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28 mai 2011 6 28 /05 /mai /2011 11:25

Visual arts

Early Russian painting is represented in icons and vibrant frescos, the two genres inherited from Byzantium. As Moscow rose to power, Theophanes the Greek,Dionisius and Andrei Rublev became vital names associated with a distinctly Russian art.Sony NP-FH100 Battery

The Russian Academy of Arts was created in 1757  and gave Russian artists an international role and status. Ivan Argunov, Dmitry Levitzky, Vladimir Borovikovskyand other 18th century academicians mostly focused on portrait painting. In the early 19th century, when neoclassicism and romantism flourished, mythological and Biblical themes inspired many prominent painings, notably by Karl Briullov and Alexander Ivanov.Sony NP-FS21 Battery

In the mid-19th century the Peredvizhniki (Wanderers) group of artists broke with the Academy and initiated a school of art liberated from academic restrictions. These were mostly realist painters who captured Russian identity in landscapes of wide rivers,Dell Studio XPS 1640 Battery

forests, and birch clearings, as well as vigorous genre scenes and robust portraits of their contemporaries. Some artists focused on depicting dramatic moments in Russian history, while others turned to social criticism, showing the conditions of the poor and caricaturing authority; Dell Latitude D830 Battery

critical realism flourished under the reign of Alexander II. Leading realists include Ivan Shishkin, Arkhip Kuindzhi, Ivan Kramskoi, Vasily Polenov, Isaac Levitan, Vasily Surikov, Viktor Vasnetsov, Ilya Repin and Boris Kustodiev.Toshiba Satellite M65 battery

The turn of the 20th century saw the rise of symbolist painting, represented by Mikhail Vrubel, Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin and Nicholas Roerich.

The Russian avant-garde was a large, influential wave of modernist art that flourished in Russia from approximately 1890 to 1930. Toshiba NB100 Battery

The term covers many separate, but inextricably related, art movements that occurred at the time; namely neo-primitivism, suprematism, constructivism, rayonism, and Russian Futurism. Notable artists from this era include El Lissitzky, Kazimir Malevich, Wassily Kandinsky, and Marc Chagall. Toshiba Satellite P10 Battery

Since 1930s the revolutionary ideas of the avant-garde clashed with the newly emerged conservative direction of socialist realism.

Soviet art produced works that were furiously patriotic and anti-fascist during and after the Great Patriotic War.Sony VGP-BPS13B/B Battery

Multiple war memorials, marked by a great restrained solemnity, were built throughout the country. Soviet artists often combined innovation with socialist realism, notably the sculptors Vera Mukhina, Yevgeny Vuchetich and Ernst Neizvestny.Sony VGN-FW11S Battery

Music and dance

Music in 19th century Russia was defined by the tension between classical composer Mikhail Glinka along with his followers, who embraced Russian national identity and added religious and folk elements to their compositions,Hp pavilion dv6000 battery

and the Russian Musical Society led by composers Anton and Nikolay Rubinsteins, which was musically conservative. The later tradition of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, one of the greatest composers of the Romantic era, was continued into the 20th century by Sergei Rachmaninoff.Sony Vaio VGN-FZ31S battery

World-renown composers of the 20th century included also Alexander Scriabin, Igor Stravinsky, Sergei Prokofiev, Dmitri Shostakovich and Alfred Schnittke.

Russian conservatories have turned out generations of famous soloists. Sony Vaio VGN-FZ31S battery

Among the best known are violinists David Oistrakh and Gidon Kremer; cellist Mstislav Rostropovich; pianists Vladimir Horowitz, Sviatoslav Richter, and Emil Gilels; and vocalists Fyodor Shalyapin, Galina Vishnevskaya, Anna Netrebko and Dmitry Hvorostovsky.HP NX8200 battery

During the early 20th century, Russian ballet dancers Anna Pavlova and Vaslav Nijinsky rose to fame, and impresario Sergei Diaghilev and his Ballets Russes' travels abroad profoundly influenced the development of dance worldwide.HP NX7400 battery

Soviet ballet preserved the perfected 19th century traditions, and the Soviet Union's choreography schools produced many internationally famous stars, including Maya Plisetskaya, Rudolf Nureyev, and Mikhail Baryshnikov. HP NW8440 battery

The Bolshoi Ballet in Moscow and the Mariinsky Ballet in St Petersburg remain famous throughout the world.

Modern Russian rock music takes its roots both in the Western rock and roll and heavy metal, and in traditions of the Russian bards of the Soviet era, like Vladimir Vysotsky and Bulat Okudzhava.HP NW8200 battery

Popular Russian rock groups include Mashina Vremeni, DDT, Aquarium, Alisa, Kino, Kipelov, Nautilus Pompilius, Aria,Grazhdanskaya Oborona, Splean and Korol i Shut. Russian pop music developed from what was known in the Soviet times as estrada into full-fledged industry, HP NC6400 battery

with some performers gaining wide international recognition, like t.A.T.u. and Vitas.

Literature and philosophy

In the 18th century, during the era of Russian Enlightenment, the development ofRussian literature was boosted by the works of Mikhail Lomonosov and Denis Fonvizin, HP NC6200 battery

and by the early 19th century a modern native tradition had emerged, producing some of the greatest writers of all time. This period, known also as theGolden Age of Russian Poetry, began with Alexander Pushkin, who is considered the founder of modern Russian literary language and often described as the"Russian Shakespeare". HP NC6100 battery

It continued into the 19th century with the poetry of Mikhail Lermontov and Nikolay Nekrasov, dramas of Alexander Ostrovsky and Anton Chekhov, and the prose of Nikolai Gogol and Ivan Turgenev. Leo Tolstoy and Fyodor Dostoevsky in particular were titanic figures to the point that many literary critics have described one or the other as the greatest novelist of all time. HP NC6000 battery

By the 1880s the age of the great novelists was over, while short fiction and poetry became the dominant genres. The next several decades became known as theSilver Age of Russian Poetry, when the previously dominant literary realism was replaced by symbolism. HP 6710B battery

Leading authors of this era include poets Valery Bryusov,Vyacheslav Ivanov, Alexander Blok, Nikolay Gumilev and Anna Akhmatova, and novelists Leonid Andreyev, Ivan Bunin, and Maxim Gorky.

Russian philosophy blossomed since the 19th century, HP 6530B battery

when it was defined initially by the opposition of Westernizers, advocating the Western political and economical models, and Slavophiles, insisting on developing Russia as unique civilization. The latter group includes Nikolai Danilevsky and Konstantin Leontiev, the founders of eurasianism. HP 6510B battery

In its further development Russian philosophy was always marked by deep connection to literature and interest in creativity, society, politics and nationalism; Russian cosmism and religious philosophy were other major areas.HP Pavilion DV6-1020ED Battery

Notable philosophers of the late 19th and the early 20th centuries includeVladimir Solovyev, Sergei Bulgakov, and Vladimir Vernadsky.

Following the Russian Revolution of 1917 many prominent writers and philosophers left the country,Dell Latitude E6400 battery

including Ivan Bunin, Vladimir Nabokov and Nikolay Berdyayev, while a new generation of talented authors joined together in an effort to create a distinctive working-class culture appropriate for the new Soviet state. In the 1930s censorship over literature was tightened in line with the policy of socialist realism. Apple A1281 battery

Since late 1950s the restrictions on literature were eased, and by the 1970s and 1980s, writers were increasingly ignoring the official guidelines. The leading authors of the Soviet era include novelists Yevgeny Zamyatin, Ilf and Petrov, Mikhail Bulgakov and Mikhail Sholokhov, Apple A1280 battery

and poets Vladimir Mayakovsky,Yevgeny Yevtushenko, and Andrey Voznesensky.

Cinema, animation and media

Russian and later Soviet cinema was a hotbed of invention in the period immediately following the 1917, resulting in world-renown films such as The Battleship Potemkin by Sergei Eisenstein.Dell LATITUDE D800 battery

Eisenstein was a student of filmmaker and theorist Lev Kuleshov, who developed the Soviet montage theory of film editing at the world's first film school, the All-Union Institute of Cinematography. Dziga Vertov, whose kino-glaz (“film-eye”) theory—that the camera,Dell Inspiron 6400 AC Adapter

like the human eye, is best used to explore real life—had a huge impact on the development of documentary film making and cinema realism. The subsequent state policy ofsocialist realism somewhat limited creativity, however many Soviet films in this style were artistically successful, like Chapaev, The Cranes Are Flying, andBallad of a Soldier. Sony Vaio VGN-CR190E/L Battery

1960s and 1970s saw a greater variety of artistic styles in the Soviet cinema. Eldar Ryazanov's and Leonid Gaidai's comedies of that time were immensely popular, with many of the catch phrases still in use today. In 1961–68 Sergey Bondarchuk directed an Oscar-winning film adaptation of Leo Tolstoy's epicWar and Peace, HP 448007-001 battery

which was the most expensive film ever made. In 1969, Vladimir Motyl's White Sun of the Desert was released, a very popular film in a genre of ostern; the film is traditionally watched by cosmonauts before any trip into space.Sony VGP-BPS11 battery

Russian animation dates back to the late Russian Empire times. During Soviet era, Soyuzmultfilm studio was the largest animation producer. Soviet animators developed a great variety of pioneering techniques and aesthetic styles, HP Pavilion DV6-1223EO Battery

with prominent directors including Ivan Ivanov-Vano,Fyodor Khitruk and Aleksandr Tatarsky. Many Soviet cartoon heroes, such as the Russian-style Winnie-the-Pooh, cute little Cheburashka, Wolf and Hare from Nu, Pogodi! are iconic images in Russia and many surrounding countries.Compaq CQ35-100 battery

The late 1980s and 1990s were a period of crisis in Russian cinema and animation. Although Russian filmmakers became free to express themselves, state subsidies were drastically reduced, resulting in fewer films produced.HP DV9700 battery

The early years of the 21st century have brought increased viewership and subsequent prosperity to the industry on the back of the economic revival. Production levels are already higher than in Britain and Germany. Russia's total box-office revenue in 2007 was $565 million, Sony VGP-BPS13 battery

up 37% from the previous year In 2002 the Russian Ark became the first feature film ever to be shot in a single take. The traditions of Soviet animation were developed recently by such directors as Aleksandr Petrov and studios like Melnitsa Animation.HP Pavilion DV8 battery

Russia was among the first countries to introduce radio and television. While there were few channels in the Soviet time, in the past two decades many new state and private-owned radio stations and TV channels appeared.Compaq CQ50 battery

In 2005 a state-run English language Russia Today TV started broadcasting, and its Arabic version Rusiya Al-Yaum was launched in 2007.

Sports

Combining the total medals of Soviet Union and Russia, HP Pavilion DV7 battery

the country is second among all nations by number of gold medals both at the Summer Olympics and at the Winter Olympics. Soviet and later Russian athletes have always been in the top three for the number of gold medals collected at the Summer Olympics. Ibm THINKPAD X200 Battery

Soviet gymnasts, track-and-field athletes, weight lifters, wrestlers, boxers, fencers,shooters, cross country skiers, biathletes, speed skaters and figure skaters were consistently among the best in the world, along with Soviet basketball, handball, volleyball and ice hockey players.Ibm THINKPAD X200 Battery

The 1980 Summer Olympics were held in Moscow while the 2014 Winter Olympics will be hosted by Sochi.

Although ice hockey was only introduced during the Soviet era, the national team managed to win gold at almost all the Olympics and World Championshipsthey contested. Ibm THINKPAD X200 Battery

Russian players Valery Kharlamov, Sergey Makarov, Vyacheslav Fetisov and Vladislav Tretiak hold four of six positions in the IIHF Team of the Century. Recently Russia won the 2008 and 2009 IIHF World Championships, overtaking Canada as the world's top ranked ice hockey team.SONY VAIO VGN-FW21E Battery

TheKontinental Hockey League was founded in 2008 as a successor to the Russian Superleague. It is seen as a rival to the NHL and is ranked the top hockey league in Europe as of 2009. Bandy, known also as the Russian hockey, is another traditionally popular ice sport.Asus M52N Battery

The Soviet Union won all theBandy World Championships between 1957-79

Along with ice hockey and basketball, association football is one of the most popular sports in modern Russia. The Soviet national team became the first ever European Champions by winning Euro 1960.Dell Latitude E6400 ATG Battery

In recent years, Russian football, which downgraded in 1990-s, has experienced a revival. Russian clubs CSKA Moscow and Zenit St Petersburg won the UEFA Cup in 2005 and 2008 respectively. The Russian national football team reached the semi-finals of Euro 2008, losing only to the eventual champions Spain.SONY VAIO VGN-FW21L Battery

Russia will host the 2018 FIFA World Cup, with 14 host cities located in the European part of the country and on the Urals.

Larisa Latynina, who currently holds a record for most Olympic medals won per person and most gold Olympic medals won by a woman,SONY VAIO VGN-FW21M Battery

established the USSR as the dominant force in gymnastics for many years to come. Today, Russia is leading in rhythmic gymnastics with such stars as Alina Kabayeva, Irina Tschaschina and Yevgeniya Kanayeva.SONY VAIO VGN-FW21Z Battery

Russian synchronized swimming is the best in the world, with almost all gold medals at Olympics and World Championships having been swept by Russians in recent decades. Figure skating is another popular sport in Russia, especiallypair skating and ice dancing. SONY VAIO VGN-FW33GW Battery

At every Winter Olympics from 1964 until 2006 a Soviet or Russian pair has won gold. Since the end of the Soviet era, tennis has grown in popularity and Russia has produced a number of famous players, including Maria Sharapova, the world's highest paid female athlete.Dell XPS M1210 Battery

Chess is a widely popular pastime in Russia; from 1927, Russian grandmasters have held the world chess championship almost continuously.

National holidays and symbols

There are seven public holidays in Russia, except those always celebrated on Sunday.Dell KM958 battery

The New Year is the first in calendar and in popularity. Russian New Year traditions resemble those of the Western Christmas, with New Year Trees and gifts, and Ded Moroz (Father Frost) playing the same role as Santa.Dell Studio 1555 battery

Orthodox Christmas falls on 7 January, because Russian Orthodox Church still follows the Julian calendar and all Orthodox holidays are 13 days after Catholic ones. Another two major Christian holidays are Easter and Trinity Sunday. Kurban Bayram and Uraza Bayram are celebrated by Russian Muslims.Sony VGP-BPS13 battery

Further Russian public holidays include Defender of the Fatherland Day (23 February), which honors Russian men, especially those serving in the army;International Women's Day (8 March), which combines the traditions of Mother's Day and Valentine's Day; Sony VGP-BPS13/S battery

Spring and Labor Day (1 May); Victory Day (9 May); Russia Day (12 June); and Unity Day (4 November), commemorating the popular uprising which expelled the Polish occupation force from Moscow in 1612.Sony VGP-BPS13A/B battery

Victory Day is the second most popular holiday in Russia; it commemorates the victory over Nazism in the Great Patriotic War. A huge military parade, hosted by the President of Russia, is annually organised in Moscow on Red Square.Sony VGP-BPS13B/B battery

Similar parades took place in all major Russian cities and cities with the status Hero city or City of Military Glory.

Popular non-public holidays include Old New Year (New Year according to Julian Calendar on 14 January), Tatiana Day (students holiday on 25 January), Sony VGP-BPL9 battery

Maslenitsa (an old pagan spring holidaya week before the Great Lent), Cosmonautics Day (a day of Yury Gagarin's first ever human trip into space on 12 April), Ivan Kupala Day (another pagan Slavic holiday on 7 July) and Peter and Fevronia DaySony VGP-BPS13B/B battery

(taking place on 8 July and being the Russian analogue of Valentine's Day, which focuses, however, on the family love and fidelity).

State symbols of Russia include the Byzantine double-headed eagle, combined with St. George of Moscow in the Russian coat of arms. Sony VGP-BPL15 battery

The Russian flag dates from the late Tsardom of Russia period and has been widely used since the time of the Russian Empire. The Russian anthem shares its music with the Soviet Anthem, though not the lyrics. The imperial motto God is with us and the Soviet motto Proletarians of all countries, unite!HP Pavilion dv6000 Battery

are now obsolete and no new motto has replaced them. The hammer and sickle and the full Soviet coat of arms are still widely seen in Russian cities as a part of old architectural decorations. The Soviet Red Stars are also encountered, often on military equipment and war memorials.HP Pavilion dv8000 battery

The Red Banner continues to be honored, especially the Banner of Victory of 1945.

The Matryoshka doll is a recognizable symbol of Russia, while the towers of Moscow Kremlin and Saint Basil's Cathedral in Moscow are main Russia's architectural icons. Cheburashka is a mascot of Russian national Olympic team. HP PAVILION DV6000 Battery

St. Mary, St. Nicholas, St. Andrew, St. George, St. Alexander Nevsky,St. Sergius of Radonezh and St. Seraphim of Sarov are Russia's patron saints. Chamomile is a national flower, while birch is a national tree. TheRussian bear is an animal symbol and a national personification of Russia, HP PAVILION DV8000 Battery

though this image has a Western origin and Russians themselves have accepted it only fairly recently. The native Russian national personification is Mother Russia, sometimes called Mother Motherland.

Tourism

Tourism in Russia has seen rapid growth since the late Soviet times, first inner tourism and then international tourism as well. SONY VAIO VGN-FZ Battery

Rich cultural heritage and great natural variety place Russia among the most visited countries in the world. Major tourist routes in Russia include a travel around the Golden Ring of ancient cities, cruises on the big rivers like Volga, and long journeys on the famous Trans-Siberian Railway.HP Pavilion DV6000 battery

Most visited destinations in Russia are Moscow and Saint Petersburg, the current and the former capitals of the country. Recognized as World Cities, they feature such world-renown museums as Tretyakov Gallery and Hermitage, famous theaters like Bolshoi and Mariinsky, HP Pavilion DV8000 battery

ornate churches like Saint Basil's Cathedral, Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, Saint Isaac's Cathedral and Church of the Savior on Blood, impressive fortifications like Moscow Kremlin and Peter and Paul Fortress, beautiful squares and streets like Red Square, Palace Square, Tverskaya Street and Nevsky Prospect.HP Pavilion DV6000 battery

Rich palaces and parks are found in the former imperial residences in suburbs of Moscow (Kolomenskoye, Tsaritsyno) and St Petersburg (Peterhof, Strelna, Oranienbaum, Gatchina, Pavlovskand Tsarskoye Selo). Moscow displays the Soviet architecture at its best, along with modern skyscrapers, HP Pavilion DV8000 battery

while St Petersburg, nicknamed Venice of the North, boasts of its classical architecture, many rivers, channels and bridges.

Kazan, the capital of Tatarstan, shows a mix of Christian Russian and Muslim Tatar cultures. The city has registered a brand The Third Capital of Russia,SONY VAIO VGN-FZ18 Battery

though a number of other major cities compete for this status, including Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod.

Typical Russian souvenirs include matryoshka doll and other handicraft, samovars for water heating, ushanka and papaha warm hats, and fur clothes. Russian vodka and caviar are among the food that attracts foreigners.SONY VAIO VGN-FZ21E Battery

The warm subtropical Black Sea coast of Russia is the site for a number of popular sea resorts, like Sochi, the follow-up host of the 2014 Winter Olympics. The mountains of the Northern Caucasus contain popular ski resorts, including Dombay. The most famous natural destination in Russia is Lake Baikal, the Blue Eye of Siberia.SONY VAIO VGN-FW31J Battery

This unique lake, oldest and deepest in the world, has crystal-clean waters and is surrounded by taiga-covered mountains. Other popular natural destinations include Kamchatka with its volcanoes and geysers, Karelia with its lakes and granite rocks, the snowy Altai Mountains, and the wild steppes of Tyva.SONY VAIO VGN-FW31J Battery

Timeline of Russian inventions and technology records encompasses the key events in the history of technology in Russia, starting from the Early East Slavs and up to the modern Russian Federation.

The entries in this timeline are mass products, technologies and single objects, mostly falling into the two categories:SONY VAIO VGN-FW21E Battery

  • Indigenous inventions, either having worldwide importance (like arc welding, assault rifle, satellite) or more local significance (likeonion dome, khokhloma, ushanka);
  • Products and objects with unique superlative characteristics and records associated with them (like Tsar Cannon, AK-47, Arktika class icebreaker).SONY VAIO VGN-NR11S/S Battery

This timeline includes products and technologies introduced by any citizens and peoples of Russia and her predecessor states, regardless of ethnicity, and including inventions of naturalized immigrant citizens.SONY VAIO VGN-NR11M/S Battery

Certain innovations, achieved by a multinational cooperation, also may be included into this timeline, in case Russian side played a major role in such projects. The inventions made abroad by Russian émigrés are not reflected here, but may be found on the list of Russian inventors.SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Battery

For the plain list of Russian inventions, see the Category:Russian inventions.

Baked milk is made by simmering milk on low heat for eight hours or longer. The product has a light brown color, a specific taste and the ability to be stored safely at room temperature for up to forty hours, much longer than most other milk beverages.Sony VAIO VGN-FW21E Battery

It has been produced since the ancient times, typically using aRussian oven, and nowadays it is produced on an industrial scale. Of especial popularity in Russia is soured or fermented baked milk, traditionally known asryazhenka. Sony VAIO VGN-NR11S/S Battery

Banya is a traditional Russian wet steam bath, where the bathing is performed inside special rooms or standalone wooden houses, with steam being produced by splashing water upon heated rocks. Historically, banya developed simultaneously with its closest relative, the Finnish sauna,Sony VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Battery

however modern saunas converted to dry steam, while banyas continue to use wet steam. Banya temperatures may exceed 110°C, and people often hit themselves or others with bunches of dried branches and leaves from white birch, oak oreucalyptus in order to improve the circulation. Sony VAIO VGN-NR11M/S Battery

It is customary to cool off in the breeze outdoors or splash around in cold water or in a lake or river. In the winter, people may roll in the snow or jump into the ice holes. After two or three sessions of sweat and cooling off, the ritual ends with drinking beverages or tea, playing games or relaxing in good company in an antechamber to the steam room.Sony VAIO VGN-NR11Z/T Batter

Banya provides a strong positive effect on health, reliefs a number of diseases and strengthens theimmune system.

Blini are thin pancakes made with yeast. Blin comes from Old Slavic mlin, that means "to mill". Russian blini are made with yeasted batter, which is left to rise and then diluted with cold or boiling water or milk. SONY VAIO VGN-FZ180E Battery

Blini may have originated in the time of the Slavic unity, and they had a somewhat ritual significance for the early Slavs in pre-Christiantimes, since they were a symbol of the sun due to their round form. Blini were traditionally prepared at the end of the winter to honor the rebirth of the new sun (Butter Week, or Maslenitsa). SONY VAIO VGN-FZ220E Battery

This tradition was adopted by Orthodox church and is carried on to the present day.

Gusli is the oldest Slavic and Russian multi-string plucked instrument. Preserved instruments discovered by archaeologists have between 5 and 9 strings with one example having 12 strings. SONY VAIO VGN-FZ340E Battery

Gusli may have derived from a Byzantine form of the Greek kythare and have a number of relative instruments, like Finnishkantele. The first mention of gusli dates back to 591AD to a treatise by the Greek historian Theophylact Simocatta which describes the instrument being used bySlavs from the area of the later Kievan Rus'.SONY VAIO VGN-FZ460E Battery

The gusli are thought to have been the instrument used by the legendary Boyan (a singer of tales) and other heroes of Russian mythology. In the later times gusli were widely used by the wandering Skomorokh musicians and entertainers. SONY VAIO VGN-FZ480E Battery

An izba is a traditional Russian countryside dwelling, a type of log house, suited to the colder climate of North-Eastern Europe and Siberia. Traditional, old-style izba construction involved the use of simple tools, such as ropes, axes, knives, and spades. Nails were not generally used, as metal was relatively expensive, and neither were saws a common construction tool. SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31E Battery

Both interior and exterior were of split tree trunks, the gap between was usually filled with river clay. From the 15th century on, the central element of the interior of izba was Russian oven. Outside izbas were often embellished by various special architectural features, for example the rich wood carving decorations on windows. SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31B Battery

Such decorative elements and the use of the Russian oven are still commonly found in many modern Russian countryside houses.

A kosovorotka is a Russian skewed-collared shirt, long sleeved and reaching down to the mid-thigh, a traditional top garment from the ancient times. SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31J Battery

The name derived from koso (askew), and vorot (collar), since the collar of this shirt appears skewed when it is left unbuttoned. The collar and sleeves of kosovorotka were often decorated with a traditional Slavic ornament. It was worn by peasants and townsmen of various social categories into the early 20th century, until being displaced by less elaborate clothing.SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31M Battery

The garment is also known as a tolstovka, or the Tolstoy-shirt, because the writer Count Leo Tolstoy customarily wore one in his later years. Now kosovorotkas appear mostly as souvenirs and as scenic garments of Russian folk art ensembles.

Lapti is an East Slavic variant of bast shoes.SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31Z Battery

A kind of baskets fit to the shape of a foot, lapti were woven primarily from bast of the linden tree or from birch bark. They were easy to manufacture, but not very durable. In Russia lapti were worn until 1920s or 1930s as a cheap replacement for leather shoes, just like clogs in the Western Europe.SONY VAIO VGN-FZ38M Battery

Shchi is a Russian soup with cabbage as the primary ingredient, which makes it possible for the prepared dish to be stored safely for rather a long time without losing its taste qualities. Generally it is made with either fresh cabbage or sauerkraut and other winter vegetables, although meat can be added. SONY VGP-BPS8 Battery

Shchi made with sauerkraut has a sour taste and is called sour shchi. A summer sorrel soup, also popular in pre-Revolutionary and today's Russia, is known as green shchi. Usually smetana cream is added into shchi before serving.

Smetana is thick, yellowish-white and slightly sour-tasting cream which contains about 40 % milk fat. Sony VGP-BPS8 Battery

It is made by curdling pasteurized cream. In Russian cooking, it is used virtually in everything from appetizers and main courses to desserts. It is somewhat close to a crème fraîche(28%), but much heavier and thicker with usually 36% to 42 % milkfat or even higher, and more sour in taste. SONY VGP-BPS13/S Battery

Smetana is ideal to be used in dishes requiring a long cooking time in the oven, since it will not curdle when cooked or added to hot dishes.

The kokoshnik is a traditional Russian women's head-dress. It is patterned to match the style of the sarafan and can be pointed or round. It is tied at the back of the head with long thick ribbons in a large bow. SONY VGP-BPS13A/B Battery

The forehead is sometimes decorated with pearls or other jewelry. The word kokoshnik appeared in the 16th century, however the earliest head dress pieces of the similar type were found in the 10th-12th cc. burials in Veliky Novgorod. It was worn by girls and women on special occasions until the Russian Revolution, SONY VGP-BPS13B/B Battery

and subsequently was introduced into the Western fashion by Russian émigrés.

Kvass or kvas, sometimes called in English a bread drink, is a fermented beverage made from black rye or rye bread (which contributes to its light or dark colour). SONY VGP-BPS13A/S Battery

By the content of alcohol resulted from fermentation, it is classified as non-alcoholic: up to 1.2% of alcohol, which is so low that it is considered acceptable for consumption by children. While the early low-alcoholic prototypes of kvass were known in some ancient civilizations, its modern, almost non-alcoholic form originated in the Eastern Europe. SONY VGP-BPS13AS Battery

Kvass was first mentioned in the Russian Primary Chronicle, which tells how Prince Vladimir the Great gave kvass to the people among other beverages, while celebrating the Christianization of Kievan Rus'. Kvass is also known as a main ingredient in okroshka, a Russian cold soup.Dell Inspiron 1320n Battery

The multidomed church is a typical form of Russian church architecture, which distinguishes Russia from other Orthodox nations and Christian denominations. Indeed, the earliest Russian churches, built just after the Christianization of Kievan Rus', were multi-domed, which led some historians to speculate how Russian pre-Christian pagan temples might have looked like. SONY VGP-BPS13AS Battery

Namely, these early churches were 13-domed wooden Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod (989) and 25-domed stone Desyatinnaya Church in Kiev (989-996). The number of domes typically has a symbolical meaning in the Russian architecture, for example 13 domes symbolize Christ with 12 Apostles,Dell Inspiron 1320n Battery

while 25 domes mean the same with additional 12 Prophets of Old Testament. Multiple domes of Russian churches were often made of wood and were comparatively smaller than the Byzantine domes.

Kissel or kisel is a dessert that consists of sweetened juice, typically that of berries, thickened with arrowroot, cornstarch orpotato starch, with red wine or dried fruits added sometimes.Dell Studio 1450 Battery

The dessert can be served either hot or cold, and if made using less thickening starch it can be drunk, which is common in Russia. Kissel was mentioned for the first time in the Primary Chronicle, where it forms part of the story of how a bisieged Russian city was saved from nomadic Pechenegs .Dell Studio 1457 Battery

A birch bark document is a document written on pieces of birch bark. This form of writing material was developed independently by several ancient cultures. In Rus' the usage of the specially prepared birch bark as a cheap replacement forpergament or paper became widespread soon after the Christianization of the country. Dell Latitude D610 Battery

The earliest Russian birch bark documents (likely written in the first quarter of the 11th century) have been found in Veliky Novgorod. In the total, more than 1000 such documents have been discovered, most of them in Novgorod and the rest in other ancient cities in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. Dell Studio 1457 Battery

Many birch bark documents were written by quite common people, not only by clergy or nobility. This fact led some historians to suggest that before the Mongol invasion of Rus' the level of literacy in the country might have been considerably higher than inWestern Europe of the time.Toshiba Satellite M60 battery

The koch was an ancient form of icebreaker, being a special type of small one or two mast wooden sailing ships, used for voyages in the ice conditions of the Arctic seas and Siberian rivers. Koch was developed by the Russian Pomors since the 11th century, when they started settling on the White Sea shores. Dell Latitude D830 Battery

Koch's hull was protected by a belt of ice-floe resistant flush skin-planking (made of oak orlarch) along the variable water-line, and had a false keel for on-ice portage. If a koch became squeezed by the ice-fields, its rounded bodylines below the water-line would allow for the ship to be pushed up out of the water and onto the ice with no damage. Dell Latitude D620 Battery

In the 19th century similar protective features were adopted to modern icebreakers.

The gudok is an ancient East Slavic string musical instrument, played with a bow. It usually had three strings, two of them tuned in unison and played as a drone, the third tuned a fifth higher. Dell Inspiron Mini 10 Battery

All three strings were in the same plane at the bridge, so that a bow could make them all sound simultaneously. Sometimes the gudok also had several sympathetic strings (up to eight) under the sounding board. These made the gudok's sound warm and rich. It was also possible to play the gudok while standing or dancing, which made it popular among skomorokhs. Sony VGN-FW11S Battery

The name gudok comes from the 17th century, however the same type of instrument existed from 11th to 16th century, but was called smyk.

Medovukha is an Old Slavic honey-based alcoholic beverage very similar to mead, but much cheaper and faster in making. Sony VGN-FW11M Battery

Since the old times Slavs exported the fermented mead as a luxury product to Europe in huge quantities. Fermentation occurs naturally over 15 to 50 years, originally rendering the product very expensive and only accessible to the nobility. Sony VGN-FW139E/H battery

However, in the 11th century East Slavs found that fermentation occurred much faster when the honey mixture was heated, enabling medovukha to become a folk drink in the territory of Rus'. In the 14th century, the invention of distillation made it possible to create a prototype of the modern medovukha,Dell Latitude E5400 Battery

however vodka was invented at the same time and gradually surpassed medovukha in popularity.

Russian fist fighting is an ancient Russian combat sport, basically similar to modern boxing, but featuring some indigenous techniques and often fought in collective events called Stenka na Stenku ("Wall against Wall"). Dell Latitude E4200 Battery

It has existed since the times of Kievan Rus', first mentioned in the Primary Chronicle under year 1048. The government and the Russian Orthodox Church often tried to prohibit the fights, however the fist fighting remained popular until the 19th century, while in the 20th century some of the old techniques were adopted for the modern Russian martial arts.Dell Inspiron 300M Battery

The pernach was a type flanged mace developed since the 12th century in the region of Kievan Rus' and later widely used throughout Europe. The name comes from the Russian word ???? (pero) meaning feather, reflecting the form of pernach that resembled an arrow with feathering. Dell Studio 1737 battery

The most popular variety of pernach had six flanges and was called shestopyor (from Russianshest' and pero, that is six-feathered). Pernach was the first form of the flanged mace to found wide usage. It was perfectly suited to destroy the plate armour and plate mail. In the later times it was often used as a symbol of power by the military leaders in Eastern Europe. Dell Inspiron E1505 battery

The shashka is a special kind of sabre, a very sharp, single-edged, single-handed, and guardless sword. In appearance, the shashka is midway between a full sabre and a straight sword. It has a slightly curved blade, and could be effective for both slashing and thrusting. Dell RM791 battery

Originally shashka was developed in the 12th century byCircassians in the Northern Caucasus, whose lands were integrated into the Russian Empire in the 18th century. By that time shashka was adopted as their main cold weapon by Russian Cossacks.Acer Aspire One battery 10400mAh

The treshchotka, sometimes referred in plural as treshchotki, is a Russian folk music idiophone instrument which is used to imitate hand clapping. Basically it is a set of small boards on a string that get clapped together as a group. There are no known documents confirming usage of treshchotka in the ancient Russia, Dell Precision M70 Battery

however the remnants of what might have been the earliest 12th century treshchotka were recently found in Novgorod.

The bear spear or rogatina was a medieval type of spear used in bear hunting and also against other large animals, like wisents and war horses. SONY VGN -FZ210CE Battery

The sharpened head of a bear spear was enlarged and usually had a form of a bay leaf. Right under the head there was a short crosspiece that helped fixing the spear in the body of an animal. Often it was placed against the ground on its rear point, which makes it easier to hold the weight of attacking beast.Toshiba Satellite L305 Battery

The Russian chronicles first mention rogatina as a military weapon under the year 1149, and as a hunting weapon under the year 1255.

The sokha is a light wooden plough which could be pulled by one horse. Its origin was in the north Russia, most likely in the Novgorod Republic, where it was used at least since the 13th century. Toshiba Satellite T4900 Battery

A characteristic feature of sokha construction is the bifurcated plowing tip (???????), so that a sokha has two plowshares, later made of metal, which cut the soil. Sokha is an evolution of a scratch-plough by an addition of a spade-like detail which turns the cut soil over (in regular ploughs the curved mouldboard both cuts and turns the soil).Toshiba PA3399U-2BRS battery

Pelmeni is a dish originating from Siberia, now considered part of Russian national cuisine. It is a type of dumpling consisting of a filling that is wrapped in thin unleavened dough. The word pelmeni comes from the Finno-Ugric Komi, Udmurt, and Mansi languages.Sony VGP-BPS10 battery

It is unclear when pelmeni entered the cuisines of indigenous Siberian people and when they first appeared in Russian cuisine, but likely it was during the Mongol conquests and Mongol-Tatar invasion of Rus' in the 13th century, when Mongol-Tatars took the basic idea from the Chinese dumplings and transferred it into Siberia and Eastern Europe.Sony VGP-BPS9 battery

The onion dome is a dome whose shape resembles an onion, after which they are named. Such domes are often larger in diameter than the drum upon which they are set, and their height usually exceeds their width. The whole bulbous structure taper smoothly to a point.Sony VGP-BPS11 battery

Onion dome is the predominant form for church domes in Russia, and though the earliest preserved Russian domes of such type date from the 16th century, the illustrations of the old chronicles indicate that they were used since the late 13th century.Sony VGP-BPS22 battery

  • Lapta is a Russian ball game with bat, similar to modern baseball. The game is played outside on a field the size of 20 x 25sazhens (about 140 x 175 feet). The points are earned by hitting the ball, served by a player of the opposite team, and sending it as far as possible,Sony VGP-BPL8 battery
  •  then runnig across the field to the kon line, and if possible running back to the gorod line. The running player should try to avoid being hit with the ball, which is thrown by the opposing team members. The most ancient balls and bats for lapta were found in the 14th-century layers during excavations in Novgorod.Sony VGP-BPS14 battery

Zvonnitsa

  • A zvonnitsa is a large rectangular structure containing multiple archs or beams that carry bells, where bell ringers stand on its basement level and perform the ringing using long ropes, like playing on a kind of giant musical instrument. Sony VGP-BPS21 battery
  • It was an alternative to bell tower in the medieval architecture of Russia and someEastern European countries. Zvonnitsa appeared in Russia in the 14th century and was widely used until the 17th century. Sometimes it was mounted right atop thechurch building, Toshiba Satellite A200 Battery
  • resulting in the special type of church called pod zvonom ("under ringing") or izhe pod kolokoly ("under bells"). The most famous example of such kind of a church is the Church of St. Ivan of the Ladder adjacent to Ivan the Great Bell Tower in the Moscow Kremlin.Toshiba Satellite M300 Battery

1376 Sarafan

  • The sarafan is a long, shapeless jumper dress of pinafore type, a part of the traditional Russian folk costume by women
and girls. Sarafans could be of single piece construction with thin shoulder straps over which a corset is sometimes worn, giving the shape of the body of a smaller triangle over a larger one. Toshiba Satellite 1200 Battery
  • It comes in different styles such as the simpler black, flower- or check-patterned versions formerly used for everyday wear, or the elaborate brocade versions formerly reserved for special occasions. Chronicles first mention it under the year 1376, and since that time it was worn well until the 20th century. SONY VGP-BPS13A/Q Battery
  • It is now worn as folk costume for performing Russian folk songs and folk dancing. Plain sarafans are still designed and worn today as a summer-time light dress.
  • The bardiche was a long poleaxe, that is a type of weapon combining the features of axe and polearm, known primarily in the Eastern Europe where it was used instead of halberd.SONY VGP-BPS13A/Q Battery

    Occasionally the weapons of such form were made in Antiquity and Early Middle Ages, but the regular and massive usage of bardiches started in the early 15th century Russia. Likely, it was developed from the Scandinavian broad axe, but in Scandinavia it appeared only in the late 15th century. SONY VGP-BPS13/Q Battery

    In the 16th century bardiche became a weapon associated with streltsy, Russian guardsmen armed with firearms, who used bardiches to rest handguns upon when firing.

    • The boyar hat, also known as gorlatnaya hat, was a fur hat worn by Russian nobility between the 15th and 17th centuries, most notably by boyars, for whom it was a sign of their social status.SONY VGP-BPS13/Q Battery
    •  The higher hat indicated the higher status. In average, it was one ell in height, having the form of a cylinder with more broad upper part, velvet or brocade top and the main body made offox, marten or sable fur. Today the hat is sometimes used in the Russian fashion.SONY VGP-BPS21A/B Battery

    Gulyay-gorod

    • The gulyay-gorod (literally "wandering town") was a mobile fortification made from large wall-sized prefabricated shields set onwagons or sleds, a development of the wagon fort concept. SONY VGP-BPS21/S Battery
    • The usage of installable shields instead of permanently armoured wagons was cheaper and allowed more possible configurations to be assembled. Such mobile structures were used mostly in the open steppe, where few natural shelters could be found. SONY VGP-BPS21B Battery
    • The wide-scale usage of gulyay-gorod started during the Russo-Kazan Wars, and later it was often used by the Ukrainian Cossacks.

    Ukha

    • Ukha is a Russian soup, made with broth and fish like salmon or cod, root vegetables, parsley root, leek, potato, bay leaf, lime, dill, green parsley and spiced with black pepper, cinnamon and cloves. SONY VGP-BPS21A Battery
    • Fishes like perch, tenches, sheatfish and burbots were used to add flavour to the soup. Ukha as a name in the Russian cuisine for fish broth was established only in the late 17th to early 18th centuries. In earlier times this name was first given to thick meat broths, and then later chicken. SONY VGP-BPS21 Battery
    • Beginning from the 15th century, fish was more and more often used to prepare ukha, thus creating a dish that had a distinctive taste among soups.

    Russian oven

    The Russian oven or Russian stove is a unique type of oven/furnace that first appeared in the early 15th century. Sony VGP-BPS21A/B Battery

    The Russian oven is usually placed in the centre of the izba, a traditional Russian dwelling, and plays an immense role in the traditional Russian culture and way of life. It is used both for cooking and domestic heating and is designed to retain heat for long periods of time. Sony VGP-BPS21/S Battery

    This is achieved by channeling the smoke and hot air produced by combustion through a complex labyrinth of passages, warming the bricks from which the oven is constructed. In winter people may sleep on top of the oven to keep warm. As well as warming and cooking, the Russian oven can be used for washing. Sony VGP-BPS21A Battery

    A grown man can easily fit inside, and during the Great Patriotic War some people escaped the Nazis by hiding in ovens. The porridge or the pancakes prepared in such an oven may differ in taste from the same meal prepared on a modern stove or range. Sony VGP-BPS21 Battery

    The process of cooking in the Russian oven can be called "languor" - holding dishes for a long period of time at a steady temperature. Foods that are believed to acquire a distinctive character from being prepared in a Russian oven include baked milk, pearl barley, mushrooms cooked in sour cream, or even a simple potato.SONY VAIO VGN-FW31J Battery

    • Rassolnik is a Russian soup made from pickled cucumbers, pearl barley and pork or beef kidneys, though a vegetarian variant also exists. The dish is known from the 15th century, when it was initially called kalya. The key part of rassolnik is rassol, a liquid based on the juice of pickled cucumbers with some additions, famous for its usage in anti-hangover treatment.SONY VAIO VGN-FW31E Battery

    c. 1430 Russian vodka

    • Russian vodka is perhaps the world's most famous national brand of vodka, that is a distilled liquor, composed solely of water and ethanolwith possible traces of impurities and flavorings. Vodka is one of the world's most popular liquors. It is made by fermentation of rye, wheat, potatoes, grapes, or sugar beetmolasses.SONY VAIO VGN-FW31B Battery
    •  Alcoholic content usually ranges between 35 to 50 percent by volume. The standard Russian vodka is 40 percent alcohol by volume (80 proof). Exact origins of vodka cannot be traced definitively, but almost certainly vodka as a beverage comes from 14th-15th century Eastern Europe. Russia often is named the birthplace of vodka. SONY VAIO VGN-FW31M Battery
    • Thedistillation apparatus was known in Moscow from the late 14th century and was used to produce spirit, the precursor of vodka. According to Russian food historian William Pokhlyobkin, the first original recipe of Russian vodka was produced around 1430 by a monk called Isidore from Chudov Monastery inside the Moscow Kremlin.SONY VAIO VGN-FW31Z Battery

    The kokoshnik is a semicircular or keel-like exterior decorative element in the traditional Russian architecture, a type of corbel blind arch. The name was inspired by the traditional Russian women's head-dress. Kokoshniks were used in the Russian church architecture from the 16th century, while in the 17th century their popularity reached its highest point.Dell Inspiron 6400 AC Adapter

    Kokoshniks were placed on walls, at the basement of tented roofs or tholobates, or over the window frames, or in rows above the vaults.

    The tented roof masonry was a technique widely used in the Russian architecture in the 16th-17th centuries. Before that time tented roofs (conical, or actually polygonal roofs) were made of wood and used in the wooden churches. Dell LATITUDE D800 battery

    These hipped roofs are thought to have originated in the Russian North, as they prevented snow from piling up on wooden buildings during long winters. Wooden tents also were used to cover towers in kremlins, or even applied in some common buildings, like it was in the Western Europe, but the thin, Dell Inspiron Mini 12 battery

    pointed, nearly conical roofs of the similar shape made of brick or stone became a unique form in the Russian church architecture. Some scholars, however, argue that hipped roofs have something in common with European Gothic spires, and even tend to call this style 'Russian Gothic'.Dell Inspiron 1720 battery

    The Ascension church of Kolomenskoye, built in 1532 to commemorate the birth of the first Russian Tsar Ivan IV, often is considered the first tented roof church, but the recent studies show that the earliest use of the stone tented roof was in the Trinity Church in Alexandrov, built in 1510s.Dell Inspiron 1564 battery

    • The Russian abacus or schety (literally "counts") is a decimal type of abacus that has a single slanted deck in a unique vertical layout, with ten beads on each wire (except one wire which has four beads, for quarter-ruble fractions, that is usually near the user). Dell Inspiron 1464 battery
    • It was developed in Russia since the late 16th century, at the time when abacus already was falling out of use in the Western Europe. However, the decimality of the Russian abacus (explained by Russian ruble's being the world's first decimal currency) and its simplicity Dell XPS 1340 battery
    • (compared to the previous European and Asian versions) led to the wide usage of this device in Russia well until the advent of electronic calculators in the late 20th century.

    1552 Battery-tower

    • The battery-tower is a late type of siege tower, carrying artillery inside it, a development of the gulyay-gorod concept. Dell INSPIRON 9100 battery
    • The first such tower was built by the Russianmilitary engineer Ivan Vyrodkov during the siege of Kazan in 1552 (a part of the Russo-Kazan Wars), and could hold ten large-calibre cannons and 50 lighter cannons. Later battery-towers were often used by the Ukrainian Cossacks.Dell Inspiron N4010 battery
    • Saint Basil's Cathedral is perhaps the most famous Russian Orthodox cathedral, a symbol of Moscow and Russia. It was designed by Postnik Yakovlev on the order of Ivan IV of Russia and built on the Moscow's Red Square in 1555–1561, to commemorate the capture of Kazan and Astrakhan. Dell N3010 battery
    • The unique feature of the Saint Basil's Cathedral is the fact that it is a complex of multiple temples put together. The original building, known as "Trinity Cathedral", contained eight side churches covered with onion domes and arranged around the ninth, HP Pavilion DV6-1210SA battery
    • central tented roof church of Intercession; the tenth church was erected in 1588 over the grave of venerated local Fool Vasily (Basil). In the 16th and the 17th centuries the cathedral, perceived as the earthly symbol of the Heavenly City, was popularly known as the "Jerusalem" HP Pavilion DM4 battery
    • and served as an allegory of the Jerusalem Temple in the annual Palm Sunday parade attended by the Patriarch of Moscow and the Tsar. Its striking design, shaped as a flame of a bonfire rising into the sky, has no analogues in the world architecture, and only few times it was attempted to be reproduced in the Russian architecture, HP Pavilion DM3 battery
    • most notably in the St. Peter's and Paul Cathedral in Petergof and in the Church of the Savior on Blood in St. Petersburg.

    1566 Great Abatis Line

    • The Great Abatis Line, or Bolshaya Zasechnaya Cherta in Russian, was the largest fortification line of abatis type, built by the Grand Duchy of Moscow and later the Tsardom of Russia. Compaq CQ35-100 battery
    • Its purpose was to protect Russia from the raids of nomads of the Eastern European steppes, such as the Crimean Tatars. As a fortification construction stretching for hundreds kilometers, the Great Abatis Line is analogous to the Great Wall of China and the Roman Limes. HP DV9700 battery
    • Most of its length consisted of abatis, which is the barrier built from the felled trees arranged as a barricade. It was also fortified by ditches and earth mounds, palisades, watch towers and natural features like lakes and swamps. Stone and wooden kremlins of the towns were also included in the Great Abatis Line,HP Compaq 491278-001 battery
    •  as well as the smaller forts called ostrogs. The Great Abatis Line was built south of Moscow between the Bryansk woods and Meschera swamps starting from the 12th century, and was officially completed in 1566, exceeding 1000 km in length.HP Compaq HSTNN-LB51 battery

    1586 Tsar Cannon

    • The Tsar Cannon is an enormous cannon, commissioned in 1586 by Russian Tsar Feodor and cast by Andrey Chokhov. It is the largest bombard by caliber. The cannon weighs 39.312 metric tonnes and has a length of 5.34 m (17.5 ft). HP Pavilion ZD8227 battery
    • Its bronze-cast barrel has a calibre of 890 mm (35.0 in), and an external diameter of 1,200 mm (47.2 in). Along with a new carriage, the 2 ton cannonballs surrounding the cannon were added in 1835 and are larger than the diameter of its barrel; in fact, it was originally designed to fire 800 kg stone grapeshot. HP Compaq Business Notebook TC4400 battery
    • The cannon is decorated with reliefs, including one depicting Tsar Tsar Feodor on a horse, hence the name of the cannon, though now the word Tsar is associated more with the supreme size of the weapon. Several copies of the cannon were made in the 21st century and installed in Donetsk and several Russian cities,HP Pavilion DV7-2085EL battery
    •  while the original Tsar Cannon is in the Moscow Kremlin.

    The bochka roof or simply bochka (Russian: ?????, barrel) is the type of roof in the traditional Russian architecture that has a form of half-cylinder with elevated and sharpened upper part, resembling the sharpened kokoshnik. Compaq Presario 300 battery

    Typically made of wood, bochka roof was extensively used both in the church and civilian architecture in the 17th-18th centuries. Later it was sometimes used in the Russian Revival style buildings.

    • Gorodki or townlets is an old Russian folk sport whose popularity has spread also to Scandinavia and the Baltic States.HP Compaq Business Notebook 6735S battery
    •  Similar to bowling, the aim of the game is to knock out groups of skittles arranged in some pattern by throwing a bat at them. The skittles, or pins, are called gorodki (literally little cities or townlets), and the square zone in which they are arranged is called the gorod (city). HP Pavilion DV2820EA battery
    • The game is mentioned in the old Russian chronicles and was known in the form close to modern one at least from the 17th century, since one of the famous players in gorodki was young Peter I of Russia.

    Russian Mountains

    • Russian Mountains were winter sled rides held on specially constructed hills of ice, sometimes up to 200 feet tall, HP Pavilion DV6373EA battery
    • being the predecessor to the modern roller coaster. Known from the 17th century, the slides were built to a height of between 70 and 80 feet, consisted of a 50 degree drop, and were reinforced by wooden supports. In the 18th century they were especially popular in St. HP Compaq 572190-001 battery
    • Petersburg and surroundings, from where by the late 18th century their usage and popularity spread to Europe. Sometimes wheeled carts were used instead of tracks, like in the Katalnaya Gorka built in Catherine II's residence inOranienbaum.Compaq Presario CQ50-105EL battery
    • The first such wheeled ride was brought to Paris in 1804 under the name Les Montagnes Russes (French for "Russian Mountains"), and the term Russian Mountains continues to be a synonym for roller coaster in many countries today. HP Pavilion DV7-1290EO battery
    • The Bird of Happiness is the traditional North Russian wooden toy, carved in the shape of a bird. It was invented by Pomors, the inhabitants of the White andBarents Sea coastline.Compaq Presario CQ71 battery
    •  The Bird of Happiness is made without glue or other fasteners, by elaborate carving of thin petals for the bird’s wings and tail and than using a special method of spreading and curving them. Similar methods are also used in other products of the North Russian handicraft. The amulet is usually made of pine, fir, spruce, or Siberian cedar. HP Pavilion DV6000 battery
    • It is suspended inside a house, guarding the family hearth and well-being.

    Dymkovo toy

    Dymkovo toys, also known as the Vyatka toys or Kirov toys are moulded painted clay figures of people and animals (sometimes in the form of a pennywhistle).Compaq Presario CQ70 battery

    It is an old Russian folk handicraft which still exists in a village of Dymkovo near Kirov (former Vyatka). Traditionally, the Dymkovo toys are made by women. Up until the 20th century, this toy production had been timed to the spring fair called ?????????(svistunya), or whistler. HP Compaq 491278-001 battery

    The first recorded mentioning of this event took place in 1811, however it is believed to have existed for some 400 years, thus dating the history of Dymkovo toy at least from the 17th century.

    • The troika (??????, "triplet" or "trio") is a traditional Russian harness driving combination, using three horses abreast, usually pulling a sleigh. HP TouchSmart TX2-1150EG battery
    • It differs from most other three-horse combinations in that the horses are harnessed abreast. In addition to that, the troika is the world's only multiple harness with different horse gaits – the middle horse trots and the side horses canter. At full speed a troika could reach 45–50 kilometres per hour (28–31 mph), HP 520 battery
    • which was a very high speed on land for vehicles in the 17th-19th centuries, making the troika closely associated with the fast ride. The troika was developed from the late 17th century, first being used for speedy delivering of mail, and having become common by the late 18th century. Asus ADP-36EH C Adapter
    • It was often used for travelling in stages where teams of tired horses could be exchanged for fresh animals to transport loads and people over long distances.

    1659 Khokhloma

    Khokhloma is the name of a Russian wood painting handicraft, known for its vivid flower patterns, Dell PA-10 Adapter

    red and gold colors over the black background, and the distinctive effect on the cheap and light wooden tableware or furniture, making it look heavier, metal-like and glamorous. It first appeared in the second half of the 17th century, at least from 1659, in today's Nizhny Novgorod Oblast and was named after the large trade settlement Khokhloma. Delta ADP-90FB Adapter

    The handicraft owes its origin to the Old Believers, who, fleeing from persecutions of officials, took refuge in local woods and taught some of theicon painting techniques to the local craftsmen, such as the usage of a goldish color without applying real gold. Nowadays khokhloma is one of the symbols of Russia, http://www.battery-pack.co.uk/

    and apart from its usage in making tableware, furniture and souvenirs, it can be found in the wider context, for example in paintings on Russianairliners.

    The Tula gingerbread is a type of printed gingerbread from the city of Tula, the most known kind of Russian gingerbreads. Delta ADP-90FB Adapter

    Usually the Tula gingerbread looks like a rectangular tile or a flat figure. Modern Tula gingerbreads usually contain jam or condensed milk, while in the old times they were made with honey. The first mention of the Tula gingerbread is in Tula ?ensus book of 1685. Dell PA-10 Adapter

    The balalaika is a stringed instrument with a characteristic triangular body and 3 strings (or sometimes 6, in 3 courses), perhaps the most known national Russian musical instrument. The balalaika family of instruments includes, from the highest-pitched to the lowest, the prima balalaika, sekunda balalaika, alto balalaika, bass balalaika and contrabass balalaika. Dell PA-12 Adapter

    The earliest mention of balalaika is found in a 1688 document, and initially it was an instrument of skomorokhs (sort of Russian free-lance musical jesters). In 1880s the modern standard balalika was developed by Vasily Andreev, who also started a tradition of balalaika orchestras, which finally led to the popularity of the instrument in many countries outside Russia. Asus ADP-36EH C Adapter

    The table-glass or granyonyi stakan (literally faceted glass) is a type of drinkware made from especially hard and thick glass and having a faceted form. Granyonyi stakan has certain advantages over the other drinkware, since due to its form and hardness it is more difficult to break. Dell Inspiron 6400 Adapter

    It is arguably handier in usage on moving trains or rolling ships, where it is less prone to decline and fall, or slip from hands, and less likely to be broken when hitting the floor. A legend says that the first known Russian faceted glass was given as a present to Tsar Peter the Great from a glass-maker called Yefim Smolin, living in Vladimir Oblast. Dell Inspiron 1520 Adapter

    He boasted to Tsar that his glass couldn't be broken. Tsar Peter liked the present, however, after drinking some alcoholic beverage from it, he threw the glass on the ground and managed to break it. Still Peter didn't punish the glass-maker, and the production of such glasses continued, while the Russian tradition of breaking drinkware on certain occasions originated from that episode.Dell Inspiron 1525 Charger

    he decimal currency is a type of currency that is based on one basic unit and a sub-unit which is a power of 10, typically 100. Most modern currencies adhere to this pattern. Russia was the first country to introduce such a currency after decimalisation if its financial system in 1704, during the reign of Peter the Great, when Russian ruble was made equal to 100 kopecks.HP Pavilion DV6000 Adapter

    The yacht club is a sports club specifically related to sailing and yachting. The oldest yacht club in the world, according to the date of establishment, is Neva Yacht Club, founded by the Russian Tsar Peter the Great in 1718 in St. Petersburg (likely, the idea had been deviced as early as 1716, when the First Neva Shipyard started building civilian vessels). Dell Latitude D820 Charger

    Though, since it was not a purely voluntary association of members, but an organisation founded by Tsar's decree, the Neva Yacht Club's being the world's oldest is challenged by the Royal Cork Yacht Club in Ireland, founded in 1720. Both clubs have gone through periods of dormancy and undergone various name changes.HP Pavilion DV9000 AC Adapter

    A rebar or reinforcing bar is a common metal bar (typically made of steel), used in reinforced concrete and reinforced masonry structures. Rebars were known in construction well before the era of the modern reinforced concrete, since some 150 years before its invention rebars were used to form the carcass of theLeaning Tower of Nevyansk in Russia,Sony VGP-BPS8 Battery

    which was built on the orders of the industrialist Akinfiy Demidov between 1725-1732. The purpose of such construction is one of the many mysteries of the tower. The cast iron used for rebars was of very high quality, and there is no corrosion on them up to this day.Sony VGP-BPS9 Battery

    • The cast iron dome was a type of dome based on the cast iron rather than made from stone or brick, like it was in the ancient or medieval domes. The first application of this technology is found in the mysterious Leaning Tower of Nevyansk, completed in 1732. Sony VGP-BPS12 Battery
    • The inner part of the tower's tented roof was the first cast iron dome in the world. The second time, this technique was applied only some 100 years later, during the reconstruction of the Mainz Cathedral in Germany in 1826, while the third time it was used in the dome of Saint Isaac's Cathedral in St. Petersburg, built in 1840s. Dell Inspiron 6400 Battery
    • The very top of the tower was crowned with agilded metallic sphere with spikes. Since it was grounded through the rebars of the tower carcass, it acted like a lightning rod. Thus, the Russian builders de facto created the first lightning rod in the Western world some 25 years before Benjamin Franklin, however it is not known whether that was made intentionally.Dell Inspiron 1525 Battery

    1733 Peter and Paul Cathedral

    • The Peter and Paul Cathedral is a Russian Orthodox cathedral located in St. Petersburg, Russia. It is the first and oldest landmark in St. Petersburg, built between 1712 and 1733 inside the Peter and Paul Fortress.Dell XPS M1530 Battery
    • Both the cathedral and the fortress were originally built under Peter the Great and designed byDomenico Trezzini. The cathedral is the burial place of all Russian Emperors from Peter I to Nicholas II, with the exception of Peter II. The cathedral's bell tower is the world's tallest Orthodox bell tower.Dell Inspiron 6000 Battery
    •  Since the belfry is not standalone, but an integral part of the main building, the cathedral is sometimes considered the highest Orthodox Church in the world

    The Tsar Bell , also known as the Tsarsky Kolokol or Royal Bell, is a huge bell on display on the grounds of the Moscow Kremlin. Dell Inspiron 9400 Battery

    The bell was commissioned by Empress Anna, niece of Peter the Great. Currently it is the largest and heaviest bell in the world, weighing 216 tons, with a height of 6.14 m (20.1 ft) and diameter of 6.6 m (21.6 ft). It was founded from bronze by masters Ivan Motorin and his son Mikhail in 1733–1735. Dell latitude D600 Battery

    The bell, however, was never rung because of a fire in 1737, when a huge slab (11.5 tons) cracked off while it was still in the casting pit. In 1836, the bell was placed on a stone pedestal next to the Ivan the Great Bell Tower. For a time, the bell served as a chapel, with the broken area forming the door. Dell Inspiron 8600 Battery

    According to the legend, onJudgement Day the Tsar Bell will be miraculously repaired and lifted up to heaven, where it will ring the blagovest (call to prayer).

    The Amber Room in the Catherine Palace of Tsarskoye Selo near Saint Petersburg is a complete chamber decoration of amberpanels backed with gold leaf and mirrors. Dell Latitude D610 Battery

    It was dubbed the Eighth Wonder of the World due to its singular beauty and the large quantity of a rare material (amber is rather hard to carve). Due to its unique history it was also called World's Greatest Lost Treasure. Several generations of German and Russian craftsmen worked on this masterpiece, prompted by several generations of monarchs.Dell Inspiron 1520 Battery

    Construction began in 1701 to 1709 in Prussia. In 1716 the Amber Cabinet was given by Prussian king Friedrich Wilhelm I to his then ally, Tsar Peter I of Russia. Then it was expanded by Russian craftsmen, and by 1770, when the work was finished, the Room covered more than 55 square meters and contained over six tons of amber. Dell XPS M1710 Battery

    It was looted during World War IIby Nazi Germany, brought to Königsberg and lost in the chaos at the end of the war. In 1979-2003 Russian craftsmen again reconstructed the Amber Room in the Catherine Palace, while the location of the original one is still a mystery.Dell XPS M1330 Battery

    The screw drive elevator is an elevator that uses a screw drive system instead of a hoist, like it was in the earlier elevators. The invention of the screw drive was the most important step in elevator technology since ancient times, which finally led to the creation of modern passenger elevators. Dell XPS M1210 Battery

    The first such elevator was invented by Ivan Kulibin and installed in Winter Palace in 1793, while several years later another Kulibin's elevator was installed in Arkhangelskoye near Moscow. In 1823, an "ascending room" made its debut in London.Apple A1185 Battery

    • Kirza is a type of artificial leather based on the multi-layer textile fabric, modified by membrana-like substances, produced mainly in the Soviet Union and Russia as a cheap an effective replacement for natural leather. The surface of kirza imitates the pig leather. Apple Powerbook G4 Battery
    • The material is mainly used in production of military boots and belts for machinery and automobiles. The namekirza is an acronym from Kirovskiy Zavod (Kirov plant), a fabric producing artificial leather, located in the city of Kirov, which was the first place of the mass production of kirza. Apple MacBook Pro 17 inch Battery
    • The technology was invented in 1935 by Ivan Plotnikov and improved in 1941. Since that time kirza boots became a typical element of the uniform in the Soviet and Russian Army.

    1935 Moscow Metro

    • The Moscow Metro, which spans almost the entire Russian capital,Asus EEE PC Battery
    •  is the world's second most heavily used metro system after the Tokyo's twin subway, and the most heavily used single operator metro system. Opened in 1935, it is well known for the ornate design of many of its stations, which contain numerous examples ofsocialist realist art.Compaq V6000 Battery

    1937 Drag chute

    • The drag chute or braking parachute is an application of the drogue parachute for decreasing the landing distance of an aircraft below that available solely from the aircraft's brakes. HP 6715B Battery
    • For the first time drag chutes were used in 1937 by the Soviet airplanes in the Arctic that were providing support for the famous polar expeditions of the era. The drag chute allowed to land safely on the ice-floesof smaller size.
    • Soviet and Russian manned drifting ice stations are important contributors to exploration of the Arctic. HP 6910P Battery
    • An idea to use the drift ice for the exploration of nature in the high latitudes of the Arctic Ocean belongs to Fridtjof Nansen, who fulfilled it on Fram between 1893 and 1896. However, the first stations to be placed right upon the drifting ice originated in the Soviet Union in 1937, when the first such station in the world, North Pole-1, started operating.HP NX6325 Battery
    • More drifting ice stations were organised after World War II, and many special equipment was developed for them, such as the elevated tents to be placed on the melting ice and indicators monitoring the ice cracks. HP NC6400 Battery

    1937 Welded sculpture

    • Welded sculpture is an artform in which sculpture is made using welding techniques. The first such sculpture was the famous Worker and Kolkhoz Woman byVera Mukhina. Initially it was placed atop the Soviet pavilion at the 1937 World's Fair in Paris. HP NX6110 Battery
    • The choice of welding method was explained by a giant size of the sculpture, and also was intended to demonstrate the innovative Soviet technologies.

    1937 Fire-fighting sport

    • Fire-fighting sport is a sport discipline that includes a competition between various fire fighting teams in fire fighting-related exercises,HP DV6000 Battery
    •  such as climbing special stairs in a high floor of a mock-up house, unfolding a water hose, and extinguishing a fire using hoses or extinguishers. It was developed in the Soviet Union in 1937, while international competitions have taken place since 1968.HP DV9000 Battery

    1938 Deep column station

    • The deep column station is a type of subway station, consisting of a central hall with two side halls, connected by ring-like passages between a row of columns. Depending on the type of station, the rings transmit load to the columns either by "wedged arches" or through purlins, forming a "column-purlin complex."HP Pavilion ZE4400 Battery
    •  The fundamental advantage of the column station is the significantly greater connection between the halls, compared with a pylon station. The first deep column station in the world is Mayakovskaya, designed by Alexey Dushkin and opened in 1938 in Moscow Metro.ibm x60s battery

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