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9 septembre 2013 1 09 /09 /septembre /2013 04:26

There are many lakes and coastal lagoons. The largest lake is Enriquillo, a salt lake at 45 metres (148 ft) below sea level, the lowest point in the Caribbean. Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard

Other important lakes are Laguna de Rincón or Cabral, with freshwater, and Laguna de Oviedo, a lagoon with brackish water.

Bajos de Haina, 12 miles (19 km) west of Santo Domingo, was included on the Blacksmith Institute's list of the world's 10 most polluted places, released in October 2006, SONY KFRMBA152B Laptop Keyboard

due to lead poisoning by a battery recycling smelter closed in 1999. Cleanup of the site began in 2008, but children continue to be born with high lead levels, causing learning disabilities, impaired physical growth and kidneyfailure.

The climate of the Dominican Republic is mostly tropical. The annual average temperature is 25 °C (77 °F). Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard

At higher elevations, the temperature averages18 °C (64.4 °F) while near sea level the average temperature is 28 °C (82.4 °F). Low temperatures of 0 °C (32 °F) are possible in the mountains while high temperatures of 40 °C (104 °F) are possible in protected valleys. ACER Aspire 7745G Laptop Keyboard

January and February are the coolest months of the year, while August is the hottest month. Some snowflakes can fall in rare occasions on the top of the Pico Duarte.[73]

The wet season along the northern coast lasts from November through January.  HP Probook 4515S Laptop Keyboard

Elsewhere, the wet season stretches from May through November, with May being the wettest month. Average annual rainfall is 1,500 millimetres (59.1 in) countrywide, with individual locations in the Valle de Neiba seeing averages as low as 350 millimetres (13.8 in) while the Cordillera Oriental averages 2,740 millimetres (107.9 in). SONY VAIO VGN-N31S/W Laptop Keyboard

The driest part of the country lies in the west. Tropical cyclonesstrike the country every couple of years, with 65% of the impacts along the southern coast. Hurricanes are most likely between August and October.[73] The last time a category 5 hurricane struck the country was Hurricane David in 1979. SONY VAIO VGN-CS14G/B Laptop Keyboard

The Dominican Republic is a representative democracy or democratic republic,[1][3][17] with three branches of power: executive, legislative, and judicial. The President of the Dominican Republic heads the executive branch and executes laws passed by the Congress, appoints the Cabinet, and is commander in chief of the armed forces. ASUS F3Sv laptop keyboard

The president and vice-president run for office on the same ticket and are elected by direct vote for 4-year terms. The national legislature is bicameral, composed of a Senate, which has 32 members, and the Chamber of Deputies, with 178 members.[17] Judicial authority rests with the Supreme Court of Justice's 16 members.  IBM Thinkpad R40 laptop keyboard

They are appointed by a council composed of the President, the leaders of both houses of Congress, the President of the Supreme Court, and an opposition or non–governing-party member. The Court "alone hears actions against the president, designated members of his Cabinet, and members of Congress when the legislature is in session."[17]  HP Mini 210-1124TU laptop keyboard

The president appoints the governors of the 31 provinces. Mayors and municipal councils administer the 124 municipal districts and the National District (Santo Domingo). They are elected at the same time as congressional representatives.[17]

The Dominican Republic has a multi-party political system. SONY VAIO VGN-NW23GF laptop keyboard

Elections were held every two years, alternating between the Presidential elections, which are held in years evenly divisible by four, and the Congressional and municipal elections, which are held in even-numbered years not divisible by four. "International observers have found that presidential and congressional elections since 1996 have been generally free and fair."[17] SONY VAIO VGN-NW320F/T laptop keyboard

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The Central Elections Board (JCE) of 9 members supervises elections, and its decisions are unappealable.[17] Starting from 2016, elections will be held jointly, after a constitutional reform.[There are many political parties and advocacy groups and, new on the scene, civil organizations. SONY VAIO PCG-FR55E/B laptop keyboard

The three major parties are the conservative Social Christian Reformist Party (Spanish: Partido Reformista Social Cristiano [PRSC]), in power 1966–78 and 1986–96; the social democratic Dominican Revolutionary Party(Spanish: Partido Revolucionario Dominicano [PRD]), in power in 1963, 1978–86, and 2000–04;  HP G62-b21SL laptop keyboard

and the centrist liberal and reformist Dominican Liberation Party(Spanish: Partido de la Liberación Dominicana [PLD]), in power 1996–2000 and since 2004.

The presidential elections of 2008 were held on May 16, 2008, with incumbent Leonel Fernández winning with 53% of the vote.[75]  COMPAQ Presario V6405CA laptop keyboard

 He defeated Miguel Vargas Maldonado, of the PRD, who achieved a 40.48% share of the vote. Amable Aristy, of the PRSC, achieved 4.59% of the vote. Other minority candidates, which includes former Attorney General Guillermo Moreno from the Movement for Independence, HP Pavilion G7-1077NR laptop keyboard

Unity and Change (Movimiento Independencia, Unidad y Cambio [MIUCA]) and PRSC former presidential candidate and defector Eduardo Estrella obtained less than 1% of the vote.

Congress authorizes a combined military force of 44,000 active duty personnel.  FUJITSU Lifebook S7111 laptop keyboard

Actual active duty strength is approximately 32,000. However, approximately 50% of those are used for non-military activities such as security providers for government-owned non-military facilities, highway toll stations, prisons, forestry work, state enterprises, and private businesses. SONY VAIO VGN-CR410E laptop keyboard

The Commander in Chief of the military is the President. The principal missions are to defend the nation and protect the territorial integrity of the country. The army, larger than the other services combined with approximately 20,000 active duty personnel, consists of six infantry brigades, a combat support brigade, and a combat service support brigade. HP Mini 110-3538tu laptop keyboard

The air force operates two main bases, one in the southern region near Santo Domingo and one in the northern region near Puerto Plata. The navy operates two major naval bases, one in Santo Domingo and one in Las Calderas on the southwestern coast, and maintains 12 operational vessels. In the Caribbean, only Cuba has a larger military force.[17] ASUS X85S laptop keyboard

The armed forces have organized a Specialized Airport Security Corps (CESA) and a Specialized Port Security Corps (CESEP) to meet international security needs in these areas. The Secretary of the Armed Forces has also announced plans to form a specialized border corps (CESEF). Additionally, DELL PK1303Q0100 Laptop Keyboard

the armed forces provide 75% of personnel to the National Investigations Directorate (DNI) and the Counter-Drug Directorate (DNCD).[17]

The Dominican National Police force contains 32,000 agents. The police are not part of the Dominican armed forces, but share some overlapping security functions.  ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard

Sixty-three percent of the force serve in areas outside traditional police functions, similar to the situation of their military counterparts.

The Dominican Republic has become a trans-shipment point for Colombian drugs destined to Europe as well as the United States and Canada.[1][76] SAMSUNG R522 Laptop Keyboard

Money laundering via the Dominican Republic is favored by Colombian drug cartels for the ease of illicit financial transactions.[1] In 2004 it was estimated that 8% of all cocaine smuggled into the United States had come through the Dominican Republic.[77] The Dominican Republic responded with increased efforts to seize drug shipments, arrest and extradite those involved, and combat money-laundering. SONY VAIO PCG-FR55E Laptop Keyboard

The often light treatment of violent criminals has been a continuous source of local controversy. In April 2010, five teenagers ages 15 to 17 shot and killed two taxi drivers and killed another five by forcing them to drink drain cleaning acid. On September 24, 2010, the teens were sentenced to only 3–5 year prison terms, despite the protests of the taxi drivers' families. DELL M711P Laptop Keyboard

The Dominican Republic is divided into 31 provinces. Santo Domingo, the capital, is designated Distrito Nacional (National District). The provinces are divided into municipalities (municipios; singular municipio). They are the second-level political and administrative subdivisions of the country.  HP AEAT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard

The Dominican Republic has the second largest economy[12] (the largest, according to the U.S. State Department)[17] in Central America and the Caribbean. It is an upper middle-income developing country,[79] with a 2007 GDP per capita of $9,208, in PPP terms, which is relatively high in Latin America.  HP 540 Laptop Keyboard

In the trimester of January–March 2007 it experienced an exceptional growth of 9.1% in its GDP, which was actually below the previous year's 10.9% in the same period. Growth was led by imports, followed by exports, with finance and foreign investment the next largest factors. DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard

The Dominican Republic is primarily dependent on natural resources and government services. Although the service sector has recently overtaken agriculture as the leading employer of Dominicans (due principally to growth in tourism and Free Trade Zones), agriculture remains the most important sector in terms of domestic consumption and is in second place, behind mining, in terms of export earnings.  HP G62-361TX Laptop Keyboard

The service sector in general has experienced growth in recent years, as has construction. Free Trade Zone earnings and tourism are the fastest-growing export sectors. Real estate tourism alone accounted for $1.5 billion in earnings for 2007.[81] Remittances from Dominicans living abroad amounted to nearly $3.2 billion in 2007.  DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard

Economic growth takes place in spite of a chronic energy shortage,[82] which causes frequent blackouts and very high prices. Despite a widening merchandise trade deficit, tourism earnings and remittances have helped build foreign exchange reserves. The Dominican Republic is current on foreign private debt.  DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard

Following economic turmoil in the late 1980s and 1990, during which the gross domestic product (GDP) fell by up to 5% and consumer price inflation reached an unprecedented 100%, the Dominican Republic entered a period of growth and declining inflation until 2002, after which the economy entered a recession. HP Pavilion dv5-1104tu Laptop Keyboard

This recession followed the collapse of the second-largest commercial bank in the country, Baninter, linked to a major incident of fraud valued at $3.5 billion. The Baninter fraud had a devastating effect on the Dominican economy, with GDP dropping by 1% in 2003 as inflation ballooned by over 27%. GATEWAY NV-59 Laptop Keyboard

All defendants, including the star of the trial, Ramon Baez Figueroa, were convicted. One subpoena was not delivered because the United States denied extradition.[citation needed]

According to the 2005 Annual Report of the United Nations Subcommittee on Human Development in the Dominican Republic, ACER Aspire 5930 Laptop Keyboard

the country is ranked No. 71 in the world for resource availability, No. 79 for human development, and No. 14 in the world for resource mismanagement. These statistics emphasize national government corruption, foreign economic interference in the country, and the rift between the rich and poor. DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard

The country has a noted problem of child labor in its coffee, rice, sugarcane, and tomato industries.[83] The labor injustices in the sugarcane industry extends to forced labor according to the US Department of Labor.

Three large groups own 75% of the land: the State Sugar Council (Consejo Estatal del Azúcar, CEA), Grupo Vicini, and Central Romana Corporation. ACER Aspire 5610Z Laptop Keyboard

The Dominican peso (DOP, or RD$[85]) is the national currency, although United States dollars (USD) and euros (EUR) are also accepted at most tourist sites. The dollar is implicated in almost all commercial transactions of the Dominican Republic; such dollarization is common in high inflation economies. TOSHIBA NSK-TAJ01 Laptop Keyboard

Americans traveling to the Dominican Republic have a very good exchange rate. The exchange rate to the U.S. dollar, liberalized by 1985, stood at 2.70 pesos per dollar in August 1986,[48]:p417, 428 14.00 pesos in 1993, and 16.00 pesos in 2000. Having jumped to 53.00 pesos per dollar in 2003, the rate was back down to around 31.00 pesos per dollar in 2004.  Lenovo Thinkpad T420 Laptop Keyboard

As of November 2010 the rate was 37.00 pesos per US dollar. As of January 2013 the rate was 40.00 pesos per dollar.

Tourism is fueling the Dominican Republic's economic growth. With the construction of projects like Cap Cana,  HP Mini 110-1032NR Laptop Keyboard

San Souci Port in Santo Domingo, and Moon Palace Resort in Punta Cana, the Dominican Republic expects increased tourism activity in the upcoming year. Ecotourism has been a topic increasingly important in the nation, with towns like Jarabacoa and neighboringConstanza, and locations like the Pico Duarte, HP Pavilion zv6233ea Laptop Keyboard

Bahia de Las Aguilas and others becoming more significant in efforts to increase direct benefits from tourism. Most residents from other countries are required to get a tourist card, depending on the Country that he or she lives in.

The Dominican Republic has a well-developed telecommunications infrastructure, with extensive mobile phone and landlineservices. SONY VAIO VGN-FS940 laptop keyboard

Cable Internet and DSL are available in most parts of the country, and many Internet service providers offer 3Gwireless internet service and most recently, the Dominican Republic became the second country in Latin America to have 4G LTE wireless service, offered by Orange. SONY VAIO VGN-FS730F laptop keyboard

The reported speeds are from 256 kbit/s / 128 kbit/s for residential services, up to 5 Mbit/s / 1 Mbit/s for residential service. For commercial service there are speeds from 256 kbit/s up to 154 Mbit/s. (Each set of numbers denotes downstream/upstream speed; that is, to the user/from the user.) HP Pavilion dv3-2157cl laptop keyboard

Projects to extend Wi-Fi hot spots have been made in Santo Domingo. The country's commercial radio stations and television stations are in the process of transferring to the digital spectrum, via HD Radio and HDTV after officially adopting ATSC as the digital medium in the country with a switch-off of analog transmission by September 2015. SONY Vaio PCG-K315S laptop keyboard

The telecommunications regulator in the country is INDOTEL (Instituto Dominicano de Telecomunicaciones).

The largest telecommunications company is Claro – part of Carlos Slim's América Móvil – which provides wireless, landline, broadband, and IPTV services. HP Pavilion dv3-2157cl laptop keyboard

Indotel reports that as of June 5, 2009 there are more than 8 million phone line subscribers (land and cell users) in the D.R., representing 81% of the country's population and a fivefold increase since the year 2000, when there were 1.6 million. The communications sector generates about 3.0% of the GDP.[86] HP Pavilion dv6-2030ev laptop keyboard

Indotel reports 6,807,831 prepaid and just under a million (994,027) post-pay (under-contract) cell user accounts. For fixed phone lines (non-cell) it reports 678,901 dedicated lines in use for residential services. For business lines it reports 266,341. For public phones/services it reports 13,639. HP G61-465SL laptop keyboard

As of the second quarter of 2008, there are no more analog lines in the trunk services by local providers. Indotel reports 2,439,997 Internet users in the country for the end of March 2009.[87]

In November 2009, the Dominican Republic became the first Latin  LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 laptop keyboard

American country to pledge to include a "gender perspective" in every information and communications technology (ICT) initiative and policy developed by the government.[88] The Dominican Republic is leading Latin American governments' thinking around gender and technology as part of the regional eLAC2010 plan. SONY VAIO VGN-FS315M laptop keyboard

The tool the Dominicans have chosen to design and evaluate all the public policies is the APC Gender Evaluation Methodology (GEM).

Electric power service has been unreliable since the Trujillo era, and as much as 75% of the equipment is that old. HP Mini 110-1150EV laptop keyboard

The country's antiquated power grid causes transmission losses that account for a large share of billed electricity from generators. The privatization of the sector started under a previous administration of Leonel Fernández.[70] The recent investment in a "Santo Domingo-Santiago Electrical Highway" to carry 345 kW power,[89] HP Envy 15-1090eg laptop keyboard

with reduced losses in transmission, is being heralded as a major capital improvement to the national grid since the mid-1960s.

During the Trujillo regime, electrical service was introduced to many cities; still, almost 95% of usage was not billed at all. SONY Vaio VGN-FW390 laptop keyboard

Around half of the Dominican Republic's 2.1 million houses have no meters and so most do not pay or just pay a fixed monthly rate for their electric service.[90]

Household and general electrical service is delivered at 110 volts alternating at 60 Hz; electrically powered items from the United States work with no modifications. TOSHIBA Satellite M105-S3004 laptop keyboard

The majority of the country has access to electricity. Tourist areas tend to have more reliable power, as do business, travel, healthcare, and vital infrastructure. The situation improved somewhat after 2006.[91] Concentrated efforts were announced to increase efficiency of delivery to places where the collection rate reached 70%.[92] GATEWAY MX8715 laptop keyboard

The electricity sector is highly politicized. Some generating companies are undercapitalized and at times unable to purchase adequate fuel supplies.

The Dominican Republic has three national trunk highways, which connect every major town in the country. SONY Vaio VGN-AW330J laptop keyboard

These are DR-1, DR-2, and DR-3, which depart from Santo Domingo towards the northern (Cibao), southwestern (Sur), and eastern (El Este) parts of the country respectively. These highways have been consistently improved with the expansion and reconstruction of many sections. SONY Vaio PCG-K315S Laptop Keyboard

Two other national highways serve as spur (DR-5) or alternate routes (DR-4). In addition to the national highways, the government has embarked on an expansive reconstruction of spur secondary routes, which connect smaller towns to the trunk routes. HP Business Notebook nx9000 Laptop Keyboard

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