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Tohoku University Tohoku University (東北大学 (東北帝國大學 prior to 1945) Tōhoku daigaku?), abbreviated to Tohokudai (東北大 Tōhokudai?), located in Sendai, Miyagi in the Tōhoku Region, Japan, is a Japanese national university. It is the third oldest Imperial University in Japan and is a member of the National Seven Universities. It is considered as one of the most prestigious universities in Japan, and one of the top fifty universities in the world.[1][2][3]COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard In 2009, Tohoku University had ten colleges within the university, including fifteen departments with graduate students, with a total enrollment of 17,949 students.[4] The university's three core values are "Research First (研究第一主義)," "Open-Door (門戸開放)," and "Practice-Oriented Research and Education (実学尊重)." HP G62-225NR Laptop Keyboard The origin of the university was Meirin-yokendo (明倫養賢堂 Meirin yōkendō?), which was founded as a medical school in Sendai in 1736. It was reorganized a few times. Later it became Sendai Medical College (仙台医学専門学校 Sendai igaku senmon gakkō?); this was the forerunner of the medical department of the university. SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Laptop Keyboard On June 22, 1907, the university was established under the name Tohoku Imperial University (東北帝國大學 Tōhoku teikoku daigaku?) by the Meiji government as the third Imperial University of Japan, following the Tokyo Imperial University (1877) and the Kyoto Imperial University (1897). From its start, it has advocated "Open-door" policies—it was the first university in Japan to accept female students and foreign students. DELL AEFM8U00310 Laptop Keyboard In September 1907, it set up the faculty of Agriculture in Sapporo; the Sapporo Agricultural College (札幌農學校 Sapporo nō gakkō?). It set up the Science Department in 1911, and the Medical Department (formerly the Sendai Medical College) in 1915. In 1918 it ceded the Faculty of Agriculture to Hokkaido Imperial University. It subsequently launched Faculties of Engineering in 1919, and Law and Literature in 1922.[5] ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard In 1947 the university assumed its current name, Tohoku University, acquired a new Faculty of Agriculture. In 1949, the Faculty of Law and Literature was split to form new faculties of Law, Literature, and Economics. A Faculty of Education was added in 1949, Dentistry in 1965, and Pharmacy in 1972. Tohoku has been a national university corporation since April 2004.[5]DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard Subsequent to the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, the university was declared closed until further notice, but with a tentative re-opening date of the end of the following April.[6] The Aobayama, Katahira, Amamiya, and Kawauchi campuses are all at least 12 kilometers (7.5 mi) from the ocean, towards the mountains, and therefore suffered no damage resulting from the tsunami. No deaths or serious injuries within the faculty and student body were reported on campus grounds. However, earthquake damage lead to the closure of 27 buildings and caused millions of dollars of damage to equipment. Classes have resumed normally since early May 2011 and plans for restoring, reinforcing or replacing damaged buildings are underway. COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard The radiology department has been actively measuring radiation levels throughout the city of Sendai since the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant meltdown, which is about 100 kilometers south. So far no alarming levels of radiation have been detected. The university has been ranked 6th in 2009 and 7th in 2010 in the ranking "Truly Strong Universities" by Toyo Keizai.[13] In another ranking, Japanese prep school Kawaijuku ranked Tohoku as the 5th best university in Japan.[14]HP Compaq NC8430 Laptop Keyboard According to ARWU, Tohoku University was ranked 5th overall in Japan and internationally ranked 20th in the field of Engineering and Technology, and 39th in Natural science in 2009. In the 2011 QS Asian Universities Rankings Tohoku was placed 9th, while in the 2011 QS World University Rankings[32] the university rose to 70th having dropped out of the top 100 in 2010 to 102nd, and having been 97th in the 2009 THE-QS World University Rankings (in 2010 Times Higher Education World University Rankings and QS World University Rankings parted ways to produce separate rankings). HP G61-300CA Laptop Keyboard It was also ranked 49th worldwide according to the Global University Ranking in 2009.[3] Tohoku is one of the top research institutions in Japan. According to Thomson Reuters, Tohoku is the 4th best research university in Japan.[15] Its research excellence is especially distinctive in Materials Science (1st in Japan, 3rd in the world), Physics (2nd in Japan, 10th in the world), Pharmacology & Toxicology (3rd in Japan, 64th in the world) and Chemistry (6th in Japan, 20th in the world).[33]HP G56-141US Laptop Keyboard Weekly Diamond also reported that Tohoku has the 11th highest research standard in Japan in terms of research funding per researchers in COE Program.[34] In the same article, it's also ranked 9th in terms of the quality of education by GP funds per student. In addition, Nikkei Shimbun on 2004/2/16 surveyed about the research standards in Engineering studies based on Thomson Reuters, Grants in Aid for Scientific Research and questionnaires to heads of 93 leading Japanese Research Centers, and Tohoku was placed 3rd (research planning ability 9th//informative ability of research outcome 2nd/ability of business-academia collaboration 2nd) in this ranking.[35]HP Mini 110-3001tu Laptop Keyboard According to the Qs World university rankings on 2012/9 surveyed about the general standards in Engineering&Technology field, Tohoku university was placed 56th (world), 5th(national).[36]As Tohoku University has been emphasizing on 'practical' research, Tohoku got the top place at the number of patents accepted (324) during 2009 among Japanese Universities.[37]DELL Inspiron N4030 Laptop Keyboard National Taiwan University has its origins in the Taihoku Imperial University (台北帝國大學, Taihoku Teikoku Daigaku) founded by Taiwan's Japanese colonial government in 1928 as a member of the imperial university system administered by the Empire of Japan.[5] The school's first president was Taira Shidehara. The Taihoku Imperial University began with a Faculty of Liberal Arts and Law and a Faculty of Science and Agriculture serving 60 students. The university was intended mainly for Japanese nationals; few Taiwanese students were admitted. The Faculty of Medicine and the Faculty of Engineering were added in 1935 and 1943, respectively.[5]HP Pavilion G60-243CL Laptop Keyboard After World War II the government of the Republic of China reorganized the school as an institution for Chinese-speaking students. The school was renamed National Taiwan University on 15 November 1945 and Lo Tsung-lo was appointed as its president. In 1962, joint projects with the Academia Sinica were initiated. An evening division was established in 1967.[5] Between 1972 and 1975, the Philosophy Department Incident took place during the White Terror period authoritarian rule, resulting in the dismissal of several professors.[6]Compaq Presario CQ62-215TU Laptop Keyboard A new university library opened in 1998.[7] In 1999, the evening division and the Center of Continuing Education merged to form the Division of Continuing Education & Professional Development. Lee Si-Chen, the current president, took office in 2005.[5]SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard NTU offers bachelor's degrees, master's degrees, and doctorate degrees in many disciplines. Students are able to select courses offered by any of the colleges; however, compulsory subjects designated for each major needs to be completed to be awarded a degree. A student must declare a major during college application, some majors are more competitive than others and require a higher national examination score. Traditionally, medicine,electrical engineering, and law are the three most selective majors. Most majors take four years to complete while the dental and the medical degree take six and seven years to finish, respectively. TOSHIBA P205-S7469 Laptop Keyboard NTU requires most of its undergraduate students to take a mandatory core curriculum, comprising Chinese, freshman English, physical education, and public service. The medical school in addition dictates each of its students to take philosophy and sociology classes as well as seminars in ethics andthanatology. Military training is no longer an obligatory course for male students, but it is a prerequisite if they plan to apply to become officers during their mandatory military service. TOSHIBA P205-S6267 Laptop Keyboard The total number of students, including those enrolled at the School of Professional and Continuing Studies, has grown to over 33,000, including over 17,000 university students and 15,000 graduate students. The university staff and students produced over 5000 research publications in 2010.[8] HP 6820s Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 2007, some educators in the United States began to question the impact of rankings on the college admissions process, due in part to the 11 March 2007Washington Post article "The Cost of Bucking College Rankings" [1] by Dr. Michele Tolela Myers (the former President of Sarah Lawrence College). As Sarah Lawrence College dropped its SAT test score submission requirement for its undergraduate applicants in 2003 [2] (thus joining the SAT optional movement forundergraduate admission), Gateway MT6723 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan SLC does not have SAT data to send to U.S. News for its national survey. Of this decision, Myers states, "We are a writing-intensive school, and the information produced by SAT scores added little to our ability to predict how a student would do at our college; it did, however, do much to bias admission in favor of those who could afford expensive coaching sessions.[1] Currently, Sarah Lawrence is one of only a few American colleges that completely disregard SAT scores in the admission process.[3] Gateway MT6723 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan As a result of this policy, in the same Washington Post article, Dr. Myers stated that: "I was recently informed by the director of data research at U.S. News, the person at the magazine who has a lot to say about how the rankings are computed, that absent students' SAT scores, the magazine will calculate the college's ranking by assuming an arbitrary average SAT score of one standard deviation (roughly 200 points) below the average score of our peer group. In other words, in the absence of real data, they will make up a number. He made clear to me that he believes that schools that do not use SAT scores in their admission process are admitting less capable students and therefore should lose points on their selectivity index." [1][4]Toshiba GB0506PHV1-A Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Myers further stated that "several faculty members and deans suggested that perhaps it was time to stop playing ranking roulette and opt out of the survey." [1]Myers next argued that at the NEAIR 33rd Annual Conference ( North East Association for Institutional Research) in 2006, a talk given by U.S. News, [5]"indicated that if a school stops sending data, the default assumption will be that it performs one standard deviation below the mean on numerous factors for which U.S. News can't find published data. Again, making up the numbers it can't get. The message is clear. Unless we are willing to be badly misrepresented, we had better send the information the magazine wants." [1][4]SONY Vaio VPC-EB11GD/BI Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Presidents Letter (dated May 10, 2007), developed by Lloyd Thacker of the Education Conservancy, was sent to college and university presidents in the United States in May 2007, concerning the U.S. News and World Report college rankings. The letter does not ask for a full boycott but rather states that:  Toshiba Satellite A300-M01 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan while we believe colleges and universities may want to cooperate in providing data to publications for the purposes of rankings, we believe such data provision should be limited to data which is collected in accord with clear, shared professional standards (not the idiosyncratic standards of any single publication), and to data which is required to be reported to state or federal officials or which the institution believes (in accord with good accountability) should routinely be made available to any member of the public who seeks it.[6] HP Pavilion dv7-4170ez Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Instead, it asks presidents not to participate in the "reputational survey" portion of the overall survey (this section accounts for 25% of the total rank and asks college presidents to give their subjective opinion of other colleges). The letter also asks presidents not to use the rankings as a form of publicity: ACER eMachines E625 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Among other reasons, we believe [...] rankings: imply a false precision and authority that is not warranted by the data they use; obscure important differences in educational mission in aligning institutions on a single scale; say nothing or very little about whether students are actually learning at particular colleges or universities; encourage wasteful spending and gamesmanship in institutions' pursuing improved rankings; overlook the importance of a student in making education happen and overweight the importance of a university's prestige in that process; HP 606609-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan and degrade for students the educational value of the college search process. We ask you to make the following two commitments: 1. Refuse to fill out the U.S. News and World Report reputational survey. 2. Refuse to use the rankings in any promotional efforts on behalf of your college or university, and more generally, refuse to refer to the rankings as an indication of the quality of your college or university."[6]HP G42-230US Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Time (often written in all-caps as TIME) is an American weekly news magazine published in New York City, United States (US). A European edition (Time Europe, formerly known as Time Atlantic) is published in London and also covers the Middle East, Africa and, since 2003, Latin America. An Asian edition (Time Asia) is based in Hong Kong. The South Pacific edition, covering Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific Islands, is based in Sydney. In December 2008, Time discontinued publishing a Canadian advertiser edition.[2]SONY Vaio VPC-EB3HGX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Time has the world's largest circulation for a weekly news magazine, and has a readership of 25 million, 20 million of which are in the US. Time magazine was created in 1923 by Briton Hadden and Henry Luce, making it the first weekly news magazine in the United States.[4] The two had previously worked together as chairman and managing editor respectively of the Yale Daily News and considered calling the magazine Facts.[5] Hadden was a rather carefree figure, Compaq Presario V3839tu Laptop CPU Cooling Fan who liked to tease Luce and saw Time as something important but also fun. That accounts for its tone, which many people still criticize as too light for serious news and more suited to its heavy coverage of celebrities (including politicians), the entertainment industry, and pop culture. It set out to tell the news through people, and for many decades the magazine's cover was of a single person. The first issue ofTime was published on March 3, 1923, featuring on its cover Joseph G. Cannon, the retired Speaker of the United States House of Representatives;  IBM ThinkPad T41 2687 Laptop Keyboard a facsimile reprint of Issue No. 1, including all of the articles and advertisements contained in the original, was included with copies of the February 28, 1938 issue as a commemoration of the magazine's 15th anniversary.[6]On Hadden's death in 1929, Luce became the dominant man at Time and a major figure in the history of 20th-century media. HP G61 Laptop Keyboard According to Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise 1972–2004 by Robert Elson, "Roy Edward Larsen [...] was to play a role second only to Luce's in the development of Time Inc." In his book, The March of Time, 1935–1951, Raymond Fielding also noted that Larsen was "originally circulation manager and then general manager of Time, later publisher ofLife, for many years president of Time Inc., and in the long history of the corporation the most influential and important figure after Luce." HP Probook 4520S Laptop Keyboard Around the time they were raising US$100,000 from wealthy Yale alumni like Henry P. Davison, partner of J.P. Morgan & Co., publicity man Martin Egan and J.P. Morgan & Co. banker Dwight Morrow, Henry Luce and Briton Hadden hired Larsen in 1922 – although Larsen was a Harvard graduate and Luce and Hadden were Yale graduates. After Hadden died in 1929, Larsen purchased 550 shares of Time Inc., using money he obtained from selling RKO stock which he had inherited from his father, who was the head of the B.F. Keith theatre chain in New England. DELL Inspiron N4050 Laptop Keyboard However, after Briton Hadden's death, the largest Time Inc. stockholder was Henry Luce, who ruled the media conglomerate in an autocratic fashion, "at his right hand was Larsen," Time Inc.'s second-largest stockholder, according to "Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise 1923–1941". In 1929, Roy Larsen was also named a Time Inc. director and a Time Inc. vice-president. J.P. Morgan retained a certain control through two directorates and a share of stocks, both over Time and Fortune. Other shareholders were Brown Brothers W. A. Harriman & Co., and The New York Trust Company (Standard Oil). HP Pavilion dv5-1126ee Laptop Keyboard By the time of Henry Luce's death in 1967, the Time Inc. stock which Luce owned was worth about US$109 million and yielded him a yearly dividend income of more than US$2.4 million, according to The World of Time Inc: The Intimate History of a Changing Enterprise 1960–1989 by Curtis Prendergast. The value of the Larsen family's Time Inc. stock was now worth about $80 million during the 1960s and Roy Larsen was both a Time Inc. director and the chairman of its Executive Committee, DELL Precision M4500 Laptop Keyboard before serving as Time Inc.'s vice-chairman of the board until the middle of 1979. According to the September 10, 1979 issue of The New York Times, "Mr. Larsen was the only employee in the company's history given an exemption from its policy of mandatory retirement at age 65." SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Laptop Keyboard After Time magazine began publishing its weekly issues in March 1923, Roy Larsen was able to increase its circulation by utilizing U.S. radio and movie theaters around the world. It often promoted both "Time" magazine and U.S. political and corporate interests. According to The March of Time, as early as 1924, Larsen had brought Time into the infant radio business with the broadcast of a 15-minute sustaining quiz show entitled Pop Question which survived until 1925." Then, according to the same book, "In 1928 [...] Larsen undertook the weekly broadcast of a 10-minute programme series of brief news summaries, drawn from current issues of Time magazine [...] which was originally broadcast over 33 stations throughout the United States." DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard Larsen next arranged for a 30-minute radio program, The March of Time, to be broadcast over CBS, beginning on March 6, 1931. Each week, the program presented a dramatisation of the week's news for its listeners, thus Time magazine itself was brought "to the attention of millions previously unaware of its existence," according to Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise 1923–1941, leading to an increased circulation of the magazine during the 1930s. Between 1931 and 1937, Larsen's The March of Time radio program was broadcast over CBS radio and between 1937 and 1945 it was broadcast over NBC radio – except for the 1939 to 1941 period when it was not aired. People Magazine was based on Time's People page. SONY VAIO PCG-F60/BP Laptop Keyboard Time became part of Time Warner in 1989, along with Warner Bros. when Time, Inc. and Warner Communications merged. Jason McManus succeeded Henry Grunwald in 1988 as Editor-in-Chief and oversaw the transition before Norman Pearlstine succeeded him in 1995.Since 2000, the magazine has been part of AOL Time Warner, which subsequently reverted to the name Time Warner in 2003. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5248 Laptop Keyboard  DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard In 2007, Time moved from a Monday subscription/newsstand delivery to a schedule where the magazine goes on sale Fridays, and is delivered to subscribers on Saturday. The magazine actually began in 1923 with Friday publication. During early 2007, the year's first issue was delayed for roughly a week due to "editorial changes." The changes included the job losses of 49 employees.[7] In 2009 Time announced that they were introducing a personalized print magazine, Mine, mixing content from a range of Time Warner publications based on the reader's preferences. The new magazine met with a poor reception, with criticism that its focus was too broad to be truly personal.[8]COMPAQ Presario CQ42-203AU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The magazine has an online archive with the unformatted text for every article published. The articles are indexed and were converted from scanned images usingoptical character recognition technology. There are still minor errors in the text that are remnants of the conversion into digital format. On May 2, Time announced that subscribers to its paper magazines including TimeSports Illustrated and Fortune will have access to the iPad versions of these magazines for no extra charge. European subscribers are excluded from accessing the online version of Time or becoming online subscribers. Only the paper edition is available in Europe. SONY Vaio VGN-NW26M Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Time Inc. and Apple have come to an agreement wherein subscribers to Time Inc. magazines will be able to read the iPad versions of those magazines for free, at least until the two companies sort out a viable digital subscription model.[9] The Corps of Cadets (or the Corps) is known as the "Keepers of the Spirit" for its staunch defense of Aggie traditions.[28]The Corps is a link to the early days of Texas A&M's history, when all students were required to be members and receive military training.[29] Although Corps membership became voluntary in 1965,[29] as of 2001 it was the United States' largest uniformed student body outside theservice academies,[30] with an enrollment of 2,318 cadets at the beginning of the 2006–2007 school year.[31]COMPAQ Presario CQ42-228TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Members of the Corps have served in every armed conflict fought by the United States since 1876, and over 225 have served asGenerals or Flag Officers. Many members participate in ROTC programs and earn commissions in the United States Armed Forcesupon graduation.[30] As of fall 2007, the Corps is composed of two Air Force Wings, three Army Brigades, and two Navy and Marine Regiments, in addition to a Task Force of special units and veteran-based outfits, as well as the Fightin' Texas Aggie Band, FUJITSU LifeBook S7020 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan whose members may be affiliated with any military branch.[32] Among its notable units is Parson's Mounted Cavalry, the only mounted ROTC unit in the United States.[33] The Ross Volunteer Company, the oldest student-run organization in the state, is the official honor guard for the Governor of Texas.[34][35] The Fish Drill Team, a precision, close-order rifle drill team composed entirely of Corps freshmen, represents the Corps and A&M in local and national competitions. They have won the national championship almost every year since their creation in 1946, and have appeared in several Hollywood productions with prominent roles in the movies A Few Good Men and Courage Under Fire.[36]Toshiba Satellite L350-14F Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Members of the Corps are often referred to as "C.T.s" or "B.Q.s". While these terms originally stood for "Cadet in Training" and "Band Qualified", respectively, they are more commonly and derisively used to abbreviate "Corps Turd" and "Band Queer". Freshmen in the Corps are required to "whip out" to upperclassmen. This tradition requires the freshmen to extend their hand and introduce themselves to the upperclassman. From then on, they are expected to know the name of the person to whom they "whipped out."[37] The tradition applies only to upperclassmen in the Corps, and not to "non-regs", students who are not in the Corps.[38]ACER Aspire 5739G-6959 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan One of a senior cadet's "most cherished possessions" are his Senior Boots.[39] Only seniors are allowed to wear these knee-high riding boots, and most consider receiving their boots to be a rite of passage.[39] All Senior Boots are custom-made to fit the cadet and are a dark tan to brown color.[40] Students wear their Senior Boots for the first time after Final Review as juniors while saluting the outgoing seniors. Final review is the last activity that Corps members participate in as a unit.  APPLE MacBook 13 inch MA701LL A Laptop CPU Cooling Fan This full military review takes place at the end of the spring semester on Simpson Drill Field, and is in two parts. The entire Corps march past a reviewing stand, which consists of high-ranking military and university officials, for inspection. The Corps then returns to their dorms to change into the uniforms they will wear the following year, with the juniors donning their Senior Boots. The freshmen, sophomores, and juniors then march in formation past the reviewing stand, which is now filled with the senior cadets, saluting their former leaders.[41]HP 493001-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Fightin' Texas Aggie Band (also known as The Noble Men of Kyle, The Pulse of Aggieland or the Aggie Band) is the officialmarching band of Texas A&M University. Composed of over 400 men and women from the school's Corps of Cadets,[42] it is the largest military marching band in the world. The band's complex straight-line marching maneuvers are performed exclusively totraditional marches. Some of these maneuvers are so complex that computer programs used to create marching drills say they can't be performed because they require two people to be in the same place at the same time.[43]Toshiba Satellite P100-434 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Since its inception in 1894, its members, known as BQs (for Band Qualified or Band Queer),[44] eat together, sleep in the samedormitories, and practice up to forty hours per week on top of a full academic schedule. The Aggie Band performs at all homefootball games, some away games, and university and Corps functions throughout the year. Other events in which the band participated include inauguration parades for many United States Presidents and Texas Governors, major annual parades across the country, and the dedication ceremony for the George H. W. Bush Presidential Library.[43][45][46]Toshiba Satellite L300D-10Q Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Aggie football fans call themselves the 12th Man, meaning they are there to support the 11 players on the field. To further symbolize their "readiness, desire, and enthusiasm," the entire student body stands throughout the game.[47] In a further show of respect, the students step "off the wood" (step off of the bleachers onto the concrete) whenever a player is injured or when the band plays the Aggie War Hymn or The Spirit of Aggieland.[48][49] At the end of the Aggie War Hymn, fans sway back and forth, causing the upper deck of the stadium to move.[50] The Aggie War Hymn was named the No. 1 college fight song by USA Today in 1997.[51]HP Pavilion dv6-2120es Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The 12th Man tradition began in Dallas on January 2, 1922, at the Dixie Classic, the forerunner of the Cotton Bowl Classic. A&M played defending national champion Centre College in the first post-season game in the southwest. In this hard fought game, which produced national publicity, an underdog Aggie team was slowly defeating a team which had allowed fewer than 6 points per game. The first half produced so many injuries for A&M that Coach D. X. Bible feared he wouldn’t have enough men to finish the game. At that moment, he called into the Aggie section of the stands for E. HP Envy 14-3017nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan King Gill, a student who had left football after the regular season to play basketball. Gill, who was spotting players for a Waco newspaper and was not in football uniform, donned the uniform of injured player Heine Weir and stood on the sidelines to await his turn. Although he did not actually play in the game, his readiness to play symbolized the willingness of all Aggies to support their team to the point of actually entering the game. When the game ended in a 22-14 Aggie victory, HP Pavilion dv6995la Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Gill was the only man left standing on the sidelines for the Aggies. Gill later said, "I wish I could say that I went in and ran for the winning touchdown, but I did not. I simply stood by in case my team needed me."[52] A statue of E. King Gill stands to the north of Kyle Field to remind Aggies of their constant obligation to preserve the spirit of the 12th Man.[52]TOSHIBA PK130260100 Laptop Keyboard In the 1980s, the tradition was expanded as coach Jackie Sherrill created the 12th Man squad. Composed solely of walk-on (non-scholarship) players, the squad would take the field for special teams performances.[52] This squad only allowed one kick return for a touchdown by Texas Tech's Rodney Blackshear.[53] FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard Sherrill's successor, R. C. Slocum, amended the tradition in the 1990s to allow one walk-on player, wearing the No. 12 jersey, to take the field for special teams plays.[52] The player is chosen based on the level of determination and hard work shown in practices. Coach Dennis Franchione continued Slocum's model, while also keeping an all-walk-on kickoff team that played three times in the 2006 season.[53]TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard  TOSHIBA P205-S7469 Laptop Keyboard 12th Man Towel The 12th Man Towel was created in the fall of 1985 by Rusty Riley and Kyle Harris, then president and vice president of the 12th Man Student Aggie Club respectively, with the help of Gary Leach and Larry Leach, then club secretary and treasurer. The concept was presented to the Aggie Club faculty managers Harry Green Jr., executive director of the 12th Man Foundation, and Jackie Sherrill, Texas A&M University athletic director and head football coach. Once their approval was given, HP Pavilion G7-1081NR Laptop Keyboard Rusty and Kyle found a manufacturer in New York City through a local distributor in Bryan, Texas, and authorization was given to sell the towels on campus by school management and Chic Sell, who had the concession rights in Kyle Field. The first 1,000 towels were purchased and delivered in time for the first home game of the 1985 college football season. Kyle and Rusty, along with a handful of Aggie Club members, sold the towels for $2 each in makeshift booths at strategic locations within Kyle Field. SONY 53010BE22-203-G Laptop Keyboard It was an immediate success, with all towels being sold at the first game. The A&M Yell Squad initially resisted the towels, claiming the Aggie Club was breaking tradition, but the Battalion staff supported the concept and began a successful selling and media campaign to help the towel gain acceptance throughout the A&M student body. Rusty worked with the Head Yell Leader on accepting the towel and once the Yell Squad accepted it, a press conference was held with Rusty, ACER KB.I170A.083 Laptop Keyboard Coach Sherrill and the Head Yell Leader. As the football season carried on, the 12th Man Towel continued selling in large quantities. The Aggie Club hired students to sell the towels at the MSC and on Aggie Club property, which at the time was located right outside of the main entrance to Kyle Field. The towel also gained a very important supporting cast when Coach Sherrill's 12th man kick-off team squad began carrying them to motivate the student body in the stands. The 1985 regular college football season ended with a home game versus the Texas Longhorns. At that game, a sea of white 12th Man Towels filled the stadium, cheering the Aggies to a 42-10 victory. SONY 53010BE22-203-G Laptop Keyboard Aggies went on to win the Southwest Conference Title and defeat Auburn in the Cotton Bowl on January 1, 1986, with the 12th Man Towels proudly displayed to a national audience. During the 1988 Cotton Bowl Classic, which A&M played against Notre Dame, another towel was a point of contention. Twice during that game Warren Barhorst, a member of Sherrill's 12th Man Kickoff Team, tackled Heisman Trophy winner Tim Brown, and then grabbed Brown's towel and waved it over his head. An infuriated Brown tackled Barhorst, earning himself a 15-yard unsportsmanlike conduct penalty.[54]HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard Because the students are always waiting for the opportunity to support their team, they are also willing to take the credit for the team's good deeds. A popular Aggie tradition is that "when the team scores, everybody scores."[55] Whenever the Aggies score points during the game, students kiss their dates.[55][56]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Seniors wearing either their Senior boots or Aggie Rings are also encouraged to join the "Boot Line." As the Fightin' Texas Aggie Band leaves the field after their half-time performances, seniors line up at the south end of Kyle Field to welcome the team back onto the field for the second half.[57]SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard Unlike many schools, which have a large group of cheerleaders to rally their fans during sporting events, Texas A&M has five student Yell Leaders. Consisting of three seniors and two juniors, historically all male, the Yell Leaders are elected to their positions annually by the student body.[58] These students do not perform gymnastic feats, DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard but instead use hand signals, known as "pass backs", to direct and intensify crowds.[59] After the signals are passed through the crowd, the Yell Leaders give the signal to "hump it", where the crowd leans forward and places their hands on their knees to maximize the noise.[60]The Yell Leaders have a dozen yells that they can choose from depending on the situation. While some yells are designed to praise and motivate the team, others exist solely to make fun of the opposing side.[61]HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard Students practice the yells at Midnight Yell Practice. Held at Kyle Field at midnight the night before a football game, Midnight Yell is similar to a pep rally. Over 20,000 Aggies attend each session, practicing the yells that will be used in the following day's game and generating an excitement for the game.[5][62] At the conclusion of the yell practice, the stadium lights are extinguished and fans kiss their dates. This is also done as practice, because Aggies are expected to "mug down", or kiss their dates, every time the football team scores on the field.[62][63] Sports Illustrated named Midnight Yell as one of the "100 Things You Gotta Do Before You Graduate."[64]Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard Aggies practice their yells again after each football game. If the team is victorious, the freshmen in the Corps of Cadets capture the Yell Leaders on Kyle Field and march them across campus to be dunked in Fish Pond. The very wet Yell Leaders then make their way to the YMCA Building, where the Fightin' Texas Aggie Band and members of the crowd join them for a short yell practice in preparation for the next week's game.[62] If the team is "outscored" or "runs out of time" (Aggies never lose), a mini-Yell Practice is held in Kyle Field before the crowd disperses.[57][62]HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard The most well-known Aggie yell is the simple "Beat the Hell Outta" the opposing school. In writing, this is often abbreviated as BTHO. For the annual game against the University of Texas at Austin, students yell "Beat the Hell Outta t.u."[65] Booing is strongly discouraged, and an upset Aggie will instead hiss their opponents or the referees. If a referee call is especially egregious in the minds of the Aggies, the Yell Leaders will call for the "Horse Laugh," a yell that ends with a stadium wide hissing.[65]Toshiba Satellite A100-644 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan After each yell, students make a noise and a hand motion that is known as a wildcat. Each class has a separate wildcat, and students caught "pulling out," or using the wildcat of a higher class, are often forced to do pushups as punishment.[61] Freshmen raise their hands above their heads and yell "AAAA". Sophomores, symbolically pushing back on the seniors, chant "A!" five times, waving their hands up and down in front of the torso with their index fingers extended and thumbs perpendicular. Juniors yell "A! A! A! Whoop!" ASUS G51JX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan wrapping their left hand over their right fist, with both index fingers extended and pointing towards the ground, "shooting the ground" once for each "A" and holding the position on the "whoop!" As a symbol of their expert marksmanship, seniors yell a single "A!" and then "Whoop!" while interlocking their fingers with their index fingers extended and pointed into the air. At the same time, the left foot is raised and tucked behind the right knee. The fingers are interlocked rather than covering the right hand so that the Aggie Ring is visible.[38][66] HP Pavilion dv6995la Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Texas A&M's official mascot is Reveille, now a purebred Rough collie. The first Reveille, a mixed breed dog, was adopted by students in 1931 after they found her on the side of the road. As of 2008, the current mascot is Reveille VIII. She is considered a Cadet General, the highest-ranking member in the Corps of Cadets, and must be addressed by cadets as "Miss Reveille, ma'am."[67]DELL Latitude E4300 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Reveille accompanies her handlers, members of the E-2 unit of the Corps of Cadets, everywhere, including classes.[68] It is a long-held tradition that if Reveille decides to sleep on a cadet's bed, that cadet is required to sleep on the floor.[67] In truth, however, this only applied to the early mascots who were allowed to freely roam the campus. APPLE MacBook Pro 17 inch MA897X A Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The contemporary mascots, certainly since the 1980s and likely earlier, are under the constant supervision of the Mascot Corporal and not allowed to freely roam about the cadet's quarters. Another tradition is that if she chooses to bark in class, that session is cancelled.[62] Upon the death of a current or former mascot, a full military funeral is held at Kyle Field, which usually attracts several thousand mourners.[62]HP Mini 110-3135dx Laptop Keyboard Texas A&M also has an unofficial mascot, Ol' Sarge, who is displayed only in graphics.[65] Ol' Sarge is portrayed as a tough-looking corps drill sergeant and is considered one of the many icons representing Texas A&M's long standing military history.[69] The drawing was first seen in the 1940s, when The Battalion ran a caricature of one of the Yell Leaders. That caricature, of a rough and tough military man, quickly became used throughout campus.[70]DELL Inspiron 630m Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Spirit of '02 The Corps of Cadets marks any Aggie scores during football games by firing The Spirit of '02, a 3-inch M1902 field gun 3-inch (76 mm). Issued to Field Artillery Units of the Reserve Officers' Training Corps between the World Wars, the gun was believed to be one of several that were hidden by Corps members to prevent them from being scrapped during WWII. The Spirit of '02 was found buried in a ditch by students cutting wood for the annual Aggie Bonfire in the fall of 1974. Only the rusted steel rims from the wooden wheels were showing above ground. Students mounted antique wagon wheels on the axles and brought the gun back to a place of honor in the Quad. Cadets later restored the gun, which has been fired to celebrate touchdowns since 1984.[71]SONY Vaio VGN-NR21M/S Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Maroon Out One of Texas A&M's newer traditions is Maroon Out, which began in 1998. The football team had ended their 1997 season with a lopsided defeat to Nebraska in the Big 12 Championship Game. Kyle Valentine, Class of 2000 Junior President and a member within Class Councils, noticed how united the Nebraska fans seemed, all dressed in red. He proposed to Class Councils the idea to "Maroon Out" Kyle Field for the October 10, 1998 rematch against Nebraska by selling a low-cost, high-quality maroon t-shirt. This resulted in the sale of 31,000 Maroon Out shirts, leading to a temporary national shortage of maroon colored t-shirts.[72]DELL PM425 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Aggies defeated Number 2 Nebraska 28-21, the first time in six seasons that Nebraska had lost a regular-season conference game. The Daily Nebraskan noted that "A game that was dubbed a 'maroon-out' for Texas A&M fans proved to be lights out for Nebraska. The fans dressed themselves in maroon T-shirts in an attempt to wash out the red and white that opponents have gotten used to. It worked."[73] HP 606609-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Since then, one football game each season is dubbed an official Maroon Out and discounted maroon t-shirts are for sale for fans. Through 2010, Texas A&M has been 7-6 in Maroon Out games, beating 6 teams ranked in the Top 25, despite being the underdog in each of the games.[74] The basketball team has a similar tradition, called a "White Out," where fans are encouraged to wear white t-shirts.[75]HP G62-b51ST Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Perhaps the most memorable Maroon Out moment was not maroon at all. After the events of September 11, 2001, five Aggie students wished to help honor America. They decided to ask the attendees of the next A&M football game, which would be held at Kyle Field on September 22, 2001, to wear patriotic colors. ACER Aspire 5742Z Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The colors would be divided by deck, with the upper deck wearing red, the middle deck wearing white, and the lower deck in blue. Within a five-day period the students had contracted with several printers to create special t-shirts which read "Standing for America" and the date. Despite initial concerns about not being able to sell enough shirts to be effective, the students sold about 70,000 of these shirts, raising over $150,000 for the relief efforts.[76][77]Compaq Presario CQ61-406SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Aggie Bonfire Aggie Bonfire was a long-standing tradition at Texas A&M University as part of a college rivalry with the University of Texas at Austin, known as t.u. by Texas A&M students. For ninety years, Texas A&M students built and burned a large bonfire on campus each fall. Known within the Aggie community simply as Bonfire, the annual fall event symbolized the students' "burning desire to beat the hell outta t.u."[78] The bonfire was traditionally lit around Thanksgiving in conjunction with the festivities surrounding the annual college football game between the schools.[79]Toshiba Satellite L350-15V Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The first on-campus Aggie Bonfire was burned in 1909, and the tradition continued for the next 90 years.[79] For almost two decades, Bonfire was constructed from debris and pieces of wood that Aggies "found," including lumber intended for a dormitory that students appropriated in 1912.[80] The event became school-sanctioned in 1936, and, for the first time, students were provided with axes, saws, and trucks and pointed towards a grove of dead trees on the edge of town.[79] In the following years the Bonfire became more elaborate, and in 1967 the flames could be seen 25 miles (40 km) away. In 1969, the stack set the world record at 111 feet (30 m) tall.[79][81]TOSHIBA V000120460 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan While the Bonfires of the 1960s were constructed in five to ten days, working primarily in daylight, by the late 1970s a more elaborate construction schedule had been implemented.[78] Construction began in late October with "Cut", with several weekends devoted to cutting down the logs with axes.[78][82] The logs were brought to campus during "Load."[82] ASUS M51SE Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In early November, crews began "Stack", a three-week period in which the logs were wired together and Bonfire took shape. Near the end of stack, known as "Push", students worked around the clock in rotating shifts.[82] Although between two and five thousand students participated in the construction of Bonfire each year, most of them were unable to devote themselves full-time to the task, and many worked only one or two shifts.[78] While participating, the students wore "grodes," old t-shirts, jeans, and boots. By tradition, grodes were either not washed until after Bonfire burned or not washed at all.[83]HP G50-116CA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 1978, Bonfire shifted to a wedding-cake style, in which upper stacks of logs were wedged on top of lower stacks. The structure was built around a fortified centerpole, made from two telephone poles.[82] Although tradition stated that if Bonfire burned through midnight A&M would win the following day's game, with the introduction of the wedding cake design Bonfire began to fall very quickly, sometimes burning for only 30 or 45 minutes.[4]FUJITSU CA49008-0790 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan At 2:42 AM on November 18, 1999, the partially completed Aggie Bonfire, standing 40 feet (10 m) tall and consisting of about 5000 logs, collapsed during construction. Of the 58 students and former students working on the stack, 12 were killed and 27 others were injured.[82] On November 25, 1999, the date that Bonfire would have burned, Aggies instead held a vigil and remembrance ceremony. Over 40,000 people, including former President George H.W. Bush and his wifeBarbara and then-Texas governor George W. Bush and his wife Laura, lit candles and observed up to two hours of silence at the site of the Bonfire collapse.[84]The Bonfire Memorial was officially dedicated on November 18, 2004.[85]HP G50-116CA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Bonfire was postponed until 2002 in order to restructure it to make it safer. Delays in the development of a safety plan and a high estimated cost (mainly due to liability insurance), led A&M president Ray Bowen to postpone Bonfire indefinitely.[86] Despite the university's refusal to allow Bonfire to take place on campus, since 2002 a non-university sanctioned Bonfire has burned annually.[87] Known as Student Bonfire, theHP Pavilion dv7-4012tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Every November, in the week of the football game against the University of Texas, the senior class gathers together for Elephant Walk. The seniors link arms and "wander aimlessly" through campus.[89] The University of Texas game was always the last football game of the regular season, so Elephant Walk has come to symbolize the end of the seniors' "usefulness" to the 12th Man and the passing of the torch to the junior class.[90] In a reference to Elephant Walk, seniors in their last semester of study are often called "dead elephants."[38] TOSHIBA Satellite A215-S7422 Laptop Keyboard Elephant Walk began in 1926, when a group of students decided to take one last walk around campus to remember their experiences at the school. Because they walked single file, with a hand on the shoulder of the person in front, an observer remarked that they "looked like elephants, about to die."[90] The day now begins at Kyle Field with a yell practice and speaker, and then the senior yell leaders lead the class through campus.[91] Leaders of the graduating class also announce the class gift at Elephant Walk.[92]HP Mini 210-1155DX Laptop Keyboard Texas A&M provides many opportunities for students to participate in volunteer and service activities. Students at Texas A&M originated The Big Event, the largest one-day student-run service project in the nation.[93] The annual event began in 1983 after the Texas A&M Student Government Association passed a resolution encouraging students to show their gratitude to the community by giving of their time.[93][94] From its beginnings of six individual students wanting to contribute back to the local community, SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W Laptop Keyboard The Big Event has expanded to allow over thirteen thousand students to participate in over 1400 jobs, such as raking leaves, painting houses, and trimming trees.[95] The concept for The Big Event has spread throughout the nation, and as of 2007, 71 schools across the nation participate each year including 1 middle school, 2 high schools, and 68 universities.[96][97][98][99] The 2008 Big Event attracted 10,600 students who worked a record number of 1,000 jobs.[100]SONY Vaio VGN-NW235F/T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Aggies also participate annually in Replant, a one-day environmental service. In 2006, 1,000 students participated, planting 250 trees in three public parks. The event

has been an annual tradition since 1991, when the Texas A&M Environmental Issues Committee began planting trees to replace those that had been cut down for Bonfire. Although Bonfire has been officially disbanded, Replant continues. Its goals are now to beautify the Bryan-College Station area and to "creat[e] harmony between students and the residents."[101] IBM ThinkPad T42 2378 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 2000, the group planted twelve live oak trees at the Texas A&M Polo Grounds in memory of the twelve victims of the 1999 Bonfire collapse. That year the group was awarded the Community Forestry Award from the Texas Forest Service.[102] The group provides their own trees, grown at the Texas A&M Riverside campus in Bryan, Texas and has its own Student Government committee.[103]HP G62t-350 CTO Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Gateway MA1 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Corps of Cadets annually conducts the March to the Brazos, a 14 miles (20 km) round-trip road march that serves as both a ceremony to transfer leadership as well as a fundraiser for the March of Dimes. The Corps hold various fundraisers and solicits donations throughout the year. On a Saturday morning, generally in April, each year, all members of the Corps gather at the Quadrangle, near their dormitories, and march en masse across campus and down Highway 60 to Texas A&M's Animal Science Teaching, SONY Vaio VPC-EB1E8E/WI Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Research & Extension Complex near the east bank of the Brazos River. There, the cadets learn who will fill each leadership position for the following year. The current seniors are allowed to ride a bus back to campus while the newly promoted cadets lead their outfits back to campus.[104] The event is the largest and most successful student-run fundraising event in the United States for the March of Dimes.[105] In its first 27 years, from 1977 through 2003, the event raised a combined US$1.3 million.[105]SONY Vaio VGN-SZ6RXN/C Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Many students believe that they will do well on exams if they make an offering to Lawrence Sullivan "Sul" Ross. Ross, the president of Texas A&M in the 1890s, is credited with saving the school from closure. Affectionately known as "Sully," many believe him to be "the embodiment of Aggie Spirit and tradition."[106] A&M legend states that Ross would often tutor students, and as payment would accept only a penny for their thoughts. At exam time his statue, located in Academic Plaza, is often covered in pennies.[107] HP 606609-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Another spot in Academic Plaza is also believed to be lucky. Tradition says that if a couple walks together under the branches of the Century Tree, one of the oldest trees on campus, they will eventually marry. If the proposal takes place under the Century Tree, the marriage is supposed to last forever.[108][109][110] HP Pavilion dv7-3155el Laptop CPU Cooling Fan For much of its first 100 years, Texas A&M was a small, all-male, military academy. The school became coeducational in the 1960s, and membership in the Corps of Cadets became voluntary. In military tradition, privileges are meted out as one climbs the ranks, and Texas A&M has several such traditions. The most obvious are the uniforms worn by the Corps of Cadets. Corps members wear different uniforms for each year, culminating in the prized Senior boots.[66]ACER Aspire 6920-602G16 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Vocabulary is also restricted by class. Freshmen may not say the word Pisshead, a nickname for sophomores.[44] Juniors are known as "Serge Butts", so neither freshmen nor sophomores can say any form of either word. Juniors are also the first class to be allowed to say "Whoop!" Seniors, known as "Zips" for the black and gold braid on their garrison caps, which resembles a zipper, have reserved the word elephant and all forms of the words "death," "dying," "shoot," or "reload" in reference to the traditions surrounding Elephant Walk.[38] However, saying the phrases "pass away," "decease," "fire," "load again," etc., are all acceptable substitutes. SONY Vaio VPC-EA35FB/B Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Students caught "pulling out", or saying words that are reserved for other classes, are forced to "push."[38][111]Traditionally, this means the students must do a "class set" of pushups, one for each year of their class. The Class of 1945 did only 45 pushups and an extra pushup has been added for each subsequent year; the Fighting Texas Aggie Class of 2012 now does 112.[111] Pulling out privileges of the class directly above is considered "Good Bull", but pulling out two classes or more is "Bad Bull."[38] Members of the Corps of Cadets generally take privileged words more seriously than non-regstudents.[78] SONY Vaio VPC-EB47GM Laptop CPU Cooling Fan IBM 91P9252 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

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