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Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye), known officially as the Republic of Turkey (About this sound Türkiye Cumhuriyeti (help·info)), is a Eurasian country that stretches across theAnatolian peninsula in Western Asia and Thrace in the Balkan region of southeastern Europe. Turkey is bordered by eight countries: Bulgaria to the northwest;Apple MB772LL/A battery

Greece to the west; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, Azerbaijan (the exclave of Nakhchivan) and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the southeast. The Mediterranean Sea and Cyprus are to the south; the Aegean Sea to the west; and the Black Sea is to the north. HP Pavilion dv5 Adapter

The Sea of Marmara, theBosphorus and the Dardanelles (which together form the Turkish Straits) demarcate the boundary between East Thrace and Anatolia; they also separateEurope and Asia.[5] Turkey's location at the crossroads of Europe and Asia makes it a country of significant geostrategic importance.Sony NP-F330 Battery

Turkey is one of the six independent Turkic states. The predominant religion by number of people is Islam.[8] The country's official language is Turkish, whereas Kurdish and Zazaki languages are spoken by Kurds and Zazas, who comprise 18% of the population.Asus Eee PC 904HA Adapter

Turks began migrating into the area now called Turkey (derived from the Medieval Latin Turchia, i.e. "Land of the Turks") in the 11th century. The process was greatly accelerated by the Seljuk victory over the Byzantine Empire at the Battle of Manzikert.[10] Several small beyliks and the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol Empire's invasion. Nikon D80  Battery

Starting from the 13th century, the Ottoman beylik united Anatolia and created an empire encompassing much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia and North Africa. After the Ottoman Empire collapsed following its defeat in World War I, parts of it were occupied by the victorious Allies.Sony PCGA-AC19V9 Adapter

A cadre of young military officers, led by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, organized a successful resistance to the Allies; in 1923, they would establish the modern Republic of Turkey with Atatürk as its first president.

Turkey is a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic with an ancient cultural heritage.Dell T555C battery

Turkey is an independent Turkic state which has become increasingly integrated with the West through membership in organizations such as the Council of Europe, NATO, OECD, OSCE and the G-20 major economies. Turkey began full membership negotiations with the European Union in 2005, HP Pavilion DV6-3013SL battery

having been an associate member of the European Economic Community since 1963 and having reached a customs union agreement in 1995. Turkey has also fostered close cultural, political, economic and industrial relations with the Middle East, the Turkic states of Central Asia and the African countries through membership in organizations such as the Turkic Council, HP Pavilion DV7-2085EL battery

Joint Administration of Turkic Arts and Culture, Organisation of the Islamic Conference and the Economic Cooperation Organization. Given its strategic location, large economy and military strength, Turkey is a major regional power.HP Pavilion DV9700 battery

Etymology

The name of Turkey, Türkiye in the Turkish language, can be divided into two components: the ethnonym Türk and the abstract suffix –iye meaning "owner", "land of" or "related to" (derived from the Arabic suffix –iyya, which is similar to the Greek and Latin suffixes –ia). HP Mini 702EA battery

The first recorded use of the term "Türk" or "Türük" as an autonym is contained in the Orkhon inscriptions of the Göktürks (Celestial Turks) of Central Asia (c. 8th century CE). Tu–kinhas been attested as early as 177 BCE as a name given by the Chinese to the people living south of the Altay Mountains of Central Asia. HP Pavilion DV7-1120EO battery

The English word "Turkey" is derived from the Medieval Latin Turchia (c. 1369). The Greek cognate of this name, Tourkia, was originally used by the Byzantines todescribe medieval Hungary (as the Hungarians and Turks have ancestral links) but they later began using this name to define the Seljuk-controlled parts of Anatolia in the centuries that followed the Battle of Manzikert in 1071.HP Compaq 491278-001 battery

Antiquity

The Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest continuously inhabited regions in the world. The earliest Neolithicsettlements such as Çatalhöyük (Pottery Neolithic), Çayönü (Pre-Pottery Neolithic A to Pottery Neolithic), Neval? Çori (Pre-Pottery Neolithic B),HP Pavilion DV6-1030US battery

Hac?lar(Pottery Neolithic), Göbekli Tepe (Pre-Pottery Neolithic A) and Mersin are considered to be among the earliest human settlements in the world

The settlement of Troy started in the Neolithic and continued into the Iron Age. HP Compaq 490306-001 battery

Through recorded history, Anatolians have spoken Indo-European, Semitic and Kartvelian languages, as well as many languages of uncertain affiliation. In fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical center from which the Indo-European languages radiated.HP Pavilion DV5-1211EM battery

The Hattians were an ancient people who inhabited the southeastern part of Anatolia, noted at least as early as ca. 2300. Indo-European Hittites came to Anatolia and gradually absorbed Hattians ca. 2000-1700 BC. The first major empire in the area was founded by the Hittites, from the eighteenth through the 13th century BC. HP EliteBook 2530P battery

The Assyrians colonized parts of southeastern Turkey as far back as 1950 BC until the year 612 BC, when the Assyrian Empire was conquered by the Chaldean dynasty in Babylon.Following the Hittite collapse, the Phrygians, an Indo-European people, achieved ascendancy until their kingdom was destroyed by the Cimmerians in the 7th century BC.HP Pavilion DV4385EA battery

The most powerful of Phrygia's successor states were Lydia, Caria and Lycia. The Lydians and Lycians spoke languages that were fundamentally Indo-European, but both languages had acquired non-Indo-European elements prior to the Hittite and Hellenistic periods.Compaq PP2100 battery

Starting around 1200 BC, the coast of Anatolia was heavily settled by Aeolian and Ionian Greeks. Numerous important cities were founded by these colonists, such as Miletus, Ephesus, Smyrna (modern Izmir), andByzantium (later Constantinople and Istanbul).HP Compaq KU532AA battery

The first state established in Anatolia that was called Armenia by neighboring peoples (Hecataeus of Miletus and Behistun Inscription) was the state of the Armenian Orontid dynasty. Anatolia was conquered by the PersianAchaemenid Empire during the 6th and 5th centuries BC and later fell to Alexander the Great in 334 BC.HP Pavilion DV6-1270EQ battery

Anatolia was subsequently divided into a number of small Hellenistic kingdoms (including Bithynia, Cappadocia, Pergamum, and Pontus), all of which had succumbed to the Roman Republic by the mid-1st century BC.[22] Arsacid Armenia, the first state to accept Christianity as official religion had lands in Anatolia.HP Pavilion DV4385EA battery

In 324, the Roman emperor Constantine I chose Byzantium to be the new capital of the Roman Empire, renaming it New Rome (later Constantinople andIstanbul). After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, it became the capital of the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire).[HP Compaq Business  NC4400 battery]

Turks and the Ottoman Empire

The House of Seljuk was a branch of the K?n?k O?uz Turks who resided on the periphery of the Muslim world, north of the Caspian and Aral Seas in the Yabghu Khaganate of the O?uz confederacy[24] in the 10th century.HP Pavilion ZD8227 battery

In the 11th century, the Seljuks started migrating from their ancestral homelands towards the eastern regions of Anatolia, which eventually became the new homeland of O?uz Turkic tribes following theBattle of Manzikert in 1071.HP Pavilion DV5-1211EM battery

The victory of the Seljuks gave rise to the Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate; which developed as a separate branch of the larger Seljuk Empire that covered parts of Central Asia, Iran, Anatolia and Southwest Asia.[25]

In 1243, the Seljuk armies were defeated by the Mongols, causing the Seljuk empire's power to slowly disintegrate. Nikon D200 Battery

In its wake, one of the Turkish principalities governed by Osman I would, over the next 200 years, evolve into the Ottoman Empire, expanding throughout Anatolia, theBalkans and the Levant.[26] In 1453, the Ottomans completed their conquest of the Byzantine Empire by capturing its capital, Constantinople.Acer PA-1650-02 Adapter

The Ottoman Empire's power and prestige peaked in the 16th and 17th centuries, particularly during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. The empire was often at odds with the Holy Roman Empire in its steady advance towards Central Europe through the Balkans and the southern part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.[7Sony CYBER-SHOT DSC-T10  Battery

At sea, the empire contended with the Holy Leagues, composed ofHabsburg Spain, the Republic of Venice and the Knights of St. John, for control of the Mediterranean. In the Indian Ocean, the Ottoman navy frequently confronted Portuguese fleets in order to defend its traditional monopoly over the maritime trade routes between East Asia and Western Europe;HP Compaq Business 6715b Battery

these routes faced new competition with the Portuguese discovery of the Cape of Good Hope in 1488. In addition, the Ottomans were occasionally at war with Persia over territorial disputes or caused by religious differences between 16th and 18th centuries.[Kodak KLIC-7004 Battery]

During nearly two centuries of decline, the Ottoman Empire gradually shrank in size, military power, and wealth. It entered World War I on the side of theCentral Powers and was ultimately defeated. During the war, an estimated 1.5 million Armenians were deported and exterminated in the Armenian Genocide.Acer Aspire 5920G Adapter

Large scale massacres were also committed against the empire's other minority groups such as the Greeks and Assyrians. Following the Armistice of Mudros on October 30, 1918, the victorious Allied Powers partitioned the Ottoman state through the 1920 Treaty of Sèvres.[Canon Digital IXUS 90 IS Battery]

Republic era

The Occupation of Constantinople and Smyrna by the Allies in the aftermath of World War I prompted the establishment of the Turkish national movement. Under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Pasha, a military commander who had distinguished himself during the Battle of Gallipoli, HP 2133 Mini-Note PC Adapter

the Turkish War of Independence was waged with the aim of revoking the terms of the Treaty of Sèvres.

By September 18, 1922, the occupying armies were expelled, and the new Turkish state was established. On November 1, the newly founded parliamentformally abolished the Sultanate, thus ending 623 years of Ottoman rule. Toshiba PA3536U-1BRS Battery

The Treaty of Lausanne of July 24, 1923, led to the international recognition of the sovereignty of the newly formed "Republic of Turkey" as the successor state of the Ottoman Empire, and the republic was officially proclaimed on October 29, 1923, in the new capital of Ankara.[HP Compaq Business NX6110 Battery]

Mustafa Kemal became the republic's first President of Turkey and subsequently introduced many radical reforms with the aim of founding a new secular republic from the remnants of its Ottoman past.[7] According to the Law on Family Names, the Turkish parliament presented Mustafa Kemal with the honorific surname "Atatürk" (Father of the Turks) in 1934.HP Pavilion DV9000 Adapter

Turkey remained neutral during most of World War II but entered on the side of the Allies on February 23, 1945, as a ceremonial gesture and in 1945 became a charter member of the United Nations.[33] Difficulties faced by Greeceafter the war in quelling a communist rebellion,Dell Studio 1537 battery

along with demands by the Soviet Union for military bases in theTurkish Straits, prompted the United States to declare the Truman Doctrine in 1947. The doctrine enunciated American intentions to guarantee the security of Turkey and Greece, and resulted in large-scale U.S. military and economic support.[HP PPP009H Adapter]

After participating with the United Nations forces in the Korean War, Turkey joined NATO in 1952, becoming a bulwark against Soviet expansion into the Mediterranean. Following a decade of intercommunal violence on the island of Cyprus and the Greek military coup of July 1974,Sony VGP-BPS8 Battery

overthrowing President Makarios and installing Nikos Sampson as dictator, Turkey invaded the Republic of Cyprus in 1974. Nine years later the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus which is only recognised by Turkey was established.[35]

The single-party period ended in 1945.Dell PA-12 Adapter

It was followed by a tumultuous transition to multiparty democracy over the next few decades, which was interrupted by military coups d'état in 1960, 1971, 1980 and 1997. In 1984, the PKK began an insurgency against the Turkish government; the conflict, which has claimed over 40,000 lives, continues today.Sony Cyber-shot DSC-T7/B  Battery

Since the liberalization of the Turkish economy during the 1980s, the country has enjoyed stronger economic growth and greater political stability.

Politics

Turkey is a parliamentary representative democracy. Since its foundation as a republic in 1923, Turkey has developed a strong tradition of secularism.[Dell LATITUDE M65 Battery]

Turkey's constitution governs the legal framework of the country. It sets out the main principles of government and establishes Turkey as a unitary centralized state.

The President of the Republic is the head of state and has a largely ceremonial role. HP Compaq 6720s Adapter

The president is elected for a five-year term by direct elections. Abdullah Gül was elected as president on August 28, 2007, by a popular parliament round of votes, succeeding Ahmet Necdet Sezer.[40]

Executive power is exercised by the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers which make up the government, while the legislative power is vested in the unicameral parliament, the Grand National Assembly of Turkey.Acer AS07B41 Battery

The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature, and the Constitutional Court is charged with ruling on the conformity of laws and decrees with the constitution. The Council of State is the tribunal of last resort for administrative cases, and the High Court of Appeals for all others.[Dell Vostro 1310 Battery]

The prime minister is elected by the parliament through a vote of confidence in the government and is most often the head of the party having the most seats in parliament. The current prime minister is the former mayor of ?stanbul, Recep Tayyip Erdo?an,HP Compaq Business 6910p Battery

whose conservative AK party won an absolute majority of parliamentary seats in the 2002 general elections, organized in the aftermath of the economic crisis of 2001, with 34% of the suffrage.

In the 2007 general elections, the AKP received 46.6% of the votes and could defend its majority in parliament.[Panasonic LUMIX DMC-TZ4S Battery]

Although the ministers do not have to be members of the parliament, ministers with parliament membership are common in Turkish politics. In 2007, a series of events regarding state secularism and the role of the judiciary in the legislature has occurred. Dell PA-12 Adapter

These included the controversial presidential election of Abdullah Gül, who in the past had been involved with Islamist parties;[44]and the government's proposal to lift the headscarf ban in universities, which was annulled by the Constitutional Court, leading to a fine and a near ban of the ruling party.[Sony NP-FH100 Battery]

Universal suffrage for both sexes has been applied throughout Turkey since 1933, and every Turkish citizen who has turned 18 years of age has the right to vote. As of 2004, there were 50 registered political parties in the country. The Constitutional Court can strip the public financing of political parties that it deems anti-secular orseparatist, or ban their existence altogether. Toshiba Equium M50-192 Battery

There are 550 members of parliament who are elected for a four-year term by a party-list proportional representation system from 85 electoral districts which represent the 81 administrative provinces of Turkey (?stanbul is divided into three electoral districts, whereas Ankara and ?zmir are divided into two each because of their large populations).Apple MacBook Pro Battery

To avoid a hung parliament and its excessive political fragmentation, only parties winning at least 10% of the votes cast in a national parliamentary election gain the right to representation in the parliament.[46] Because of this threshold, in the 2007 elections only three parties formally entered the parliament (compared to two in 2002).[Apple PowerBook G4 Battery

Human rights in Turkey have been the subject of much controversy and international condemnation. Between 1998 and 2008 the European Court of Human Rightsmade more than 1,600 judgements against Turkey for human rights violations, particularly the right to life and freedom from torture.Dell Studio 1537 battery

Other issues such as Kurdish rights, women's rights and press freedom have also attracted controversy. Turkey's human rights record continues to be a significant obstacle to future membership of the EU.[51] The Turkish Journalists Association says that 58 of the country's journalists have been imprisoned.Acer BATBL50L6 Battery

A U.S. State Department spokesman, Philip Crowley, said that the United States had "broad concerns about trends involving intimidation of journalists in Turkey."[52]

Foreign relations

Turkey is a founding member of the United Nations (1945), the OECD (1961), the OIC (1969), the OSCE (1973), the ECO (1985), the BSEC (1992) and the G-20 major economies (1999).Canon EOS 450D Battery

On October 17, 2008, Turkey was elected as a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council.[53] Turkey's membership of the council effectively began on January 1, 2009.[53] Turkey had previously been a member of the U.N. Security Council in 1951–1952, 1954–1955 and 1961.[Acer Travelmate 2400 Battery]

In line with its traditional Western orientation, relations with Europe have always been a central part of Turkish foreign policy. Turkey became a founding member of the Council of Europe in 1949, applied for associate membership of the EEC (predecessor of the European Union) in 1959 and became anassociate member in 1963.Dell Inspiron 1525 Adapter

After decades of political negotiations, Turkey applied for full membership of the EEC in 1987, became an associate member of the Western European Union in 1992, reached a Customs Union agreement with the EU in 1995 and has been in formal accession negotiations with the EU since 2005.[Compaq Presario 2100 Adapter]

Since 1974 Turkey has not recognized the (essentially Greek Cypriot) Republic of Cyprus as the sole authority on the island, but instead supports the Turkish Cypriot community in the form of the de facto Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus which is recognized only by Turkey.[55]Acer Aspire 1362 Battery

The other defining aspect of Turkey's foreign relations has been its ties with the United States. Based on the common threat posed by the Soviet Union, Turkey joined NATO in 1952, ensuring close bilateral relations with Washington throughout the Cold War. In the post–Cold War environment,Toshiba Equium M50-192 Battery

Turkey's geostrategic importance shifted towards its proximity to the Middle East, the Caucasus and the Balkans. In return, Turkey has benefited from the United States' political, economic and diplomatic support, including in key issues such as the country's bid to join the European Union.Dell XPS M1330 Battery

The independence of the Turkic states of the Soviet Union in 1991, with which Turkey shares a common cultural and linguistic heritage, allowed Turkey to extend its economic and political relations deep into Central Asia,thus enabling the completion of a multi-billion-dollar oil and natural gas pipeline fromBaku in Azerbaijan to the port of Ceyhan in Turkey. Acer Travelmate 2200 Adapter

The Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan pipeline forms part of Turkey's foreign policy strategy to become an energy conduit to the West. However, Turkey's border with Armenia, a state in the Caucasus, remains closed following its occupation of Azeri territory during theNagorno-Karabakh War.[HP Compaq 6735b Adapter]

Military

The Turkish Armed Forces consists of the Army, the Navy and the Air Force. The Gendarmerie and the Coast Guard operate as parts of the Ministry of Internal Affairs in peacetime, although they are subordinated to the Army and Navy Commands respectively in wartime, during which they have both internal law enforcement and military functions.[Dell Vostro 1000 Battery]

The Turkish Armed Forces is the second largest standing armed force in NATO, after the U.S. Armed Forces, with a combined strength of just over a million uniformed personnel serving in its five branches.[59] Turkey is considered to be the strongest military power of the Middle East region besides Israel.[HP Compaq nx7300 Adapter]

Every fit male Turkish citizen otherwise not barred is required to serve in the military for a period ranging from three weeks to fifteen months, dependent on education and job location.[ ] Turkey does not recognise conscientious objection and does not offer a civilian alternative to military service.Asus f82 battery

Turkey is one of five NATO member states which are part of the nuclear sharing policy of the alliance, together withBelgium, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands.[62] A total of 90 B61 nuclear bombs are hosted at the Incirlik Air Base, 40 of which are allocated for use by the Turkish Air Force.[Dell XPS M1330 Battery]

In 1998, Turkey announced a program of modernization worth US$160 billion over a twenty year period in various projects including tanks, fighter jets,helicopters, submarines, warships and assault rifles.[64] Turkey is a Level 3 contributor to the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) program.HP Compaq Business 6910p Battery

Turkey has maintained forces in international missions under the United Nations and NATO since 1950, includingpeacekeeping missions in Somalia and former Yugoslavia, and support to coalition forces in the First Gulf War. Turkey maintains 36,000 troops in northern Cyprus;Compaq PRESARIO R3000 Battery

their presence is supported and approved by the de facto local government, but the Republic of Cyprus and the international community regard it as an illegal occupation force, and its presence has also been denounced in several United Nations Security Council resolutions.[HP Compaq Business NX6110 Battery]

Turkey has had troops deployed in Afghanistan as part of the U.S. stabilization force and the UN-authorized, NATO-commanded International Security Assistance Force(ISAF) since 2001. Dell Latitude D610 Adapter

In 2006, the Turkish parliament deployed a peacekeeping force of Navy patrol vessels and around 700 ground troops as part of an expanded United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) in the wake of the Israeli-Lebanon conflict.[Asus Eee PC 701 Adapter]

The Chief of the General Staff is appointed by the president and is responsible to the prime minister. The Council of Ministers is responsible to parliament for matters of national security and the adequate preparation of the armed forces to defend the country.HP Compaq Business NX6325 Battery

However, the authority to declare war and to deploy the Turkish Armed Forces to foreign countries or to allow foreign armed forces to be stationed in Turkey rests solely with the parliament.[58] The actual commander of the armed forces is the Chief of the General Staff General I??k Ko?aner since August 30, 2010.[Dell Studio XPS 16 battery]

Administrative divisions

The capital city of Turkey is Ankara. The territory of Turkey is subdivided into 81 provinces for administrative purposes. The provinces are organized into 7 regions for census purposes; however, they do not represent an administrative structure. Each province is divided into districts, for a total of 923 districts.Acer Aspire 5520 Battery

Provinces usually bear the same name as their provincial capitals, also called the central district; exceptions to this custom are the provinces of Hatay (capital: Antakya), Kocaeli (capital: ?zmit) and Sakarya (capital:Adapazar?). Provinces with the largest populations are Istanbul (13 million), Ankara (5 million), ?zmir (4 million),Bursa (3 million) and Adana (2 million).Acer TravelMate 5720 Adapter

The biggest city and the pre-Republican capital Istanbul is the financial, economic and cultural heart of the country.[70] An estimated 75.5% of Turkey's population live in urban centers. In all, 19 provinces have populations that exceed 1 million inhabitants, and 20 provinces have populations between 1 million and 500,000 inhabitants.HP Compaq 6735s Adapter

Only two provinces have populations less than 100,000.

Geography

Turkey is a transcontinental Eurasian country. Asian Turkey (made up largely of Anatolia), which includes 97% of the country, is separated from European Turkey by the Bosphorus, Dell XPS M1330 Battery

the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles (which together form a water link between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea). European Turkey (eastern Thrace or Rumelia in the Balkan peninsula) comprises 3% of the country.

The territory of Turkey is more than 1,600 kilometres (1,000 mi) long and 800 km (500 mi) wide, with a roughly rectangular shape.[HP Compaq nc6230 Adapter]

It lies between latitudes 35° and 43° N, and longitudes 25° and 45° E. Turkey's area, including lakes, occupies 783,562[74] square kilometres (300,948 sq mi), of which 755,688 square kilometres (291,773 sq mi) are in Southwest Asia and 23,764 square kilometres (9,174 sq mi) in Europe.[Dell T117C battery]

Turkey is the world's 37th-largest country in terms of area. The country is encircled by seas on three sides: the Aegean Sea to the west, the Black Sea to the north and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Turkey also contains the Sea of Marmara in the northwest.Asus x5dij-sx039c battery

The European section of Turkey, East Thrace, forms the borders of Turkey with Greece and Bulgaria. The Asian part of the country, Anatolia, consists of a high central plateau with narrow coastal plains, between the Köro?lu and Pontic mountain ranges to the north and the Taurus Mountains to the south. Dell Inspiron 1464 battery

Eastern Turkey has a more mountainous landscape and is home to the sources of rivers such as the Euphrates, Tigris and Aras, and contains Lake Van and Mount Ararat, Turkey's highest point at 5,165 metres (16,946 ft). Lake Tuz, Turkey's third-largest lake, is a macroscopically visible feature in the middle of the country that ironically happens to look like a turkey.HP Compaq 6720s Adapter

Turkey is divided into seven census regions: Marmara, Aegean, Black Sea, Central Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia, Southeastern Anatolia and the Mediterranean. The uneven north Anatolian terrain running along the Black Sea resembles a long, narrow belt. This region comprises approximately one-sixth of Turkey's total land area.Dell Latitude D630 Adapter

As a general trend, the inland Anatolian plateau becomes increasingly rugged as it progresses eastward.

Turkey's varied landscapes are the product of complex earth movements that have shaped the region over thousands of years and still manifest themselves in fairly frequent earthquakes and occasional volcanic eruptions.HP Pavilion dm4 battery

The Bosporus and the Dardanelles owe their existence to the fault lines running through Turkey that led to the creation of the Black Sea. There is an earthquake fault line across the north of the country from west to east, which caused a major earthquake in 1999.Sony NP-FS11 Battery

Climate

The coastal areas of Turkey bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea have a temperate Mediterranean climate, with hot, dry summers and mild to cool, wet winters. The coastal areas of Turkey bordering the Black Sea have a temperate Oceanic climate with warm, wet summers and cool to cold, wet winters. Dell Inspiron 1520 Adapter

The Turkish Black Sea coast receives the greatest amount of precipitation and is the only region of Turkey that receives high precipitation throughout the year. The eastern part of that coast averages 2,500 millimeters annually which is the highest precipitation in the country.Toshiba PA3399U-1BRS Battery

The coastal areas of Turkey bordering the Sea of Marmara (including Istanbul), which connects the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea, have a transitional climate between a temperate Mediterranean climate and a temperate Oceanic climate with warm to hot, moderately dry summers and cool to cold, wet winters. Acer Aspire 5920G Adapter

Snow does occur on the coastal areas of the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea almost every winter, but it usually lies no more than a few days. Snow on the other hand is rare in the coastal areas of the Aegean Sea and very rare in the coastal areas of the Mediterranean Sea.Acer Aspire 5920 Battery

Conditions can be much harsher in the more arid interior. Mountains close to the coast prevent Mediterranean influences from extending inland, giving the central Anatolian plateau of the interior of Turkey a continental climate with sharply contrasting seasons.IBM Thinkpad T40 Adapter

Winters on the plateau are especially severe. Temperatures of ?30 °C to ?40 °C (?22 °F to ?40 °F) can occur in eastern Anatolia, and snow may lie on the ground at least 120 days of the year. In the west, winter temperatures average below 1 °C (34 °F). Summers are hot and dry, with temperatures generally above 30 °C (86 °F) in the day.Nikon COOLPIX 4300 Battery

Annual precipitation averages about 400 millimetres (15 in), with actual amounts determined by elevation. The driest regions are the Konya plain and the Malatya plain, where annual rainfall frequently is less than 300 millimetres (12 in). May is generally the wettest month, whereas July and August are the driest.[Apple MB771 battery]

Economy

Turkey has the world's 15th largest GDP-PPP[79] and 17th largest Nominal GDP.[80] The country is a founding member of theOECD and the G-20 major economies. During the first six decades of the republic, between 1923 and 1983, Sony DSC-P5 Battery

Turkey has mostly adhered to a quasi-statist approach with strict government planning of the budget and government-imposed limitations over private sector participation, foreign trade, flow of foreign currency, and foreign direct investment.Dell Inspiron 6400 Adapter

However in 1983 Prime Minister Turgut Özal initiated a series of reforms designed to shift the economy from a statist, insulated system to a more private-sector, market-based model.[38]

The reforms spurred rapid growth, but this growth was punctuated by sharp recessions and financial crises in 1994, Toshiba PA3534U-1BRS Battery

1999 (following the earthquake of that year),[81] and 2001,[82] resulting in an average of 4% GDP growth per annum between 1981 and 2003.[83] Lack of additional fiscal reforms, combined with large and growing public sector deficits and widespread corruption, resulted in high inflation, a weak banking sector and increased macroeconomic volatility.[Sony NP-FP50 Battery]

Since the economic crisis of 2001 and the reforms initiated by the finance minister of the time, Kemal Dervi?, inflation has fallen to single-digit numbers, investor confidence and foreign investment have soared, and unemployment has fallen. The IMF forecasts a 6% inflation rate for Turkey in 2008.[HP Compaq nx7300 Adapter]

Turkey has gradually opened up its markets through economic reforms by reducing government controls on foreign trade and investment and the privatisationof publicly owned industries, and the liberalisation of many sectors to private and foreign participation has continued amid political debate.[Dell Latitude D820 Adapter]

The public debt to GDP ratio, while well below its levels during the recession of 2001, reached 46% in 2010 Q3. The GDP growth rate from 2002 to 2007 averaged 7.4%,[87]which made Turkey one of the fastest growing economies in the world during that period.Toshiba PA3399U-1BRS Battery

However, GDP growth slowed down to 4.5% in 2008,[88] and in early 2009 the Turkish economy was affected by the global financial crisis, with the IMF forecasting an overall recession of 5.1% for the year, compared to the Turkish government estimate of 3.6%.[Dell Studio XPS 1640 Battery]

In the early years of this century the chronically high inflation was brought under control and this led to the launch of a new currency, the Turkish new lira, on January 1, 2005, to cement the acquisition of the economic reforms and erase the vestiges of an unstable economy.[Dell Latitude D830 Battery]

On January 1, 2009, the new Turkish lira was renamed once again as the Turkish lira, with the introduction of new banknotes and coins. As a result of continuing economic reforms, inflation dropped to 8.2% in 2005, and the unemployment rate to 10.3%.[Dell Inspiron E1505 Adapter]

The tourism sector has experienced rapid growth in the last twenty years, and constitutes an important part of the economy. In 2008 there were 31 millionvisitors to the country, who contributed $22 billion to Turkey's revenues.[95] Other key sectors of the Turkish economy are banking, Asus Eee PC 1201PN battery

construction, home appliances, electronics, textiles, oil refining, petrochemical products, food, mining, iron and steel, machine industry and automotive. Turkey has a large and growing automotive industry, which produced 1,147,110 motor vehicles in 2008, ranking as the 6th largest producer in Europe (behind the United Kingdom and above Italy) and the 15th largest producer in the world.Dell PA-12 Adapter

Turkey is also one of the leading shipbuilding nations; in 2007 the country ranked 4th in the world (behind China, South Korea and Japan) in terms of the number of ordered ships, and also 4th in the world (behind Italy, USA and Canada) in terms of the number of ordered mega yachts.[Asus Eee PC 701 Adapter]

Turkey's economy is becoming more dependent on industry in major cities, mostly concentrated in the western provinces of the country, and less on agriculture. However, traditional agriculture is still a major pillar of the Turkish economy. In 2007, the agricultural sector accounted for 9% of GDP, while the industrial sector accounted for 31% and the services sector accounted for 59%.[Dell XPS M1330 Battery]

However, agriculture still accounted for 27% of employment.[99] In 2004, it was estimated that 46% of total disposable income was received by the top of 20% income earners, while the lowest 20% received 6%.[100] According toEurostat data, Turkish PPS GDP per capita stood at 45 per cent of the EU average in 2008.fujifilm np95 battery

Turkey has taken advantage of the European Union – Turkey Customs Union, signed in 1995, to increase its industrial production destined for exports, while at the same time benefiting from EU-origin foreign investment into the country. Turkey now has also opportunity of a free trade agreement with the European Union (EU) - without full membership - Asus Eee PC 900 Adapter

that allows it to manufacture for tarif-free sale throughout the EU market.

By 2007 exports had reached $115 billion[88] (main export partners: Germany 11%, UK 8%, Italy 7%, France 6%, Spain 4%, USA 4%; total EU exports 57%.) Sony VAIO PCG-713 Battery

However larger imports, which amounted to $162 billion in 2007,[88] threatened the balance of trade (main import partners: Russia 14%, Germany 10%, China 8%, Italy 6%, USA 5%, France 5%, Iran 4%, UK 3%; total EU imports 40%; total Asia imports 27%).[104][105] Turkey's exports amounted to $142 billion in 2008, while imports amounted to $205 billion.[Dell Latitude D830 Adapter]

After years of low levels of foreign direct investment (FDI), Turkey succeeded in attracting $22 billion in FDI in 2007 and is expected to attract a higher figure in following years.[Dell Studio XPS 1640 battery]

A series of large privatizations, the stability fostered by the start of Turkey's EU accession negotiations, strong and stable growth, and structural changes in the banking, retail, and telecommunications sectors have all contributed to a rise in foreign investment.[Panasonic LUMIX DMC-TZ4S  Battery]

Demographics

Life expectancy stands at 71.1 years for men and 75.3 years for women, with an overall average of 73.2 years for the populace as a whole.[108]Education is compulsory and free from ages 6 to 15. The literacy rate is 96% for men and 80.4% for women, with an overall average of 88.1%.[HP Compaq Business NX6320 Battery]

The low figures for women are mainly due to the traditional customs of the Arabs and Kurds who live in the southeastern provinces of the country.[110]

Article 66 of the Turkish Constitution defines a "Turk" as "anyone who is bound to the Turkish state through the bond of citizenship";Canon POWERSHOT G2 Battery

therefore, the legal use of the term "Turkish" as a citizen of Turkey is different from the ethnic definition. However, the majority of the Turkish population are ofTurkish ethnicity.

The Kurds, a distinct ethnic group concentrated mainly in the southeastern provinces of the country, are the largest non-Turkic ethnicity, estimated at about 18% of the population according to the CIA.[Dell Latitude E6500 battery]

Minorities other than the three officially recognized ones do not have any special group privileges, while the term "minority" itself remains a sensitive issue in Turkey. Reliable data on the ethnic mix of the population is not available, because Turkish census figures do not include statistics on ethnicity.[Dell LATITUDE D630 Battery]

Other major ethnic groups include the Abkhazians, Albanians, Arabs, Assyrians, Bosniaks, Circassians, Georgians, Hamshenis, Laz, Pomaks (Bulgarians),Roma, Zazas and the three officially recognized minorities (per the Treaty of Lausanne), i.e. the Armenians, Greeks and Jews. Signed on January 30, 1923, a bilateral accord of population exchange between Greece and Turkey took effect in the 1920s, with close to 1.5 million Greeks moving from Turkey and some 500,000 Turks coming from Greece.[Asus R33030 Adapter]

Minorities of West European origin include the Levantines (or Levanter, mostly of French, Genoese and Venetian descent) who have been present in the country (particularly in Istanbul[114] and ?zmir[115]) since the medieval period.Dell Mini 1011 battery

Urbanisation

More than 73.7 million people live in Turkey, nearly three-quarters of whom live in towns and cities. The population is increasing by 1.5% each year, according to the 2009 census. In 1927, when the first census was taken in Turkey, the population was 13.6 million.[toshiba pa3332u-1brs battery]

It has an average population density of 92 people per km². People within the 15–64 age group constitute 67% of the total population, the 0–14 age group is 26% of the population, and people 65 years old and above make up 7%.[HP Compaq 6710b Adapter]

Regions of Turkey with the largest populations are ?stanbul (+12 million), Ankara (+4.4 million), ?zmir (+3.7 million), Bursa (+2.4 million), Adana (+2.0 million) and Konya (+1.9 million).[118] An estimated 70.5% of the population live in urban centers.[HP Compaq nx6325 Adapter]

In all, 18 provinces have populations that exceed 1 million inhabitants, and 21 provinces have populations between 1 million and 500,000 inhabitants. Only two provinces have populations less than 100,000.Acer Aspire 5720 Adapter

Language

Turkish is the sole official language throughout Turkey. Reliable figures for the linguistic breakdown of the populace are not available for reasons similar to those cited above.[112] According to CIA the Turkish language is spoken by 70-75% of people and the Kurdish language by approximately 18% of people.[Toshiba Equium A110-252 Battery]

The public broadcaster TRT broadcasts programmes in the local languages and dialects of Arabic, Bosnian, Circassian and Kurdish a few hours a week.[122] A public television channel, TRT 6, which airs programs of Kurdish-language most of the time, was opened in early 2009.[123]Acer Aspire 5052ANWXMi Battery

Religion

Turkey is a secular state with no official state religion; the Turkish Constitution provides for freedom of religion and conscience.Islam is the dominant religion of Turkey, adhered to by about 97% of the population,a figure that exceeds 99% if secular people of Muslim background are included.Dell Mini 1011v battery

Research firms suggest the actual Muslim figure is around 98%, or 97%.

There are about 120,000 people who are Christians, including an estimated 60,000 Armenian Gregorians,[132] 35,000 Roman Catholics,[133] 17,000 Syriac Orthodox, 8,000 Chaldean Catholics, 3,000-4,000 Greek Orthodox,[HP Compaq nx7300 Adapter]

and smaller numbers of Bulgarian Orthodox, Georgian Orthodox, and Protestants. Today there are 236 churches open for worship in Turkey.[134] The Orthodox Church has been headquartered in Istanbul since the 4th century AD. Christiansrepresent less than 0.2% of Turkey's population, according to the CIA World Factbook,[Dell Vostro 1510 Battery]

and Christian organizations such as Joshua Project[136] andPersecution.org.[137]

There are about 26,000 people who are Jewish, the vast majority of whom are Sephardi.[138] <

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The Bahá'í Faith in Turkey has roots in Bahá'u'lláh's, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, Toshiba PA3534U-1BRS Battery

being exiled to Constantinople, current-day Istanbul, by the Ottoman authorities. Bahá'ís cannot register with the government officially[139] but there are probably 10[140] to 20[141] thousand Bahá'ís, and around a hundred Bahá'íLocal Spiritual Assemblies in Turkey.[142]Asus M50 battery

Though there are no exact figures on the Muslim sects, according to a 2006 survey, 82% were identified as Sunni Hanafi, 9.1% Sunni Shafi'i, and 5.7% were Alevi. Though academics suggest the Alevi population may be from 15 to 20 million.[143][144] Alevi community is sometimes classified within Twelver Shi'a Islam.Asus Eee PC 901 Battery

According to Aksiyon magazine, the number of Shiite Twelvers (excluding Alevis) is 3 million (4.2%), and they live in Istanbul, I?d?r, Kars, Ankara, ?zmir, Manisa, Çorum, Mu?la, A?r? and Ayd?n.[145] There are also some Sufi practitioners.[146] The highest Islamic religious authority is the Presidency of Religious Affairs (Turkish: Diyanet ??leri Ba?kanl???), Dell Inspiron 6400 Battery

it interprets the Hanafi school of law, and is responsible for regulating the operation of the country's 80,000 registered mosques and employing local and provincial imams.[147] The role of religion has been controversial debate over the years since the formation of Islamist parties.[HP Compaq Business NC6220 Battery]

Turkey was founded upon a strict secular constitution which forbids the influence of any religion, including Islam. There are sensitive issues, such as the fact that the wearing of the Hijab is banned in universities and public or government buildings as some view it as a symbol of Islam - though there have been efforts to lift the ban.Sony VGP-BPS9 battery

The vast majority of the present-day Turkish people are Muslim and the most popular sect is the Hanafite school of Sunni Islam, which was officially espoused by the Ottoman Empire; according to the KONDA Research and Consultancy survey carried out throughout Turkey on 2007:[Sony VGP-BPS13 battery]

40.8% defined themselves as "a religious person who strives to fulfill religious obligations" (religious); 42.3 % defined themselves as "a believer who does not fulfill religious obligations" (not religious); 4.0% defined themselves as "a fully devout person fulfilling all religious obligations" (fully devout); HP Compaq nx7300 Adapter

10.3% defined themselves as "someone who does not believe in religious obligations" (non-believer); and 4.09% defined themselves as "someone with no religious conviction" (atheist). Non-believers and atheists make up 15.2% of the population according to the KONDA Research and Consultancy survey.[8]HP Compaq 2510p Adapter

Culture

Turkey has a very diverse culture that is a blend of various elements of the O?uz Turkic, Anatolian, Ottoman (which was itself a continuation of both Greco-Roman andIslamic cultures) and Western culture and traditions, which started with the Westernization of the Ottoman Empire and still continues today. Dell Studio PP39L battery

This mix originally began as a result of the encounter of Turks and their culture with those of the peoples who were in their path during their migration from Central Asia to the West.

As Turkey successfully transformed from the religion-based former Ottoman Empire into a modern nation-state with a very strong separation of state and religion, an increase in the modes of artistic expression followed.Nikon COOLPIX 5700  Battery

During the first years of the republic, the government invested a large amount of resources into fine arts; such as museums, theatres, opera houses and architecture. Diverse historical factors play important roles in defining the modern Turkish identity. Turkish culture is a product of efforts to be a "modern" Western state, while maintaining traditional religious and historical values.Dell Studio XPS 16 battery

Turkish music and literature form great examples of such a mix of cultural influences, which were a result of the interaction between the Ottoman Empire and the Islamic world along with Europe, thus contributing to a blend of Turkic, Islamic and European traditions in modern-day Turkish music and literary arts.[HP Compaq nx7400 Adapter]

Turkish literature was heavily influenced by Persianand Arabic literature during most of the Ottoman era, though towards the end of the Ottoman Empire, particularly after theTanzimat period, the effect of both Turkish folk and European literary traditions became increasingly felt. HP Pavilion DV6500 Adapter

The mix of cultural influences is dramatized, for example, in the form of the "new symbols [of] the clash and interlacing of cultures" enacted in the works of Orhan Pamuk, winner of the 2006 Nobel Prize in Literature.[156] According to Konda public opinion researchers, 70% of Turkish citizens never read books.[Dell T117C battery]

Architectural elements found in Turkey are also testaments to the unique mix of traditions that have influenced the region over the centuries. In addition to the traditional Byzantine elements present in numerous parts of Turkey, many artifacts of the later Ottoman architecture, with its exquisite blend of local and Islamic traditions,Acer PA-1650-02 Adapter

are to be found throughout the country, as well as in many former territories of the Ottoman Empire. Mimar Sinan is widely regarded as the greatest architect of the classical period in Ottoman architecture. Since the 18th century, Turkish architecture has been increasingly influenced by Western styles,Acer Aspire 5920G Adapter

and this can be particularly seen in Istanbul where buildings like Dolmabahçeand Ç?ra?an Palaces are juxtaposed next to numerous modern skyscrapers, all of them representing different traditions.

Sports

The most popular sport in Turkey is football.[Asus S1 Adapter]

Turkey's top teams include Galatasaray, Fenerbahçe and Be?ikta?. In 2000, Galatasaray cemented its role as a major European club by winning the UEFA Cup and UEFA Super Cup. Two years later the Turkish national team finished third in the 2002 World Cup Finals in Japan and South Korea, while in 2008 the national team reached the semi-finals of the UEFA Euro 2008 competition. HP Pavilion dv6000 Battery

The Atatürk Olympic Stadium in Istanbul hosted the 2005 UEFA Champions League Final, while the ?ükrü Saraco?lu Stadium in Istanbul hosted the 2009 UEFA Cup Final.

Other mainstream sports such as basketball and volleyball are also popular. Ibm Thinkpad T30 Battery

Turkey hosted the finals of EuroBasket 2001 and the finals of the 2010 FIBA World Championship, winning second place on both occasions; while Efes Pilsen S.K. won the Korac Cup in 1996, finished second in the Saporta Cup of 1993, and made it to the Final Four of Euroleague and Suproleague in 2000 and 2001.[Dell Studio PP39L battery]

Turkish basketball players such as Mehmet Okur and Hidayet Türko?lu have also been successful in the NBA. Women's volleyball teams, namely Eczac?ba??, Vak?fbank Güne? Sigorta and Fenerbahçe Ac?badem, have won numerous European championship titles and medals.HP Pavilion dv5 Adapter

The traditional Turkish national sport has been ya?l? güre? (oiled wrestling) since Ottoman times.[161] Edirne has hosted the annual K?rkp?nar oiled wrestling tournament since 1361.[162] International wrestling styles governed by FILA such as Freestyle wrestling and Greco-Roman wrestling are also popular, HP Compaq Business NC6400 Battery

with many European, World and Olympic championship titles won by Turkish wrestlers both individually and as a national team.[163]

Weightlifting has been a successful Turkish sport. Turkish weightlifters, both male and female, have broken numerous world records and won several European,[HP Compaq 490306-001 battery]

World and Olympic[165]championship titles. Naim Süleymano?lu and Halil Mutlu have achieved legendary status as one of the few weightlifters to have won three gold medals in three Olympics.

Motorsport is another popular sport. Compaq Presario CQ35-100 battery

Rally of Turkey was included to the FIA World Rally Championship calendar in 2003,[166] and the Turkish Grand Prix was included to the Formula One racing calendar in 2005.[167] Other important annual motorsports events which are held at the Istanbul Park racing circuit include the MotoGP Grand Prix of Turkey,HP Compaq HSTNN-LB51 battery

the FIA World Touring Car Championship, the GP2 Series and the Le Mans Series. From time to time Istanbul and Antalya also host the Turkish leg of theF1 Powerboat Racing championship; while the Turkish leg of the Red Bull Air Race World Series, an air racing competition, takes place above the Golden Horn in Istanbul.HP Pavilion ZE4500 battery

Surfing, snowboarding, skateboarding, paragliding and other extreme sports are becoming more popular every year.

The economy of Turkey is largely developed. The country is among the world's leading producers of agricultural products; textiles; motor vehicles, ships and other transportation equipment; construction materials; HP G62-100EB battery

consumer electronics and home appliances. In recent years, Turkey had a rapidly growing private sector, yet the state still plays a major role in industry, banking, transport, and communications.

Macro-economic trends

Turkey has the world's 15th largest GDP-PPP[2] and 17th largest Nominal GDP.[HP Pavilion DV6-1211AX battery]

The country is a founding member of the OECD (1961) and theG-20 major economies (1999). Since December 31, 1995, Turkey is also a part of the EU Customs Union. Mean graduate pay was $10.02 per manhour in 2010.

The CIA classifies Turkey as a developed country.[HP Pavilion DV6-1220SO battery]

Turkey is often classified as a newly industrialized country by economists and political scientists; while Merrill Lynch, the World Bank and The Economist magazine describe Turkey as an emerging market economy.

The World Bank classifies Turkey as an upper-middle income country in terms of the country's per capita GDP in 2007.[HP EliteBook 6930P battery]

According to a survey byForbes magazine, Istanbul, Turkey's financial capital, had a total of 28 billionaires as of March 2010 (down from 35 in 2008), ranking 4th in the world behind Moscow (50 billionaires), New York City (60 billionaires) and London (32 billionaires).[HP Pavilion DV6-1210SA battery]

Effect of the Global Financial Crisis

Like many economies, the Turkish economy has been affected by the global financial crisis with its Finance Ministry reporting that Turkey's budget deficit swelled to 23.2 billion Turkish liras ($15 billion) in the first half of 2009, 13 times higher than a year earlier.[Compaq Presario CQ71 battery]

Nevertheless, The Economist points out that:[17

Yet in many ways Turkey has weathered the credit crunch better than other emerging economies. Partly thanks to tough regulation, not a single Turkish bank has gone under. HP Pavilion DV7-1290EO battery

That is also because, unlike many Western banks, they have few toxic assets and limited mortgage exposure. So the government has not had to divert public money into rescuing banks.HP G6000 battery

In 2009, the Turkish Government introduced various economic stimulus measures to reduce the impact of the financial crisis such as temporary tax cuts on automobiles, home appliances and housing. As a result, the production of durable consumer goods increased by 7.2%, despite a decrease in automotive production.[HP HDX X18-1005EA battery]

The Turkish Stock Market and credit rating agencies have responded positively. Share prices in Turkey nearly doubled over the course of 2009. According to The Economist, in the period December 2008 - December 2009 the Turkish stockmarket rose the most in the world after Argentina's stockmarket.[HP Pavilion DV6-3013SL battery]

On 8 January 2010, International credit rating agency Moody's upgraded Turkey's rating with a notch.[23] The credit rating agencyFitch upgraded Turkey’s sovereign rating two notches to BB+. Turkey is one of the few countries that upgraded it's rating with two notches.HP Compaq HSTNN-IB62 battery

Agricultural sector

As of March 2007, Turkey is the world's largest producer of hazelnut, cherry, fig, apricot, quince and pomegranate; the second largest producer ofwatermelon, cucumber and chickpea; the third largest producer of tomato, eggplant, green pepper, lentil and pistacchio; HP Pavilion DV6100 battery

the fourth largest producer of onion and olive; the fifth largest producer of sugar beet; the sixth largest producer of tobacco, tea and apple; the seventh largest producer ofcotton and barley; the eighth largest producer of almond; the ninth largest producer of wheat, rye and grapefruit, and the tenth largest producer oflemon.[HP EliteBook 2730P battery]

Turkey has been self-sufficient in food production since the 1980s. The agricultural output has been growing at a respectable rate. However, since the 1980s, agriculture has been in a state of decline in comparison to the total economy.

The country's large agricultural sector accounted for 29.5% of the employment in 2009.[HP Pavilion DV9000 battery]

Historically, Turkey's farmers have been fairly fragmented. According to the 1990 Census, "85% of agricultural holdings were under 10 hectares and 57% of these were fragmented into four or more non-contiguous plots."[25] Many old agricultural attitudes remain widespread, but these traditions are expected to change with the EU accession process. HP Pavilion DV7 battery

Turkey is dismantling the incentive system. Fertiliser and pesticide subsidies have been curtailed and remaining price supports have been gradually converted to floor prices. The government has also initiated many planned projects, such as the Southeastern Anatolia Project (G.A.P project). HP Pavilion DV7-1290EO battery

The advent of the G.A.P promises a very prosperous future for the southeastern agriculture.[26] The program includes 22 dams, 19 hydraulic power plants, and the irrigation of 1.82 million hectares of land.[27] The total cost of the project is estimated at $32 billion.[HP Compaq Business 6735S battery]

The total installed capacity of power plants is 7476 MW and projected annual energy production reaches 27 billion kWh.[27]

The livestock industry, compared to the initial years of the Republic, showed little improvement in productivity, and the later years of the decade saw stagnation. HP 540 battery

However, livestock products, including meat, milk, wool, and eggs, contributed to more than ? of the value of agricultural output. Fishing is another important part of the economy; in 2005 Turkish fisheries harvested 545,673 tons of fish and aquaculture.HP Compaq Business NW9440 battery

Consumer electronics and home appliances

Turkey's Vestel Electronics is the largest TV producer in Europe, accounting for 21% of all TV sets manufactured and sold on the continent in 2007.[ ] By January 2005, Vestel and its rival Turkish electronics and white goods brand BEKO accounted for more than half of all TV sets manufactured in Europe.[HP Compaq Business  TC4400 battery]

Another Turkish electronics brand, Profilo-Telra, was Europe's third largest TV producer in 2005.[31] EU market share of Turkish companies in consumer electronics has increased significantly following the Customs Union agreement signed between the EU and Turkey:HP Compaq 491278-001 battery

in color TVs from 5% in 1995 to more than 50% in 2005, in digital devices from 3% to 15%, and in white goods from 3% to 18%.

Textiles and clothing

Turkish companies made clothing exports worth $13.98 billion in 2006; more than $10.67 billion of which (76.33%) were made to the EU member states.[HP HSTNN-LB31 battery]

And now after changing in the climate the China leads with share rises to 46% and in some cases China is more than 50% in several clothing categories and Turkey is the second supplier to Europe with a market share of 12.6% after competing with Morocco and Tunisia.[HP Pavilion DV5-1211EM  battery]

Motor vehicles and automotive products

Turkey has a large and growing automotive industry, which produced 1,024,987 motor vehicles in 2006,[34] ranking as the 7th largest automotive producer in Europe; behind Germany (5,819,614), France (3,174,260), Spain (2,770,435), the United Kingdom (1,648,388), Russia (1,508,358) and Italy (1,211,594), respectively.[HP Pavilion DV3-4000  battery]

In 2008 Turkey produced 1,147,110 motor vehicles, ranking as the 6th largest producer in Europe (behind the United Kingdom and above Italy) and the 15th largest producer in the world.

The automotive industry is an important part of the economy since the late 1960s.HP Pavilion TX1000   battery

The companies that operate in the sector are mainly located in theMarmara Region. With a cluster of car-makers and parts suppliers, the Turkish automotive sector has become an integral part of the global network of production bases, exporting over $22,944,000,000 worth of motor vehicles and components in 2008.HP Pavilion DV6-1210SA  battery

Shipbuilding

Turkey is also one of the leading shipbuilding nations; in 2007 Turkish shipyards ranked 4th in the world (behind China, South Korea and Japan) in terms of the number of ordered ships, and also 4th in the world (behind Italy, USA and Canada) in terms of the number of ordered mega yachts.[HP 448007-001 battery]

Arms industry

Turkey has many modern armament manufacturers. Annual exports reached $832 million in 2009.[41]MKEK, TAI, Aselsan, Roketsan, Fnss, Otokar, andHavelsan are major manufacturers. On July 11 2002, Turkey became a Level 3 partner of the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) development program. HP Compaq Business  6530B  battery

TAI builds various aircrafts such as F-16 Block 50+ for the TuAF.Turkey will build new military/intelligence satellites including a 0.8m resolution reconnaissance satellite (Project Göktürk-1) for use by the Turkish Armed Forces and a 2m resolution reconnaissance satellite (Project Göktürk-2) for use by the Turkish National Intelligence Organization.HP Pavilion DV5-1211EM  battery

Other important products are M?TÜP Altay, Milgem stealth warship, Aselsan ?zci UGV (Unmanned Ground Vehicle), T-155 F?rt?na, J-600T missile, T-129 ATAK, UMTAS, Roketsan Cirit, Panter Howitzer, ACV-300, Otokar Cobra and Akrep, FNSS Pars, TOROS artillery rocket system, Bayraktar Mini UAV, ASELPOD.HP Pavilion DV5-1015EA  battery

Construction and contracting sector

The Turkish construction and contracting industry is one of the leading, most competitive and dynamic construction/contracting industries in the world. In 2009 a total of 33 Turkish construction/contracting companies were selected for the Top International Contractors List prepared by the Engineering News-Record, HP Pavilion DV6-1230SB battery

which made the Turkish construction/contracting industry the world's 2nd largest, ranking behind those of China.

As of 2009, there were 102 airports (90 with paved runways and 12 with unpaved runways) in Turkey, including the seven international airports in Istanbul, Ankara, ?zmir, Trabzon, Dalaman, Milas-Bodrum and Antalya.[HP Pavilion ZD8181EA  battery]

There were also 21 heliports in the country during the same year.[50]

The rail network was 8,697 km in 2008, including 2,133 km of electrified track.[50] The Turkish State Railwaysstarted building high-speed rail lines in 2003.HP Pavilion DV9500  battery

The first line, which has a length of 533 km from Istanbul (Turkey's largest metropolis) via Eski?ehir to Ankara (the capital) is under construction and will reduce the travelling time from 6–7 hours to 3 hours and 10 minutes. The Ankara-Eski?ehir section of the line, which has a length of 245 km and a projected travel time of 65 minutes, is completed. HP Pavilion DV4-1125BR  battery

Trials began on April 23, 2007, and revenue earning service began on March 13, 2009. The Eski?ehir-Istanbul section of the line is scheduled to be completed by 2009, and includes the Marmaray tunnel which will enter service in 2012 and establish the first direct railway connection between Europe and Anatolia.HP Pavilion DV5-1111EA Battery

In 2006 the country had a roadway network of 426,951 km, including 1,987 km of expressways, ranking 13th in the world.[50]

As of 2008, the Turkish merchant marine included 612 ships, ranking 19th in the world.[50] Turkey's coastline has 1,200 km of navigable waterways.[HP Pavilion DV6-1234TX   battery]

In 2008, 7,555 kilometres (4,694 mi) of natural gas pipelines and 3,636 kilometres (2,259 mi) of petroleum pipelines spanned the country's territory.[50]

Communications

As of 2008, there were 17,502,000 operational main line telephones in Turkey, which ranked 18th in the world;[HP Pavilion DV3-2008TX  battery]

while there were 65,824,000 registered cell phones in the country, which ranked 15th in the world during the same year.[50]

The telecommunications liberalisation process started in 2004 after the creation of the Telecommunication Authority, and is still ongoing. Private sector companies operate in mobile telephony, long distance telephony and Internet access. HP Pavilion DV8  battery

Additional digital exchanges are permitting a rapid increase in subscribers; the construction of a network of technologically advanced intercity trunk lines, using both fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay, is facilitating communication between urban centers.[HP Pavilion DV6-1215SA  battery]

The remote areas of the country are reached by a domestic satellite system, while the number of subscribers to mobile-cellular telephone service is growing rapidly.[50]

The main line international telephone service is provided by the SEA-ME-WE-3 submarine cable and by submarine fiber-optic cables in the Mediterranean and Black Seas that link Turkey with Italy, HP Compaq 490306-001  battery

Greece, Israel, Bulgaria, Romania, and Russia.[50] In 2002, there were 12 Intelsat satellite earth stations; and 328 mobile satellite terminals in the Inmarsat and Eutelsat systems.[50]

As of 2001, there were 16 AM, 107 FM, and 6 shortwave radio stations in the country.[Compaq Presario CQ50  battery]

As of 2008, there were 24,483,000 internet users in Turkey, which ranked 15th in the world;[50] while as of 2009, there were 2,961,000 internet hosts in the country, which ranked 27th in the world.[50]

Tourism sector

Tourism is one of the most dynamic and fastest developing sectors in Turkey.HP Pavilion DV6-1223EO  battery

According to travel agencies TUI AG andThomas Cook, 11 of the 100 best hotels of the world are located in Turkey.[51] In 2005, there were 24,124,501 visitors to the country, who contributed $18.2 billion to Turkey's revenues, with an average expenditure of $679 per tourist.[HP Compaq 490306-001  battery]

In 2008, the number of visitors rose to 30,929,192, who contributed $21.9 billion to Turkey's revenues.[53] Over the years, Turkey has emerged as a popular tourist destination for many Europeans, competing with Greece, Italy and Spain. Resorts in provinces such as Antalya and Mu?la (which are located on the Turkish Riviera) have become very popular among tourists.Compaq Presario CQ35-100   battery

Financial sector

The Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyet Merkez Bankas?) was founded in 1930, as a privileged joint-stock company. It possesses the sole right to issue notes. It also has the obligation to provide for the monetary requirements of the state agricultural and commercial enterprises. HP Compaq HSTNN-LB51  battery

All foreign exchange transfers are exclusively handled by the central bank.

Originally established as the Ottoman Stock Exchange (Dersaadet Tahvilat Borsas?) in 1866, and reorganized to its current structure at the beginning of 1986, the Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE) is the sole securities market of Turkey.[HP Pavilion ZE4500  battery]

During the 19th and early 20th centuries, Bankalar Caddesi (Banks Street) in Istanbul was the financial center of the Ottoman Empire, where the headquarters of the Ottoman Central Bank (established as the Bank-? Osmanî in 1856, and later reorganized as the Bank-? Osmanî-i ?ahane in 1863)[55] and the Ottoman Stock Exchange (1866) were located.[HP G62-100EB  battery]

Bankalar Caddesi continued to be Istanbul's main financial district until the 1990s, when most Turkish banks began moving their headquarters to the modern central business districts of Levent andMaslak.[56] In 1995, the Istanbul Stock Exchange moved to its current building in the Istinye quarter.[HP Pavilion DV6-1211AX  battery]

The Istanbul Gold Exchange was also established in 1995. The stock market capitalisation of listed companies in Turkey was valued at $161,537,000,000 in 2005 by the World Bank.[58]

Until 1991, establishing a private sector bank in Turkey wasn't easy and was subject to strict government controls and regulations.HP EliteBook 6930P   battery

On 10 October 1991 (ten days before the general elections of 20 October 1991) the ANAP government of Prime Minister Mesut Y?lmaz gave special permissions to five prominent businessmen (who had close links to the government) to establish their own small-scale private banks. HP Pavilion DV9500  battery

These were Kentbank (owned by Süzer); Park Yat?r?m Bankas? (owned by Karamehmet); Toprakbank (owned by Toprak); Bank Ekspres (owned by Betil); and Alternatif Bank (owned by Do?an.) They were followed by other small-scale private banks established between 1994 and 1995, Compaq Evo N610C  battery

during the DYP government of Prime Minister Tansu Çiller, who introduced drastic changes to the banking laws and regulations; which made it very easy to establish a bank in Turkey, but also opened many loopholes in the system. In 1998, there were 72 banks in Turkey;HP Pavilion DM3-1050EO battery

most of which were owned by construction companies that used them as financial assets for siphoning money into their other operations. As a result, in 1999 and 2001, the DSP government of Prime Minister Bülent Ecevit had to face two major economic crises that were caused mostly by the weak and loosely regulated banking sector; the growing trade deficit;Compaq Presario 1245  battery

and the devastating ?zmit earthquake of 17 August 1999. The Turkish lira, which was pegged to the U.S. dollar prior to the crisis of 2001, had to be floated, and lost an important amount of its value. This financial breakdown reduced the number of banks to 31.HP G6000  battery

Prime Minister Bülent Ecevit had to call the renowned economist Kemal Dervi? to tidy up the economy and especially the weak banking system so that a similar economic crisis would not happen again.

At present, the Turkish banking sector is among the strongest and most expansive in East Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia.HP Compaq 451086-661  battery

During the past decade since 2001, the Turkish lira has also gained a considerable amount of value and maintained its stability, becoming an internationally exchangeable currency once again (in line with the inflation that dropped to single-digit figures since 2003.) The economy grew at an average rate of 7.8% between 2002 and 2005. HP Pavilion DV2166EA  battery

Fiscal deficit is benefiting (though in a small amount) from large industrial privatizations. Banking came under stress beginning in October 2008 as Turkish banking authorities warned state-run banks against the pullback of loans from the larger financial sectors.[HP Compaq 464119-143  battery]

More than 34% of the assets in the Turkish banking sector are concentrated in the Agricultural Bank (Ziraat Bankas?), Housing Bank (Yap? Kredi Bankas?), Isbank (Türkiye ?? Bankas?) and Akbank. The five big state-owned banks were restructured in 2001. Political involvement was minimized and loaning policies were changed. Compaq Presario CQ71  battery

There are also numerous international banks, which have branches in Turkey. A number of Arabian trading banks, which practice an Islamic banking, are also present in the country.

Government regulations passed in 1929 required all insurance companies to reinsure 30% of each policy with the Millî Reasürans T.A.?.HP Pavilion DV9565EA  battery

(National Reinsurance Corporation) which was founded on February 26, 1929.[60] In 1954, life insurance was exempted from this requirement. The insurance market is officially regulated through the Ministry of Commerce.

After years of low levels of foreign direct investment (FDI), in 2007 Turkey succeeded in attracting $21.9 billion in FDI and is expected to attract a higher figure in following years.[HP Pavilion DV6203TX battery]

A series of large privatizations, the stability fostered by the start of Turkey’s EU accession negotiations, strong and stable growth, and structural changes in the banking, retail, and telecommunications sectors have all contributed to the rise in foreign investment.[HP Pavilion DV7-1290EO  battery]

In recent years, the chronically high inflation has been brought under control and this has led to the launch of a new currency, the "New Turkish lira", on January 1, 2005, to cement the acquisition of the economic reforms and erase the vestiges of an unstable economy.[HP HSTNN-OB51  battery]

On January 1, 2009, the New Turkish lira was renamed once again as the "Turkish lira", with the introduction of new banknotesand coins.

Turkey is a very large source of foreign direct investment in central and eastern Europe and the CIS, with more than $1.5 billion invested. HP Pavilion DV7-2185DX  battery

32% has been invested in Russia, primarily in the natural resources and construction sector, and 46% in Turkey’s Black Sea neighbours, Bulgaria and Romania. Turkish companies also have sizable FDI stocks in Poland, at about $100 million.

The construction and contracting companies have been significant players, such as Enka, Tekfen, Gama, and Üçgen ?n?aat, as well as the three industrial groups, Anadolu Efes Group, ?i?eCam Group and Vestel Group.HP Compaq Business  6830S  battery

The exports reached $115.3 billion in 2007, but imports rose to $162.1 billion, mostly due to the rising demand for energy resources like natural gas and crude oil.[5] Turkey targets exports of $200 billion in 2013, and a total trade of at least $450 billion. There has been a considerable shift in exports in the last two decades. HP PP2200 battery

Share of natural gas decreased from 74% in 1980 to 30% in 1990 and 12% in 2005. Share of mid and high technology products has increased from 5% in 1980 to 14% in 1990 and 43% in 2005.

The main trading partners are the European Union, which accounted for 59% of exports and 52% of imports in 2005,Compaq CQ50 battery

the United States, Russia and Japan. Turkey has taken advantage of a customs union with the European Union, signed in 1995, to increase industrial production for exports, while benefiting from EU-origin foreign investment into the country.

Minerals

Turkey is the tenth ranked producer of minerals in the world in terms of diversity. Around 60 different minerals are currently produced in Turkey. HP Pavilion DV8 battery

The richest mineral deposits in the country are boronsalts and Turkey’s reserves amount to 72% of the world’s total. According to the CIA World Factbook, other natural resources include coal, iron ore, copper, Sony VGP-BPS13 battery

chromium, uranium, antimony, mercury,gold, barite, borate, celestine (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower, and geothermal power.HP DV9700 battery

Petroleum and natural gas

Turkey is an oil and natural gas producer, but the level of production isn't large enough to make the country self-sufficient, which makes Turkey a net importer of both oil and gas. However, the recent discovery of new oil and natural gas fields in the country, particularly off the Black Sea coast of northern Anatolia;Compaq CQ35-100 battery

as well as in Eastern Thrace, the Gulf of ?skenderun and in the provinces of the Southeastern Anatolia Region near the borders with Syria and Iraq; will help Turkey to reach a higher degree of self-sufficiency in energy production.HP Pavilion DV6-1223EO Battery

The pipeline network in Turkey included 1,738 kilometres (1,080 mi) for crude oil, 2,321 kilometres (1,442 mi) for petroleum products, and 708 kilometres (440 mi) for natural gas in 1999. The Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline, the second longest oil pipeline in the world, was inaugurated on May 10, 2005. Sony VGP-BPS11 battery

The pipeline delivers crude oil from the Caspian Sea basin to the port of Ceyhan on Turkey'sMediterranean coast, from where it is distributed with oil tankers to the world's markets. The planned Nabucco Pipeline will also pass from Turkey and provide the European Union member states withnatural gas from the Caspian Sea basin. HP 448007-001 battery

The Blue Stream, a major trans-Black Sea gas pipeline, is operational since November 17, 2005, and delivers natural gas from Russia to Turkey. The Tabriz–Ankara pipeline is a 2,577 kilometres (1,601 mi) long natural gas pipeline, which runs from Tabriz in northwestern Iran to Ankara in Turkey. Sony Vaio VGN-CR190E/L Battery

The pipeline was commissioned on July 26, 2001. InErzurum, the South Caucasus Pipeline, which was commissioned on May 21, 2006, is linked to the Iran-Turkey pipeline. In the future, these two pipelines will be among the main supply routes for the planned Nabucco Pipeline from Turkey to Europe.Dell Inspiron 6400 AC Adapter

Nuclear energy

To cover the increasing energy needs of its population and ensure the continued raising of its living standard, Turkey plans several nuclear power plants. Nuclear power proposals were presented as early as in the 1960s , but plans were repeatedly canceled even after bids were made by interested manufacturers because of high costs and safety concerns. Dell LATITUDE D800 battery

Turkey has always chosenCandu nuclear reactors because they burn natural uranium which is cheap and available locally and because they can be refueled online. This has caused uneasy feelings among Turkey's neighbours because they are ideal for producing weapons-grade plutonium. Apple A1280 battery 

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