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6 septembre 2013 5 06 /09 /septembre /2013 08:45

Tiglath-Pileser I (1115–1077 BC), vies with Shamshi-Adad I and Ashur-uballit I among historians as being regarded as the founder of the first Assyrian empire. The son of Ashur-resh-ishi I, he ascended to the throne upon his father's death, and became one of the greatest of Assyrian conquerors during his 38-year reign.[24] HP Pavilion dv6-2129ev laptop keyboard

His first campaign in 1112 BC was against the Phrygians who had attempted to occupy certain Assyrian districts in the Upper Euphrates region of Asia Minor; after driving out the Phrygians he then overran the Luwian kingdoms of Commagene, FUJITSU Lifebook P1610 laptop keyboard

Cilicia and Cappadocia in western Asia Minor, and drove the Neo-Hittites from the Assyrian province of Subartu, northeast of Malatia.In a subsequent campaign, the Assyrian forces penetrated Urartu, into the mountains south of Lake Van and then turned westward to receive the submission ofMalatia.SONY VAIO VGN-FS640/W laptop keyboard

In his fifth year, Tiglath-Pileser again attacked Commagene, Cilicia and Cappadocia, and placed a record of his victories engraved on copper plates in a fortress he built to secure his Cilician conquests. SONY VAIO VGN-N21E/W laptop keyboard

The Aramaeans of northern Syria were the next targets of the Assyrian king, who made his way as far as the sources of the Tigris.[24] The control of the high road to the Mediterranean was secured by the possession of the Hittite town of Pitru[25] at the junction between the Euphrates and Sajur; HP Pavilion dv5-1118tx laptop keyboard

thence he proceeded to conquer the Canaanite/Phoenician cities of (Byblos), Sidon, and finally Arvad where he embarked onto a ship to sail the Mediterranean, on which he killed anahiru or "sea-horse" (which A. Leo Oppenheim translates as a narwhal) in the sea.[24] HP AEUT5U00010 laptop keyboard

 He was passionately fond of hunting and was also a great builder. The general view is that the restoration of the temple of the gods Ashur and Hadad at the Assyrian capital of Assur (Ashur) was one of his initiatives.[24] He also invaded and defeated Babylon twice, HP Mini 110-3504tu laptop keyboard

assuming the old title "King of Sumer and Akkad", forcing tribute from Babylon, although he did not actually depose the actual king in Babylonia, where the old Kassite Dynasty had now succumbed to an Elamite one.

He was succeeded by Asharid-apal-Ekur who reigned for just two years. HP G72-b60SF laptop keyboard

Ashur-bel-kala (1073–1056 BC) appears to have initially kept the vast empire together, campaigning successfully against Urartu to the north and the Arameans to the west. He maintained friendly relations with Marduk-shapik-zeri of Babylon, however upon the death of that king, HP Mini 110-3180sv laptop keyboard

he invaded Babylonia and deposed the new ruler Kadašman-Buriaš, appointing Adad-apla-iddina as his vassal in Babylon. He built some of the earliest examples of both Zoological Gardens and Botanical Gardens in Ashur, collecting all manner of animals and plants from his empire, and receiving a collection of exotic animals as tributes from Egypt. LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 laptop keyboard

He was also a great hunter, describing his exploits "at the city of Araziqu which is before the land of Hatti (central Asia Minor) and at the foot of Mount Lebanon." These locations show that well into his reign Assyria still controlled a vast empire. HP Mini 110-3180sv laptop keyboard

Late in his reign, the Middle Assyrian Empire erupted into civil war, when a rebellion was orchestrated by Tukulti-Mer, a pretender to the throne of Assyria. Ashur-bel-kala eventually crushed Tukulti-Mer and his allies, however the civil war in Assyria had allowed hordes of Arameans to take advantage of the situation, Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E125 laptop keyboard

and press in on Assyrian controlled territory from the west. Ashur-bel-kala counterattacked them, and conquered as far as Carchemish and the source of the Khabur river, but by the end of his reign the areas of Syria and Phoenicia-Canaan to the west of these regions as far as the Mediterranean, HP Pavilion dv6-3230us laptop keyboard

previously under firm Assyrian control, were eventually lost to the Assyrian Empire.

The period from 1200 BC to 900 BC was a dark age for the entire Near East, North Africa, Caucasus, Mediterranean and Balkan regions, with great upheavals and mass movements of people. ACER K052030A1 laptop keyboard

Assyria and its empire were not unduly affected by these tumultuous events for some 150 years, perhaps the only ancient power that was not. However, upon the death of Ashur-bel-kala in 1056 BC, Assyria went into a comparative decline for the next 100 or so years.  DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard

The empire shrank significantly, and by 1020 BC Assyria appears to have controlled only areas close to Assyria itself, essential to keeping trade routes open in eastern Syria, south eastern Asia Minor central Mesopotamia and north western Iran. TOSHIBA NSK-TAJ01 Laptop Keyboard

Semitic peoples such as the Arameans, Chaldeans and Suteans moved into areas to the west and south of Assyria, including overrunning much of Babylonia to the south, Indo-European/Iranian peoples such as the Medes and Persians moved into the lands to the east of Assyria, ACER Aspire 7741G Laptop Keyboard

displacing the native Gutians and pressuringElam and Mannea (which were both ancient non Indo-European civilisations of Iran), and to the north the Indo-European Phrygians overran their fellow Indo European Hittites, a new Hurrian state named Urartu arose in the Caucasus, ACER Aspire 7741G Laptop Keyboard

and Cimmerians, Colchians and Scythians around The Black Sea. Egypt was divided and in disarray, and Semitic Israelites were battling with other fellow Semitic Canaanite peoples and the Peleset (Philistines) for the control of southern Canaan. SONY KFRMBA152B Laptop Keyboard

Despite the apparent weakness of Assyria in comparison to its former might, at heart it in fact remained a solid, well defended nation whose warriors were the best in the world. Assyria, with its stable monarchy and secure borders was in a stronger position during this time than potential rivals such HP Pavilion dv6-3001so Laptop Keyboard

as Egypt, Babylonia, Elam, Phrygia, Urartu, Persia andMedia[26] Kings such as Ashur-bel-kala, Eriba-Adad II, Ashur-rabi II, Ashurnasirpal I, Tiglath-Pileser II and Ashur-Dan IIsuccessfully defended Assyria's borders and upheld stability during this tumultuous time. HP HDX18-1100 CTO Laptop Keyboard

Assyrian kings during this period appear to have adopted a policy of maintaining and defending a compact, secure nation and satellite colonies immediately surrounding it, and interspersed this with sporadic punitive raids and invasions of neighbouring territories when the need arose.  TOSHIBA Satellite C655-S9521D Laptop Keyboard

Eriba-Adad II ruled for only two years, and in that time continued to campaign against the Arameans before he was deposed by his elderly uncle Shamshi-Adad IV (1053–1050 BC) who appears to have had an uneventful reign. Ashurnasirpal I (1049–1031 BC) succeeded him, HP G42-380LA Laptop Keyboard

and during his reign he continued to campaign endlessly against the Arameans to the west. Assyria was also afflicted by famine during this period. Shalmaneser II (1030–1019 BC) appears to have lost territory in the Levant to the Arameans, GATEWAY NV-53 Laptop Keyboard

who also appear to have also occupied Nairi in south east Asia Minor, hitherto an Assyrian colony.

Ashur-nirari IV took the throne in 1018 BC, and captured the Babylonian city of Atlila from Simbar-Shipak and continued Assyrian campaigns against the Arameans.  HP 646568-001 Laptop Keyboard

He was eventually deposed by his uncle Ashur-rabi II in 1013 BC.

During the reign of Ashur-rabi II (1013–972 BC) Aramaean tribes took the cities of Pitru and Mutkinu (which had been taken and colonized by Tiglath Pileser I.) This event showed how far Assyria could assert itself militarily when the need arose.  ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard

The Assyrian king attacked the Arameans, forced his way to the far offMediterranean and constructed a stele in the area of Mount Atalur.[27]

Ashur-resh-ishi II (971-968 BC) in all likelihood a fairly elderly man due to the length of his father's reign, had a largely uneventful period of rule, HP AEUT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard

concerning himself with defending Assyria's borders and conducting various rebuilding projects within Assyria.

Tiglath-Pileser II (967- 936 BC) succeeded him, and reigned for 28 years. He maintained the policies of his recent predecessors, but appears to have had an uneventful reign. ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard

Ashur-Dan II (935–912 BC) oversaw a marked economic and organisational upturn in the fortunes of Assyria, laying the platform for it to once again forge an empire. He is recorded as having made successful punitive raids outside the borders of Assyria to clear  HP AEUT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard

Aramean and other tribal peoples from the regions surrounding Assyria in all directions. He concentrated on rebuilding Assyria within its natural borders, from Tur Abdin to the foothills beyond Arbela, he built government offices in all provinces, APPLE A1278 Laptop Keyboard

and created a major economic boost by providing ploughs throughout the land, which yielded record grain production.

Assyria had difficulties with keeping the trade routes open. Unlike the situation in the Old Assyrian period, the Anatolian metal trade was effectively dominated by the Hittites and the Hurrians. ACER 9J.N0F82.A1D Laptop Keyboard

These people now controlled the Mediterranean ports, while the Kassites controlled the river route south to thePersian Gulf.

The Middle Assyrian kingdom was well organized, and in the firm control of the king, who also functioned as the High Priest of Ashur, the state god. He had certain obligations to fulfill in the cult, and had to provide resources for the temples. HP G72-b66US Laptop Keyboard

The priesthood became a major power in Assyrian society. Conflicts with the priesthood are thought to have been behind the murder of king Tukulti-Ninurta I.

The main Assyrian cities of the middle period were Ashur, Kalhu (Nimrud) and Nineveh, all situated in the Tigris River valley. ACER 9J.N0F82.A1D Laptop Keyboard

At the end of the Bronze Age, Nineveh was much smaller than Babylon, but still one of the world's major cities (population c. 33,000). By the end of the Neo-Assyrian period, it had grown to a population of some 120,000, and was possibly the largest city in the world at that time.[28]  HP G72-b66US Laptop Keyboard

All free male citizens were obliged to serve in the army for a time, a system which was called the ilku-service. A legal code was produced during the 14th-13th century which, among other things, clearly shows that the social position of women in Assyria was lower than that of neighbouring societies. HP Mini 110-3180sv Laptop Keyboard

Men were permitted to divorce their wives with no compensation paid to the latter. If a woman committed adultery, she could be beaten or put to death. It's not certain if these laws were seriously enforced, but they appear to be a backlash against some older documents that granted things like equal compensation to both partners in divorce. Lenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard

The women of the king's harem and their servants were also subject to harsh punishments, such as beatings, mutilation, and death. Assyria, in general, had much harsher laws than most of the region. Executions were not uncommon, nor were whippings followed by forced labour. DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard

Some offenses allowed the accused a trial under torture/duress. One tablet that covers property rights has brutal penalties for violators. A creditor could force debtors to work for him, but not sell them.

The Middle Assyrian Period is marked by the long wars fought during this period that helped build Assyria into a warrior society.  DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard

The king depended on both the citizen class and priests in his capital, and the landed nobility who supplied the horses needed by Assyria's military. Documents and letters illustrate the importance of the latter to Assyrian society. Assyria needed less artificial irrigation than Babylon, and horse-breeding was extensive. HP Pavilion dv6-2125ef laptop keyboard

Portions of elaborate texts about the care and training of them have been found. Trade was carried out in all directions. The mountain country to the north and west of Assyria was a major source of metal ore, as well as lumber. Economic factors were a common casus belliHP Pavilion dv6-2110ev laptop keyboard

Assyrian architecture, like that of Babylonia, was influenced by Sumero-Akkadian styles (and to some degree Mitanni), but early on developed its own distinctive style. Palaces sported colourful wall decorations, and seal-cutting (an art learned from Mittani) developed apace. Schools for scribes taught both the Babylonian and Assyrian dialects of Akkadian, SONY VAIO VGN-N31Z/W laptop keyboard

and Sumerianand Akkadian literary works were often copied with an Assyrian flavour. The Assyrian dialect of Akkadian was used in legal, official, religious, and practical texts such as medicine or instructions on manufacturing items. During the 13th-10th centuries, picture tales appeared as a new art form: a continuous series of images carved on square stone steles. ACER TravelMate 6252 laptop keyboard

Somewhat reminiscent of a comic book, these show events such as warfare or hunting, placed in order from the upper left to the lower right corner of the stele with captions written underneath them. These and the excellent cut seals show that Assyrian art was beginning to surpass that of Babylon. SONY VGN-FE11M laptop keyboard

Architecture saw the introduction of a new style of ziggurat, with two towers and colorful enameled tiles.

The Neo-Assyrian Empire is usually considered to have begun with the accession of Adad-nirari II, in 911 BC, lasting until the fall of Nineveh at the hands of the Babylonians, TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4NX1 laptop keyboard

Chaldeans, Medes/Persians, Scythians andCimmerians in 612 BC.

When the ancient Dark Ages (1200 - 900 BC) finally lifted, the world had changed dramatically. Ancient kingdoms such as Assyria, Babylonia, Elam and Egypt still endured, ASUS X53S laptop keyboard

the Hittites did also, in the form of smaller Neo-Hittite states, and a number of new states had arisen during this tumultuous time, such as; Persia, Media, Parthia, Mannea, Israel, Urartu, Phrygia, Lydia, Chaldea, the Aramean and Phoenician states of the Levant, Doric Greece, Putria (Libya), Acer eMachines E640 laptop keyboard

 Colchia, Tabal, Nubia/Kush, and other nations and peoples; such as Judah, Scythia, Cimmeria, Samarra, Ethiopia, the Suteans, Nabateans, Armenians and Arabs were to emerge in the following centuries.

However, it was the ancient state of Assyria which would once more rise to prominence, IBM ThinkPad T42 laptop keyboard

and Assyria was to meet and defeat these new peoples, together with old foes, over the coming three centuries.[30]

Beginning with the campaigns of Adad-nirari II (911-892 BC), Assyria once more became a great power, growing to be the greatest empire the world had yet seen. DELL Inspiron N4050 laptop keyboard

The new king firmly subjugated the areas that were previously only under nominal Assyrian vassalage, conquering and deporting troublesome Aramean, Neo-Hittiteand Hurrian populations in the north to far-off places. GATEWAY MT3707 laptop keyboard

Adad-nirari II then twice attacked and defeated Shamash-mudammiq of Babylonia, annexing a large area of land north of the Diyala River and the towns of Hīt and Zanqu in mid Mesopotamia. Later in his reign, he made further gains against King Nabu-shuma-ukin I ofBabylonia. HP Pavilion dv6-3050tx laptop keyboard

His successor, Tukulti-Ninurta II (891-884 BC) consolidated Assyria's gains and expanded into the Zagros Mountains in modern Iran, subjugating the newly arrivedPersians and Medes as well as pushing into central Asia Minor.

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Ashurnasirpal II (883–859 BC) was a fierce and ruthless ruler who advanced without opposition through Aram and Canaan(modern Syria) and Asia Minor as far as the Mediterranean and conquered and exacted tribute from Aramea, Phrygia andPhoenicia among others. Compaq Presario CQ71-403SA laptop keyboard

Ashurnasirpal II also repressed revolts among the Medes and Persians in the Zagros Mountains, and moved his capital to the city of Kalhu (Calah/Nimrud). The palaces, temples and other buildings raised by him bear witness to a considerable development of wealth, science, architecture and art. HP Pavilion dv6-2150us laptop keyboard

He also built a number of new heavily fortified towns, such as Imgur-Enlil (Balawat), Tushhan, Kar-Ashurnasirpal and Nibarti-Ashur. Ashurnasirpal II also had a keen interest inBotany and Zoology; collecting all manner of plants, seeds and animals to be displayed in Assyria. HP Pavilion dv6-2030ev laptop keyboard

Shalmaneser III (858–823 BC) attacked and reduced Babylonia to vassalage, and defeated Aramea, Israel, Urartu, Phoenicia, the Neo-Hittite states and the Arabs, forcing all of these to pay tribute to Assyria. Shalmanesser III fought the Battle of Qarqar against an alliance of 12 nations (including Egypt, Israel, TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5083 laptop keyboard

 Hamath, Phoenicia, the Arabs, Arameans, and neo Hittitesamong others). His armies penetrated to The Caucasus, Lake Van and the Taurus Mountains; the Hittites of Carchemish were compelled to pay tribute, and the kingdoms of Hamath and Aram Damascus were subdued. TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5160 laptop keyboard

In 831 BC, he received the submission of the Georgian kingdom of Tabal. He consolidated Assyrian control over the regions conquered by his predecessors and, by the end of his 27-year reign, Assyria was master of Mesopotamia, The Levant, western Iran, Israel, Jordan and much of Asia Minor.Lenovo 3000 G430 4152 laptop keyboard

Due to old age, in the last 6 years of his reign he passed command of his armies to the "Turtanu" (General) Dayyan-Assur.

However, his successor, Shamshi-Adad V (822-811 BC), inherited an empire beset by civil war in Assyria. Acer eMachines E640 laptop keyboard

The first years of his reign saw a serious struggle for the succession of the aged Shalmaneser. The revolt, which had broken out by 826 BC, was led by Shamshi-Adad's brother Assur-danin-pal. The rebellious brother, according to Shamshi-Adad's own inscriptions, succeeded in bringing to his side 27 important cities, including Nineveh. HP Mini 110-3504tu laptop keyboard

The rebellion lasted until 820 BC, preventing Assyria expanding its empire further until it was quelled. Later in his reign, Shamshi-Adad V successfully campaigned against both Babylonia and Elam, and forced a treaty in Assyria's favour on the Babylonian king Marduk-zakir-shumi I. Lenovo Thinkpad T520 Laptop Keyboard

In 814 BCE, he won the battle of Dur-Papsukkal against the Babylonian king Murduk-balassu-iqbi, and went on to subjugate the Aramean, Suteanand Chaldean tribes newly settled in parts of Babylonia.

He was succeeded by Adad-nirari III (810- 782 BC), who was merely a boy.

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The Empire was thus ruled by his mother, the famed queen Semiramis (Shammuramat), until 806 BC. Semiramis held the empire together, and appears to have campaigned successfully in subjugating the Persians and Medes during her regency, leading to the later Iranian myths and legends surrounding her.[31] Lenovo 45N2240 Laptop Keyboard

In 806 BC, Adad-nirari III took the reins of power from Semiramis. He invaded the Levant and subjugated the Arameans, Phoenicians, Philistines, Israelites, Neo-Hittites, Moabites and Edomites. Lenovo IdeaPad Y710 Laptop Keyboard

He entered Damascus and forced tribute upon its Aramean king Ben-Hadad III. He next turned eastward to Iran, and subjugated thePersians, Medes and the pre Iranian Manneans, penetrating as far north east as the Caspian Sea. He then turned south, forcing Babylonia to pay tribute. DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard

His next targets were the Chaldean and Sutu tribes, who had settled in the far south eastern corner of Mesopotamia, whom he conquered and reduced to vassalage. Then theArabs in the deserts of the Arabian Peninsula to the south of Mesopotamia were invaded, vanquished and forced to pay tribute also. TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S2812 Laptop Keyboard

Adad-nirari III died prematurely in 782 BC, which led to a temporary period of stagnation within the empire. Assyria continued its military dominance, however Shalmaneser IV (782 - 773 BC) himself seems to have wielded little personal authority, and a victory over Argishti I, GATEWAY M-6319 Laptop Keyboard

king of Urartu at Til Barsip is accredited to an Assyrian General ('Turtanu') namedShamshi-ilu, who does not even bother to mention his king. Shamshi-ilu also scored victories over the Arameans and Neo-Hittites, and again, takes personal credit at the expense of his king. HP 634139-001 Laptop Keyboard

Ashur-dan III ascended the throne in 772 BC. He proved to be a largely ineffectual ruler who was beset by internal rebellions in the cities of Ashur, Arrapkha and Guzana; and his personal authority was checked by powerful generals, such as Shamshi-ilu. TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5083 Laptop Keyboard

He failed to make any further gains in Babylonia and Aram (modern Syria). His reign was also marred by Plague and an ominous Solar Eclipse and, as with his predecessor, military victories were credited to Shamshi-ilu.

Ashur-nirari V became king in 754 BC, the early part of his reign seems to have been one of permanent internal revolution,  ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

and he apprears to have barely left his palace in Nineveh. However later in his reign he lead a number of successful campaigns in Asia Minor and the Levant. He was deposed by Tiglath-pileser III in 745 BC bringing a resurgence to Assyrian expansion. HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard

Tiglath-Pileser III (745-727 BC) initiated a renewed period of Assyrian expansion; Urartu, Persia, Media, Mannea, Babylonia,Arabia, Phoenicia, Israel, Judah, Samaria, Palestine, Nabatea, Chaldea, Cyprus, Moab, Edom and the Neo-Hittites were subjugated, TOSHIBA Satellite A300 Laptop Keyboard

Tiglath-Pileser III was declared king in Babylon and the Assyrian empire was now stretched from the Caucasus Mountains to Arabia and from the Caspian Sea to Cyprus. Tiglath-Pileser III had reorganised the Assyrian army into the first professional fighting force in history, TOSHIBA Satellite A110 Series Laptop Keyboard

and greatly improved the civil administration of his empire, setting the template for all future ancient empires[32] Tiglath-Pileser III introduced Mesopotamian Eastern Aramaic as the Lingua Franca of Assyria and its vast empire, whose descendant dialects survive to this day.[HP COMPAQ NX6310 Laptop Keyboard

Shalmaneser V (726-723 BC) consolidated Assyrian power during his short reign, and repressed Egyptian attempts to gain a foothold in the near east, defeating and driving out Pharaoh Piye from the region. He is mentioned in Biblical sources as having conquered the Samaritans,  DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard

and being responsible for deporting theTen Lost Tribes of Israel to Assyria.

Sargon II (722-705 BC) maintained the empire, driving the Cimmerians and Scythians from Iran, where they had invaded and attacked the Persians and Medes, who were vassals of Assyria. SONY Vaio PCG-K315S laptop keyboard

Mannea, Cilicia Cappadocia and Commagene were conquered, Urartu was ravaged, and Babylon, Aram, Phoenicia, Israel, Arabia, Cyprus, and the famed Midas, (king of Phrygia) were forced to pay tribute. His stele has been found as far west as Larnaca in Cyprus. TOSHIBA Satellite C655-S5141 laptop keyboard

Sargon II conquered Gurgum, Milid, theGeorgian state of Tabal, and all of the Hittite kingdoms of the Taurus Mountains. Egypt once again attempted to gain ground in the region by supporting Israel's rebellion against the empire but Sargon II crushed the uprising, and Piye was once more routed and driven back over the Sinai. HP Pavilion dv6-2160ep laptop keyboard

Sargon II was killed in 705 BC while on a punitive raid against the Cimmerians, and was succeeded by Sennacherib.

Sennacherib (705-681 BC), a ruthless ruler, defeated the Greeks who were attempting to gain a foothold in Cilicia, Packard Bell PEW91 laptop keyboard

and then defeated and drove the Nubian ruled Egyptians from the Near East where the Nubian Pharaoh Taharqa had fomented revolt against Assyria. Babylon revolted, and Sennacherib laid waste to the city, defeating its Elamite and Chaldean allies in the process. HP Pavilion dv6-2159tx laptop keyboard

He sacked Israel, subjugated the Samaritans and laid siege to Judah, forcing tribute upon it. He installed his own son Ashur-nadin-shumi as king in Babylonia. He maintained Assyrian domination over the Medes, Manneans and Persians to the east, DELL 0M711P laptop keyboard

Asia Minor and the southern Caucasus to the north and north west, and the Levant, Phonecia and Aram in the west. Sennacherib's palace and garden at Nineveh have been proposed as the archetype of the Hanging Garden of Babylon.[34] SONY VAIO VGN-CR13/B laptop keyboard

Sennacherib was murdered by his own sons (according to the Bible the sons were named Adrammelech, Abimelech and Sharezer) in a palace revolt, apparently in revenge for the destruction of Babylon, a city sacred to all Mesopotamians, including the Assyrians. SONY 148701322 laptop keyboard

Esarhaddon (680-669 BC) expanded Assyria still further, campaigning deep into the Caucasus Mountains in the north, breakingUrartu completely in the process. Tiring of Egyptian interference in the Assyrian Empire, Esarhaddon decided to conquer Egypt. HP Pavilion dv6-3001so laptop keyboard

He crossed the Sinai Desert, and invaded and took Egypt with surprising ease and speed, driving its foreignNubian/Kushite and Ethiopian rulers out and destroying the Kushite Empire in the process. He expanded the empire as far south as Arabia and Dilmun (modernBahrain or Qatar). HP HDX18-1100 CTO laptop keyboard

Esarhaddon also completely rebuilt Babylon during his reign, bringing peace to Mesopotamia as a whole. The Babylonians, Egyptians, Elamites, Cimmerians,Scythians, Persians, Medes, Manneans, Arameans, Chaldeans, Israelites, TOSHIBA Satellite P300 Laptop Keyboard

 Phoenicians and Urartians were vanquished and regarded as vassals and Assyria's empire was kept secure. He imposed a so-called Vassal Treaty upon his Persian and Median subjects, forcing them to submit in advance to his chosen successor, Ashurbanipal.[35] DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard

 Esarhaddon died whilst preparing to leave for Egypt to once more eject the Nubians, who were attempting to encroach on the southern part of the country. This task was successfully completed by his successor, Ashurbanipal. Lenovo Thinkpad T520 Laptop Keyboard

Under Ashurbanipal (669-627 BC), Assyrian domination spanned from the Caucasus Mountains in the north to Nubia, Egypt and Arabia in the south, and from Cyprusand Antioch in the west to Persia in the east.

He was an unusually educated man for his time, being able to read and write in Akkadian,  HP Pavilion DV7-3186cl Laptop Keyboard

Aramaic and Sumerian, and having a proficient understanding of Astronomy and Mathematics, as well as military, civil and political aptitude. He built the famed Library of Ashurbanipal which contained a multitude of ancient texts from all over Mesopotamia, and was the first library in history to classify works in order of genre. IBM Thinkpad T60 Laptop Keyboard

Ashurbanipal finally destroyed Elam once and for all, and smashed a rebellion led by his own brother Shamash-shum-ukin, who was the Assyrian king of Babylon, exacting savage revenge on the coalition of Chaldeans, Nabateans, Arameans, Sutu, Arabs andElamites who had supported him. HP Pavilion DV9243EA Laptop Keyboard

An Assyrian governor named Kandalanu was installed to rule Babylonia on Ashurbanipal's behalf.

Ashurbanipal easily crushed the Nubian/Cushite king Tantamani, who had attempted to invade Assyrian-controlled Egypt, HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard

Tantamani was chased back intoto Nubia by a pursuing Assyrian army, and was never again to pose a threat. Egypt, Persia,Media, Phrygia, Elam, Urartu, Lydia, Babylonia, Chaldea, Scythia and Cimmeria were regarded as vassals of Ashurbanipal. DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard

He built vast libraries and initiated a surge in the building of temples and palaces. After the crushing of the Babylonian revolt, Ashurbanipal appeared master of all he surveyed. To the east, Elam was devastated and prostrate before Assyria, theManneans and the Iranian Persians and Medes were vassals.  ACER TravelMate 3232WXMi Laptop Keyboard

To the south, Babylonia was occupied, the Chaldeans, Arabs, Sutuand Nabateans subjugated, the Nubian empire destroyed, and Egypt paid tribute. To the north, the Scythians and Cimmerians had been vanquished and driven from Assyrian territory, Urartu (Armenia), HP G42-245BR laptop keyboard

 Phrygia, Corduene and the neo Hittites were in vassalage, and Lydia pleading for Assyrian protection. To the west, Aramea (Syria), the Phoenicians, Israel, Judah, Samarraand Cyprus were subjugated, and the Hellenised inhabitants of Caria, Cilicia, Cappadocia and Commagene paid tribute to Assyria. ASUS F6A Laptop Keyboard

Assyria conquered the 25th dynasty Egypt (expelling its Nubian/Kushite dynasty) as well as Babylonia, Chaldea, Elam, Media,Persia, Urartu, Armenia, Phoenicia, Aramea/Syria, Phrygia, the Neo-Hittite States, the Hurrian lands, Arabia, Gutium, Israel,Judah, Samarra, Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard

Moab, Edom, Corduene, Cilicia, Mannea and parts of Ancient Greece (such as Cyprus), and defeated and/or exacted tribute from Scythia, Cimmeria,Lydia, Nubia, Ethiopia and others.

At its height, the Empire encompassed the whole of the modern nations of Iraq, Syria,  IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard

Egypt, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Bahrain, Palestine and Cyprus, together with large swathes of Iran, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Sudan, Libya, Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan.

Assyria now appeared stronger than ever. COMPAQ Presario CQ60-104TU Laptop Keyboard

However, the long struggle with Babylonia and Elam and their allies, and the constant campaigning over three centuries to control and expand its vast empire in all directions, left Assyria exhausted. It had been drained of wealth and manpower; HP Pavilion dv5-1211tx Laptop Keyboard

the devastated provinces could yield nothing to supply the needs of the imperial exchequer, it was difficult to find sufficient troops to garrison the huge empire, and after the death of Ashurbanipal severe civil unrest broke out in Assyria itself, and the empire began to unravel.TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 Laptop Keyboard

The Assyrian Empire was severely crippled following the death of Ashurbanipal in 627 BC — the nation and its empire descending into a prolonged and brutal series of civil wars involving three rival kings, SONY VAIO VPCF12 Laptop Keyboard

 Ashur-etil-ilani, Sin-shumu-lishir and Sin-shar-ishkun. Egypt quietly detached itself from Assyria, though retained friendly relations.

Ashur-etil-ilani came to the throne in 626 BC, and was immediately beset by a series of internal civil wars.  HP Mini 1010LA Laptop Keyboard

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