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Monaco , officially the Principality of Monaco (French: Principauté de Monaco; Monégasque: Principatu de Múnegu; Italian: Principato di Monaco; Occitan: Principat de Mónegue), is a city state on the Côte d'Azur (French Riviera). Dell Studio XPS 1640 Battery

It is surrounded on three sides by its neighbour, France, and its centre is about 16 km (9.9 mi) from Italy. Its area is 1.98 km2(0.76 sq mi) with a population of 33,018.

Monaco is a principality governed under a form of constitutional monarchy, with Prince Albert II as head of state. Dell Latitude D830 Battery

The House of Grimaldi has ruled Monaco since 1297, and the state's sovereignty was officially recognized by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861. Despite Monaco being independent, its national defence is the responsibility of France.

Overview

Monaco is the second smallest country (by size) in the world; only the Vatican City is smaller. Toshiba Satellite M65 battery

Monaco is also the world's second smallest monarchy, and one of the most densely populated countries in the world. The state consists of only one municipality (commune). There is no geographical distinction between the State and City of Monaco, although responsibilities of the government (state-level) and of the municipality (city-level) are different. Toshiba NB100 Battery

According to the constitution of 1911, the principality was subdivided into three municipalities:

  • Monaco (Monaco-Ville), the old city on a rocky promontory extending into the Mediterranean, known as theRock of Monaco, or simply Le Rocher (the Rock), where the palace is located;
  • Monte Carlo, the principal residential and resort area with the Monte Carlo Casino in the east and northeast;Toshiba Satellite P10 Battery
  • La Condamine, the northwest section including the port area, Port Hercule.

The municipalities were merged into one in 1917, after accusations that the government was acting according to the motto "divide and conquer," and they were accorded the status of wards (quartiers) thereafter.Sony VGP-BPS13B/B Battery

  • Fontvieille was added as fourth ward, a newly constructed area reclaimed from the sea (in the 1970s);
  • Moneghetti became the fifth ward, created from a part of La Condamine;
  • Larvotto became the sixth ward, created from a part of Monte Carlo;Sony VGN-FW11S Battery
  • La Rousse/Saint Roman (including Le Ténao) became the seventh ward, also created from a part of Monte Carlo.

Subsequently, three additional wards were created:

  • Saint Michel, from a part of Monte Carlo;Hp pavilion dv6000 battery
  • La Colle, from a part of La Condamine;
  • Les Révoires, from a part of La Condamine.

An additional ward was planned by new land reclamation, to be settled beginning in 2014; however, Prince Albert II announced in his 2009 New Year Speech that the plans had been put on hold due to the current economic climate.Sony Vaio VGN-FZ31S battery

Traditional quarters and modern geographic areas

The traditional four quarters of Monaco are: Monaco-Ville, La Condamine, Monte Carlo and Fontvieille. These quarters and Moneghetti are the five "modern geographic areas", defined by the Monaco Department of Tourism which is situated in Monaco-Ville. Sony Vaio VGN-FZ31S battery

History

Monaco's name comes from the 6th century BC nearby Phocaean Greek colony. Referred to the Ligurians as Monoikos, from the Greek "????????", "single house", from "?????" (monos) "alone, single" + "?????" (oikos) "house", which bears the sense of a people either settled in a "single habitation" or of "living apart" from others. HP NX8200 battery

According to an ancient myth, Hercules passed through the Monaco area and turned away the previous gods. As a result, a temple was constructed there, the temple of Hercules Monoikos. Because the only temple of this area was the "House" of Hercules, the city was called Monoikos.HP NX7400 battery

Following a land grant from Emperor Henry VI in 1191, Monaco was re-founded in 1215 as a colony of Genoa. Monaco has been ruled by the House of Grimaldi since 1297, when Francesco Grimaldi ("Il Malizia", translated from Italian either as "The Malicious One" or "The Cunning One")HP NW8440 battery

and his men captured the fortress protecting the Rock of Monaco while he was dressed as a Franciscan monk – a Monaco in Italian, although this is a coincidence as the area was already known by this name.

In 1793, French Revolutionary forces captured Monaco, and it remained under French control until 1814. HP NW8200 battery

The principality was re-established that year, only to be designated a protectorate of the Kingdom of Sardinia by the Congress of Vienna in 1815. Monaco remained in this position until 1860, when by the Treaty of Turin, Sardinia ceded to France the surrounding county of Nice (as well as Savoy). HP NC6400 battery

During this time there was unrest in the towns of Menton and Roquebrune, which declared independence, hoping for annexation by Sardinia. The unrest continued until the ruling prince gave up his claim to the two towns (some 95% of the country), and they were ceded to France in return for four million francs. HP NC6200 battery

This transfer and Monaco's sovereignty was recognised by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861.

20th century

Until the Monegasque Revolution of 1910 forced the adoption of the 1911 constitution, the princes of Monaco wereabsolute rulers. In July 1918, a treaty was signed providing for limited French protection over Monaco. HP NC6100 battery

The treaty, part of the Treaty of Versailles, established that Monegasque international policy would be aligned with French political, military, and economic interests.

In 1943, the Italian army invaded and occupied Monaco, setting up a Fascist administration. HP NC6000 battery

Shortly thereafter, following Mussolini's collapse in Italy, the Nazi GermanWehrmacht occupied Monaco and began the deportation of the Jewish population. The prominent French Jew René Blum (Paris, 13 March 1878 – Auschwitz, 30 April 1943), who founded the Ballet de l'Opera in Monte Carlo, was arrested in his Paris home and held in the Drancy deportation camp outside Paris, HP NC4400 battery

France whence he was then shipped to the Auschwitz concentration camp, where he was killed.

Rainier III, who ruled until 2005, acceded to the throne following the death of his grandfather, Prince Louis II, in 1949. On 19 April 1956, Prince Rainier married the American actress Grace Kelly;HP 6710B battery

the event was widely televised and covered in the popular press, focusing the world's attention on the tiny Principality.

A new constitution in 1962 abolished capital punishment, provided for women's suffrage, and established a Supreme Court of Monaco to guarantee fundamental liberties. HP 6530B battery

In 1993, the Principality of Monaco became a member of the UN, with full voting rights. In 2002, a new treaty between France and Monaco specified that, should there be no heirs to carry on the Grimaldi dynasty, the principality would still remain an independent nation rather than revert to France.HP 6510B battery

Monaco's military defence, however, is still the responsibility of France.

On 31 March 2005, Prince Rainier III, too ill to exercise his duties, relinquished them to his only son and heir, Prince Albert Alexandre Louis. Prince Rainier died on 6 April 2005, after a reign of 56 years, and his son, by Princess Grace, succeeded him as Albert II, Sovereign Prince of Monaco.HP Pavilion DV6-1020ED Battery

Following a period of official mourning, Prince Albert II formally assumed the princely crown on 12 July 2005, in a celebration that began with a solemn Mass at Saint Nicholas Cathedral, where his father had been buried three months earlier. His accession to the Monegasque throne was a two-step event, Dell Latitude E6400 battery

with a further ceremony, drawing heads of state for an elaborate levée, held on 19 November 2005 at the historic Prince's Palace in Monaco-Ville.

Law and government

Monaco has been governed under a constitutional monarchy since 1911, with the Sovereign Prince of Monaco as head of state.Apple A1281 battery

The executive branch consists of aMinister of State (the head of government), who presides over a five-member Council of Government. Until 2002, the Minister of State was a French citizen appointed by the prince from among candidates proposed by the French government; since a constitutional amendment in 2002, the Minister of State can be French or Monegasque. Apple A1280 battery

However, Prince Albert II appointed, on 3 March 2010, the Frenchman Michel Roger as Minister of State.

Under the 1962 constitution, the prince shares his power with the unicameral National Council (parliament). The twenty-four members of this legislative body are elected from lists by universal suffrage for five-year terms. Dell LATITUDE D800 battery

The principality's local affairs are directed by the Communal Council, which consists of fifteen elected members and is presided over by the mayor.

Economy

One of Monaco's main sources of income is tourism; each year many are attracted to its casino and pleasant climate. Monaco's own citizens are not allowed to gamble in the casino.Dell Inspiron 6400 AC Adapter

In 2001, a major new construction project extended the pier used by cruise ships in the main harbour. The principality has successfully sought to diversify into services and small, high-value-added, non-polluting industries, such as cosmetics and biothermics.Sony Vaio VGN-CR190E/L Battery

The state retains monopolies in numerous sectors, including tobacco and the postal service. The telephone network (Monaco Telecom) used to be fully owned by the state; it now owns only 45%, while the remaining 55% is owned by both Cable & Wireless (49%) and Compagnie Monégasque de Banque (6%). It is still, however, a monopoly.HP 448007-001 battery

Living standards are high, roughly comparable to those in prosperous French metropolitan areas.

Monaco is not a member of the European Union. However, it is very closely linked via a customs union with France, and as such, its currency is the same as that of France, the euro. Sony VGP-BPS11 battery

Before 2002, Monaco minted its own coins, the Monegasque franc. Monaco has acquired the right to mint euro coins withMonegasque designs on its national side.

Gambling Industry

Casino gambling was initially legalized during the reign of Florestan I in 1846. HP Pavilion DV6-1223EO Battery

At the time, the monarch hoped the newly legal industry would help alleviate the crushing debt the royal family had incurred due in part to economic interference from Sardinia--which had received Monaco as a protectorate under the Treaty of Vienna (1815) and was attempting to destabilize the principality in order to annex it.Compaq CQ35-100 battery

Monaco's first casino would not receive a royal concession to operate, however, until after Charles III assumed the throne in 1856.

The grantee of this first royal concession was unable to attract enough business to sustain the operation and, after relocating the casino several times, sold the royal concession to French casino magnates François and Louis Blanc for 1.7 million francs. HP DV9700 battery

The Blancs had already set up a highly successful casino in Homborg and quickly petitioned Charles III to rename a depressed seaside area known as "Les Spelegures," or "Den of Thieves," "Monte Carlo," or "Mount Charles." They then constructed their casino in the newly dubbed "Monte Carlo" and cleared out the area's less-than-savory elements to make the neighborhood surrounding the establishment more conducive to tourism.Sony VGP-BPS13 battery

The Blancs opened Le Grand Casino de Monte Carlo in 1858, and the casino benefited from the tourist traffic the newly built French railway system created. Due to the combination of the casino and the railroads, Monaco finally recovered from the previous half century of economic slump, and the principality's success attracted other businesses. HP Pavilion DV8 battery

In the years following the casino's opening Monaco founded its Oceanographic Museum and the Monte Carlo Opera House, 46 hotels sprang up and the number of jewellers operating in Monaco increased by nearly 500 percent.

Today, Le Grand Casino still operates in the original building the Blancs constructed and has been joined by several other casinos,Compaq CQ50 battery

including Le Casino Café de Paris, the Monte Carlo Bay Casino, theMonte Carlo Sporting Club & Casino (Summer Casino) and the Sun Casino. The most recent addition to the list—the first casino to open in Monte Carlo in 75 years—is the Monte Carlo Bay Casino, which sits on 4 hectares of the Mediterranean Garden and, among other things, HP Pavilion DV7 battery

offers 145 slot machines, all equipped with "Ticket in/ Ticket out" (TITO); it is the first Mediterranean casino to utilize this technology.

Tax haven

Monaco levies no income tax on individuals. Ibm THINKPAD X200 Battery

The absence of a personal income tax in the principality has attracted to it a considerable number of wealthy "tax refugee" residents from European countries who derive the majority of their income from activity outside Monaco; celebrities such as Formula One drivers attract most of the attention, but the vast majority of them are less well-known business people.Ibm THINKPAD X200 Battery

This applies to all residents of Monaco of any nationality except French citizens whose residency started after 1957. These French citizens still must pay French income tax.

In 1998, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) issued a first report on the consequences of the tax havens' financial systems.Ibm THINKPAD X200 Battery

Monaco did not appear in the list of these territories until 2004, when OECD became indignant regarding the Monegasque situation and denounced it in its last report, as well as Andorra, Liechtenstein, Liberia and the Marshall Islands, underlining its lack of co-operation as regards financial information disclosure and availability.SONY VAIO VGN-FW21E Battery

In 2000, a report by the French parliamentarians, Arnaud Montebourg and Vincent Peillon, alleged that Monaco had lax policies with respect to money laundering, including within its famed casino, and that the government of Monaco had been placing political pressure on the judiciary, so that alleged crimes were not being properly investigated.Asus M52N Battery

In 2000, the Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering (FATF) stated: "The anti-money laundering system in Monaco is comprehensive. However, difficulties have been encountered with Monaco by countries in international investigations on serious crimes that appear to be linked also with tax matters. Dell Latitude E6400 ATG Battery

In addition, the FIU of Monaco (SICCFIN) suffers a great lack of adequate resources. The authorities of Monaco have stated that they will provide additional resources to SICCFIN." The Principality is no longer blamed in the 2005 FATF report, as well as all other territories.SONY VAIO VGN-FW21L Battery

However, since 2003, theInternational Monetary Fund (IMF) has identified Monaco, along with 36 other territories, as a tax haven.

The Council of Europe also decided to issue reports naming tax havens. Twenty-two territories, including Monaco, were thus evaluated between 1998 and 2000 on a first round.SONY VAIO VGN-FW21M Battery

Monaco is the only territory that refuses to perform the second round, initially forecast between 2001 and 2003, whereas the 21 other territories are implementing the third and last round, planned between 2005 and 2007.

However, Monaco has high social insurance taxes payable by both employer and employee. SONY VAIO VGN-FW21Z Battery

The employer's contribution is between 28%–40% (averaging 35%) of gross salary including benefits and the employee pays a further 10%–14% (averaging 13%).Social insurance contributions, amounting to nearly 50% of salary, are a major disincentive to the hiring of staff and in many ways detract substantially from the advantageous income tax regime which exists in Monaco.SONY VAIO VGN-FW33GW Battery

Numismatics

In Monaco, the euro was introduced in 2002. In preparation for this date, the minting of the new euro coins started as early as 2001. This is why the first euro coins from Monaco have the year 2001 on them, instead of 2002, like other countries of the Eurozone.Dell XPS M1210 Battery

Three different designs were selected for the Monegasque coins. In 2006, the design was changed after the death of ruling Prince Rainier to have the effigy of Prince Albert.

Monaco also has a rich and valuable collection of collectors' coins, with face value ranging from €5 to €100.Dell KM958 battery

These coins are a legacy of an old national practice of minting silver and gold commemorative coins. Unlike normal issues, these coins are not legal tender in all the Eurozone. For instance, a Monegasque commemorative coin cannot be used in any other country. The same practice concerning commemorative coins is exercised with all eurozone countries.Dell Studio 1555 battery

Commemorative coins are legal tender only in their country of issue, unlike normal circulation coins, which are accepted in all euro-zone countries.

Geography

With a total area of 2.02 square kilometres (0.78 sq mi), a land border of 5.469 kilometres (3.4 mi) and a coast measuring 3.829 kilometres (2.4 mi) the Principalityof Monaco is the second-smallest independent state in the world, after the Vatican City.Sony VGP-BPS13 battery

It lies on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, 18 kilometres (11 mi) east ofNice, France, and is surrounded on three sides by France and on the fourth by the sea into which its maritime claims extend to 22.2 kilometres (13.8 mi). Its highest point is 163 metres (535 ft) above sea level, on the southern slopes of Mont Agel whose 1,109 m (3,638 ft) peak is in France. Sony VGP-BPS13/S battery

The country has no natural resources.

Climate

Monaco has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification: Csa), which is influenced by the oceanic climate and the humid subtropical climate.Sony VGP-BPS13A/B battery

As a result, it has warm, dry summers and mild, rainy winters. Cool and rainy interludes can interrupt the dry summer season, the average length of which is also shorter. Summer afternoons are infrequently hot (indeed, temperatures > 30 °C /86 °F are rare) as the atmosphere is temperate by constant sea breezes. Sony VGP-BPS13B/B battery

On the other hand, the nights are very mild, this being due to the fairly high temperature of the sea in summer. Generally, temperatures do not drop below 20 °C in this season. In winter, frosts and snowfalls are extremely rare, generally occurring once or twice every ten years.Sony VGP-BPL9 battery

Formula One

Since 1955, the Monaco Grand Prix has been held annually in the streets of Monaco. It is widely considered to be one of the most prestigious automobile races in the world. The erection of the Circuit de Monaco takes six weeks to complete, and the removal after the race another three weeks.Sony VGP-BPS13B/B battery

The circuit has many elevation changes and tight corners, along with a tunnel. This together with being incredibly narrow and tight makes it perhaps the most demandingFormula One track. Only two drivers have ever crashed into the harbour, the most famous being Alberto Ascari in the 1955 Monaco Grand Prix, just four days before losing his life at Monza. Sony VGP-BPL15 battery

The other was Paul Hawkins, during the 1965 Monaco Grand Prix.

Monte Carlo Rally

The Monte Carlo Rally has been held since 1911, having originally been held at the behest of Prince Albert I and is, like the principality's Grand Prix, organised by the Automobile Club de Monaco.HP Pavilion dv6000 Battery

It has long been considered to be one of the toughest and most prestigious events in rallying and from 1973 to 2008 was the opening round of the World Rally Championship. Since 2009, the rally has served as the opening round of the Intercontinental Rally Challenge, having most recently been run on the 19th-22 January 2011 in celebration of the event's centenary.HP Pavilion dv8000 battery

Football

Monaco hosts two major football teams in the principality; men's football club AS Monaco FC and women's football club OS Monaco. AS Monaco plays at the Stade Louis II and competes in the Ligue 1, the top division of French football. The club is historically one of the most successful clubs in France.HP PAVILION DV6000 Battery

Because of the popular appeal of living in Monaco and the lack of income tax, many international stars have played for the club, such as Marcelo Gallardo, Jürgen Klinsmann, Oliver Bierhoff, George Weah, John Collins, Fernando Morientes, Thierry Henry, Fabien Barthez, Rafael Márquez, Javier Saviola, David Trezeguet, HP PAVILION DV8000 Battery

John Arne Riise, Patrice Evra, Shabani Nonda, Emmanuel Adebayor, Eiður Smári Guðjohnsen, Jan Koller, Victor Ikpeba, Park Chu-Young and Mahamadou Diarra.

The club reached the 2004 UEFA Champions League Final, led by the likes of Dado Pršo, Fernando Morientes, Akis Zikos, and Ludovic Giuly, losing 3–0 to Portuguese team F.C. Porto. SONY VAIO VGN-FZ Battery

The Stade Louis II also plays host to the annual UEFA Super Cup, which is played between the winners of the UEFA Champions League and the UEFA Europa League. The women's team, OS Monaco, competes in the women's French football league system. HP Pavilion DV6000 battery

The club currently plays in the local regional league deep down in the league system, however once played in the Division 1 Féminine in the 1994–95 season, but were quickly relegated. Current French women's international goalkeeper Sarah Bouhaddi had a short stint at the club before going to the Clairefontaine academy.HP Pavilion DV8000 battery

Rugby

Monaco's national rugby team, as of March 2010, is 91st in the International Rugby Board rankings.

Other sports

The Monte Carlo Masters is currently held annually in neighbouring Roquebrune-Cap-Martin, France, as a professional tournament for men as part of tennis'ATP Masters Series. HP Pavilion DV6000 battery

The tournament has been held since 1897. Golf's Monte Carlo Open was also held at the Monte Carlo Golf Club at Mont Agel in France between 1984 and 1992. Monaco has also competed in the Olympic Games, although, as of 2008, no athlete from Monaco has ever won an Olympic medal.HP Pavilion DV8000 battery

In 2009, the Tour de France, the world's premier bicycle race, started from Monaco with a 15 km closed-circuit individual time trial starting and finishing there on the first day (4 July) and the 182 km second leg starting there on the following day and ending in Brignoles, France.SONY VAIO VGN-FZ18 Battery

Monaco also stage part of the Global Champions Tour (International Show-jumping). Acknowledged as the most glamorous of the series, Monaco will be hosting the world's most celebrated riders, including Monaco's own Charlotte Casiraghi, in a setting facing out over the world's most beautiful yachts, and framed by the Port Hercule and Prince's palace. SONY VAIO VGN-FZ21E Battery

In 2009, the Monaco stage of the Global Champions tour took place between 25 June – 27 June.

The Monaco Marathon is the only marathon in the world to pass through three separate countries, those of Monaco, France and Italy. The 2010 event took place on 21 March. SONY VAIO VGN-FW31J Battery

Runners complete the race by returning to the Stade Louis II.Grand Prix is an annual international sports car race through Monte Carlo's elegant streets.

The Monaco Ironman 70.3 triathlon race is an annual event with over 1000 athletes competing and attracts top professional athletes from around the world. The race includes a 1.9 km swim, 90 km bike ride and 21.1 km run.SONY VAIO VGN-FW31J Battery

Primary and secondary schools

Monaco has ten state-operated schools, including: seven nursery and primary schools; one secondary school, Collège Charles III;one lycée that provides general and technological training, Lycée Albert 1er; and one lycée that provides vocational and hotel training, Lycée technique et hôtelier de Monte-Carlo. SONY VAIO VGN-FW21E Battery

There are also two grant-aided denominational private schools, including Institution François d'Assise Nicolas Barré and Ecole des Sœurs Dominicaines, and one international school, the International School of Monaco.

Colleges and universities

There is one university located in Monaco:SONY VAIO VGN-NR11S/S Battery

  • International University of Monaco

Demographics

Monaco's population is unusual in that the native Monegasques are a minority in their own country. The largest proportion of residents are French nationals (28%), followed by Monegasque (21.6%), Italians (19%), Anglos (7.5% UK & 1% USA), and Germans, Swiss, and Belgians (2.5% to 3% each);SONY VAIO VGN-NR11M/S Battery

another 15% is labeled as "other" populations.A Monacoian is the term used to describe a person living in Monaco who is not a citizen of Monaco.

Language

The official language of Monaco is French. The traditional national language is Monégasque, now spoken by only a minority of residents. SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Battery

It resemblesLigurian, which is spoken in Genoa. In the old part of Monaco, street signs are printed in both French and Monégasque. Italian is also spoken by the principality's sizeable community from Italy. English is used by British and American residents.Sony VAIO VGN-FW21E Battery

Roman Catholic

The official religion is Roman Catholicism, with freedom of other religions guaranteed by the constitution. There are five Roman Catholic parish churches in Monaco and one cathedral, which is the seat of the archbishop of Monaco. The diocese, which has existed since the mid-nineteenth century, was raised to an archbishopric in 1981 as the Archdiocese of Monaco.Sony VAIO VGN-NR11S/S Battery

Anglican

There is one Anglican church (St. Paul's Church), located in the Avenue de Grande Bretagne in Monte Carlo. In 2007 this had a formal membership of 135 Anglicans resident in the principality, but was also serving a considerably larger number of Anglicans temporarily in the country, mostly as tourists. Sony VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Battery

The church site also accommodates an English-language library of over 3,000 books.The church is part of the Anglican Diocese of Gibraltar in Europe.

Jewish

The Association Culturelle Israélite de Monaco (founded 1948) is a converted house containing a synagogue, a community Hebrew school, and a kosher food shop, located in Monte Carlo.Sony VAIO VGN-NR11M/S Battery

The community (approximately 1,500) mainly consists of retired Jews from Britain (40%) and North Africa. One third of the Jewish population there is Ashkenazi, while the other two thirds are Sephardic.

Security

The wider defence of the nation is provided by France.Sony VAIO VGN-NR11Z/T Battery

Monaco has no navy or air force, but on both a per-capita and per-area basis, Monaco has the largest police force (515 police officers for 35,000 people) and police presence in the world. Its police includes a specialist unit which operates patrol and surveillance boats. SONY VAIO VGN-FZ180E Battery

There is also a small military consisting of a bodyguard unit for the Prince and his palace called the Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince which numbers 113 officers and men and is equipped with modern weapons such as M16 rifles and 9 mm pistols, and a militarized (and armed) fire and civil defence Corps.SONY VAIO VGN-FZ220E Battery

The Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince (Prince's Company of Carabiniers) is a military unit of the military force of Monaco. It was created by Prince Honoré IV in 1817 for the protection of the Principality and the Princely family. The company numbers exactly 116 officers and men; while the NCOs and soldiers are local, the officers have generally served in the French Army. SONY VAIO VGN-FZ340E Battery

Together with the local fire service (Sapeurs-Pompiers), the Carabiniers form Monaco's total public forces. In addition to their guard duties, the company patrols the Principality's beaches and coastal waters, as well as duties around the Palace inMonaco-Ville.SONY VAIO VGN-FZ460E Battery

Monaco has one of the world's smallest national Scouting and Guiding organizations, the Association des Guides et Scouts de Monaco (AGSM). The association has about 84 members (61 Scouts (as of 2010) , 23 Guides (as of 2003)). Its headquarters is located in the presbytery of the Sacred Heart parish church in Moneghetti.SONY VAIO VGN-FZ480E Battery

The Monegasque Scout organization was under the patronage of French Scouting since 1918, and became an independent member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 1990. The first Guide company in Monaco formed in 1929, and Guiding developed under the Guides de France.SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31E Battery

In 1953 work began on forming an independent Guide association which was achieved in 1956, and became a member of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts in 1963. In 1992 the Scout association and the Guide association merged and formed the AGSM.

There is a Sea Scout division which conducts many activities on the Mediterranean Sea.SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31B Battery

The Scouts of Monaco have historically cooperated with the World Scout Bureau, although they were not members until 1990.

The Principality of Monaco is a sovereign and independent state, linked closely to France by the Treaty of July 1918, which was formally noted in Article 436 of the Treaty of Versailles of 1919. SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31J Battery

The foreign policy of Monaco is one illustration of this accord: France has agreed to defend the independence and sovereignty of Monaco, while the Monegasque Government has agreed to exercise its sovereign rights in conformity with French interests. Since then, the relations between the sovereign states of France and Monaco have been further defined in the Treaty of 1945 and the Agreement of 1963.SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31M Battery

Although not a member of the European Union (EU), Monaco is closely associated with the economic apparatus of the EU through its customs union with France and its reliance upon the euro as its official currency.

Monaco actively participates in the United Nations, which it joined in 1993. SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31Z Battery

Monaco joined the Council of Europe on October 4, 2004. Monaco also is a member of many international and intergovernmental organizations, including Interpol, the UNESCO, and the World Health Organization (WHO). The International Hydrographic Bureau (IHB) is headquartered in Monaco.SONY VAIO VGN-FZ38M Battery

Monaco has 10 diplomatic missions in Western Europe and permanent representation at the United Nations and the Council of Europe. It maintains honorary consulates in 106 cities in 45 countries. Seventy-six countries have consulates general, consulates, or honorary consulates in or accredited to Monaco.SONY VGP-BPS8 Battery

France-Monaco relations refers to international relations between Monaco and France. The two share a special relationship.

History

Only in 1489 did Monaco gain control of its own sovereignty from French control after Lambert Grimaldi convinced the French king Charles VIII to grant it independence. SONY VGP-BPS13/S Battery

King Louis XII recognised Monaco in 1512 with the signing of a document that also declared a perpetual alliance with the king of France. Following rule by Spain, in the early 1600s Monaco prospered again under Honoré II who strengthened ties with France, a relationship that lasted in this capacity for the next two hundred years. SONY VGP-BPS13A/B Battery

In the Treaty of 2 February (1861) Prince Charles III ceded Monegasque sovereignty over the towns of Menton and Roquebrune in exchange for full independence from France. Following World War I, a treaty signed in 27 July 1919, as well as Article 436 of the Treaty of Versailles, put Monaco under limited French protection once again and affirmed the special relationship.SONY VGP-BPS13B/B Battery

This relations continues to the present day with the French government taking responsibility for Monaco's presence, though the latter has only a small police force. A mutual legal agreement and a common regime was also set between the two countries; they also signed the Treaty of 1945 and the Agreement of 1963 on furthering their relationship. SONY VGP-BPS13A/S Battery

In 2002, the laws deriving from the Treaty of Versailles that governed relations between Monaco and France were renegotiated. It was finally ratified in 2005 with new terms that: upgraded France's representation from a consulate to that of an embassy; permitted other countries to accredit ambassadors to Monaco;SONY VGP-BPS13AS Battery

and, formally recognised Monaco's ruling Grimaldi dynasty's succession scheme that was initially set out in the 1962 constitution, and which also extended eligibility to the ruling prince's daughters and other family members.

Economic ties

The European External Action Service has worked with Monaco in its initiatives through the relationship with France. Dell Inspiron 1320n Battery

Monaco has thus been integrated into the Schengen zone. The EU Council of Ministers authorised France to negotiate a Monetary Agreement that allows Monaco to inter alia use the euro as its official currency, grant legal status to the euro and to issue a limited quantity of euro coins with its own national sides. SONY VGP-BPS13AS Battery

It also signed an agreement with Monaco in regards to the application of EEAS legislation on pharmaceuticals, cosmetic products and medical devices that was enacted on 1 May 2004. However, goods produced in Monaco would not assimilated into products of EEAS' origin. An agreement on savings taxation was brought into force on 1 July 2005. Dell Inspiron 1320n Battery

Monaco is fully integrated into a customs union with France, which also enables participation in the EU market system. The latter collects and rebates trade duties with Monaco. The euro was adopted as the official currency on January 1, 2002.

Monegasque politics

In 1962, Monaco's refusal to impose a tax on both its residents and international businesses caused problem in relations. Dell Studio 1450 Battery

However, it was resolved with an agreement that French citizens with less than five years of residence in Monaco and companies doing more than 25 percent of their business outside the country would be taxed at French rates. The crisis also led a new constitution and the restoration of the National Council. Dell Studio 1457 Battery

Amongst the edicts of the new constitution are the prince's nomination of a Council of Government that consists of a Minister of State who is a French citizen and selected for a three-year term from a group of senior French civil servants selected by the French government.Dell Latitude D610 Battery

He is the prince's representative and is in charge of foreign relations, directs executive services, the police and the Council of Government. He also chooses three council members: one to take care of the economy and finances; one for Home Affairs; and, one for social affairs. All ministers are accountable to Monaco's prince. Dell Studio 1457 Battery

Monaco’s legal system is also modeled on the Napoleonic Code and similar to that of France.

Monaco has also agreed to exercise its sovereign rights in conformity with French interests.

Cultural relations

The two countries share French as their official language, although the Monégasque dialect is derived from both French and Italian, though it is a variety of Ligurian.Toshiba Satellite M60 battery

Monaco's ethnic ties also comprise of French (and Italian) nationals comprising more than half the country's population. French cuisine is also prevalent in Monaco.

Approximately two-thirds of Monaco's 30,000 jobs are filled by workers from neighbouring French (and Italian) towns.Dell Latitude D830 Battery

Consular relations

France, along with Italy, is the only country to have a permanent embassy in Monaco. Monaco also has an embassy in France (one of eight embassies it has around Europe and the US).Dell Latitude D620 Battery

The Monte-Carlo Philharmonic Orchestra (French: Orchestre Philharmonique de Monte-Carlo) is the main orchestra in the principality of Monaco. The orchestra gives concerts primarily in the Auditorium Rainier III, but also performs at the Salle des Princes Grimaldi Forum.Dell Inspiron Mini 10 Battery

The orchestra was founded in 1856 and gave its first concert on 14 December 1856, with an ensemble of 15 musicians, at the "Maison de jeux" (the future casino). By 1874, the orchestra had increased in size to 70 musicians. In 1953, Prince Rainier III had ordered the renaming of the ensemble to L'Orchestre National de l'Opéra de Monte-Carlo. Sony VGN-FW11S Battery

It acquired its current name in 1980, again through Rainier III.

The orchestra's most recent principal conductor was Yakov Kreizberg, who was named to the post in October 2007, effective with the 2009-2010 season, for an initial contract of 5 years. He held the post until his death in March 2011.Sony VGN-FW11M Battery

Monaco is a city and independent state located in the south of France, along the Mediterranean coast. The country has long been under the control of the Grimaldi family, who have encouraged musical development. Prince Rainier III introduced the Prince Rainier III Prize for Musical Composition to reward Monegasque musicians.Sony VGN-FW139E/H battery

The Monte Carlo Philharmonic Orchestra was founded in 1863 and gained a permanent home at Garnier Palace in 1879. The Orchestra is quite prominent in the classical world, and has been conducted by Igor Markevitch, Lovro von Mata?i?, Paul Paray, Lawrence Foster, Gianluigi Gelmetti and Louis Frémaux.Dell Latitude E5400 Battery

The Little Singers of Monaco are a children's choir founded in 1973, when the Palatine Chapel's Chapel Master, Philippe Debat, was ordered by the government to send a choir of only children around the world. This practice carries on a tradition from the reign of Prince Antoine I, during whose rule a choir of children sang the liturgies in the Palatine Chapel.Dell Latitude E4200 Battery

The famous Franco-Monegasque singer Léo Ferré was born in Monaco.

The Oceanographic Museum (Musée Océanographique) is a museum of marine sciences in Monaco-Ville, Monaco.Dell Inspiron 300M Battery

History

The Oceanographic Museum was inaugurated in 1910 by Monaco's modernist reformer, Prince Albert I. This monumental architectural work of art has an impressive façade above the sea, towering over the sheer cliff face to a height of 279 feet (85.04 m). It took 11 years to build, using 100,000 tons of stone from La Turbie. Dell Studio 1737 battery

Overview

The museum is home to exhibitions and collections of various species of sea fauna (starfish, seahorses, turtles, jellyfish, crabs, lobsters, rays, sharks, sea urchins, sea cucumbers, eels, cuttlefish etc.) both stuffed and in skeletal form. The museum's holdings also include a great variety of sea related objects, including model ships, sea animal skeletons, tools, weapons, etc.Dell Inspiron E1505 battery

An aquarium located in the basement of the museum showcases a wide array of flora and fauna. Four thousand species of fish and over 200 families of invertebrates can be seen. The aquarium also features a presentation of Mediterranean and tropical marine ecosystems.Dell RM791 battery

Jacques-Yves Cousteau was its director for many years, beginning in 1957. The Museum celebrated its 100th birthday in March 2010, after extensive renovations.

Controversy

In 1989, French marine biologist Alexandre Meinesz discovered a patch of a giant, tropical seaweed Caulerpa taxifolia directly under the walls of the museum.Acer Aspire One battery 10400mAh

Several documentaries point to this patch as the origin

of one of the largest seaweed contaminations of the Mediterranean Sea in recent history. The role of the museum and its director (Francois Doumenge) when the discovery was made public is still heavily debated.Dell Precision M70 Battery

The postal history of Monaco can be traced to the principality’s first postmark in 1704. Stampless covers are known with both manuscript and handstamp postmarks for Monaco and Fort d'Hercule (1793-1814 French occupation); as the principality was once much larger, postmarks of the communes of Menton and Roquebrune prior to their 1848 secession might also be included. SONY VGN -FZ210CE Battery

Monaco used Sardinian stamps from 1851 until 1860, when by the Treaty of Turin, Sardinia ceded to France the surrounding county of Nice and relinquished its protectorate over Monaco; French stamps with Monaco or Monte-Carlo postmarks were used thereafter. Two forms of cancellation are known for the French period. Toshiba Satellite L305 Battery

With the first, the postmark is on the cover away from the stamps; an obliterator with an identifying post office number 4222, or later 2387, inside a diamond of ink dots cancelled the actual stamps. The second applied the postmark directly on the stamps, as both a date stamp and cancel. Toshiba Satellite T4900 Battery

All of these postal forerunners, particularly usages of Sardinian stamps with Monaco cancels, are far more valuable than the same stamps postally used in the issuing countries.

The first Monegasque postage stamps were issued on July 1, 1885, and featured the image of Prince Charles III of Monaco.Toshiba PA3399U-2BRS battery

In 1937, the principality responded to a growing interest from philatelists by creating a Stamp Issuing Office.The 1949 accession of Prince Rainier III led to increased importance for the principality’s philatelic issues. During his reign, the prince was personally involved in all aspects of the design and format of the principality’s philatelic issues, Sony VGP-BPS10 battery

and he was quoted as stating that stamps were “the best ambassador of a country.” The prince was a noted philatelist and his collection was the basis of Monaco’s Museum of Stamps and Coins.

Monaco joined the Universal Postal Union in 1955 and PostEurop in 1993 . Sony VGP-BPS9 battery

Monaco’s postage stamps, which are tied to French postal rate, continue to be popular among collectors and are considered to be a source of revenue for the principality.

The Prince's Palace of Monaco is the official residence of the Prince of Monaco. Built in 1191 as a Genoese fortress, during its long and often dramatic history it has been bombarded and besieged by many foreign powers.Sony VGP-BPS11 battery

Since the end of the 13th century, it has been the stronghold and home of the Grimaldi family who first captured it in 1297. The Grimaldi ruled the area first as feudal lords, and from the 17th century as sovereign princes, but their power was often derived from fragile agreements with their larger and stronger neighbours.Sony VGP-BPS22 battery

Thus while other European sovereigns were building luxurious, modern Renaissance and Baroque palaces, politics and common sense demanded that the palace of the Monaco rulers be fortified. This unique requirement, at such a late stage in history, has made the palace at Monaco one of the most unusual in Europe. Sony VGP-BPL8 battery

Ironically, when its fortifications were finally relaxed during the late 18th century, it was seized by the French and stripped of its treasures, and fell into decline, while the Grimaldi were exiled for over 20 years.

The Grimaldi's occupation of their palace is also unusual because, unlike other European ruling families,Sony VGP-BPS14 battery

the absence of alternative palaces and land shortages have resulted in their use of the same residence for more than seven centuries. Thus, their fortunes and politics are directly reflected in the evolution of the palace. Whereas the Romanovs, Bourbons, and Habsburgs could, and frequently did, build completely new palaces, Sony VGP-BPS21 battery

the most the Grimaldi could achieve when enjoying good fortune, or desirous of change, was to build a new tower or wing, or, as they did more frequently, rebuild an existing part of the palace. Thus, the Prince's Palace reflects the history not only of Monaco, but of the family which in 1997 celebrated 700 years of rule from the same palace.Toshiba Satellite A200 Battery

During the 19th and early 20th centuries, the palace and its owners became symbols of the slightly risqué glamour and decadence that were associated with Monte Carlo and the French Riviera. Glamour and theatricality became reality when the American film star Grace Kelly became chatelaine to the palace in 1956. Toshiba Satellite M300 Battery

In the 21st century, the palace remains the residence of the current Prince of Monaco.

Princely Palace

The palace is a blend of architectural styles; its ancient origins are indicated by a lack of symmetry. Thus to evaluate the architecture, wings and blocks have to be observed separately.Toshiba Satellite 1200 Battery

The principal façade appears as a terrace of Renaissance stylepalazzi from differing periods of the Renaissance era (Illustrations 1 and 12) which—even though they form only one palace—is exactly what they are. These wings are however united by their common rusticated ground floor. SONY VGP-BPS13A/Q Battery

This Renaissance architecture seems to mask earlier fortifications, the towers of which rise behind the differing classical façades. These towers—many complete with crenellations and machicolations—were actually mostly rebuilt during the 19th century. At the rear of the palace the original medieval fortifications seem untouched by time. SONY VGP-BPS13A/Q Battery

(Illustration 4). A greater architectural harmony has been achieved within the court of honour around which the palace is built, where two tiers of frescoed open arcades serve as both a ceremonial balcony for the prince's appearances and a state entrance and corridor linking the formal state rooms of the palace.SONY VGP-BPS13/Q Battery

The most notable of the many rooms are the state apartments. These were laid out from the 16th century onwards, and were enhanced in the style of those at Versailles during the 18th century. In the 19th century and again during the late 20th century, large scale restoration of the state rooms consolidated the 18th century style which prevails today.SONY VGP-BPS13/Q Battery

Designed as an enfilade and a ceremonial route to the throne room, the processional route begins with an external horseshoe-shaped staircase which leads from the court of honour to the open gallery known as the Gallery of Hercules. From here guests enter the Mirror Gallery, a long hall inspired by the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles.SONY VGP-BPS21A/B Battery

This gallery leads to the first of the state rooms, the Officer's Room, where guests are greeted by court officials before an audience with the prince in the Throne Room. From the Officer's Hall the enfilade continues to the Blue Room. This large drawing room, decorated with blue brocade, is hung with Grimaldi family portraits and has chandeliers of Murano glass. SONY VGP-BPS21/S Battery

The following room, the largest of the state apartments, is the Throne Room. Its ceiling and frescoes were executed by Orazio de Ferrari and depict the surrender of Alexander the Great. The throne, in the Empire style, is positioned on a dais, beneath a red silk canopy of estate surmounted by a gilt crown.SONY VGP-BPS21B Battery

The floors are of Carrara marble. All state ceremonies have been held in this room since the 16th century.

Other rooms in the state suite include the Red Room, so called because its walls are covered in red brocade, a large drawing room containing paintings by Jan Brueghel  and Charles Le Brun. SONY VGP-BPS21A Battery

Like much of the palace the room contains ornate 18th-century French-style furniture. From the Red Room leads the York Room. Furnished as a state bedchamber, this room is frescoed with illustrations of the four seasons by Gregorio de Ferrari. The following room, known as the Yellow Room (or sometimes as the Louis XV Bedchamber), is another state bedroom.SONY VGP-BPS21 Battery

The most remarkable room in the suite is the Mazarin Room. This drawing room is lined with Italian gilded and paintedpolychrome boiseries by craftsmen brought to France by Cardinal Mazarin, who was related by marriage to the Grimaldi. Cardinal Mazarin's portrait hangs above the fireplace.Sony VGP-BPS21A/B Battery

While the overriding atmosphere of the interior and exterior of the palace is of the 18th century, the palace itself is not. Much of its appearance is a result of a long evolution dating from the 12th century, overshadowed by heavy restoration and refurnishing during the 19th and 20th centuries.Sony VGP-BPS21/S Battery

Grimaldi fortress

Monaco's history predates the Roman occupation of AD 122. Its large natural harbour ensured a steady stream of visitors fromByblos, Tyre, and Sidon. Later the Phoenicians came to trade silk, oil, and spices with the natives. It was the Phoenicians who introduced to this area of the Mediterranean their god Melkart, later known by the Romans as Hercules Monoikos. Sony VGP-BPS21A Battery

It was after this god that the Romans renamed the area Portus Hercules Moneici, which has evolved to the present name of Monaco. The seat of the Prince of Monaco was established on the Rocher de Monaco (Illustration 5) as a fortress in 1191 when the harbour, that is today lined by Monte Carlo, was acquired by the Republic of Genoa. Sony VGP-BPS21 Battery

The harbour and its immediate area were given to the Genoese by the Emperor Henry IV with the proviso that the Genoese protect the coastline from piracy. Further territory was ceded to the new owners by the Council of Peille and the Abbaye de Saint Pons. In 1215 work began on a new fortress, comprising four towers connected by ramparts protected by a curtain wall. SONY VAIO VGN-FW31J Battery

This forms the core of the present palace.

Genoa was important in the politics of 12th century Europe. The Genoese were a nation of merchants, and such was their wealth that they frequently fulfilled a role as bankers to the other nation states. However, the Genoese became divided following the rift caused when the Emperor Frederick II challenged the power of Pope Innocent IV. SONY VAIO VGN-FW31E Battery

Two distinct camps formed: the Guelphs who supported the pope and the Ghibellines who were loyal to the imperial crown. Siding with the Guelphs were one of the patrician families of Genoa—the Grimaldi. Throughout the 13th century these two groups fought.SONY VAIO VGN-FW31B Battery

Finally at the end of the century the Ghibellines were victorious and banished their opponents, including the Grimaldi, from Genoa. The Grimaldi settled in the area today known as the French Riviera. Several castles in the area are still known as Chateau Grimaldi, and testify to the strong presence of various branches of the family in the vicinity.SONY VAIO VGN-FW31M Battery

Legend relates that in January 1297 François Grimaldi, disguised as a monk, sought shelter at the castle. On obtaining entry he murdered the guard, whereupon his men appeared and captured the castle.Thus the fortress became the stronghold of the Grimaldi.SONY VAIO VGN-FW31Z Battery

This event is commemorated by a statue of François Grimaldi in the precincts of the palace (Illustration 6) and in the arms of the House of Grimaldi where François is depicted wielding a sword while in the garb of a monk (Illustration 2).

Charles I, who ruled from 1331 to 1357, and was the son of François Grimaldi's cousin Rainier I, significantly enlarged the fortress by adding two large buildings: Dell Inspiron 6400 AC Adapter

one against the eastern ramparts and the second looking out over the sea. This changed the appearance of the fortress, making it appear more of a fortified house than a fortress. The fortifications remained very necessary, for during the next three decades the fortress was alternately lost and regained by the Grimaldi to the Genoese. Dell LATITUDE D800 battery

In 1341 the Grimaldi took Menton and then Roquebrune, thus consolidating their power and strength in the area. Subsequently they strengthened not only the defences of the harbour but also their fortress on the Rocher. The Grimaldi's stronghold was now a power base from which the family ruled a large but very vulnerable area of land.Dell Inspiron Mini 12 battery

For the next hundred years the Grimaldi defended their territory from attacks by other states which included Genoa, Pisa, Venice, Naples, France, Spain, Germany, England and Provence. The fortress was frequently bombarded, damaged, and restored. Gradually the Grimaldi began to make an alliance with France which strengthened their position. Dell Inspiron 1720 battery

Now more secure, the Grimaldi lords of Monaco now began to recognise the need not only to defend their territory, but also to have a home reflecting their power and prestige.

Throughout the 15th century, both the fortress and the Rocher continued to be extended and further defended until it became a garrison accommodating some 400 troops.Dell Inspiron 1564 battery

The slow transformation from fortified house to palace (Illustration 7) began during this era, first with building by Lamberto Grimaldi, Lord of Monaco (who between 1458 and 1494 was "a noteworthy ruler who handled diplomacy and the sword with equal talent"[7]), and then by his son Jean II.Dell Inspiron 1464 battery

This period saw the extension of the east side of the fortress with a three–floored wing, guarded by high scalloped walls connecting the bastion towers—St Mary (M in Illustration 7), Middle (K) and South (H). This large new wing contained the palace's principal room, the State Hall (today known as the Guard Room). Dell XPS 1340 battery

Here the princes carried out their official business and held court. Further, more luxurious, rooms complete with balconies and loggias were designed for the private use of the Grimaldi family. In 1505 Jean II was killed by his brother Lucien.

Lucien I (1505–1523)

Jean II was succeeded by his brother Lucien I. Peace did not reign in Monaco for long; Dell INSPIRON 9100 battery

in December 1506 14,000 Genoese troops besieged Monaco and its castle, and for five months 1,500 Monégasques and mercenaries defended the Rocher before achieving victory in March 1507. This left Lucien I to walk a diplomatic tightrope between France and Spain in order to preserve the fragile independence of the tiny state which was in truth subject to Spain.Dell Inspiron N4010 battery

Lucien immediately set about repairing the ravages of war to the fortified palace which had been damaged by heavy bombardment. To the main wing (see Illustrations 3 & 7 - H to M ), built by Prince Lambert and extended during the reign of Jean II, he now added a large wing (H to C) which today houses the state apartments.Dell N3010 battery

Honoré I (1523–1581)

During the reign of Honoré I the internal transformation from fortress to palace was continued. The Treaty of Trodesillas at the beginning of Honoré's rule clarified Monaco's position as a protectorate of Spain, and thus later of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. This provided the security to allow the Lord of Monaco to concentrate on the more comfortable side of his residence rather than the constant need to defend it.HP Pavilion DV6-1210SA battery

The courtyard was rebuilt, the architect Dominique Gallo designing two arcades, stretching between points H and C. The arcades, fronting the earlier wing by Lucien I, each have twelve arches, decorated by white marble balustrading on the upper level. HP Pavilion DM4 battery

Today the upper arcades are known as the Galerie d'Hercule (gallery of Hercules) because their ceilings were painted with scenes depicting the Labours of Hercules byOrazio de Ferrari during the later reign of Honoré II. These arcades or loggias provide corridors to the state rooms in the south wing (today known as the State Rooms Wings). HP Pavilion DM3 battery

On the other side of the courtyard a new wing was constructed and the Genoese artist Luca Cambiasi was charged with painting its external walls with frescoes. It is thought that the galleries (B) to the north wing overlooking the harbour were built at this time.

Further enlargements were carried out in order to entertain the Emperor Charles V in 1529, when he stayed four nights at the palace during his journey in state to Bologna for his coronation by Pope Clement VII.Compaq CQ35-100 battery

Architecturally this was an exciting period, but Honoré I was unable to remodel the fortress in the grand style of a Renaissance palazzo. In spite of the Spanish protection, the risk of attack from France was high and defence remained Honoré's main priority.[9] With this in mind he added two new features: All Saints Tower (F) and the Serravalle Bastion (G). HP DV9700 battery

All Saints Tower was semi-circular and guarded the end of the rock promontory. Complete with gun platforms and cannon, it was connected to man-made caves in the rock itself. Subterranean passages also linked it to the Serravalle Bastion, which was in essence a three-storey gun tower bristling with cannon. HP Compaq 491278-001 battery

Underneath the courtyard a cistern was installed, providing sufficient water for 1000 troops for a 20-month siege, with a huge vaulted ceiling supported by ninecolumns. Monaco was to remain politically vulnerable for another century and little building work took place from 1581 until 1604, during the reigns of Prince Charles II and Prince Hercule.HP Compaq HSTNN-LB51 battery

Honoré II (1597–1662)

Monaco's vulnerability was further brought home in 1605 when the Spanish installed a garrison there. In 1633 Honoré II(Illustration 8), was officially addressed as "Serene Prince" by the Spanish king, thus recognizing Monaco as a principality for the first time.HP Pavilion ZD8227 battery

However, as Spanish troops were currently in occupation, this recognition was seen as little more than a gesture to keep Honoré happy.

Honoré II was a francophile. Following his education in Milan, he had been cultivated by the intellectual salons of Paris. Thus, having close affinities with France both culturally and politically, he rebelled against the Spanish presence in Monaco. HP Compaq Business Notebook TC4400 battery

While he realised that Monaco needed the protection of another power, France was Honoré II's favoured choice. In 1641, heavily supported by the French, he attacked the Spanish garrison and expelled the Spanish, declaring "the glorious liberty of Monaco". HP Pavilion DV7-2085EL battery

The liberty mentioned was entirely dependent on France, as Monaco now entered a period as a protectorate of France which would last until 1814. As a result of this action Honoré II is today regarded as the hero of Monaco.

Highly educated and a patron of the arts, Honoré II, secure on his throne, began collecting works by Titian, Dürer, Raphael, Rubens and Michelangelowhich formed the basis of the art collection that furnished the palace slowly evolving from the Monaco fortress.Compaq Presario 300 battery

Over the following 30-year period he transformed it into a palace suitable for a prince (Illustration 9).

He commissioned the architect Jacques Catone not only to enlarge the palace, but also to soften its grim fortified appearance. The main façade facing the square, the "front" of the palace, was given decorative embellishments. HP Compaq Business Notebook 6735S battery

The upper loggias (B) to the right of the entrance were glazed. Inside the palace the State Rooms Wing was restyled and the enfilade of state apartments created. A new chapel adorned by a cupola (built on the site markedD) was dedicated to St John the Baptist. This new work helped conceal the forbidding Serravalle Bastion from the courtyard, to create the lighter atmosphere of a Renaissance palazzo.HP Pavilion DV2820EA battery

Absentee landlords and revolution (1662–1815)

During the late 17th century and early 18th century, while Monaco was officially an independent state, it was in reality a province of France. Its rulers spent much of their time at the French court, in this way resembling the absentee landlords so prevalent at the time amongst the French aristocracy. The lure of Versailles was greater than that of their own country.HP Pavilion DV6373EA battery

Honoré II was succeeded by his grandson, Prince Louis I. The new prince had an urbane personality and spent much time with his wife at the Frenchcourt, where he enjoyed the unusual distinction of being both a foreign head of state and a peer of France.HP Compaq 572190-001 battery

Impressed by the palaces of the French king, who had employed the architect Jean du Cerceau to carry out alterations to the palace at Fontainebleau, Louis I used Fontainebleau as the inspiration for enhancements to his palace at Monaco. Thus he was responsible for two of the palace's most notable features:Compaq Presario CQ50-105EL battery

the entrance—a huge Baroque arch surmounted by a broken pediment bearing the Grimaldi Arms (Illustration 10)—and more memorable still, a double horseshoe staircase modelled on that at Fontainebleau. The thirty steps which compose the staircase are said to have been sculpted from a single block of Carrara marble. HP Pavilion DV7-1290EO battery

Both the architrave of the new entrance and the horseshoe stairs were designed by Antoine Grigho, an architect from Como.

A prince noted for the permissiveness of his private life, Louis I's prodigality was notorious. While visiting England in 1677 he incurred the ire of King Charles II by showering expensive gifts on Hortense Mancini, the king's mistress.Compaq Presario CQ71 battery

The English and Prince Louis later became political enemies when Louis took part in theAnglo-Dutch Wars against England, leading his own Monaco Cavalry into battles in Flanders and Franche-Comté. These acts earned Louis the gratitude of Louis XIV who made him ambassador to the Holy See, charged with securing the Spanish Succession. HP Pavilion DV6000 battery

However, the cost of upholding his position at the papal court caused him to sell most of his grandfather Honoré II's art collection, denuding the palace he had earlier so spectacularly enhanced. Louis died before securing the Spanish throne for France, an act which would have earned the Grimaldi huge rewards. Compaq Presario CQ70 battery

Instead Europe was immediately plunged into turmoil as the War of the Spanish Succession began.

In 1701, Prince Antoine succeeded Louis I and inherited an almost bankrupt Monaco, though he did further embellish the Royal Room.HP Compaq 491278-001 battery

On its ceiling, Gregorio de Ferrari and Alexandre Haffner depicted a figure of Fame surrounded by lunettes illustrating the four seasons. Antoine's marriage to Marie of Lorraine was unhappy and yielded only two daughters. Monaco's constitution confined the throne to members of the Grimaldi family alone, HP TouchSmart TX2-1150EG battery

and Antoine was thus keen for his daughter Princess Louise-Hippolyte (Illustration 11) to wed a Grimaldi cousin. However, the state of the Grimaldi fortunes, and the lack of (the politically necessary) approval from King Louis XIV, dictated otherwise. Louise-Hippolyte was married to Jacques de Goyon Matignon, a wealthy aristocrat from Normandy. HP 520 battery

Louise-Hippolyte succeeded her father as sovereign of Monaco in 1731 but died just months later. The King of France, confirming Monaco's subservient state to France, ignored the protests of other branches of the Grimaldi family, overthrew the Monégasque constitution, and approved the succession of Jacques de Goyon Matignon as Prince Jacques I.Asus ADP-36EH C Adapter

Jacques I assumed the name and arms of the Grimaldi, but the French aristocracy showed scant respect towards the new prince who had risen from their ranks and chose to spend his time absent from Monaco. He died in 1751 and was succeeded by his and Louise-Hippolyte's son Prince Honoré III.Dell PA-10 Adapter

Honoré III married Catherine Brignole  in 1757 and later divorced her. Interestingly, before his marriage Honoré III had been conducting an affair with his future mother-in-law. After her divorce Marie Brignole married Louis Joseph de Bourbon, prince de Condé, a member of the fallen French royal house, in 1798.Delta ADP-90FB Adapter

Ironically, the Grimaldi fortunes were restored when descendants of both Hortense Mancini and Louis I married: Louise d'Aumont Mazarin married Honoré III's son and heir, the future Honoré IV. This marriage in 1776 was extremely advantageous to the Grimaldi, as Louise's ancestress Hortense Mancini had been the heiress of Cardinal Mazarin. http://www.battery-pack.co.uk/

Thus Monaco's ruling family acquired all the estates bequeathed by Cardinal Mazarin, including the Duchy of Rethel, and the Principality of Château-Porcien.

Honoré III was a soldier who fought at both Fontenoy and Rocourt. He was happy to leave Monaco to be governed by others, most notably a former tutor. Delta ADP-90FB Adapter

It was on one of Honoré III's rare visits to the palace in 1767 that illness forced Edward, Duke of York, to land at Monaco. The sick duke was allocated the state bedchamber where he promptly died. Since that date the room has been known as the York Room.Dell PA-10 Adapter

Despite its lack of continuous occupancy, by the final quarter of the 18th century the palace was once again a "splendid place" (Illustration 12). However revolution was afoot, and in the late 1780s Honoré III had to make concessions to his people who had caught the revolutionary ideas from their French neighbours.Dell PA-12 Adapter

This was only the beginning of the Grimaldi's problems. In 1793 the leaders of theFrench Revolution annexed Monaco. The prince was imprisoned in France and his property and estates, including the palace, were forfeited to France.

The palace was looted by the prince's subjects, and what remained of the furnishings and art collection was auctioned by the French government.Asus ADP-36EH C Adapter

Further changes were heaped on both the country and palace. Monaco was renamed Fort d'Hercule and became acanton of France while the palace became a military hospital and poorhouse. In Paris, the prince's daughter-in-law Francoise-Thérèse de Choiseul-Stainville (1766–1794) was executed, one of the last to be guillotined during the Reign of Terror.Dell Inspiron 6400 Adapter

Honoré III died in 1795 in Paris, where he had spent most of his life, without regaining his throne.

Regaining the palace

Honoré III was succeeded by his son Honoré IV (1758–1819) whose marriage to Louise d'Aumont Mazarin had done so much to restore the Grimaldi fortunes.Dell Inspiron 1520 Adapter

Much of this fortune had been depleted by the hardships of the revolution. On 17 June 1814 under theTreaty of Paris, the Principality of Monaco was restored to Honoré IV.

The fabric of the palace had been completely neglected during the years in which the Grimaldi had been exiled from Monaco. Dell Inspiron 1525 Charger

Such was the state of disrepair that part of the east wing had to be demolished along with Honoré II's bathing pavilion, which stood on the site occupied today by the Napoleon Museum and the building housing the palace archives.

Restoration

Honoré IV died shortly after his throne was restored to him, and structural restoration of the palace began under Honoré V and was continued after his death in 1841 by his brother Prince Florestan. HP Pavilion DV6000 Adapter

However, by the time of Florestan's accession, Monaco was once again experiencing political tensions caused by financial problems. These resulted from its position as a protectorate of Sardinia, the country to which it had been ceded by France following the end of the Napoleonic wars. Dell Latitude D820 Charger

Florestan, an eccentric (he had been a professional actor), left the running of Monaco to his wife, Maria Caroline Gibert de Lametz. Despite her attempts to rule, her husband's people were once again in revolt. In an attempt to ease the volatile situation Florestan ceded power to his son Charles, but this came too late to appease the Monégasques. HP Pavilion DV9000 AC Adapter

Menton and Roquebrune broke away from Monaco, leaving the Grimaldi's already small country hugely diminished—little more than Monte Carlo.

Florestan died in 1856 and his son, Charles, who had already been ruling what remained of Monaco, succeeded him as Charles III (Illustration 15).Sony VGP-BPS8 Battery

Menton and Roquebrune officially became part of France in 1861, reducing Monaco's size at a stroke by 80%. With time on his hands, Charles III now devoted his time to completing the restoration of his palace begun by his uncle Honoré V. He rebuilt St Mary's Tower (Illustration 14) and completely restored the chapel, Sony VGP-BPS9 Battery

adding a new altar, and having its vaulted ceiling painted with frescoes, while outside the façade was painted by Jacob Froëschleand Deschler with murals illustrating various heroic deeds performed by the Grimaldi. The Guard Room, the former great hall of the fortress (now known as the State Hall), was transformed by new Renaissance decorations and the addition of a monumental chimneypiece.Sony VGP-BPS12 Battery

Charles III also made serious attempts to find the various works of art and furniture looted, sold and dispersed during the revolution. Together with new purchases, a fine art collection once again adorned the palace which included not only family portraits such as that of Lucien I by de Predis;Dell Inspiron 6400 Battery

Honoré II by Philippe de Champaigne; the head of Antoine I by Hyacinthe Rigaud, and van Loo's portrait of Louise-Hyppolyte (Illustration 11) but also such masterpieces as the The Music Lesson by Titian.

Charles III was also responsible for another palace in Monte Carlo, one which would fund his restorations, and turn around his country's faltering economy. Dell Inspiron 1525 Battery

This new palace was Charles Garnier's Second Empire casino, completed in 1878 (Illustration 16). The first Monaco casino had opened the previous decade. Through the casino Monaco became self-supporting.

Decline of Grimaldi power

By the time of Charles III's death in 1889, Monaco and Monte Carlo were synonymous as one and the same place, and had acquired, through gambling, a reputation as a louche and decadent playground of the rich. Dell XPS M1530 Battery

It attracted everyone from Russian grand dukes and railway magnates, often with their mistresses, to adventurers, causing the small country to be derided by many including Queen Victoria.In fact so decadent was Monaco considered that from 1882, when she first began visiting theFrench Riviera, Queen Victoria refused to make a courtesy social call at the palace.Dell Inspiron 6000 Battery

The contemporary writer Sabine Baring-Gould described the habituées of Monaco as: "....the moral cesspool of Europe."

The successive rulers of Monaco tended to live elsewhere and visit their palace only occasionally. Charles III was succeeded in 1889 by Albert I. Albert married the daughter of a Scottish aristocrat. Dell Inspiron 9400 Battery

The couple had one son, Louis, before divorcing in 1880. Albert was a keen scientist and founded the Oceanographic Institute in 1906; as a pacifist he then founded the International Institute of Peace in Monaco. Albert's second wife, Alice Heine, did much to turn Monte Carlo into a cultural centre, establishing both ballet and the opera in the city. Dell latitude D600 Battery

Having brought a large dowry into the family she contemplated turning the casino into a convalescent home for the poor who would benefit from recuperation in warm climes.[26] The couple separated before she was able to put her plan into action.

In 1910, the palace was stormed during the Monegasque Revolution. Dell Inspiron 8600 Battery

The prince pronounced an end to absolute monarchy by promulgating a constitution with an elected parliament the following year.

Albert was succeeded in 1922 by his son Louis II. Louis II had been brought up by his mother and stepfather in Germany, and did not know Monaco at all until he was 11. He had a distant relationship with his father and served in the French Army. Dell Latitude D610 Battery

While posted abroad, he met his mistress Marie Juliette Louvet, by whom he had a daughter, Charlotte Louise Juliette, born in Algeria in 1898. As Prince of Monaco, Louis II spent much time elsewhere, preferring to live on the family estate of Le Marchais close to Paris. Dell Inspiron 1520 Battery

In 1911 Prince Louis had a law passed legitimising his daughter so that she could inherit the throne, in order to prevent its passing to a distant German branch of the family. The law was challenged and developed into what became known as Monaco succession crisis.Dell XPS M1710 Battery

Finally in 1919 the prince formally adopted his illegitimate daughter Charlotte, who became known as Princess Charlotte, Duchess of Valentinois. Louis II's collection of artefacts belonging to Napoleon I form the foundation of the Napoleon Museum at the palace, which is open to the public.Dell XPS M1330 Battery

During World War II, Louis attempted to keep Monaco neutral, although his sympathies were with the Vichy French Government. This caused a rift with his grandson Rainier, his daughter's son, and the heir[29] to Louis' throne, who strongly supported the Allies against the Nazis.Dell XPS M1210 Battery

Following the liberation of Monaco by the Allied forces, the 75-year-old Prince Louis did little for his principality and it began to fall into severe neglect. By 1946 he was spending most of his time in Paris, and on 27 July of that year, he married for the first time.Apple A1185 Battery

Absent from Monaco during most of the final years of his reign, he and his wife lived on their estate in France. Prince Louis died in 1949 and was succeeded by his grandson, Prince Rainier III.

Rainier III

Prince Rainier III was responsible for not only turning around the fortune and reputation of Monaco but also for overseeing the restoration of the palace. Apple Powerbook G4 Battery

Upon his accession in 1949 Prince Rainier III immediately began a program of renovation and restoration. Many of the external frescoes on the courtyard were restored, while the southern wing, destroyed following the French revolution, was rebuilt. This is the part of the palace where the ruling family have their private apartments.Apple MacBook Pro 17 inch Battery

The wing also houses the Napoleon Museum and the archives.

The frescoes decorating the open arcade known as the Gallery of Hercules were altered by Rainier III, who imported works by Pier Francesco Mazzucchelli depicting mythological and legendary heroes.Asus EEE PC Battery

In addition many of the rooms were refurnished and redecorated.Many of the marble floors have been restored in the staterooms and decorated with intarsia designs which include the double R monogram of Prince Rainier III. Compaq V6000 Battery

Together with his wife, the late Grace Kelly, Prince Rainier not only restored the palace, but from the 1970s also made it the headquarters of a large and thriving business, which encouraged light industry to Monaco, the aim of which was to lessen Monaco's dependence on the income from gambling.HP 6715B Battery

This involved land reclamation, the development of new beaches, and high rise luxury housing. As a result of Monaco's increase in prestige, in 1993 it joined the United Nations, with Rainier's heir Prince Albert as head of the Monaco delegation.

Princess Grace predeceased her husband, dying in 1982 as the result of a car accident. HP 6910P Battery

When Rainier III died in 2005 he left both his palace and his country in a stronger and more stable state of repair financially and structurally than they had been for centuries.

The palace in the 21st century

Today the palace is home to Prince Rainier's son and successor, Prince Albert II. HP NX6325 Battery

The state rooms are open to the public during the summer, and since 1960, the palace's courtyard has been the setting for open air concerts given by Monte-Carlo Philharmonic Orchestra (formerly known as the Orchestra of the National Opera). HP NC6400 Battery

However the palace is far more than a tourist attraction and museum: it remains a fully working palace and headquarters of the Monégasque ruler; a fact emphasised by the sentries on constant guard duty at the entrance (Illustration 17). The sovereign princes, although bound by constitution, are involved with the day to day running of Monaco as both a country and a business. HP NX6110 Battery

Today Monaco covers an area of 197 hectares (487 acres) of which 40 (99 acres) have been reclaimed from the sea since 1980.

For important Monégasque events—such as Grimaldi weddings and births—the palace courtyard is opened and the assembled citizens of Monaco are addressed by the prince from the Gallery of Hercules overlooking the courtyard.HP DV6000 Battery

The courtyard is also used to host the annual children's Christmas party. Through such events, the palace continues to play a central role in the lives of the prince and his subjects, as it has done for over 700 years.HP DV9000 Battery,HP Pavilion ZE4400 Battery

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