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13 mars 2012 2 13 /03 /mars /2012 04:45

The Republic of Colombia is a sovereign country located in northwestern South America.[1] Colombia is bordered to the east by Venezuela[2]and Brazil;[3] to the south by Ecuador and Peru;[4] to the north by the Atlantic Ocean, through the Caribbean Sea; to the north-west by Panama; and to the west by the Pacific Ocean. Dell 9JJGJ Battery,Dell JKVC5 Battery

Colombia also shares maritime borders with the Caribbean countries of Jamaica, Haiti and the Dominican Republic and the Central Americancountries of Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica.[5][6]

Colombia is the 26th most extensive nation in the world and the fourth most extensive in South America (after Brazil,Argentina, and Peru), with an area more than twice that of France. Dell NKDWV Battery,Dell TRJDK Battery

It also has the third-largest population in Latin America after Brazil and Mexico.[7]

The territory of what is now Colombia was originally inhabited by indigenous tribes which had migrated from North and Central America, including the Muisca, Quimbaya, and Tairona. To the south lay the Inca Empire.[8] Dell Vostro 1710 Battery,Dell Vostro 1720 Battery

The Spanish arrived in 1499, and initiated a period of conquest and colonisation which ultimately led to the creation of the Viceroyalty of New Granada (comprising what is now Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Panama) with its capital at Bogotá.[9] Independence from Spain was won in 1819, but by 1830 "Gran Colombia" had collapsed with the secession of Venezuela and Ecuador. Dell Latitude E4300 Battery,Dell Latitude E4200 Battery

Modern day Colombia, with Panama, emerged as the Republic of New Granada. The new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation (1858), and then the United States of Colombia(1863), before the Republic of Colombia was finally declared in 1886.[1] Panama seceded in 1903. Dell Studio 14 Battery,Dell Studio 1435 Battery

Colombia has a long tradition of constitutional government, and the Conservative and Liberal parties, founded in 1843 and 1848 respectively, are two of the oldest surviving political parties in the Americas. However, tensions between the two have frequently erupted into violence, most notably in the Thousand Days War (1899–1902) and La Violencia, beginning in 1948. Dell Studio 1436 Battery

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Since the 1960s, government forces have been engaged in conflict with left-wing insurgents and illegal right-wing paramilitaries. Fuelled by the cocaine trade, this escalated dramatically in the 1990s. However, the insurgents lack the military or popular support necessary to overthrow the government, and in recent years the violence has been decreasing. Dell Studio 1457 Battery

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Insurgents continue attacks against civilians, and large swathes of the countryside remain under guerrilla influence, but the Colombian government has stepped up efforts to reassert government control throughout the country, and now has a presence in every one of its municipalities.[1]

Colombia is a standing middle power[10] with the second largest Spanish-speaking population in the world after Mexico.[7] Dell Inspiron 1320n Battery,Dell Inspiron 1464 Battery,Dell Inspiron 1564 Battery

It is also one of the largest manufacturers in South America. Colombia is very ethnically diverse, and the interaction between descendents of the original native inhabitants, Spanishcolonisers, African slaves and twentieth-century immigrants from Europeand the Middle East has produced a rich cultural heritage. Dell HW905 Battery

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This has also been influenced by Colombia's incredibly varied geography. The majority of the urban centres are located in the highlands of the Andes mountains, but Colombian territory also encompasses Amazon rainforest, tropical grassland and both Caribbean and Pacific coastlines. Ecologically, Colombia is considered to be among 17 of the most megadiverse countries in the world. Dell 312-0823 Battery,Dell Y085C Battery

The National Library of Colombia (Spanish: Biblioteca Nacional de Colombia) is the national library ofColombia. The library is a dependancy of the Colombian Ministry of Culture.

Founding and history

The National Library of Colombia is generally considered to be the oldest national library in the Americas. Dell X784C Battery,Dell 312-0864 Battery

It was founded at the end of the eighteenth century in 1777 by Viceroy Manuel De Guirior, who established the library in the city of Bogotá. The original collection of the library consisted of books expropriated from the Jesuitcommunity, which had been expelled from all the dominions of the Spanish Empire, as a result of the 1767 order of King Charles III of Spain. Dell Y082C Battery

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In 1825, due to the work of Francisco de Paula Santander, the library was established at the campus of the Colegio de San Bartolomé and received its current name. On March 25, 1834, the first legal deposit law was decreed, which required that all copies of printed material in the country be sent to the library for storage. Dell W346C Battery,Dell HW355 Battery

This law set the objective of the library, which then became the sole entity in charge of maintaining the bibliographic heritage of the nation.

Bibliographic wealth of Colombia (incunabular, prints, sound recordings and audio-visual work of great historical and artistic value), located in the southeast corner of Independence Park. Dell HW357 Battery,Dell HW358 Battery

Founded January 9, 1777, inaugurated in 1938 and remodeled in 1978 by architect Jacques Mosseri, except decorative elements and façade design remained the same.

The two statues on both sides of calle 25 access, high relief at the attic, sign materials mixture and windows ornamentation were abolished. Four story building. Dell HW421 Battery

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In the first floor general reading rooms, kardex, exhibitions, music, classification, among other. In the second floor hemerotheca and researchers, in the third and fourth floors book storage and administrative offices.

Provides legal publications storage, official publications trade, guided visits, user card, photogram reproduction, works and photographs photocopying, and photograph or film works. Dell RK815 Battery,Dell RK818 Battery

As part of valuable donations received, Manuel del Socorro Rodríguez, Miguel Antonio Caro, Rufino José Cuervo, Eduardo Santos and Germán Arciniegas are the most important.


To guarantee the recovery of, preservation of, and access to the collective memory of the country, represented by the bibliographic and periodical heritage and in any form; Dell TR514 Battery,Dell TR517 Battery

so as to promote and foment public libraries, the planning and design of policies related to reading, and the satisfaction of the indispensable need for information for the individual and collective development of Colombians...

In addition, according to a history of the library, the library also functions as a training center for librarians in Colombia as well as a source of books for other countries' libraries. Dell TR518 Battery,Dell TR520 Battery


According to a decree of the Senate of Colombia, the library's stated functions are:

  • To advise the Ministry of Culture as it concerns the formulation of policies on the bibliographic and periodical national heritage

To guide the plans and programs about creation, promotion, and strengthening of public libraries and the complementary services that are rendered by them Dell TR653 Battery

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  • To direct and coordinate the national network of public libraries.
  • To collect, organize, increase, conserve, preserve, protect, record, and spread the bibliographic and periodical heritage of the nation, sustained in different mediums of information.

To plan and design policies related to reading and its contribution to the development of the education and intellect of the Colombian peopleDell WT870 Battery,Dell WT873 Battery

  • To design, organize, and develop the bibliographic heritage to contribute to the strengthening of the national identity

To establish and maintain relations with national and international organizations, with the goal of promoting and developing programs of popular culture and cultural exchange together, in the themes related to books and reading Dell 312-4000 Battery,Dell U597P Battery

  • To provide advice to, and collaboration with, different scientific, cultural, and educational organizations that develop programs of investigation and cultural diffusion

Law of legal deposit

The law of legal deposit is regulated by Law 44 of 1993, the statutory Decree No. 460 of March 16, 1999, and the Decree 2150 of 1995. Dell W358P Battery,Dell 312-4009 Battery

These laws and decrees are specifically about the National Library of Colombia. The creators of printed works, as well as audiovisual, audio, and video productions, should supply the library with a specified number of copies of the works, whether they were produced within the Colombian territory or imported. Dell 310-6322 Battery,Dell 312-0068 Battery

For printed works, two copies of each of the works produced within the national territory should be delivered to the National Library of Colombia; one copy to theBiblioteca del Congreso de la República de Colombia (Library of the Congress of the Republic of Colombia), and one copy to the Central Library of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia (National University of Colombia), Dell 312-0078 Battery,Dell 312-0079 Battery

  • excepting a few cases in which the high cost of the edition or the short duration of publication makes it possible to deliver fewer copies.

For audiovisual and audio works, as well as for published works that have been imported, only one copy needs to be delivered to the National Library.Dell 312-0095 Battery,Dell 312-0106 Battery,Dell 312-0292 Battery


Due to the legal deposit law and many charitable donations, the National Library has a large catalog of publications. The collection contains 47 incunabula, 610 volumes of manuscripts and other publications of "rare and curious" books, particularly purchased from or donated by personalities from the political and social life of Colombia, Dell 312-0305 Battery,Dell 312-0306 Battery

including the collections of Eduardo Santos, German Arciniegas, Jorge Isaacs, Manuel Ancízar, Marco Fidel Suárez, Miguel Antonio Caro, and Rufino José Cuervo among others. The library also possesses publications of the United Nations Library, and pictorial works of historical value like the watercolors of theChorography Commission. Dell 312-0326 Battery,Dell 312-0341 Battery

A large quantity of audio recordings comes from the legal deposit law, which has also allowed the library to possess a general collection of the majority of the publications made in the country since the year 1830 as well as a newspaper library with publications of priceless value, like the Aviso de Terremoto, considered the premiere periodical publication in the Republic of Colombia. Dell 312-0373 Battery,Dell 312-0518 Battery,Dell 312-0566 Battery

The total collection of the Biblioteca Nacional de Colombia exceeds 2,000,000 volumes. Of this, approximately 25% was acquired through the beforementioned legal deposit laws. The other books have mostly come from donations. Dell 312-0585 Battery,Dell 312-0831 Battery,Dell 312-7206 Battery,Dell 8N544 Battery,Dell BAT1297 Battery,Dell C7786 Battery,Dell D6400 Battery,Dell F5136 Battery,Dell HF674 Battery,Dell Y4991 Battery,Dell XX327 Battery,Dell XX337 Battery,Dell FM332 Battery

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