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The survey confirmed a low level of fraud within the public sector, but nevertheless, the OAG acknowledges that "fraud is a fact of business life in New Zealand"[18] and that there had been "an unprecedented number of high profile requests for (the OAG) to inquire into" in 2011/12.[19] The Auditor General also found that the larger the organisation, the more likely fraud was to occur.HP 9J.N0Y82.H01 Keyboard

For government entities with more than 2,000 staff, 61% of respondents were aware of at least one incident of fraud at their organisation in the preceding 12 months.[20]

In addition to an increase in fraud, the OAG's Annual Report for 2011 rated almost half of central government entities as "needing to improve" their management of information and controls.[21] HP 517865-031 Keyboard

This appears to relate to the high number of confidential information breaches by Government departments in 2012.[22] ACC sent out 7,000 confidential files to Bronwyn Pullar[23] and computer systems at Work and Income were found to be open to anyone using their public kiosks.[24]  Lenovo 0A62039 Keyboard

An independent report highlighted the risk with the kiosks in April 2011 and a beneficiary advocate had twice raised concerns. The warnings were ignored and Social Development Minister Paula Bennett acknowledged the privacy breach had exposed "atrocious" practices and that the ministry "woefully underestimated" the risk of hacking.[25] DELL Vostro A860 Keyboard

Although information breaches do not automatically lead to fraud or corruption, they have the potential to. They demonstrate poor governance, inadequate protocols and undermine confidence in the institution of government[26] – as does corruption. State Services Commissioner Iain Rennie has formally asked the Government chief information officer Colin McDonald to carry out an urgent review of publicly accessible systems operated by State Services. HP Pavilion DV3000 Keyboard

Given these differing views, the extent of corrupt practice in New Zealand is not entirely clear – even in the public sector. One especially blurred case involves the Corrections Department. In 2010 the Dominion Post reported that the Department failed to disclose to Parliament a huge contract it gave to one company by claiming that the company provides services and maintenance but "the contract is not to a contractor".[2ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Keyboard

That company was Honeywell – a multinational technology and security firm which Corrections used to install cell phone blocking technology. Originally budgeted at $6 million, the cost of the service blew out to $11 million. Several former Honeywell employees work for Corrections, manage Corrections' contract with Honeywell and even approve payments to Honeywell. HP G42-415DX Keyboard

The Dominion Post said the undisclosed contract was among hundreds of contracts worth tens of millions of dollars which Corrections has with consultants and contractors that were never tendered.[27] The editor of the Dominion Post was sufficiently concerned about the dubious nature of Corrections contracting arrangements to suggest there should be an independent inquiry.[2SONY VAIO PCG-FRV25 Keyboard

A few questions were raised in Parliament about the Corrections Department's procurement processes but no inquiry was held.

A much clearer case was that of former Auditor General and ACC boss, Jeff Chapman, who in 1997 was convicted of 10 charges of fraudulently using documents totalling $54,594. DELL Inspiron M5030 Keyboard

He was sentenced to 18 months in prison.[29] One of the biggest public sector cases was that of Michael Swann who was chief information officer of the Otago District Health Board. He was convicted of defrauding the DHB of approximately $16.9 million between 2000 and 2006 and was sentenced to nine years six months in prison. HP 519265-001 Keyboard

On a smaller scale, tax department investigator Alex Song, was sentenced to three months' home detention in 2008 for soliciting $120,000 to make a tax investigation go away.[10]

The immigration section of the Labour Department also has problems with fraud. It has a fraud unit which investigates the sale of fake degrees, sham marriages and bogus job offers to aid residency applications to New Zealand. Lenovo 45N2106 Keyboard

In 2005, former head of the immigration unit, Mary Anne Thompson, told the New Zealand Herald: "We come across many cases every year where people have tried to provide forged documents for qualifications, marriages that are not genuine...it’s pretty brazen and out there, and that’s a worry." National’s Asian affairs spokeswoman Pansy Wong said she had spent years complaining to officials about the scams, but nothing had been done.[30HP 365485-001 Keyboard

Ironically, Ms Thompson was forced to resign three years later after using her position to help three family members from Kiribati gain residency.[31] In 2012 she was found guilty of fraud after pleading guilty to three counts of using a document for pecuniary advantage. She claimed on her CV she held a PhD from the London School of Economics (LSE) – credentials she used when applying for New Zealand public service jobs in 1989, 1998 and 2004.[ DELL Vostro 1014 Keyboard

Another high-profile case involving a forged CV was that of Canadian John Davy who was appointed head of Maori TV after claiming he held a master of business administration degree. His case was taken much more seriously by the Courts; he was only in the job for three months but was sent to prison and then deported. FUJITSU Lifebook E8210 Keyboard

According to one editorial, "he did no harm after dishonestly getting his job" while Ms Thompson benefited from her fraud for much longer but was simply told her offence was 'out of character'.

The private sector in New Zealand has seen a significant increase in fraudulent activity in the last 30 years. TOSHIBA 9Z.N4WSC.001 Keyboard

Although there have been earlier company failures due to fraud – such as the collapse of Jeff Brother's Ltd (JBL) in 1972 – financial turmoil in New Zealand came to a head in the stockmarket crash of 1987. The crash followed a sharemarket boom in the early 1980s during which investment companies like Brierleys, Chase Corporation,  FUJITSU Siemens M1010 Keyboard

Equiticorp, Robert Jones Investments, Renouf Corporation and Capital Market had huge increases in value by issuing shares to the public. The National Business Review suggested at the time that unsophisticated New Zealand investors were 'bedazzled by paper shuffling'.[34]  GATEWAY V030946FS1 US Keyboard

Apparently little of the newly raised equity was going into real projects and financial commentator Brian Gaynor subsequently commented that "There were endless media comments about inside trading, creative accounting, poor disclosure and huge paper profits for IPO promoters."

As a result of the crash, many companies on the NZ stock exchange disappeared, wiping out millions in shareholders’ funds.  SONY 148738121 Keyboard

In 1989 alone, almost 3,000 companies became insolvent – the collapse of the high-flying Equiticorp stood out as one of the largest. These turbulent events led to the establishment of the Serious Fraud Office to investigate complex cases of fraud including bribery and corruption.[35] Allan Hawkins, the founder of Equiticorp, was one of the first to be pursued by the SFO.  DELL PVDG3 Keyboard

He was convicted of conspiring to dishonestly use a system designed to disguise the source and disposition of money and four counts of defrauding his own company. He was sentenced to six years in prison while other Equiticorp directors were jailed for shorter terms.[36]

The stock market eventually settled down but fell in value from $45.5 billion before the crash to only $14 billion by 1991.[37]  DELL INSPIRON 1464 Keyboard

However, financial institutions in New Zealand continued to run close to the wind. In July 2007, Bridgecorp collapsed owing 14,500 people about $490 million. The five directors were convicted of making untrue statements in the company's offer documents and the judge sentenced Rod Petricevic and Rob Roest to six and a half years in prison.[38] DELL Vostro 3350 Keyboard

Also in 2007, Capital + Merchant Finance collapsed owing $167 million to 7500 investors with the directors facing numerous charges arising out of its demise.[39] Wayne Douglas and Neal Nicholls, the founding directors of Capital+Merchant were found guilty of 'theft by a person in a special relationship' and jailed for seven and a half years each – the longest sentences so far given to failed finance company directors.[40]  DELL Precision M4500 Keyboard

One of the largest finance companies to fall was South Canterbury Finance in 2010 with debts of $1.7 billion. Charges were laid by the SFO against the owner, Allan Hubbard, but the case against him was dropped after he died in a car crash.[41] Also in 2010 Stephen Versalko was sent to prison after committing the biggest case of employee theft in New Zealand. HP Pavilion dv6-3040sp Keyboard

Versalko stole $17.8 million from wealthy clients while working as an investment adviser at the ASB's Remuera branch.[42] In 2012,KPMG released its latest fraud figures for New Zealand showing losses in 2011 were $279 million.[6] Altogether since 2005, more than 50 finance firms have failed, leaving billions of dollars owed to retail investors, lengthy legal tussles and jail sentences for an increasing number of company directors.[43] HP 519265-001 Keyboard

Finance companies aren't the only ones being investigated by the SFO. In 2012 SFO chief Adam Feeley said "We opened 40 new investigations in the last financial year, the most cases the SFO has ever taken on in a year, none of them were finance companies.[44] We do have a problem [with financial crime], it's endemic in every sector of business, HP G42-415DX Keyboard

it exists in the public sector, it's a transnational problem and it's not getting any smaller." In November 2012, the SFO began investigating Ross Asset Management (RAM), possibly New Zealand's largest ever Ponzi scheme, after receivers revealed that only $10m had been recovered of the $450 million which had been invested.[45] Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Keyboard

The following month it was reported that the Financial Markets Authority (FMA) was investigating the role of financial advisors who recommended their clients put money into the scheme. Investor spokesman Bruce Tichbon said some investors had already started legal action against authorised advisors who put them into RAM.  HP Mini 210-1109TU Keyboard

The SFO also warns of a rise in "affinity crimes", where in the wake of the collapse of finance companies run by strangers there is a trend for people to feel their trust is better placed in people they know. One such case was that of Jacqui Bradley who in 2012 was convicted on 75 fraud charges relating to a Ponzi scheme that stripped $15.5 million off 28 victims – many of them her personal friends.[47] SONY VAIO VGN-FS315Z Keyboard

Another case was that of Anthony Allison, a stockbroker who was jailed for 4 years after stealing $1.1 million from friends and clients to fund his lavish lifestyle. Allison offered to take care of the finances of family friends and wealthy clients he met through the Parnell Tennis Club and then plundered their bank accounts. HP Pavilion G6-1227TU Keyboard

A study by tax lecturer, Dr Lisa Marriott, of Victoria University has found there is 150 times more tax fraud in New Zealand than welfare fraud[49] – but those who commit welfare fraud are more likely to go to prison.[50] She examined three years of tax evasion and welfare fraud and found that welfare fraud was also significantly more likely to be prosecuted than tax fraud – despite substantially greater losses from the latter. HP AEUT5U00010 Keyboard

In 2010 alone, tax evaders cheated the country of between $1 billion and $6 billion, while welfare fraud cost only $39 million. In 2012, 714 people were convicted for defrauding taxpayers of $23.4million.[51]

The total amount owed back to the Government from welfare fraud was about $106 million because most of those convicted were only able to pay back very small amounts.[52] HP Mini 110-3004tu Keyboard

SONY V072078BS1 Keyboard

The average amount stolen by welfare fraudsters was $70,000, and those found guilty had a 60 per cent chance of being jailed. For tax evaders the average fraud was $270,000, but those found guilty had only a 22 per cent chance of being jailed. For example, a welfare fraudster who stole $148,000 – at the upper end of the scale for welfare fraud – received 18 months in prison.SONY VAIO VGN-NR11M/S Keyboard

A woman who received an extra $51,000 over five years from Work and Income was given a 12-month prison term.[53] Meanwhile, a tax cheat who failed to pay $222,000 in tax – at the lower end of the prosecution scale – got eight months' home detention and 250 hours' community service. In 2012 Antoinette Cherrington, Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Keyboard

a Bay of Islands businesswoman pleaded guilty to 59 charges relating to the non-payment of $109,358 in tax and was sentenced to home detention and community work.[54] Another tax cheat who avoided paying $500,000 was only sentenced to 12 months' home detention.[50]

Marriott found that public attitudes towards tax evasion were indulgent, sometimes admiring, while beneficiaries were considered "scroungers or cheats". ACER Extensa 5635Z Keyboard

Commenting on the results of the study, Revenue Minister Peter Dunne. “I don't think that's fair.”[55] Auckland Action Against Poverty spokeswoman Sarah Thompson said: "We have a cult of prejudice against beneficiaries. This research shows not only is that belief unfounded, but it's wrong. Tax evaders are ripping off the country to a much greater extent than beneficiaries are." Lenovo 45N2106 Keyboard

The term ‘police corruption’ has been used to describe a range of unethical or illegal activities: bribery; excessive use of force; fabrication and destruction of evidence; racism; and, favouritism or nepotism. Police corruption generally involves an abuse of power – what is corrupted is the ‘special trust’ invested in the police. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E525 Keyboard

Corruption in the police service is not necessarily about money but may still involve unethical or illegal behaviour for personal gain – such as the kudos of gaining a conviction or the possibility of promotion.[citation needed]

One example of police corruption in New Zealand was that of Arthur Allan Thomas. HP Pavilion DV7-3060us Keyboard

Thomas was convicted twice for murdering Harvey and Jeanette Crewe after two detectives, Bruce Hutton and Len Johnston, planted a cartridge case in the garden of the house where the murders were committed to secure a conviction against him.[56] Author Chris Birt, who spent 37 years studying the Crewe murders, believes that Hutton and Johnston 'were not alone'.  Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E120 Keyboard

He says Hutton was pressured by the head of the national Criminal Investigation Branch, Bob Walton, to come up with a "solution" to the murders.[57]

Former police inspector, Ross Meurant, who searched the Crewe's property at the time (and failed to find a cartridge) says he was also pressured by Walton to change his evidence at the Royal Commission which was held into the case nine years later. IBM 42T3671 Keyboard

Meurant says: "It's true that New Zealand is largely free of blatant corruption – such as kickbacks, bribes and inducements for the personal gain of officers – but in its place has emerged a corruption of zealousness; where police break the law to put someone behind bars because of the belief within police that they know what is best for society."[ HP 519265-001 Keyboard

This is sometimes known as 'noble cause corruption’ when police commit an offence believing the end justifies the means.The environment of New Zealand is characterised by unique flora and fauna and a variety of landforms contained within a small island nation. Historically having an isolated and endemic ecosystem far into modernity,  SONY Vaio PCG-K215M Keyboard

the arrival of first the Maori and then later European settlers began to have significant impacts on this system, with the intentional and unintentional introduction of new species and plants which often overwhelmed their natural competitors, leading to a significant loss of native ecology and biodiversity, especially in areas such as bird life.TOSHIBA Satellite l25-s1196 Keyboard

Today, most parts of New Zealand are heavily modified by the effects of logging, agriculture and general human settlement, though large areas have also been placed under protection, combined in many cases with efforts to protect or regenerate native ecosystems (aided by the fact that especially the South Island of New Zealand has only a very low population density). DELL NSK-D8001 Keyboard

The biota of New Zealand is one of the most unusual on Earth, due to its long isolation from other continental landmasses. Its affinities are derived in part from Gondwana, from which it separated 82 million years ago, some modest affinities with New Caledonia and Lord Howe Island, both of which are part of the same continental plate as New Zealand and in part from Australia.SONY VAIO VGN-CS31S/R Keyboard

More recently a component has been introduced by humans. New Zealand's biodiversity exhibits high levels of endemism, both in itsflora and fauna. Until recently the islands had no native terrestrial mammals except for bats (although mammals did exist in New Zealand until 19 million years ago), the main component of the fauna being insects and birds. HP Pavilion dv6-3045eo Keyboard

Its flora is dominated by Gondwanan plants, comprising historically of forests, most famously the giant kauri. New Zealand has developed a national Biodiversity Action Plan to address conservation of considerable numbers of threatened flora and fauna within New Zealand.

As with many other countries there are a number of environmental organizations that are working towards addressing various environmental issues in New Zealand.  Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Keyboard

The move to carry out genetic engineering in New Zealand is opposed by environmentalists on economic and environmental grounds and the release of genetically modified organisms now has a strict regulatory regime under the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act.

Mining in New Zealand often encounters opposition from environmentalists. DELL 0PVDG3 Keyboard

Coal mining in the West Coast Region is of concern and there are plans to start theCypress Mine, the Escarpment Mine Project, the Mt William North Mining Project, as well as issues at the long established Stockton Mine. Lignite mining in theSouthland Region is also encountering opposition.[11] Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) is also of concern. TOSHIBA PK130260100 Keyboard

A proposed soapstone mine in the Cobb Valley has also raised environmental concerns.[12]

Water pollution in New Zealand is an ongoing issue. Fish and Game, a statutory government body, started a dirty dairying campaign to highlight water pollution due to dairy farming. It led to the creation in 2003 of the Dairying and Clean Streams Accord, ACER Aspire 2920-5A2G25Mi Keyboard

a voluntary agreement between Fonterra, Ministry for the Environment, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, and regional councils. A 2009 study showed that the Manawatu River was found that the river had the highest gross primary production (GPP) compared to 300 rivers and streams in the Western world.[13] ACER AEZU2R00010 Keyboard

High GPP rates are an indication of poor ecological health and can lead to variousenvironmental issues.The management of waste in New Zealand has become more regulated to reduce associated environmental issues.Deforestation in New Zealand is now of negligible concern since logging indigenous forest on public land has ceased and it requires a permit to be carried out on privately owned land. COMPAQ Presario CQ60-215DX Keyboard

In the past 800 years of human occupation New Zealand has lost 75% of its forests due to deliberately lit fires and land clearance.

Biodiversity of New Zealand is rich and diverse but in serious decline.

Migration to New Zealand began with Polynesian settlement in New Zealand, then uninhabited, about 1250 to 1280.  TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4050 Keyboard

European migration provided a major influx following the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840. Subsequent immigration has been chiefly from the British Isles, but also from continental Europe, the Pacific, America, & Asia.

Polynesians in the South Pacific were the first to discover the landmass of New Zealand. Lenovo 3000 Y500 Keyboard

Eastern Polynesian explorers had settled in New Zealand by approximately the thirteenth century CE with most evidence pointing to an arrival date of about 1280. Their arrival gave rise to the Māori culture and the Māori language, both unique to New Zealand, although very closely related to analogues in other parts of Eastern Polynesia.  ASUS F6VE Keyboard

Evidence from Wairau Bar and the Chatham islands shows that the Polynesian colonists maintained many parts of their east Polynesian culture such as burial customs for at least 50 years. Especially strong resemblances link Māori to the languages and cultures of the Cook and Society Islands, which after the 2010 Otago University archaeological research of Wairau Bar, Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Keyboard

are regarded as the most likely places of origin. Moriori settled the Chatham Islands during the 15th century from SE South Island of New Zealand.

Due to New Zealand's geographic isolation, several centuries passed before the next phase of settlement, the arrival of Europeans.SONY VAIO VGN NR298E Keyboard

Only then did the original inhabitants need to distinguish themselves from the new arrivals, using the adjective "māori" which means "ordinary" or "indigenous" which later became a noun although the term New Zealand native was common until about 1890. Māori thought of their tribe (iwi) as a nation.[citation needed] In neolithic times there was no pan Māori organization.[ HP Mini 210 Keyboard

Cook claimed New Zealand for Britain on his arrival in 1769. The establishment of British colonies in Australia from 1788 and the boom in whaling and sealing in the Southern Ocean brought many Europeans to the vicinity of New Zealand, with some deciding to settle. Whalers and sealers were often itinerant and the first real settlers were missionaries and traders in the Bay of Islands area from 1809. Acer eMachines E732 Keyboard

By 1830 there was a population of about 800 non Māori which included a total of about 200 runaway convicts and seamen who often married into the Māori community.[citation needed] The seamen often lived in New Zealand for a short time before joining another ship a few months later. HP Pavilion DV7-3188cl Keyboard

In 1839 there were 1100 Europeans living in the North Island. Regular outbreaks of extreme violence mainly between Māori hapu, known as the Musket Wars, resulted in the deaths of between 20,000 and 50,000 Māori up until 1843. Violence against European shipping, cannibalism and the lack of established law and order made settling in New Zealand a risky prospect. TOSHIBA NSK-T4D01 Keyboard

By the late 1830s many Māori were nominally Christian and had freed many of the Māori slaves that had been captured during the Musket Wars. By this time, many Māori, especially in the north, could read and write Māori and to a lesser extent English.

European migration has resulted in a deep legacy being left on the social and political structures of New Zealand. HP 405963-001 Keyboard

Early visitors to New Zealand included whalers, sealers, missionaries, mariners, and merchants, attracted to natural resources in abundance. They came from the Australian colonies, Great Britain and Ireland, Germany (forming the next biggest immigrant group after the British and Irish),[1] France, Portugal, the Netherlands, Denmark, The United States, and Canada. SAMSUNG Q35 Keyboard

In 1840 representatives of the British Crown signed the Treaty of Waitangi with 240 Māori chiefs throughout New Zealand, motivated by plans for a French colony at Akaroa and land purchases by the New Zealand Company in 1839. Britishsovereignty was then proclaimed over New Zealand in May 1840. HP Pavilion dv6-2133ee Keyboard

Following the formalising of sovereignty, the organised and structured flow of migrants from Great Britain and Ireland began. Government-chartered ships like the clipper Gananoque and the Glentanner carried immigrants to New Zealand. SONY VAIO VGN NR185E Keyboard

Typically clipper ships left British ports such as London and travelled south through the central Atlantic to about 43 degrees south to pick up the strong westerly winds that carried the clippers well south of South Africa and Australia. Ships would then head north once in the vicinity of New Zealand. ACER 9J.N1H82.01D Keyboard

The Glentanner migrant ship of 610 tonnes made two runs to New Zealand and several to Australia carrying 400 tonne of passengers and cargo. Travel time was about 3 to 3 1/2 months to New Zealand. Cargo carried on the Glentanner for New Zealand included coal, slate, lead sheet, wine, beer, cart components, salt, soap and passengers' personal goods. HP Pavilion dv7-2185dx CPU Fan

On the 1857 passage the ship carried 163 official passengers, most of them government assisted. On the return trip the ship carried a wool cargo worth 45,000 pounds.[2] In the 1860s discovery of gold started a gold rush in Otago. By 1860 more than 100,000 British and Irish settlers lived throughout New Zealand. HP Pavilion dv7-3125eo CPU Fan

The Otago Association actively recruited settlers from Scotland, creating a definite Scottish influence in that region, while the Canterbury Association recruited settlers from the south of England, creating a definite English influence over that region.[3] In the 1860s most migrants settled in the South Island due to gold discoveries and the availability of flat grass covered land for pastoral farming. HP Pavilion dv4-1133tx CPU Fan

The low number of Māori(about 2,000) and the absence of warfare gave the South Island many advantages .It was only when the New Zealand wars ended that The North Island again became an attractive destination.In the 1870s the MP Julius Vogel borrowed millions of pounds from Britain to help fund capital development such as a nationwide rail system, HP 606013-001 CPU Fan

lighthouses, ports and bridges and encouraged mass migrantion from Britain. By 1870 the non-Māori population reached over 250,000.Other smaller groups of settlers came from Germany, Scandinavia, and other parts of Europe as well as from China and India, but British and Irish settlers made up the vast majority, and did so for the next 150 years. HP COMPAQ KSB05105HA CPU Fan

Between 1881 and the 1920s, the New Zealand Parliament passed legislation that intended to limit Asiatic migration to New Zealand, and prevented Asians from naturalising.[5] In particular, the New Zealand government levied a poll tax on Chinese immigrants up until the 1930s. New Zealand finally abolished the poll tax in 1944. HP 538340-001 CPU Fan

Large numbers of Dalmatians fled from the Austro- Hungarian empire to settle in New Zealand around 1900. They settled mainly in West Auckland and often worked to establish vineyards and orchards or worked on gum fields in Northland.An influx of Jewish refugees from central Europe came in the 1930s. HP Pavilion dv6-2150us CPU Fan

Many of the persons of Polish descent in New Zealand arrived as orphans via Siberia and Iran during World War II.With the various agencies of the United Nations dealing with humanitarian efforts following the Second World War, New Zealand accepted about 5,000 refugees and displaced persons from Europe, and more than 1,100 Hungarians between 1956 and 1959 (see Refugee migration into New Zealand). DELL MD538 CPU Fan

The post-WWII immigration included more persons from Greece, Italy, Poland and the former Yugoslavia.

New Zealand limited immigration to those who would meet a labour shortage in New Zealand. To encourage those to come, the government introduced free and assisted passages in 1947, a schema expanded by the National Party administration in 1950. HP Pavilion dv7-6187cl CPU Fan

However, when it became clear that not enough skilled migrants would come from the British Isles alone, recruitment began in Northern European countries. New Zealand signed a bilateral agreement for skilled migrants with the Netherlands, and a large number[clarification needed] of Dutch immigrants arrived in New Zealand. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

Others came in the 1950s from Denmark, Germany, Switzerland and Austria to meet needs in specialised occupations.

By the 1960s, the policy of excluding people based on nationality yielded a population overwhelmingly European in origin. By the mid-1960s, a desire for cheap unskilled labour led to ethnic diversification.  HP Pavilion dv7-3065dx CPU Fan

In the 1950s and 1960s, New Zealand encouraged migrants from the South Pacific. The country had a large demand for unskilled labour in the manufacturing sector. As long as this demand continued, migration was accepted from the South Pacific, and many temporary workers overstayed their visas. HP Pavilion dv7-2043cl CPU Fan

From 1977 to 1980 dawn raids were carried out by police to remove overstayers most were Pacific islanders. In May 2008, Massey University economist Dr Greg Clydesdale released to the news media an extract of a report, Growing Pains, Evaluations and the Cost of Human Capital, which saw Pacific Islanders as "forming an underclass".[6] HP 646578-001 CPU Fan

The report, written by Dr Clydesdale for the Academy of World Business, Marketing & Management Development 2008 Conference in Brazil, and based on data from various government departments, provoked highly controversial debate. Pacific Islands community leaders and academic peer reviewers strongly criticised the report, while a provisional review was lodged by Race Relations Commissioner Joris de Bres.[7][8] SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L CPU Fan

A record number of migrants arrived in the 1970s; 70,000, for example, during 1973–1974. While these numbers represent many ethnicities, New Zealand had an underlying preference[citation needed] for migrants from "traditional sources", namely Britain, Europe and Northern America, due to similarities of language and culture. HP Pavilion dv7-2043cl CPU Fan

Along with New Zealand adopting a radical direction of economic practice, Parliament passed a new Immigration Act into law in 1987. This would end the preference for migrants from Britain, Europe or Northern America based on their race, and instead classify migrants on their skills, personal qualities, and potential contribution to New Zealand economy and society. SONY Vaio VPC-EB1S0E/BJ CPU Fan

The introduction of the points-based system came under the National government, which pursued this policy-change even more than the previous Labour Party administration. This system resembled that of Canada, and came into effect in 1991. Effectively the New Zealand Immigration Service ranks the qualities sought in the migrants and gives them a priority using a points-based scale.HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

As of 2009 this framework continues to control immigration, however from 2010 the new Immigration Act will replace all protocols and procedures.The Government published the results of an immigration review in December 2006.Regulations provide that immigrants must be of good character. SONY Vaio VGN-BX760PS5 CPU Fan

This policy resulted in a wide variety of ethnicities in New Zealand, with people from over 120 countries represented. Between 1991 and 1995 the numbers of those given approval grew rapidly: 26,000 in 1992; 35,000 in 1994; 54,811 in 1995. The minimum target for residency approval was set[by whom?] at 25,000. HP Pavilion dv7-2043cl CPU Fan

The number approved was almost twice what was targeted. The Labour-led governments of 1999–2008 made no change to the Immigration Act 1987, although some changes were made[by whom?] to the 1991 policy. In particular, the minimum IELTS level for skilled migrants was raised[by whom?]from 5.5 to 6.5 in 2002, following concerns that immigrants who spoke English as a second language encountered difficulty getting jobs in their chosen fields.[1 HP Pavilion dv7-3065dx CPU Fan

3] Since then, migration from Britain and South Africa has increased, at the expense of immigration from Asia. However, a study-for-residency programme for foreign university students has mitigated this imbalance somewhat.[citation needed]

By 2005, New Zealand accepted 60% of the applicants under the Skilled/Business category that awarded points for qualifications and work experience, or business experience and funds they had available.  HP 550 CPU Fan

From 1 Aug 2007, NZD$2.5 million is the minimum for the Active Investor Migrant Category .

Changes to the point system have also given more weight to job offers as compared to educational degrees. Some Aucklanders cynically joke that most taxi drivers in Auckland tend to be highly qualified engineers or doctors who are unable to then find jobs in their fields once in the country. HP Pavilion dv7-3170ep CPU Fan

In 2004–2005 Immigration New Zealand set a target of 45,000, representing 1.5% of the total population. However, the net effect was a population decline, since more left than arrived. 48,815 arrived, and overall the population was 10,000 or 0.25% less than the previous year. Overall though, New Zealand has one of the highest populations of foreign born citizens. IBM 26R8197 CPU Fan

In 2005, almost 20% of New Zealanders were born overseas, one of the highest percentages of any country in the world. The Department of Labour’s sixth annual Migration Trends report shows a 21 per cent rise in work permits issued in the 2005/06 year compared with the previous year. Nearly 100,000 people were issued work permits to work in sectors ranging from IT to horticulture in the 2005/06 year. HP Pavilion dv7-6187cl CPU Fan

This compares with around 35,000 work permits issued in 1999–2000. Around 52,000 people were approved for permanent New Zealand residence in 2005/06. Over 60 per cent were approved under the skilled or business categories.

New Zealand accepts 750 refugees per year mandated by the United Nations. Toshiba Satellite A205-S5831 CPU Fan

As part of the Pacific Access Category, 650 citizens come from Fiji, Tuvalu, Kiribati, and Tonga. 1,100 Samoan citizens come under the Samoan Quota scheme. Once resident, these people can apply to bring other family members to New Zealand under the Family Sponsored stream. Any migrant accepted under these schemes receives permanent residency in New Zealand.  IBM MCF-217PAM05 CPU Fan

Effective in New Zealand from 4 May 2007, the Immigration Advisers Licensing Act[15] requires anyone providing immigration advice to be licensed. It also established the Immigration Advisers Authority to manage the licensing process, both in New Zealand and offshore.

From 4 May 2009 it became mandatory for immigration advisers practising in New Zealand to be licensed.  APPLE 661-4952 CPU Fan

The introduction of mandatory licensing for New Zealand-based immigration advisers was designed to protect migrants from unscrupulous operators and provide support for licensed advisers.

The licensing managed by the Immigration Advisers Authority Official website establishes and monitors industry standards and sets requirements for continuedprofessional development.  Dell Vostro 3500 CPU Fan

As an independent body, the Authority can prosecute unlicensed immigration advisers. Penalties include up to seven years imprisonment and/or fines up to $NZ100,000 for offenders, as well as the possibility of court-ordered reparation payments. It can refer complaints made against licensed advisers to an Independent Tribunal. Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan

Immigration advisers who work offshore but give advice about New Zealand immigration matters must obtain a license by 4 May 2010. The Immigration Advisers Authority does not handle immigration applications or inquiries. These are managed by Immigration New Zealand.

Statements by the government in the mid 2000s emphasised that New Zealand must compete for its share of skilled and talented migrants, and David Cunliffe, HP 646578-001 CPU Fan

the former immigration minister, has argued that New Zealand was "in a global race for talent and we must win our share".[16] With this in mind, a bill (over 400 pages long) was prepared[by whom?] which was sent[by whom?] to parliament in April 2007. It follows a review of the immigration act. The bill aims to make the process more efficient, and achieves this by giving more power to immigration officers. HP Pavilion dv9230us CPU Fan

Rights of appeal were to be streamlined into a single appeal tribunal. Furthermore, any involvement of the Human Rights Commission in matters of immigration to New Zealand would be removed (Part 11, Clause 350).

The new Immigration Act, which passed into law in 2009 replacing the 1987 Act, IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X200 Series CPU Fan

is aimed to enhance border security and improve the efficiency of the immigration services. Key aspects of the new Act include the ability to use biometrics, a new refugee and protection system, a single independent appeals tribunal and a universal visa system. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

As of March 2012, a draft paper leaked to the New Zealand Labour Party shows Immigration New Zealand is planning to create a two-tier system which will favour wealthy immigrants over poor ones who speak little or no English. This means that applications from parents sponsored by their higher income children, or those who bring a guaranteed income or funds, would be processed faster than other applications. IBM ThinkPad T60 2637 CPU Fan

As in most other countries, immigration is a highly contentious issue and has provoked fierce debate from time to time in New Zealand.[citation needed]

The political party New Zealand First has frequently criticised immigration on economic, social and cultural grounds. APPLE MG62090V1-Q020-S99 CPU Fan

New Zealand First leader Winston Peters has several occasions characterised the rate of Asian immigration into New Zealand as too high; in 2004, he stated: "We are being dragged into the status of an Asian colony and it is time that New Zealanders were placed first in their own country."[20] On 26 April 2005, he said: HP 535766-001 CPU Fan

"Māori will be disturbed to know that in 17 years' time they will be outnumbered by Asians in New Zealand", an estimate disputed by Statistics New Zealand, the government's statistics bureau. Peters quickly rebutted that Statistics New Zealand has underestimated the growth-rate of the Asian community in the past.[21] HP Envy 17-1090eo CPU Fan

In April 2008, deputy New Zealand First party leader Peter Brown drew widespread criticism after voicing similar views and expressing concern at the increase in New Zealand's ethnic Asian population: "We are going to flood this country with Asian people with no idea what we are going to do with them when they come here."[22 Dell Vostro 3350 CPU Fan

"The matter is serious. If we continue this open door policy there is real danger we will be inundated with people who have no intention of integrating into our society. The greater the number, the greater the risk. They will form their own mini-societies to the detriment of integration and that will lead to division, friction and resentment." TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 Keyboard,TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 Keyboard,HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Keyboard

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