 battery

Karikázó: a circle dance performed by women only accompanied by singing of folksongs.

Csárdás: New style dances developed in the 18–19th centuries is the Hungarian name for the national dances, with Hungarian embroidered costumes and energetic music. Dell Latitude D830 Battery

From the men's intricate bootslapping dances to the ancient women's circle dances, Csárdás demonstrates the infectious exuberance of the Hungarian folk dancing still celebrated in the villages.

Verbunkos: a solo man's dance evolved from the recruiting performances of the Austro-Hungarian army.Dell Latitude D620 Battery

The Legényes: is a men's solo dance done by the ethnic Hungarian people living in the Kalotaszeg region of Transylvania. Although usually danced by young men, it can be also danced by older men. The dance is performed freestyle usually by one dancer at a time in front of the band.Dell Inspiron Mini 10 Battery

Women participate in the dance by standing in lines to the side and sing/shout verses while the men dance. Each lad does a number of points (dance phrases) typically 4 to 8 without repetition. Each point consists of 4 parts, each lasting 4 counts. The first part is usually the same for everyone (there are only a few variations).Sony VGN-FW11S Battery

It was in the beginning of the 18th century that the present style of Hungarian folk art took shape, incorporating both Renaissance and Baroque elements, depending on the area, as well as Persian Sassanide influences. Flowers and leaves, sometimes a bird or a spiral ornament, are the principal decorative themes. Sony VGN-FW11M Battery

The most frequent ornament is a flower with a centerpiece resembling the eye of a peacock's feather.

Nearly all the manifestations of folk art practiced elsewhere in Europe also flourished among the Magyar peasantry at one time or another, their ceramics and textile being the most highly developed of all.Sony VGN-FW139E/H battery

The finest achievements in their textile arts are the embroideries which vary from region to region. Those of Kalotaszeg in Transylvania are charming products of Oriental design, sewn chiefly in a single color – red, blue, or black. Soft in line, the embroideries are applied on altar cloths, pillow cases and sheets.Dell Latitude E5400 Battery

In Hungary proper Sárköz in Transdanubia and the Matyóföld in the Great Hungarian Plain produce the finest embroideries. In the Sárköz region the women's caps show black and white designs as delicate as lace and give evidence of the people's wonderfully subtle artistic feeling. Dell Latitude E4200 Battery

The embroidery motifs applied to women's wear have also been transposed to tablecloths and runners suitable for modern use as wall decorations.

These vessels, made of black clay, reflect more than three hundred years of traditional Transdanubian folk patterns and shapes.Dell Inspiron 300M Battery

No two are precisely alike, since all work is done by hand, including both the shaping and the decorating. The imprints are made by the thumb or a finger of the ceramist who makes the piece.

Art

Founded in 1826, Herend Porcelain is one of the world's largest ceramic factories, specializing in luxury hand painted and gilded porcelain. Dell Studio 1737 battery

In the mid-19th century it was purveyor to the Habsburg Dynasty and aristocratic customers throughout Europe. Many of its classic patterns are still in production. After the fall of communism in Hungary the factory was privatised and is now 75% owned by its management and workers, exporting to over 60 countries of the world.Dell Inspiron E1505 battery

Zsolnay Porcelain Manufacture is a Hungarian manufacturer of porcelain, pottery, ceramics, tiles, and stoneware. The company introduced the eosin glazing process and pyrogranite ceramics. The Zsolnay factory was established by Miklós Zsolnay in Pécs, Hungary, to produce stoneware and ceramics in 1853.Dell RM791 battery

In 1863, his son,Vilmos Zsolnay (1828–1900) joined the company and became its manager and director after several years. He led the factory to worldwide recognition by demonstrating its innovative products at world fairs and international exhibitions, including the 1873 World Fair in Vienna, then at the 1878 World Fair in Paris, where Zsolnay received a Grand Prix.Acer Aspire One battery 10400mAh

Sports

Only seven countries (USA, USSR, UK, France, Italy, China and Germany) have won more Summer Olympic gold medals than Hungary. At the all time total medal count for Olympic Games, Hungary reaches the 9th rank out of 211 participating nations, with a total of 465 medals. See All-time Olympic Games medal table (2008 data).Dell Precision M70 Battery

This achievement has been possible because of the Hungarians' success in water sports: in water polo the Hungarian team is the leading medal winner by a significant margin (See: Water polo at the Summer Olympics) and in swimming the men are fourth most successful overall while the women are eighth most successful overall. SONY VGN -FZ210CE Battery

(See: List of Olympic medalists in swimming (men). List of Olympic medalists in swimming (women).) There has also been success incanoeing.

Some of the world's leading best Sabre (fencing) athletes have historically hailed from Hungary. Toshiba Satellite L305 Battery

In 2009 the Hungarian national ice hockey team qualified for their first IIHF World Championship.

Hungary has remarkable football history, having won three Olympic titles, finishing runners-up in the 1938 and 1954 FIFA World Cups, and third in the 1964 UEFA European Football Championship.Toshiba Satellite T4900 Battery

Hungary revolutionized the sport in the 1950s, laying the tactical fundamentals of Total Football and dominating international football with the remarkable Golden Team which included legends like Ferenc Puskás, top goalscorer of the 20th century,whom FIFA dedicatedts newest award, the Puskás Award.Toshiba PA3399U-2BRS battery

The side of that era has the all-time highest Football Elo Ranking in the world, with 2166, and one of the longest undefeated runs in football history, remaining unbeaten in 31 games, spanning over more than 4 years and including matches such as the Match of the Century.Sony VGP-BPS10 battery

The post-golden age decades saw a gradually weakening Hungary, though recently there is renewal in all aspects. The Hungarian Children's Football Federation was founded in 2008, as youth development thrives. For the first time in Hungarian football's histo

ry, they hosted the 2010 UEFA Futsal Championship in Budapest and Debrecen, Sony VGP-BPS9 battery

the first time the MLSZ staged a UEFA finals tournament. Also, the national teams have produced some surprise successes such as beating Euro 2004 winner Greece 3–2 and 2006 FIFA World Cupwinner Italy 3–1. Although they have not qualified for a major tournament's finals since 1986, Sony VGP-BPS11 battery

they came semi-finalists at the 2008 European Under-19 Championship and qualified for the 2009 FIFA U-20 World Cup which saw their U-20 national team gaining third place to bring home Hungary's first major tournament medal in nearly half a century, feeding their hopes of a future revival.Sony VGP-BPS22 battery

Mnarja, or l-Imnarja (pronounced lim-nar-ya) is one of the most important dates on the Maltese cultural calendar. Officially, it is a national festival dedicated to the feast of Saints Peter and St. Paul. In fact, one can trace its roots back to the pagan Roman feast of Luminaria (literally, "the illumination"), when torches and bonfires lit up the early summer night of 29 June.Sony VGP-BPL8 battery

A national feast since the rule of the Knights, Mnarja is a traditional Maltese festival of food, religion and music. The festivities still commence today with the reading of the "bandu", an official governmental announcement, which has been read on this day in Malta since the 16th century.Sony VGP-BPS14 battery

Originally, Mnarja was celebrated outside St. Paul's Grotto, in the north of Malta. However, by 1613 the focus of the festivities had shifted to the Cathedral of St. Paul, in Mdina, and featured torchlight processions, the firing of 100 petards, horseraces, and races for men, boys and slaves.Sony VGP-BPS21 battery

Modern Mnarja festivals take place in and around the woodlands of Buskett, just outside the town of Rabat.

It is said that under the Knights, this was the one day in the year when the Maltese were allowed to hunt and eat wild rabbit, which was otherwise reserved for the hunting pleasures of the Knights.Toshiba Satellite A200 Battery

The close connection between Mnarja and rabbit stew (Maltese: "fenkata") remains strong today.

In 1854 British governor William Reid launched an agricultural show at Buskett which is still being held today. The farmers' exhibition is still a seminal part of the Mnarja festivities today.Toshiba Satellite M300 Battery

Mnarja today is one of the few occasions when participants may hear traditional Maltese "g?ana". Traditionally, grooms would promise to take their brides to Mnarja during the first of year of marriage. For luck, many of the brides would attend in their wedding gown and veil, although this custom has long since disappeared from the Islands.Toshiba Satellite 1200 Battery

In 2009 the first New Year's Eve street party was organized in Malta, parallel to what other major countries in the world organize. Although the event was not highly advertised and controversial, due to the closing of an arterial street on the day, it is deemed to have been successful and will most likely be organized every year.SONY VGP-BPS13A/Q Battery

Sports

Football is the most popular sport in Malta. The national stadium is called Ta' Qali Stadium. It is generally noted that the population tends to be split half and half with regards to supporting Italy or England in football, due to the cultural affinities of the island.SONY VGP-BPS13A/Q Battery

The national football team has won several matches over big opponents that reached the final phases in World Cups, such as Belgium,Hungary, and Greece.

Rugby union is popular in Malta, with the national men's team currently (May 2010) ranked 49th in the world – the second highest ranking that Malta holds in any international team sport after Table Football.SONY VGP-BPS13/Q Battery

The national squad was given a significant boost early in its history by inviting children of ex-patriate Maltese who had learned the sport in other, higher-level, countries (such as Australia and the U.K.) to improve the level of play. However, in recent years, the national team has included an increasing number of locally based players,SONY VGP-BPS13/Q Battery

while maintaining its position in the mid-rank of European rugby (currently ranked 22nd of 40 competing European nations). The national women's rugby 7's team has performed very well in recent competitions, earning promotion to, and performing well in, the "A" (second) tier of European competition.SONY VGP-BPS21A/B Battery

Malta also hosts a snooker round, the Malta Cup, which as of 2008 became a non-ranking event. In 2008 Malta's Tony Drago was a member of a victorious European Mosconi Cup team, which was played in Portomaso, Malta. Boxer Jeff Fenech is of Maltese descent.SONY VGP-BPS21/S Battery

There are over 1200 rock climbing routes in Malta. The island offers a mixture of both trad climbing and sport climbing and also offers a good variety of bouldering and deep water soloing. The geography and small size of the island makes the climbing easily accessible. SONY VGP-BPS21B Battery

The sport is growing in popularity with local communities, as well as tourists and visitors. In the last decade the aviation sport of Microlight Flying was introduced to the island by the Island Microlight Club. There are now a total of twenty-two microlight aircraft that operate out of the Malta International Airport.SONY VGP-BPS21A Battery

Bo??i is the Maltese version of the Italian game of bocce, French pétanque and British bowls. Other than certain differences in rules and the ground on which the game is played, one of the most obvious differences between Maltese bo??i and foreign equivalents is the shape of the bowls themselves which tend to be cylindrical rather than spherical in shape.SONY VGP-BPS21 Battery

Many small clubs (usually calledKlabbs tal-Bo??i in Maltese) can be found in Maltese and Gozitan localities, and are usually well-frequented and are quite active on a local and European level.

Media

The most widely read and financially the strongest newspapers are published by Allied Newspapers Ltd., mainly The Times (27%) and The Sunday Times (51.6%). Sony VGP-BPS21A/B Battery

Due to bilingualism half of thenewspapers are published in English and the other half in Maltese. The Sunday newspaper It-Tor?a (The Torch) published by the Union Press, a subsidiary of the GWU, is the paper with the biggest circulation in the Maltese language. Its sister paper, L-Orizzont, is the Maltese daily with biggest circulation. Sony VGP-BPS21/S Battery

There is a high number of daily or weekly newspapers, there is one paper for every 28,000 people. Advertising, sales and subsidies are the three main methods of financing newspapers and magazines. However, most of the papers and magazines tied to institutions are subsidised by the same institutions, they depend on advertising or subsidies from their owners. Sony VGP-BPS21A Battery

There is a great a presence of the institutions – church, political parties, trade unions – in the print media, though not as in the broadcasting media. Trade Unions are not represented in the broadcasting media, but are in the print media, and only the General Workers Union owns a newspaper.Sony VGP-BPS21 Battery

The UHM, the second biggest union, has no newspaper, TV, or radio stations.

There are eight major nationwide television channels in Malta: TVM, One Television, NET Television, Smash Television, Favourite Channel, Calypso Music TV, ITV,Education22 and Big Ben TV – currently transmitted by analogue terrestrial, free-to-air signals.SONY VAIO VGN-FW31J Battery

The state and political parties subsidise most of the fundings of these television stations. The Public Broadcasting Services is the state-owned station and is a member of the EBU. Media Link Communications Ltd and One Productions Ltd are affiliated with the Nationalist Party and Labour Party respectively.SONY VAIO VGN-FW31E Battery

Smash Communications Ltd is privately owned. The Broadcasting Authority supervises all local broadcasting stations and ensures their compliance with legal and licence obligations as well as the preservation of due impartiality; in respect of matters of political or industrial controversy or relating to current public policy;SONY VAIO VGN-FW31B Battery

while fairly apportioning broadcasting facilities and time between persons belong to different political parties. The Broadcasting Authority ensures that local broadcasting services consist of public, private and community broadcasts that offer varied and comprehensive programming to cater for all interests and tastes.SONY VAIO VGN-FW31M Battery

Cable, terrestrial and satellite reception are all available, though the cable service is the most diffused. Cable subscriptions reached almost 124,000 in February 2006 reaching about 80% of Maltese households, and a small but increasing number of households own satellite dishes to receive other European television networks such as the BBC from Great Britain and RAI and Mediaset from Italy.SONY VAIO VGN-FW31Z Battery

The Liechtenstein national football team is the national football team of Liechtenstein and is controlled by the Liechtenstein Football Association. The organisation is known as the Liechtensteiner Fussballverband in German. The team's first match was an unofficial match against Malta in Seoul, a 1-1 draw in 1981.Dell Inspiron 6400 AC Adapter

Their first official match came two years later, a 0-1 defeat from Switzerland. Liechtenstein's largest win, a 4-0 win over Luxembourg in a 2006 World Cup qualifier on 13 October 2004, was both its first away win ever and its first win in any World Cup qualifier.Dell LATITUDE D800 battery

Liechtenstein suffered its biggest ever loss in 1996, during qualification for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, with an 11-1 thrashing at the hands of the Republic of Macedonia.

The team's record in competitive games was so poor it prompted British writer Charlie Connelly to follow the entire qualifying campaign for the 2002 FIFA World Cup.Dell Inspiron Mini 12 battery

As recorded in the subsequent book Stamping Grounds: Liechtenstein's Quest for the World Cup, Liechtenstein lost all eight games without scoring a goal.

Four days before Liechtenstein scored its first win in World Cup qualifying, the team made even more headlines with a stunning 2-2 draw in Vaduz in a 2006 World Cup qualifier against Portugal. Dell Inspiron 1720 battery

Before this result, Liechtenstein had lost all of its previous 20 World Cup qualifiers. They also caused a shock in the return match at the end of the group phase when Benjamin Fischer scored, and Liechtenstein led at half time, before eventually losing 2-1.

Liechtenstein is the only country ever to lose to San Marino, with a 0-1 loss in a friendly match on 28 April 2004.Dell Inspiron 1564 battery

History

Liechtenstein are only a relatively recent affiliate to FIFA, and did not participate in any qualifying series until the UEFA Euro 1996 qualifiers. There they managed to surprise the Republic of Ireland by holding them to a 0-0 draw on 3 June 1995.Dell Inspiron 1464 battery

On 14 October 1998, they managed their first victory in a qualifying campaign by winning 2-1 against Azerbaijan in a UEFA Euro 2000 qualifying match.

Since then, the presence of Liechtenstein clubs in the Swiss league system and of a handful of professional players (most notably Mario Frick) has seen the side's competitiveness improve enormously.Dell XPS 1340 battery

The Euro 2004 qualifiers saw Liechtenstein improve to the extent they restricted England to 2-0 wins. The2006 World Cup qualifiers, however, brought even better results as two wins over Luxembourg and draws against both Slovakia and Portugal meant that Liechtenstein finished with 8 points.Dell INSPIRON 9100 battery

In the Euro 2008 qualifiers, Liechtenstein beat Latvia for probably their greatest ever victory — indeed their first against a country that has qualified for a major finals — through a solitary goal from Mario Frick. The result caused the Latvian manager to resign after the match. Dell Inspiron N4010 battery

They repeated their heroics against Iceland managing to beat them 3-0 on 17 October 2007 for their second qualifying group win. On the 26 March 2008 Liechtenstein had an embarrassing 7-1 loss to fellow small nation in Europe, Malta. This was recorded as Malta's largest win.Dell N3010 battery

The Liechtensteiner Fussballverbund voted Rainer Hasler to be their "Golden Player" — their best player over the last 50 years — to mark UEFA's golden jubilee.

In the Euro 2012 qualifiers, they almost produced a shock defeat against Scotland by taking the lead in the second half through a Mario Frick goal only for Scotland to score twice to win the game 2-1. HP Pavilion DV6-1210SA battery

Scotland's second goal came in the 97th minute at 96:28 after five minutes of stoppage time were added, denying Liechtenstein an important draw and saving Scotland's embarrassment.

The Liechtenstein dynasty, from which the principality takes its name, is the family which reigns by constitutional, hereditary right over the nation ofLiechtenstein. HP Pavilion DM4 battery

Only dynastic members of the House of Liechtenstein are eligible to inherit the throne, and the dynasty's membership, rights and responsibilities are defined by a law of the family, which is enforced by the reigning Prince and may be altered by vote among the family's dynasts, but which may not be altered by the Government or Parliament of Liechtenstein.HP Pavilion DM3 battery

The family comes from Castle Liechtenstein in Lower Austria, which the family possessed from at least 1140 to the 13th century, and from 1807 onwards. Through the centuries, the dynasty acquired vast swathes of land, predominantly in Moravia, Lower Austria, Silesia and Styria, though in all cases,Compaq CQ35-100 battery

these territories were held in fief under other more senior feudal lords, particularly under various lines of the Habsburg family, to whom several Liechtenstein princes served as close advisors. Thus, and without any territory held directly under the Imperial throne, HP DV9700 battery

the Liechtenstein dynasty was unable to meet a primary requirement to qualify for a seat in the Imperial diet, the Reichstag.

The family yearned greatly for the added power which a seat in the Imperial government would garner, and therefore searched for lands to acquire which would be unmittelbar, HP Compaq 491278-001 battery

or held without any feudal personage other than the Holy Roman Emperor himself having rights on the land. The family was able to arrange the purchase of the minuscule Herrschaft ("Lordship") of Schellenberg and county of Vaduz (in 1699 and 1712 respectively) from the Hohenems family. HP Compaq HSTNN-LB51 battery

Tiny Schellenberg and Vaduz possessed exactly the political status required with no feudal lord other than their comital sovereign and the suzerain Emperor.

Thereby, on 23 January 1719, after purchase had been duly made, Charles VI,HP Pavilion ZD8227 battery

Holy Roman Emperor decreed Vaduz and Schellenberg were united, and raised to the dignity of Fürstentum (principality) with the name "Liechtenstein" in honour of "[his] true servant, Anton Florian of Liechtenstein". It is on this date that Liechtenstein became a sovereign member state of the Holy Roman Empire.HP Compaq Business Notebook TC4400 battery

Ironically, but as testament to the pure political expediency of the purchases, the Princes of Liechtenstein did not set foot in their new principality for several decades.

According to the Constitution of the Princely House of Liechtenstein of 26 October 1993 all members other than the reigning prince shall bear the titles: Prince/Princess of Liechtenstein, Count/Countess of Rietberg.HP Pavilion DV7-2085EL battery

Current Princely Family (closest members only)

  • Hans-Adam II, Prince of Liechtenstein (born 14 February 1945), eldest son; married 30 July 1967, Marie Aglaë, Countess Kinsky of Wchinitz and Tettau. They have four children:Compaq Presario 300 battery
    • Alois Philipp Maria, Hereditary Prince of Liechtenstein (born 11 June 1968), married 3 July 1993, Duchess Sophie in Bavaria (born 28 October 1967). They have four children:
      • Prince Joseph Wenzel Maximilian Maria of Liechtenstein (born 24 May 1995 in London)HP Compaq Business Notebook 6735S battery
      • Princess Marie-Caroline Elisabeth Immaculata of Liechtenstein (born 17 October 1996 in Grabs, Canton of St. Gallen)
      • Prince Georg Antonius Constantin Maria of Liechtenstein (born 20 April 1999 in Grabs)
      • Prince Nikolaus Sebastian Alexander Maria of Liechtenstein (born 6 December 2000, in Grabs)HP Pavilion DV2820EA battery
    • Prince Maximilian Nikolaus Maria of Liechtenstein (born 16 May 1969 in St. Gallen), married 29 January 2000 at the church of Saint Vincent Ferrer in New York, Angela Gisela Brown (born 3 February 1958, Bocas del Toro, Panama) They have one child:HP Pavilion DV6373EA battery
      • Prince Alfons Constantin Maria of Liechtenstein (born 18 May 2001, in London)
    • Prince Constantin Ferdinand Maria of Liechtenstein (born 15 March 1972 in St. Gallen), married 5 June 1999, in Csicse, Countess Marie Gabriele Franciska Kálnoky de Köröspatak (born 16 July 1975 in Graz) They have three children:
      • Prince Moritz Emanuel Maria of Liechtenstein (born 27 May 2003 in London)HP Compaq 572190-001 battery
      • Princess Georgina Maximiliane Tatjana Maria of Liechtenstein (born 23 July 2005 in Vienna)
      • Prince Benedikt Ferdinand Hubertus Maria of Liechtenstein, (born 18 May 2008 in Vienna)Compaq Presario CQ50-105EL battery
    • Princess Tatjana Nora Maria of Liechtenstein (born 10 April 1973 in St. Gallen), married 5 June 1999, at St. Florin's in Vaduz, Baron Philipp von Lattorff, son of Baron Claus-Jürgen von Lattorff and Countess Julia Batthyány de Német-Ujvár (born 25 March 1968 in Graz). They have six children:HP Pavilion DV7-1290EO battery
      • Lukas Maria von Lattorff (born 13 May 2000 in Wiesbaden)
      • Elisabeth Marie Angela Tatiana von Lattorff (born 25 January 2002 in Grabs)
      • Marie Theresa von Lattorff (born 18 January 2004 in Grabs)
      • Camilla Katharina Maria von Lattorff (born 14 November 2005 in Monza)Compaq Presario CQ71 battery
      • Anna Pia Theresia Maria von Lattorff (born 3 August 2007 in Hausleiten)
      • Sophia Katharina Maria von Lattorff (born 30 October 2009 in Hausleiten)HP Pavilion DV6000 battery
  • Prince Philipp Erasmus of Liechtenstein (born 19 August 1946 in Zürich), second son; married 11 September 1971, at Abbaye de Notre Dame de la Cambre in Brussels, Isabelle de l'Arbre de Malander (born 24 November 1947 in Ronse) They have three children:Compaq Presario CQ70 battery
    • Prince Alexander of Liechtenstein (born 19 May 1972 in Basel); married 8–9 February 2003 Astrid Kohl (born 13 September 1968).
      • Princess Theodora Alexandra Isabella Antonia Nora Marie of Liechtenstein (born 20 November 2004).
    • Prince Wenzeslaus of Liechtenstein (born 12 May 1974 in Uccle, Belgium)HP Compaq 491278-001 battery
    • Prince Rudolf Ferdinand of Liechtenstein (born 7 September 1975 in Uccle, Belgium)
  • Prince Nikolaus Ferdinand Maria Josef Raphael of Liechtenstein (born 24 October 1947 in Zürich), third son; married 20 March 1982, at Notre-Dame Cathedral, Luxembourg, Princess Margaretha of Luxembourg, (born 15 May 1957, Betzdorf Castle). They have four children:HP TouchSmart TX2-1150EG battery
    • Prince Leopold Emmanuel of Liechtenstein (born 20 May 1984, died 20 May 1984).
    • Princess Maria-Annunciata Astrid Joséphine Veronica of Liechtenstein (born 12 May 1985 in Brussels)
    • Princess Marie-Astrid Nora Margarita Veronica of Liechtenstein (born 26 June 1987 in Brussels)HP 520 battery
    • Prince Josef-Emanuel Leopold Marie of Liechtenstein (born 7 May 1989 in Brussels)
  • Princess Norberta (Nora) Elisabeth Maria Assunta Josefine Georgine et omnes sancti of Liechtenstein (born 31 October 1950), only daughter; married 11 June 1988 Don Vicente Sartorius y Cabeza de Vaca (30 November 1931 - 2002), Marquess de Mariño, and she has a daughter,Asus ADP-36EH C Adapter
    • Maria Teresa Sartorius y de Liechtenstein (born 21 November 1992 in Madrid).

Law enforcement in Liechtenstein is handled solely by the small National Police of Liechtenstein (Landespolizei), consisting of 85 officers and 33 civilian staff which police the 160 km²doubly landlocked alpine country in Western-Central Europe.Dell PA-10 Adapter

Bordered by Switzerland to its west and by Austria to its east, the Liechtenstein Police maintain a trilateral treaty which enables close cross-border cooperation between the police forces of the three countries. Delta ADP-90FB Adapter

Liechtenstein has a significantly low crime rate, with the last murder taking place, according to a serving officer, “about ten years ago” as of 2007.[3] Liechtenstein jails hold very few, if any, inmates, with sentences over two years being transferred to Austria.Officers in the Liechtenstein police force have been armed since a shooting took place .http://www.battery-pack.co.uk/

Liechtenstein is a principality governed under a constitutional monarchy. It has a form of mixed constitution in which political power is shared by the monarch and a democratically elected parliament. There is a multi-party system and a form of representative democracy in which the prime minister and head of government is responsible to parliament.Delta ADP-90FB Adapter

However the Prince of Liechenstein is head of state and exercises considerable political powers.

The executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Diet. The party system is dominated by the conservativeProgressive Citizens' Party and the conservative Fatherland Union. Dell PA-10 Adapter

The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.

On 15 August 2002, in his National Day Address, Prince Hans-Adam II announced that after months of intensive negotiations, a compromise in the debate on constitutional reform had been reached.Dell PA-12 Adapter

On 13 September, Prime Minister Otmar Hasler confirmed to Parliament that his government was drafting a bill for Parliament based on the compromise reached between the Prince and the Citizens' Forum. The draft bill, which would increase the executive powers of the monarch, went before Parliament for a first reading in November.Asus ADP-36EH C Adapter

Once approved by Parliament, the bill was then presented to voters in a referendum, and approved by 64% of those voting in 16 March 2003.

Executive branch

The monarch is hereditary. Following legislative elections, the head of government is appointed by the prince and proposed and voted on by the parliament. Dell Inspiron 6400 Adapter

Thus the government is usually composed of the members of the majority party. It is, however, also customary that the leader of the largest minority party in the Diet is appointed the deputy head of government by the monarch. According to the constitution of Liechtenstein, Dell Inspiron 1520 Adapter

the government is a collegiate body and consists of the head of government and four governmental councilors.

Amendment to the constitution or new law have to be adopted by Parliament, signed by both the Prince and the head of government, and published in the Principality's Law Gazette.Dell Inspiron 1525 Charger

Prince Hans Adam II is the current head of state. His constitutional powers include the power to veto any legislation, to be used at his discretion, as well as the dissolution of the parliament (this may be subject to a referendum). He represents the state vis-à-vis foreign states. HP Pavilion DV6000 Adapter

He signs international treaties either in person or delegates this function to a plenipotentiary. Some treaties under international law only become valid when they have been ratified by Parliament. On the basis of the names put forward by Parliament, the Prince nominates the government, district and high court judges,Dell Latitude D820 Charger

the judges of the Supreme Court, and the presidents and their deputies of the Constitutional Court and of the Administrative Court of Appeal.The Prince's other authorities include exercising the right to mitigate and commute punishments that have been imposed with legal force and the abolition — i.e., HP Pavilion DV9000 AC Adapter

the dismissal — of investigations that have been initiated. All judgments are issued in the name of the Prince.

For other political parties see List of political parties in Liechtenstein. An overview on elections and election results is included in Elections in Liechtenstein.Sony VGP-BPS8 Battery

Liechtenstein passports are issued to nationals of Liechtenstein for the purpose of international travel. The passport may also serve as proof of Liechtensteiner citizenship.

The cover of the new Liechtenstein passport, a member of the European Economic Area, features coat of arms of Liechtenstein on blue background. Sony VGP-BPS9 Battery

Liechtenstein citizens are treated as equal with Swiss citizens in Switzerland and are permitted to take up residence in the European Union and EEA member states in addition to Liechtenstein.

Citizens of the European Economic Area (the European Union plus Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway), Sony VGP-BPS12 Battery

and Switzerland enjoy the freedom to travel and work in any European Union country without a visa, although transitory dispositions may restrict the rights of citizens of new member states to work in other countries. The same rights are also accorded to citizens of Switzerland although they remain separate from the EEA.Dell Inspiron 6400 Battery

The Government of Liechtenstein is based on the principle of collegiality; namely, of colleagues collaborating with each other. The government consists of the head of government and four Councilors. The members of the government are proposed by the Parliament and are appointed by the Prince. Dell Inspiron 1525 Battery

Only men or women born in Liechtenstein, and who are eligible to be elected to Parliament, may be elected to the government committee. The two electoral areas of the country, the highlands and the lowlands, are entitled to at least two members of the government, and their respective deputies must come from the same area.Dell XPS M1530 Battery

Legislative branch

The Prince's involvement in legislation consists in a right to take initiatives in the form of government bills and in the right to veto parliamentary proposals. The Prince has the power to enact princely decrees. Emergency princely decrees are possible when the security and welfare of the country is at stake. Dell Inspiron 6000 Battery

A countersignature by the head of government is, nevertheless, required. The Prince has the right to convene and adjourn parliament and, for serious reasons, to adjourn it for 3 months or to dissolve it.

The Diet (Landtag) has 25 members, elected for a four year term by proportional representation in two multi-seat constituencies.Dell Inspiron 9400 Battery

Until 1989, 15 members represented the population of the two constituencies (six for the lowland area and nine for the highland area). Since 1989 the lowland constituency has been entitled to have 10 members and the highland area 15. The Parliament's main task is to discuss and adopt resolutions on constitutional proposals and draft government bills.Dell latitude D600 Battery

It has the additional duties of giving its assent to important international treaties; of electing members of the government, judges, and board members of the Principality's institutions; setting the annual budget and approving taxes and other public charges; and supervising the administration of the state. Dell Inspiron 8600 Battery

The Parliament observes its rights and duties in the course of sessions of the whole Parliament and through the parliamentary commissions that it elects. All members of Parliament exercise their mandates in addition to their normal professions or occupations. Dell Latitude D610 Battery

The president of Parliament and his deputy are both elected at the opening meeting for the current year. The president convenes the individual meetings during the session, leads them, and represents Parliament externally. During the parliamentary recess — normally from January to February/March — a "state committee" assumes Parliament's duties, Dell Inspiron 1520 Battery

and such a committee must also be elected in the case of any adjournment or dissolution of Parliament. A "state committee" consists of the president of Parliament and four other members. The duties and working procedures of Parliament are laid down in the constitution and in Parliament's standing orders.Dell XPS M1710 Battery

Moreover the people of Liechtenstein have very strong direct democratic rights. At least 1000 citizens can initiate a referendum on any law. Referendums can suspend parliament or change the constitution, but at least 1500 citizens must vote affirmative,Dell XPS M1330 Battery

so referendums to suspend parliament or change the constitution fail if they have low turnout even if the required percentage of total voters is met.

Political parties and elections

The political parties are in practice politically decisive and are the moving forces with regard to the composition of the government. For the 2001-05 legislature period of office one Councilor and three deputies are women.Dell XPS M1210 Battery

From 1938 to 1997 Liechtenstein had a coalition government. Until a few years ago there were only two parties in Parliament, the Fatherland Union and the Progressive Citizens' Party. Liechtenstein's distinctive form of coalition government came to an end in April 1997. Apple A1185 Battery

The Fatherland Union took sole responsibility for the government during the 1997 to 2001 Parliament, with its members filling all the positions on the government committee. Since 2001 it has been the Progressive Citizen's Party that has provided all the members of the government. Apple Powerbook G4 Battery

The minority parties, as opposition parties, act as a check on the government in Parliament and on parliamentary commissions.

The University of Liechtenstein is one of the four centres for higher education in the Principality of Liechtenstein.Apple MacBook Pro 17 inch Battery

Overview

The University was founded in 1961 mainly for the teaching of mechanical and civil engineers which later evolved into the Liechtenstein School of Engineering.Asus EEE PC Battery

In 1992 the establishment was formally recognised as the Liechtenstein University of Applied Sciences (Fachhochschule Liechtenstein) and became the Hochschule Liechtenstein in 2005. In 2008 the institution derived the status as a university and received the right to offer doctoral programs in addition to Bachelor's and Master's programs according to the Bologna process.Compaq V6000 Battery

This included further extensions of the university and research programs with other universities.

About 1,200 students are studying at the university. Students and lecturers from more than 40 countries and about 80 partnership agreements with universities worldwide are an expression of the international setting.HP 6715B Battery

The very personal study and work environment is another characteristic.

Degree programs

Bachelor of Science (BSc): Architecture, Business Administration, Information Systems Master of Science (MSc): HP 6910P Battery

Architecture, Banking and Financial Management, Business Process Management, Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurship - Major Finance Doctor of Philosophy (PhD): Business Economics, Architecture and Planning The Master's and PhD programs are offered by the Graduate School. HP NX6325 Battery

All degrees are recognized by the Member States of the European Union, by EEA Members and Switzerland.

Research and development

Institutes and research foci of the university are:

  • Architecture and Planning: Sustainable Design, Architectural Design Theory and Sustainable Urban Design and PlanningHP NC6400 Battery
  • Entrepreneurship: Family Business, Entrepreneurial Growth, Entrepreneurial Finance, Strategy, Knowledge Management, Change Management, International Management, Technology and Innovation
  • Financial Services: Wealth Management (Banking, Finance, Tax, Law) HP NX6110 Battery
  • Information Systems: Business Process Management, Enterprise Content Management, Risk Management, E-Learning und Social Networking. The university is associated member in the European Research Center for Information Systems.HP DV6000 Battery
  • Liechtenstein Economic Research Center (KOFL): Economy and Growth, Public Finance, Macroeconomics and Financial MarketsHP DV9000 Battery

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