This resulted in extremely low wages with no potential for growth since the occupant nations had no intention of selling the products at a higher price to themselves.
The result of this economic exploitation was a plantation dependence which saw the Caribbean nations possessing a large quantity of unskilled workers capable of performing agricultural tasks and not much else. ACER Aspire 7741G Laptop Keyboard
After many years of colonial rule the nations also saw no profits brought into their country since the sugar production was controlled by the colonial rulers. This left the Caribbean nations with little capital to invest towards enhancing any future industries unlike European nations which were developing rapidly and separating themselves technologically and economically from most impoverished nations of the world. SONY KFRMBA152B Laptop Keyboard
The plantation system and the slave trade that enabled its growth led to regular slave resistance in many Caribbean islands throughout the colonial era. Resistance was made by escaping from the plantations altogether, and seeking refuge in the areas free of European settlement. Communities of escaped slaves, HP Pavilion dv6-3001so Laptop Keyboard
who were known as Maroons, banded together in heavily forested and mountainous areas of the Greater Antilles and some of the islands of the Lesser Antilles. The spread of the plantations and European settlement often meant the end of many Maroon communities, although they survived on Saint Vincent and Dominica, and in the more remote mountainous areas of Jamaica, Hispaniola, Guadeloupe and Cuba. HP HDX18-1100 CTO Laptop Keyboard
Violent resistance broke out periodically on the larger Caribbean islands. Many more conspiracies intended to create rebellions were discovered and ended by Europeans before they could materialize. Actual violent uprisings, involving anywhere from dozens to thousands of slaves, were regular events, however. TOSHIBA Satellite C655-S9521D Laptop Keyboard
Jamaica and Cuba in particular had many slave uprisings. Such uprisings were brutally crushed by European forces.
Haiti, the former French colony of Saint-Domingue on Hispaniola, was the first Caribbean nation to gain independence from European powers in 1804. HP G42-380LA Laptop Keyboard
This followed 13 years of warfare which commenced as a slave uprising in 1791 and quickly became theHaitian Revolution under the leadership of Toussaint l'Ouverture, where the former slaves defeated the French army (twice), the Spanish army, and the British army, before becoming the world's first and oldest black republic, and also the second-oldest republic in the Western Hemisphere after the United States. GATEWAY NV-53 Laptop Keyboard
This is additionally notable as being the only successful slave uprising in history. The remaining two-thirds of Hispaniola were conquered by Haitian forces in 1821. In 1844, the newly-formed Dominican Republic declared its independence from Haiti. HP 646568-001 Laptop Keyboard
The nations bordering the Caribbean in Central America gained independence with the 1821 establishment of the First Mexican Empire - which at that time included the modern states of Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard
The nations bordering the Caribbean in South America also gained independence from Spain in 1821 with the establishment of Gran Colombia - which comprised the modern states of Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and Panama.
Cuba and Puerto Rico remained a Spanish colonies until the Spanish American War in 1898, HP AEUT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard
after which Cuba attained its independence in 1902, and Puerto Rico became an unincorporated territory of the United States, being the last of the Greater Antilles under colonial control.
Between 1958 and 1962 most of the British-controlled Caribbean was integrated as the new West Indies Federation in an attempt to create a single unified future independent state ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard
- but it failed. The following former British Caribbean island colonies achieved independence in their own right; Jamaica (1962), Trinidad & Tobago (1962), Barbados (1966), Bahamas (1973), Grenada (1974), Dominica (1978), St. Lucia (1979), St. Vincent (1979), Antigua & Barbuda (1981), St. Kitts & Nevis (1983). HP AEUT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard
In addition British Honduras in Central America became independent as Belize (1981), British Guiana in South America became independent as Guyana (1966), and Dutch Guiana also in South America became independent as Suriname (1975).
It should be noted that as of the early 21st century, not all Caribbean islands have become independent. APPLE A1278 Laptop Keyboard
Several islands continue to have government ties with European countries, or with the United States.
French overseas departments and territories include several Caribbean islands. Guadeloupe and Martinique are French overseas regions, a legal status that they have had since 1946. ACER 9J.N0F82.A1D Laptop Keyboard
Their citizens are considered full French citizens with the same legal rights. In 2003, the populations of St. Martin and St. Barthélemy voted in favour of secession from Guadeloupe in order to form separate overseas collectivities of France. After a bill was passed in the French Parliament, the new status took effect on 22 February 2007. HP G72-b66US Laptop Keyboard
Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands are officially insular areas of the United States, but are sometimes referred to as "protectorates" of the United States. They are administered by the Office of Insular Affairs (OIA) within the United States Department of Interior.
Since the Monroe Doctrine, the United States gained a major influence on most Caribbean nations. ACER 9J.N0F82.A1D Laptop Keyboard
In the early part of the twentieth century this influence was extended by participation in The Banana Wars. Areas outside British or French control became known in Europe as "America's tropical empire".
Victory in the Spanish-American war and the signing of the Platt amendment in 1901 ensured that the United States would have the right to interfere in Cuban political and economic affairs, militarily if necessary. HP G72-b66US Laptop Keyboard
After the Cuban revolution of 1959relations deteriorated rapidly leading to the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis and successive US attempts to destabilise the island. The US invaded and occupied Hispaniola (present day Dominican Republic and Haiti) for 19 years (1915–34), subsequently dominating the Haitian economy through aid and loan repayments. HP Mini 110-3180sv Laptop Keyboard
The US invaded Haiti again in 1994 and in 2004 were accused by CARICOM of arranging a coup d'état to remove elected Haitian leader Jean-Bertrand Aristide.
In 1965, 23,000 US troops were sent to the Dominican Republic to quash a local uprising against military rule. Lenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard
PresidentLyndon Johnson had ordered the invasion to stem what he claimed to be a "Communist threat", however the mission appeared ambiguous and was roundly condemned throughout the hemisphere as a return to gunboat diplomacy. In 1983 the US invaded Grenada to remove populist left-wing leader Maurice Bishop. DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard
The US maintains a naval military base in Cuba at Guantanamo Bay. The base is one of five unified commands whose "area of responsibility" is Latin America and the Caribbean. The command is headquartered in a Miami, Florida office building.
As an arm of the economic and political network of the Americas, DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard
the influence of the United States stretches beyond a military context. In economic terms, the United States represents a primary market for the export of Caribbean goods. Notably, this is a recent historical trend. The post-war era reflects a time of transition for the Caribbean basin when, as colonial powers sought to disentangle from the region (as part of a larger trend of decolonization), HP Pavilion dv6-2125ef laptop keyboard
the US began to expand its hegemony throughout the region. This pattern is confirmed by economic initiatives such as the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI), which sought to congeal alliances with the region in light of a perceived Soviet threat. The CBI marks the emergence of the Caribbean basin as a geopolitical area of strategic interest to the US. HP Pavilion dv6-2110ev laptop keyboard
This relationship has carried through to the 21st century, as reflected by the Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act. The Caribbean Basin is also of strategic interest in regards to trade routes; it has been estimated that nearly half of US foreign cargo and crude oil imports are brought via Caribbean seaways. SONY VAIO VGN-N31Z/W laptop keyboard
During wartime, these figures only stand to increase. It is important to note that the US is also of strategic interest to the Caribbean. Caribbean foreign policy seeks to strengthen its participation in a global free market economy. As an extension of this, Caribbean states do not wish to be excluded from their primary market in the US, ACER TravelMate 6252 laptop keyboard
or be bypassed in the creation of “wider hemispheric trading blocs” that stand to drastically alter trade and production in the Caribbean Basin. As such, the US has played an influential role in shaping the Caribbean’s role in this hemispheric market. Likewise, building trade relationships with the US has always figured in strongly with the political goal of economic security in post-independence Caribbean states. SONY VGN-FE11M laptop keyboard
The mainstay of the Caribbean economy, sugar, has declined gradually since the beginning of the 20th century, although it is still a major crop in the region. Caribbean sugar production became relatively expensive in comparison to other parts of the world that developed their own sugar cultivation industries, making it difficult for Caribbean sugar products to compete. TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4NX1 laptop keyboard
Caribbean economic diversification into new activities became essential to the islands.
By the beginning of the 20th century, the Caribbean islands enjoyed greater political stability. Large-scale violence was no longer a threat after the end of slavery in the islands. The British-controlled islands in particular benefited from investments in the infrastructure of colonies. ASUS X53S laptop keyboard
By the beginning of World War I, all British-controlled islands had their own police force, fire department, doctors and at least one hospital. Sewage systems and public water supplies were built, and death rates in the islands dropped sharply. Literacy also increased significantly during this period, as schools were set up for students descended from African slaves. Acer eMachines E640 laptop keyboard
Public libraries were established in large towns and capital cities.
These improvements in the quality of life for the inhabitants also made the islands a much more attractive destination for visitors. Tourists began to visit the Caribbean in larger numbers by the beginning of the 20th century, although there was a tourist presence in the region as early as the 1880s. TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5107 laptop keyboard
The United States-owned United Fruit Company operated a fleet of "banana boats" in the region that doubled as tourist transportation. The United Fruit Company also developed hotels for tourist accommodations. It soon became apparent, however, that this industry was much like a new form of colonialism; HP Pavilion DV6z artist edition 2 laptop keyboard
the hotels operated by the company were fully staffed by Americans, from chefs to waitresses, in addition to being owned by Americans, so that the local populations saw little economic benefit. The company also enforced racial discrimination in many policies for its fleet. Black passengers were assigned to inferior cabins, were sometimes denied bookings, SONY VAIO VGN-N250E/B laptop keyboard
and were expected to eat meals early before white passengers. The most popular early destinations were Jamaica and the Bahamas; the Bahamas remains today the most popular tourist destination in the Caribbean.
Post-independence economic needs, particularly in the aftermath of the end of preferential agricultural trade ties with Europe, HP Pavilion DV7-3067nr laptop keyboard
led to a boom in the development of the tourism industry in the 1980s and thereafter. Large luxury hotels and resorts have been built by foreign investors in many of the islands. Cruise ships are also regular visitors to the Caribbean.
Some islands have gone against this trend, such as Cuba and Haiti, whose governments chose not to pursue foreign tourism, SONY VGN-FE48E laptop keyboard
although Cuba has developed this part of the economy very recently. Other islands lacking sandy beaches, such as Dominica, missed out on the 20th century tourism boom, although they have recently begun to develop eco-tourism businesses, thus diversifying tourism options in the Caribbean. Lenovo Thinkpad T520 laptop keyboard
The development of offshore banking services began during the 1920s. The close proximity of the Caribbean islands to the United States has made them an attractive location for branches of foreign banks. Clients from the United States take advantage of offshore banking services to avoid U.S. taxation. Compaq Presario CQ71-403SA laptop keyboard
The Bahamas entered the financial services industry first, and continues to be at the forefront of financial services in the region. The Cayman Islands, the British Virgin Islands, and the Netherlands Antilles have also developed competitive financial services industries.
Ports both large and small were built throughout the Caribbean during the colonial era. HP Pavilion dv6-2150us laptop keyboard
The export of sugar on a large scale made the Caribbean one of the world's shipping cornerstones, as it remains today. Many key shipping routes still pass through the region.
The development of large-scale shipping to compete with other ports in Central and South America ran into several obstacles during the 20th century. HP Pavilion dv6-2030ev laptop keyboard
Economies of scale, high port handling charges, and a reluctance by Caribbean governments to privatize ports put Caribbean shipping at a disadvantage. Many locations in the Caribbean are suitable for the construction of deep water ports for commercial ship container traffic, or to accommodate large cruise ships. TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5083 laptop keyboard
The deep water port at Bridgetown, Barbados, was completed by British investors in 1961. A more recent deep water port project was completed by Hong Kong investors in Grand Bahama in the Bahamas.
Some Caribbean islands take advantage of flag of convenience policies followed by foreign merchant fleets, registering the ships in Caribbean ports. TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5160 laptop keyboard
The registry of ships at "flag of convenience" ports is protected by the Law of the Sea and other international treaties. These treaties leave the enforcement of labour, tax, health and safety, and environmental laws under the control of the registry, or "flag" country, which in practical terms means that such regulations seldom result in penalties against the merchant ship. Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard
The Cayman Islands, Bahamas, Antigua, Bermuda and St. Vincent are among the top 11 flags of convenience in the world. However, the flag of convenience practice has been a disadvantage to Caribbean islands as well, since it also applies to cruise ships, which register outside the Caribbean and thus can evade Caribbean enforcement of the same territorial laws and regulations. Lenovo 3000 G430 4152 laptop keyboard
Afro-Caribbean (or African-Caribbean) history is the portion of Caribbean history that specifically discusses the Afro-Caribbean or Black racial (or ethnic) populations of the Caribbean region. Most Afro-Caribbeans are the descendants of captive Africans held in the Caribbean from 1502 to 1886 during the era of the Atlantic slave trade. Acer eMachines E640 laptop keyboard
Black people from the Caribbean who have migrated (voluntarily, or by force) to the U.S., Canada, Europe, Africa and elsewhere add a significant Diaspora element to Afro-Caribbean history. Because of the complex history of the region, many people who identify as Afro-Caribbean also have European, Taino and East Indian genealogies. HP Mini 110-3504tu laptop keyboard
It is these peoples, who in the past were referred to and self-identified collectively as Coloured, Black or Negro West Indians, who now generally consider themselves to be black, mixed heritage, creole or African descendant people in the Caribbean and its Diasporas. Their history has been studied by historians such as C.L.R. James (author of The Black Jacobins), Lenovo Thinkpad T520 Laptop Keyboard
Eric Williams and Peter Fryer – and it is their history that is the focus of this article.
The archipelagos and islands of the Caribbean were the first sites of African-Diaspora dispersal in the western Atlantic during the post-Columbian era. Specifically, in 1492, Pedro Alonso Niño, a black Spanish seafarer, piloted one ofColumbus's ships. SONY VGN-FE11H Laptop Keyboard
He returned in 1499, but did not settle. In the early 16th century, more Africans began to enter the population of the Spanish Caribbean colonies, sometimes as freedmen, but increasingly as enslaved servants, workers and labourers. This growing demand for African labour in the Caribbean was in part the result of massive depopulation caused by the massacres, COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard
harsh conditions and disease brought by European colonists to the Taino and other indigenous peoples of the region.
By the mid-16th century, slave trading from Africa to the Caribbean was so profitable that Francis Drake and John Hawkins were prepared to engage in piracy as well as break Spanish colonial laws, Lenovo 45N2240 Laptop Keyboard
in order to forcibly transport approximately 1500 enslaved people from Sierra Leone to San Domingo (modern-day Haiti andDominican Republic).
During the 17th and 18th centuries, European colonialism in the Caribbean became increasingly reliant on plantation slavery, so that, by the end of the 18th century, on many islands, enslaved (and free) Afro-Caribbeans far outnumbered their European rulers. SONY VGN-FE550G Laptop Keyboard
Throughout the region, Africans developed a variety of response to the plantation system. One was to seek manumission through conventional legal methods, such as working to buy or otherwise engineer personal freedom from individual slave holders.
Individuals who took this route included Olaudah Equiano and Ottobah Cugoano. Lenovo IdeaPad Y710 Laptop Keyboard
Often, especially in San Domingo, manumission occurred when slave-holding fathers freed their own children by African mothers. One such case was that of the classical music composer Joseph Bo(u)logne, (known as the Chevalier de Saint-George). Perhaps the most dangerous method of liberation from enslavement was the Afro-Caribbean devised system of "marronage", DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard
in which people escaped from plantations to establish (or join) armed, independent, forest and mountain communities known as Maroons, where they were led by individuals such as Nanny of the Maroons.
Friction between Maroons and plantation owners led to the First Maroon War TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S2812 Laptop Keyboard
and contributed to an atmosphere of simmering rebellion and increasingly harsh repression by the authorities. However, for most enslaved Afro-Caribbean people, individual escape or manumission were only partial answers and could not bring general political and social reform. As a result, the harsh conditions, GATEWAY M-6319 Laptop Keyboard
constant inter-imperial warfare and growing revolutionary sentiments in the region eventually resulted in the Haitian Revolution led by Toussaint L'Ouverture and Jean-Jacques Dessalines.
In 1804, after 13 years of war, Haiti, with its overwhelmingly black population and leadership, HP 634139-001 Laptop Keyboard
became the second nation in the Americas to win independence from a European state when the army of former slaves defeated Napoleon's invasion force. During the 19th Century, further waves of rebellion, such as theBaptist War, led by Sam Sharpe in Jamaica, created the conditions for the incremental abolition of slavery in the region, with Cuba the last island to achieveemancipation in 1886. TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5083 Laptop Keyboard
Emancipation created greater opportunities for self-advancement and travel, with Afro-Caribbean people such as the nursing pioneer Mary Seacole making full use of greater personal freedom. As emancipated Afro-Caribbeans abandoned the plantations, British colonialists, particularly in Trinidad and Tobago sought to replace the diminishing labour force with indentured labourers brought in from colonial India and China. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard
During the 20th century, Afro-Caribbean people began to assert their cultural, economic and political rights with ever more vigor on the world stage, starting with Marcus Garvey's UNIA movement in the U.S. and continuing with Aimé Césaire's negritude movement. From the 1960s, the former slave population began to win their independence from British colonial rule, HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard
and were pre-eminent in creating new cultural forms such as reggae music, calypso and rastafarianism within the Caribbean itself. However, beyond the region, a new Afro-Caribbean diaspora, including such figures as Stokely Carmichael and DJ Kool Herc was influential in the creation of the hip-hop and black power movements in the US, TOSHIBA Satellite A300 Laptop Keyboard
as well as cultural developments in Europe, as evidenced by influential theorists such asFranz Fanon and Stuart Hall.
Nevertheless, in the French Caribbean possessions of Guadeloupe and Martinique, the independence movements did not achieve the same success as in the former British Caribbean, in part because of France's offer of complete political integration into the French state and society. TOSHIBA Satellite A110 Series Laptop Keyboard
Thus, most French Afro-Caribbean people are born as citizens of France, with voting rights and other privileges of citizenship.
In the early 21st century, the pop singer Rihanna, with her racy costumes and jet-set life style, seems to epitomise a growing sense of cultural self-assertion and cosmopolitanism amongst Afro-Caribbean young people. SONY VGN-FE670G Laptop Keyboard
While, in political history, the election of Portia Simpson Miller as Prime Minister of Jamaica underlined the growing prominence of Afro-Caribbean women in daily life. But, despite many such obvious individual successes, millions of Afro-Caribbean people across the region continue to face serious historical challenges, including, HP COMPAQ NX6310 Laptop Keyboard
the eradication of widespread poverty and joblessness in major population centers like Haiti and Jamaica. In addition, questions remain about how far racial equality for Afro-Caribbean people has progressed since the era of racial slavery, particularly in countries with significant white populations, such as Cuba. DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard
Colonial expansion under the crown of Castile was initiated by the Spanish conquistadores and developed by the Monarchy of Spain through its administrators and missionaries. The motivations for colonial expansion were trade and the spread of the Catholic faith throughindigenous conversions. It lasted for over four hundred years, from 1492 to 1898. SONY Vaio PCG-K315S laptop keyboard
Beginning with the 1492 arrival of Christopher Columbus, over nearly four centuries the Spanish Empire would expand across: most of present day Central America, the Caribbean islands, and Mexico; much of the rest of North America including the Southwestern, Southern coastal, andCalifornia Pacific Coast regions of the United States; and though inactive, TOSHIBA Satellite C655-S5141 laptop keyboard
with claimed territory in present day British Columbia Canada; and U.S. states of Alaska, Washington, and Oregon; and the western half of South America. In the early 19th century therevolutionary movements resulted in the independence of most Spanish colonies in America, except for Cuba and Puerto Rico, given up in 1898 following the Spanish-American War, HP Pavilion dv6-2160ep laptop keyboard
together with Guam and the Philippines in the Pacific. Spain's loss of these last territories politically ended Spanish colonization in America.
Since the early 15th century, Portuguese explorers, sailing in caravels, had established new southward routes to Asia, by travelling along the coast of West Africa. Packard Bell PEW91 laptop keyboard
In 1488, they rounded the Cape of Good Hope and explored East Africa; later, they discovered rich trading regions in Indonesia, and established trading ports on the western coast of Indonesia, and later India. In 1485, Christopher Columbus unsuccessfully tried to persuade King John II of Portugal (João II) to sponsor an expedition to Asia, HP Pavilion dv6-2159tx laptop keyboard
meant to be reached by sailing westwards, across the Atlantic Ocean. That alternative route, different from the theoretical eastward route, was based on calculations of the Earth's circumference made by Columbus which showed the measurement to be substantially less than the classic 10,000 mile figure given by Eratosthenes in the 3rd century BC. DELL 0M711P laptop keyboard
The Portuguese Court, which agreed with the figure provided by Eratosthenes, rejected Columbus' proposal because they believed that the distance to Asia over the open Western Ocean was too great for the ships' crews to survive the journey without being able to make port and resupply. SONY VAIO VGN-CR13/B laptop keyboard
In 1488, Columbus re-presented his plan to John II of Portugal, who refused him. This refusal was based on the recent discovery, by Bartholomeu Dias, of the eastward route to Asia along the African coast and across the Indian Ocean.
Undeterred, Columbus went to the Spanish Court, where he proved more persuasive with the Catholic Monarchs, SONY 148701322 laptop keyboard
the recently enthronedIsabella I Queen of Castile and her husband Ferdinand II King of Aragon. Although Columbus had presented his navigational plan to the Spanish Court as early as 1486, proposing to reach Asia by sailing West, across the Atlantic Ocean, he was unconvincing to the Catholic Monarchs until 1491, Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard
when Queen Isabella approved it. In August 1492, Columbus sailed from the Andalusian port of Palos de la Frontera in Southern Spain, and arrived on the island of Guanahani, in the Bahamas, on 12 October 1492. On that first trans-Atlantic voyage, Columbus and his sailors were greeted by the Arawak people of the Bahamas, HP Pavilion dv6-3001so laptop keyboard
who were kind and curious about the Spanish sailors, and offered food, water, and gifts. Yet, in his log, Columbus wrote that “.They would make fine servants . With fifty men we could subjugate them all, and make them do whatever we want.” In 1493, Columbus and crew rounded up 1,500 Arawak men, women, and children, HP HDX18-1100 CTO laptop keyboard
from which group they selected 500 “best specimens” to take to his sponsors; of those people, some 200 died en route to Spain. At the Spanish Court, Columbus presented the Catholic Monarchs, Ferdinand and Isabel, with the captured Arawaks, gold trinkets, parrots, and other exotic things. Impressed with the human and material bounties yielded by the first expedition, SONY VAIO VGN-N21E/W laptop keyboard
they commissioned Columbus for a second expedition, and provided 17 ships, some 1,500 soldiers, cavalry, and weapons (cannon, crossbows, guns, and attack dogs). In 1493, Columbus returned to the New World and claimed Spanish ownership of the island of Hispaniola (contemporary Haiti and the Dominican Republic) from the indigenous Taíno people. HP Pavilion dv5-1118tx laptop keyboard
] The Spanish Monarchs granted Columbus the governorship of the new territories, and financed more of his trans-Atlantic journeys. Although considered an excellent navigator, Columbus wrecked the Santa María during the initial voyage of 1492, the flagship of his fleet; he proved a poor administrator and was stripped of the governorship in 1500; HP AEUT5U00010 laptop keyboard
he was jailed for six weeks upon returning to Spain; yet Ferdinand and Isabel financed his fourth voyage to the New World, but denied him the governorship of the land.
Christopher Columbus profited from the agricultural and gold-mining labour of native slaves; he took back to Europe some 500 American natives whom he tried to sell as slaves in Spain. HP Mini 110-3504tu laptop keyboard
In the New World, the Taíno people began resisting their Spanish enslavement; they refused to plant crops, and abandoned their Spanish-occupied villages; their rebellion progressed from disobedience to violence, and they fought the Spanish invaders with guerrilla warfare, such as booby traps, ambushes, and attrition warfare to exhaust the Spanish soldiers. Lenovo Thinkpad T520 Laptop Keyboard
Although stone arrowheads could not penetrate the armour of the Spanish soldier, they were effective as shrapnel against the breast plates of the soldiers; however, stone and copper maces proved more effective in close combat; yet it was thesling that proved most effective, because the rocks hurled could readily crush an armoured cavalryman (caballero). HP Pavilion DV7-3186cl Laptop Keyboard
In 1522, the Taíno Cacique Enriquillo(Little Henry) successfully rebelled against Spanish rule, forcing them to agree to a treaty that granted the natives the human rights of Freedom and ofPossession; yet that forced concession proved inconsequential, because European diseases, slavery, and ritual infanticide and suicide (meant to avoid adult and infantile enslavement) quickly killed most of the Taíno peopleIBM Thinkpad T60 Laptop Keyboard
In 1502, on the fourth, and final, expedition to the American continent, Christopher Columbus encountered a large canoe, filled with goods, off the coast ofHonduras; after boarding it, he found cacao beans, axes with heads of copper and of flint, bells, pottery, and cotton garments — it was the first Spanish encounter with the civilizations of Central America. HP Pavilion DV9243EA Laptop Keyboard
In 1509, authority was granted to Alonso de Ojeda and Diego de Nicuesa, to colonize the territories between Cabo Gracias a Dios to Cabo de la Vela. All territories of Tierra Firme were unified in the Governorate of Castilla de Oro underPedro Arias Dávila on 1513.
In 1513, Vasco Núñez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama, HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard
to find gold but instead led the first European expedition to the Pacific Ocean and the west coast of the New World. In an action with enduring historical import, Balboa claimed the Pacific Ocean and all the lands adjoining it for the Spanish Crown. It was 1517 before another expedition from Cubaexplored Central America. ACER TravelMate 6292 Laptop Keyboard
It landed on the coast of the Yucatán peninsula in search of slaves.
The first mainland explorations were followed by a phase of inland expeditions and conquest. The Spanish crown extended the Reconquista effort, completed in Spain in 1492, to non-Catholic people in new territories. ACER AEZG5R00010 Laptop Keyboard
In 1500 the city of Nueva Cádiz is founded on the island of Cubagua, Venezuela and it was shortly followed by the founding by Alonso de Ojeda of Santa Cruz in present day Guajira peninsula. In 1502 on the coast of present day Colombia, near the Gulf of Urabá, Spanish explorers led by Vasco Núñez de Balboa explored and conquered the area near the Atrato River. DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard
The conquest was of theChibchan speaking nations, mainly the Muisca and Tairona indigenous people that lived here. The Spanish founded San Sebastian de Uraba in 1509—abandoned within the year. In approximately 1510 there is indirect evidence that the first permanent Spanish mainland settlement in America was established, Santa María la Antigua del Darién. ACER TravelMate 3232WXMi Laptop Keyboard
These were the first European settlements in America.
History rarely has recorded the very early Spanish Empire colony towns of the Tidewater area of the present day states of Maryland and Virginia and other southern areas, from Florida to Kentucky in the United States. HP G42-245BR laptop keyboard
The Spanish settlements among the southern Indian tribes predate the English sponsored Jamestown Colony of Virginia. The community of South America, now in Bell County, Kentucky is one example. Spain claimed the southern part of what is now the United States all the way to the Ohio River. Cherokee and other southern tribes had treaties with Spain, among other great powers. ASUS F6A Laptop Keyboard
Daniel Boone, an American folk hero, was also an official of the Spanish Empire. Spain retreated, lost or sold part of what it claimed to be its' North American territory to other great powers and the United States.
There is a difference in the 'Spanish conquest of Mexico' between the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire and the Spanish conquest of Yucatán. Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard
The former is conquest of the campaign, led by Hernán Cortés from 1519–21 and his Tlaxcala and other 'indigenous peoples' allied against the Mexica/Aztec empire. The Spanish conquest of Yucatán is the much longer campaign, from 1551–1697, against the Maya peoples of the Maya civilization in the Yucatán Peninsula of present day Mexico and northern Central America. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard
The day Hernán Cortés landed ashore at present day Veracruz, April 22, 1519, marks the beginning of 300 years of Spanish hegemony over the region. In 1535, the Viceroyalty of New Spain was established by Charles V.
In 1532 at the Battle of Cajamarca a group of Spanish soldiers under Francisco Pizarro COMPAQ Presario CQ60-104TU Laptop Keyboard
and their indigenous Andean Indian auxiliaries native allies ambushed and captured the Emperor Atahualpa of the Inca Empire. It was the first step in a long campaign that took decades of fighting to subdue the mightiest empire in the Americas. In the following years Spain extended its rule over the Empire of the Inca civilization. HP Pavilion dv5-1211tx Laptop Keyboard
The Spanish took advantage of a recent civil war between the factions of the two brothers Emperor Atahualpa and Huáscar, and the enmity of indigenous nations the Incas had subjugated, such as the Huancas, Chachapoyas, and Cañaris. In the following years the conquistadors and indigenous allies extended control over the greater Andes region. TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 Laptop Keyboard
The Viceroyalty of Perú was established in 1542.
European explorers arrived in Río de la Plata in 1516. Their first Spanish settlement in this zone was the Fort of Sancti Spiritu established in 1527 next to the Paraná River. Buenos Aires, a permanent colony, was established in 1536 and in 1537Asunción was established in the area that is now Paraguay. SONY VAIO VPCF12 Laptop Keyboard
Buenos Aires suffered attacks by the indigenous peoples that forced the settlers away, and in 1541 the site was abandoned. A second (and permanent) settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who arrived by sailing down the Paraná River from Asunción (now the capital of Paraguay). He dubbed the settlement "Santísima Trinidad" and its port became "Puerto de Santa María de los Buenos Aires." HP Mini 1010LA Laptop Keyboard
The city came to be the head of the Governorate of the Río de la Plata and in 1776 elevated to be the capital of the new Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata.
Spain's administration of its colonies in the Americas was divided into the Viceroyalty of New Spain 1535 (capital, México City), and the Viceroyalty of Peru 1542 (capital, Lima). SONY VAIO VPCF12 Laptop Keyboard
In the 18th century the additional Viceroyalty of New Granada 1717 (capital, Bogotá), and Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata 1776 (capital, Buenos Aires) were established from portions of the Viceroyalty of Peru.
This evolved from the Council of the Indies and Viceroyalties into an Intendant system, in an attempt for more revenue and efficiency. HP Pavilion G6-1C58DX Laptop Keyboard
During the Peninsular War in Europe between France and Spain, assemblies called juntas were established to rule in the name of Ferdinand VII of Spain. The Libertadores (Spanish and Portuguese for "Liberators") were the principal leaders of the Latin American wars of independence from Spain. They were predominantly criollos (local-born people of European ancestry, ACER Aspire 3022WLMi Laptop Keyboard
mostly Spanish or Portuguese), bourgeois and influenced by liberalism and in most cases with military training in the mother country.
In 1809 the first declarations of independence from Spanish rule occurred in the Viceroyalty of New Granada. The first two were in present day Bolivia at Sucre (May 25), and La Paz (July 16); HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard
and the third in present day Ecuador at Quito (August 10). In 1810 Mexico declared independence, with the Mexican War of Independence following for over a decade. In 1821 Treaty of Córdoba established Mexican independence from Spain and concluded the War. The Plan of Iguala was part of the peace treaty to establish a constitutional foundation for an independent Mexico. HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard
These began a movement for colonial independence that spread to Spain's other colonies in the Americas. The ideas from theFrench and the American Revolution influenced the efforts. All of the colonies, except Cuba and Puerto Rico, attained independence by the 1820s. TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard
The British Empire offered support, wanting to end the Spanish monopoly on trade with its colonies in the Americas.
In 1898, the United States won victory in the Spanish-American War from Spain, ending the colonial era. Spanish possession and rule of its remaining colonies in the Americas ended in that year with its ownership transfer to the United States. TOSHIBA Satellite A110 Series Laptop Keyboard
The U.S. took occupation of Cuba, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico. The latter possession now officially continues as a self-governing unincorporated territory of the United States.
It has been estimated that in the 16th century about 240,000 Spaniards emigrated to America, and in the 17th century about 500,000, predominantly to Mexico and Ecuador.[ HP COMPAQ NX6320 laptop keyboard
Before the arrival of Columbus, in Hispaniola the indigenous Taíno pre-contact population of several hundred thousand declined to sixty thousand by 1509. Although population estimates vary, Father Bartolomé de las Casas, the “Defender of the Indians” estimated there were 6 million (6,000,000) Taíno and Arawak in the Caribbean at the time of Columbus's arrival in 1492.[ ACER Aspire 5738ZG laptop keyboard
The population of the Native Amerindian population in Mexico declined by an estimated 90% (reduced to 1 - 2.5 million people) by the early 17th century. In Peruthe indigenous Amerindian pre-contact population of around 6.5 million declined to 1 million by the early 17th century.[ ACER Aspire 4810T-8480 laptop keyboard
Of the history of the indigenous population of California, Sherburne F. Cook (1896–1974) was the most painstakingly careful researcher. From decades of research he made estimates for the pre-contact population and the history of demographic decline during the Spanish and post-Spanish periods. According to Cook, the indigenous Californian population at first contact, ASUS F3Sr laptop keyboard
in 1769, was about 310,000 and had dropped to 25,000 by 1910. The vast majority of the decline happened after the Spanish period, in the Mexican and U.S. periods of Californian history (1821–1910), with the most dramatic collapse (200,000 to 25,000) occurring in the U.S. period (1846–1910). TOSHIBA Satellite L200 laptop keyboard
The Spaniards were committed, by Vatican decree, to convert their New World indigenous subjects to Catholicism. However, often initial efforts were questionably successful, as the indigenous people added Catholicism into their longstanding traditional ceremonies and beliefs. The many native expressions, TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 laptop keyboard
forms, practices, and items of art could be considered idolatry and prohibited or destroyed by Spanish missionaries, military, and civilians. This included religious items, sculptures, and jewelry made of gold or silver, which were melted down before shipment to Spain.
Though the Spanish did not impose their language to the extent they did their religion, some indigenous languages of the Americas evolved into replacement with Spanish. HP Mini 1010LA laptop keyboard,GATEWAY MT3707 laptop keyboard,HP Pavilion dv6-3050tx laptop keyboard
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