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29 juillet 2011 5 29 /07 /juillet /2011 14:39

Top Secret/Majic (2005 edition)

Stanton T. Friedman continues to defend his view that the Majestic 12 documents, which describe a secret government agency hiding information on recovered aliens, are authentic. In an afterword dated April 2005 to a new edition of his book Top Secret/Majic (first published in 1996),Sony VAIO VGN-SR190NEB Battery

he responds to more recent questions on their validity and concludes "I am still convinced Roswell really happened, [and] that the Eisenhower Briefing Document [i.e., Majestic 12] ... [and others] are the most important classified documents ever leaked to the public."Sony VAIO VGN-SR190NGB Battery

While the bulk of the book discusses the documents in detail, mention is made of the Barnett alien site, near Socorro, and Friedman has self-published as recently as 2003 articles that defend his view that aliens were recovered there and at a second site at the Foster ranch, seemingly the same sites as detailed in Crash at Corona.Sony VAIO VGN-SR190PAB Battery

Witness to Roswell (2007)

In June 2007, Donald Schmitt and his investigation partner Tom Carey published their first book together, Witness to Roswell. In this book, they claim a "continuously growing roster of more than 600 people directly or indirectly associated with the events at Roswell who support the first account - that initial claim of the flying saucer recovery."Sony VAIO VGN-SR190PCB Battery

New accounts of aliens or alien recoveries were described, including from Walter Haut who wrote the initial press release in 1947.

A new date was suggested for a crash of a mysterious object—the evening of Thursday, July 3, 1947.Sony VAIO VGN-SR190PFB Battery

Also, unlike previous accounts, Brazel took debris to Corona, where he showed fragments to local residents in the local bar, hardware store and elsewhere, and to Capitan to the south, while portions of the object ended up at a 4 July rodeo.Sony VAIO VGN-SR19VN Battery

Numerous people are described as visiting the debris field and taking souvenirs before Brazel finally went to Roswell to report the find on July 6. Once the military was alerted to the debris, extensive efforts were undertaken to retrieve those souvenirs: "Ranch houses were and [sic] ransacked.Sony VAIO VGN-SR19VN Battery

The wooden floors of livestock sheds were pried loose plank by plank and underground cold storage fruit cellars were emptied of all their contents."

The subsequent events are related as per the sequence in previous books, except for a second recovery site of an alien body at the Foster ranch.Sony VAIO VGN-SR19VRN Battery

This recovery near the debris field is the same site mentioned in 1991's UFO Crash at Roswell. The authors suggest that Brazel discovered the second site some days after finding the debris field, and this prompted him to travel to Roswell and report his find to the authorities.Sony VAIO VGN-SR19XN Battery

Neither Barnett nor the archaeologists are present at this body site. While noting the earlier "major problems" with Barnett's account, which caused Schmitt and previous partner Randle to omit Barnett's claim in 1994's The Truth about the UFO Crash at Roswell, the new book further notes another site mentioned in the 1994 publication.Sony VAIO VGN-SR19XN Battery

This site closer to Roswell "turned out to be bogus, as it was based upon the testimony of a single, alleged eyewitness [Frank Kaufmann] who himself was later discovered to have been a purveyor of false information." Jim Ragsdale,Sony VAIO VGN-SR210J/S Battery

whose alien account opened that book and who was claimed to have been present along with some archaeologists, is not mentioned in the new book.

The book includes claims that Major Marcel saw alien bodies, a claim not present in the previous books mentioned.Sony VAIO VGN-SR21M/S Battery

Two witnesses are cited who say Marcel briefly mentioned seeing bodies, one a relative and another a tech sergeant who worked with Marcel's intelligence team.

Much additional new testimony is presented to support notions that alien bodies were found at the Foster ranch and at another main crash site along with a craft,Sony VAIO VGN-SR21RM/H Battery

then processed at the base in a hangar and at the hospital, and finally flown out in containers, all under very tight security. The book suggests Brazel found "two or three alien bodies" about two miles east of the debris field and describes the rest of a stricken alien craft along with the remainderSony VAIO VGN-SR21RM/S Battery

of the crew remaining airborne for some 30 more miles before crashing at another site about 40 miles north/northwest of Roswell (but not the same site described by Kaufmann). The authors claim to have located this final crash site in 2005 where "an additional two or three dead aliens and one live one were discovered by civilian archaeologists,"Sony VAIO VGN-SR220J/B Battery

but offer no more information about the new site. Walter Haut, as the Roswell Army Air Field public affairs officer, had drafted the initial press release that went out over the news wires on the afternoon of July 8, 1947, announcing a "flying disc". This was the only direct involvement Haut had previously described in public statements and signed affidavits.Sony VAIO VGN-SR220J/H Battery

The book presents a new affidavit that Haut signed in 2002 in which he claims much greater personal knowledge and involvement, including seeing alien corpses and craft, and involvement in a cover-up. Haut died in 2005.Sony VAIO VGN-SR240J/B Battery

Another new first-hand account from MP Elias Benjamin describes how he guarded aliens on gurneys taken to the Roswell base hospital from the same hangar. Similarly, family members of Miriam Bush, secretary to the chief medical officer at Roswell base, told of having been led into an examination room where alien corpses were laid out on gurneys.Sony VAIO VGN-SR240N/B Battery

In both accounts, one of the aliens was said to be still alive. The book also recounted earlier testimony of the Anaya family about picking up New Mexico Lt. Governor Joseph Montoya at the base, and a badly shaken Montoya relating that he saw four alien bodies at the base hangar, one of them alive.Sony VAIO VGN-SR290JTH Battery

Benjamin's and Bush's accounts, as do a few lesser ones, again place aliens at the Roswell base hospital, as had the Glenn Dennis story from almost 20 years before. The book notes that Dennis had been found to have told lies, and therefore is a supplier of unreliable testimony,Sony VAIO VGN-SR290JTJ Battery

but had nevertheless told others of incidents at the Roswell base long before it became associated with aliens in the late 1970s.

Walter Haut controversy

The publishing of the Walter Haut affidavit in Witness to Roswell, wherein Haut described a cover-up and seeing alien corpses, ignited a controversy in UFO circles.Sony VAIO VGN-SR290JTQ Battery

While many embraced his accounts as confirmation of the presence of aliens from a person who was known to have been on the base in 1947, others raised questions about the credibility of the accounts.

UFO researcher Dennis G. Balthaser, who along with fellow researcher Wendy Connors interviewed Haut on-camera in 2000, doubted that the same man he interviewed could have written the affidavit he signed.Sony VAIO VGN-SR290JVB/C Battery

"[The 2000 video] shows a man that couldn't remember where he took basic training, names, dates, etc., while the 2002 affidavit is very detailed and precise with information Haut couldn't accurately remember 2 years after he was video taped." Witness to Roswellco-author Don Schmitt,Sony VAIO VGN-SR290JVH/C Battery

he notes, admitted that the affidavit was not written by Haut, but prepared for him to sign, based on statements Haut had made privately to Schmitt and co-author Tom Carey over a period of years. And further, notes Balthaser, neither he nor Carey were there when Haut signed the affidavit and the witness' name has not been revealed,Sony VAIO VGN-SR290NTB Battery

casting doubt on the circumstances of the signing.He had further questions about what he saw as problems with the 2002 account. If the cover-up was decided at a meeting at Roswell, he asked, "why was it necessary for Major Marcel to fly debris from Roswell to General Ramey’s office in Ft Worth,Sony VAIO VGN-SR29VN/S Battery

since they had all handled the debris in the meeting and apparently set up the cover-up operation?" He also wondered which Haut statements were true: a 1993 affidavit he signed, the 2000 video interview, or the 2002 affidavit.Sony VAIO VGN-SR29XN/S Battery

Bill Birnes, writing for UFO Magazine, summarizes that whatever disagreements there are about the 2000 video and the 2002 affidavit, "I think Walter Haut's 2002 affidavit really says it all and agrees, on its material facts, with Walter's 2000 interview with Dennis Balthaser and Wendy Connors. Dennis said he agrees with me, too, on this point."Sony VAIO VGN-SR2RVN/S Battery

A comparison of the affidavit and interview shows that in both Haut said he saw a craft and at least one body in a base hangar and also attended a Roswell staff meeting where General Ramey was present and where Ramey put a cover-up into place.Sony VAIO VGN-SR390NAB Battery

Birnes also says that Carey told that while Haut may not have written the affidavit, "his statements were typed, shown to him for his review and agreement, and then affirmed by him in the presence of a witness... The fact that a notary was present and sealed the document should end any doubt as to the reality of its existence."Sony VAIO VGN-SR390NAH Battery

Julie Shuster, Haut's daughter and Director of the International UFO Museum in Roswell, said that Schmitt had written the affidavit based on years of conversations he and Carey had had with him. Writing in the September, 2007 MUFON newsletter, she said she and Haut reviewed the document, that "he did not want to make any changes,"Sony VAIO VGN-SR41M/P Battery

and in the presence of two witnesses, a notary public from the museum and a visitor, both unidentified, he signed the affidavit.

UFO FBI document release, 2011

In April 2011, the FBI posted a document from 1950  on their website written by agent Guy Hottel which discussed a report forwarded by an investigator from the Air Force of three alien craft and their occupants having been recovered in New Mexico.Sony VAIO VGN-SR41M/S Battery

The memo stated that "three so-called flying saucers" were recovered, each circular in shape with raised centers, each about 50 feet in diameter. Three occupants of "human shape," each about three feet tall, were found in each craft, and all were dressed "in metallic cloth of a very fine texture."Sony VAIO VGN-SR49VN/H Battery

The memo said that reports were "high-powered radar" had affected the alien crafts' control systems, causing them to crash. No date was mentioned, though the memo was date-stamped March 22, 1950, and no location more specific than "New Mexico" was mentioned.Sony VAIO VGN-SR51B/P Battery

The memo stated that "no further evaluation was attempted" by the person who supplied the information.

Numerous sources connected the memo   to the Roswell UFO incident of 1947.Sony VAIO VGN-SR51B/S Battery

Other sources said the memo had been in the public domain for years and was revealed as a hoax as far back as 1952 in an article in True magazine. They said the hoax was perpetrated by several men who were peddling a device purported to be able to locate gold, oil, gas or anything their victims sought, based on supposed alien technology.Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF Battery

The two men, Silas Newton and Leo A. Gebauer, were convicted of fraud in 1953.

Area 51 (2011)

The book Area 51 by Annie Jacobsen, based on interviews with scientists and engineers who worked in Area 51, dismisses the alien story.Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF/P Battery

Instead, it suggests thatJosef Mengele was recruited by the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin to produce "grotesque, child-size aviators" to be remotely piloted and landed in America to cause hysteria in the likeness of Orson Welles' 1938 radio drama War of the Worlds, but that the aircraft crashed and the incident was hushed up by the Americans.Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF/S Battery

Jacobsen writes that the bodies found at the crash site were children. Grotesquely but similarly deformed, aged around 12, each under five feet tall, with large heads and abnormally shaped oversize eyes. They were neither aliens nor consenting airmen, but human guinea pigs.Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF/W Battery

Cultural influence

The Roswell incident has become a popular subject of many science fiction movies, television series, video games, and books.

Film

Kevin D. Randle and Donald R. Schmitt's 1991 nonfiction book UFO Crash at Roswell inspired the 1994 American television film Roswell, which starred Martin Sheen and Kyle McLachlan.Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MR Battery

The film depicts Major Jesse Marcel trying to discover the truth about strange debris found on a local rancher's field in Roswell in July 1947. The film received a Golden Globe Award nomination for Best Mini-Series or Motion Picture Made for Television, but did not win.Sony VAIO VGN-SR59VG Battery

Literature

Several novels have been written about the Roswell incident, including Whitley Strieber's Majestic (1989), Kevin D. Randle's Operation Roswell (2004), and Sonny Whitelaw's "Stargate SG-1: Roswell" (2007), "Alien Interview" (2008) Edited by Lawrence Spencer,Sony VAIO VGN-SR59VG/H Battery

"The Day After Roswell" (1998) Col. P. J. Corso. and "The True Meaning of Smekday" by Adam Rex

Television

An American television series called Roswell High, later renamed Roswell aired from 1999 to 2002, originally on The WB Television Network and later on UPN.Sony VAIO VGN-SR70B/S Battery

Based on Melinda Metz's Roswell Highchildren's book series, the program followed the lives of four extraterrestrials who had survived the Roswell crash and assumed the form of human teenagers.

Comics, series and animation

The comic book series The Invisibles (1994–2000), by Grant Morrison, made extensive use of the Roswell incident in its second volume.Sony VAIO VGN-SR72B/P Battery

A humorous Bongo Comics series, called Roswell, Little Green Man, ran from 1996 to 1999 and followed the misadventures of an extraterrestrial who survived from the craft. The graphic novel Roswell, Texas features an alternate history in which the site of the UFO crash was part of the still-independent republic of Texas.Sony VAIO VGN-SR72B/S Battery

Music

American alternative rock band Pixies made overt references to the incident in the songs "The Happening" and "Motorway to Roswell."

The American band Foo Fighters takes its name from an old term for UFOs, specific to "ghosts" that trailed the wings of fighter planes, and has named its record label Roswell Records.Sony VAIO VGN-SR73JB/S Battery

The band has performed concerts on the site of the Roswell Air Force Base[116] and at the site of the crash. Foo Fighters frontman Dave Grohl is known for having an interest in supernatural phenomena.

Toys

Two plastic kits of the Roswell ship were made by Testor, following the forensic reconstructions of Bill McDonald. One shows the crash site, and the other just the intact ship.Sony VAIO VGN-SR74FB/S Battery

Extraterrestrial life (from the Latin words: extra ("beyond", or "not of") and? terrestris ("of or belonging to Earth")) is defined as life that does not originate fromEarth. Also referred to as alien life, or simply aliens, these hypothetical forms of life range from simple bacteria-like organisms to beings far more advanced than humans.Sony VAIO VGN-SR90FS Battery

The development and testing of theories about extraterrestrial life is known as exobiology or astrobiology; the term astrobiology, however, also covers the study of life on Earth, viewed in its astronomical context.Sony VAIO VGN-SR90NS Battery

Although many prominent scientists consider extraterrestrial life to be plausible, the scientific community does not currently recognize any verifiable evidence of such life.

Background

Various controversial claims have been made for evidence of extraterrestrial life.Sony VAIO VGN-SR90S Battery

A less direct argument for the existence of extraterrestrial life relies on the vast size of the observable Universe. According to this argument, supported by scientists such as Carl Sagan and Stephen Hawking, it would be improbable for life not to exist somewhere other than Earth.Sony VAIO VGN-SR90US Battery

One possibility is that life has emerged independently at many places throughout the Universe. Another possibility is panspermia or exogenesis, in which life would have spread between habitable planets. These two hypotheses are not necessarily mutually exclusive.Sony VAIO VGN-SR91NS Battery

Suggested locations at which life might have developed, or which might continue to host life today, include the planets Venus and Mars; moons of Jupiter, such as Europa;  moons of Saturn, such as Titan and Enceladus; and extrasolar planets, such as Gliese 581 c,Sony VAIO VGN-SR91PS Battery

g and d, recently discovered to be near Earth mass and apparently located in their star's habitable zone, with the potential to have liquid water.[4] In May 2011, NASA scientists reported that Enceladus "is emerging as the most habitable spot beyond Earth in the Solar System for life as we know it".Sony VAIO VGN-SR91S Battery

Beliefs that some unidentified flying objects are of extraterrestrial origin (see Extraterrestrial hypothesis),[7] along with claims of alien abduction,[8] are dismissed by most scientists. Most UFO sightings are explained either as sightings of Earth-based aircraft or known astronomical objects, or as hoaxes.Sony VAIO VGN-SR91US Battery

Possible basis of extraterrestrial life

Several theories have been proposed about the possible basis of alien life from a biochemical, evolutionary or morphological viewpoint.Sony VAIO VGN-SR92NS Battery

Alien life, such as bacteria, has been theorized by scientists such as Carl Sagan to exist in the Solar System and quite possibly throughout the Universe. No samples have been found.

Biochemistry

It was thought that all life on Earth required six main building blocks which are carbon,Sony VAIO VGN-SR92PS Battery

hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur (CHNOPS) as well as numerous other elements in smaller amounts. However, in 2010 a new strain of bacteria called GFAJ-1 was found in California's Mono Lake and discovered to use arsenic instead of phosphorus for creating its DNA and proteins.Sony VAIO VGN-SR92S Battery

Life on Earth also requires water as the solvent in which biochemical reactions take place. Sufficient quantities of carbon and the other major life-forming elements, along with water, may enable the formation of living organisms on other planets with a chemical make-up and average temperature similar to that of Earth.Sony VAIO VGN-SR92US Battery

Because Earth and other planets are made up of "stardust", i.e. relatively abundant chemical elements formed from stars which have ended their lives as supernova, it is very probable that other planets may have been formed by elements of a similar composition to the Earth's.Sony VAIO VGN-SR93DS Battery

The combination of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in the chemical form of carbohydrates (e.g. sugar) can be a source of chemical energy on which life depends, and can also provide structural elements for life (such as ribose, in the molecules DNA and RNA, and cellulose in plants).Sony VAIO VGN-SR93JS Battery

Plants derive energy through the conversion of light energy into chemical energy via photosynthesis. Life, as currently recognized, requires carbon in both reduced (methane derivatives) and partially-oxidized (carbon oxides) states.Sony VAIO VGN-SR93PS Battery

It also appears to require nitrogen as a reduced ammonia derivative in allproteins, sulfur as a derivative of hydrogen sulfide in some necessary proteins, and phosphorus oxidized to phosphates in genetic material and in energy transfer. Adequate water as a solvent supplies adequate oxygen as constituents of biochemical substances.Sony VAIO VGN-SR93YS Battery

Pure water is useful because it has a neutral pH due to its continued dissociation between hydroxide and hydronium ions. As a result, it can dissolve both positive metallic ions and negative non-metallic ions with equal ability.Sony VAIO VGN-SR94FS Battery

Furthermore, the fact that organic molecules can be either hydrophobic (repelled by water) or hydrophilic (soluble in water) creates the ability of organic compounds to orient themselves to form water-enclosing membranes. The fact that solid water (ice) is less dense than liquid water (within specific temperature ranges) also means that ice floats,Sony VAIO VGN-SR94GS Battery

thereby preventing Earth's oceans from slowly freezing. Without this quality, the oceans could have frozen solid during the Snowball Earth episodes. Additionally, the hydrogen bonds between water molecules give it an ability to store energy with evaporation, which upon condensation is released.Sony VAIO VGN-SR94HS Battery

This helps to moderate the climate, cooling the tropics and warming the poles, helping to maintain the thermodynamic stability needed for life.

Carbon is fundamental to terrestrial life for its immense flexibility in creating covalent chemical bonds with a variety of non-metallic elements,Sony VAIO VGN-SR94VS Battery

principally nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen. Carbon dioxideand water together enable the storage of solar energy in sugars, such as glucose. The oxidation of glucose releases biochemical energy needed to fuel all other biochemical reactions.Sony VAIO VGN-NS10E/S Battery

The ability to form organic acids (–COOH) and amine bases (–NH2) gives rise to the possibility of neutralization dehydrating reactions to build long polymer peptides and catalytic proteins frommonomer amino acids, and with phosphates to build not only DNA (the information-storing molecule of inheritance), but also ATP (the principal energy "currency" of cellular life).Sony VAIO VGN-NS10J/S Battery

Due to their relative abundance and usefulness in sustaining life, many have hypothesized that life forms elsewhere in the universe would also utilize these basic materials. However, other elements and solvents could also provide a basis for life. Silicon is most often deemed to be the probable alternative to carbon.Sony VAIO VGN-NS10L/S Battery

Silicon life forms are proposed to have a crystalline morphology, and are theorized to be able to exist in high temperatures, such as on planets which are very close to their star. Life forms based in ammonia (rather than water) have also been suggested, though this solution appears less optimal than water.Sony VAIO VGN-NS110E/L Battery

From a chemical perspective, life is fundamentally a self-replicating reaction, but one which could arise under a great many conditions and with various possible ingredients, though carbon-oxygen within the liquid temperature range of water seems most conducive.Sony VAIO VGN-NS110E/S Battery

Suggestions have even been made that self-replicating reactions of some sort could occur within the plasma of a star, though it would be highly unconventional.

Several pre-conceived ideas about the characteristics of life outside of Earth have been questioned. For example, NASA scientists believe that the color of photosynthesizing pigments on extrasolar planets might not be green.Sony VAIO VGN-NS110E/W Battery

Evolution and morphology

In addition to the biochemical basis of extraterrestrial life, many have also considered evolution and morphology. Science fiction has often depicted extraterrestrial life with humanoid and/or reptilianforms.Sony VAIO VGN-NS115N/S Battery

Aliens have often been depicted as having light green or grey skin, with a large head, as well as four limbs—i.e. fundamentally humanoid. Other subjects, such as felines and insects, etc., have also occurred in fictional representations of aliens.Sony VAIO VGN-NS11J/S Battery

A division has been suggested between universal and parochial (narrowly restricted) characteristics. Universals are features which are thought to have evolved independently more than once on Earth (and thus, presumably, are not too difficult to develop) and are so intrinsically useful that species will inevitably tend towards them.Sony VAIO VGN-NS130E/L Battery

The most fundamental of these is probably bilateral symmetry, but more complex (though still basic) characteristics include flight, sight, photosynthesis and limbs, all of which are thought to have evolved several times here on Earth.Sony VAIO VGN-NS130E/S Battery

There is a huge variety of eyes, for example, and many of these have radically different working schematics and different visual foci: the visual spectrum, infrared, polarity and echolocation. Parochials, however, are essentially arbitrary evolutionary forms. These often have little inherent utilitySony VAIO VGN-NS130E/W Battery

(or at least have a function which can be equally served by dissimilar morphology) and probably will not be replicated. Intelligent aliens could communicate through gestures, as deaf humans do, or by sounds created from structures unrelated to breathing, which happens on Earth when, for instance, cicadas vibrate their wings, or crickets rub their legs.Sony VAIO VGN-NS140E/L Battery

Attempting to define parochial features challenges many taken-for-granted notions about morphological necessity. Skeletons, which are essential to large terrestrial organisms according to the experts of the field of gravitational biology, are almost assured to be replicated elsewhere in one form or another.Sony VAIO VGN-NS140E/S Battery

The assumption of radical diversity amongst putative extraterrestrials is by no means settled. While many exobiologists do stress that the enormously heterogeneous nature of life on Earth foregrounds an even greater variety in outer space,Sony VAIO VGN-NS140E/W Battery

others point out that convergent evolution may dictate substantial similarities between Earth and extraterrestrial life. These two schools of thought are called "divergionism" and "convergionism" respectively.

Ancient and medieval ideas

In antiquity, it was common to assume a cosmos consisting of "many worlds" inhabited by intelligent,Sony VAIO VGN-NS190J/L Battery

non-human life-forms, but these "worlds" were mythological and not informed by the heliocentricunderstanding of the solar system, or the understanding of the Sun as one among countless stars. An example would be the fourteen loka of Hindu cosmology, or the Nine Worlds of Old Norse mythology, etc.Sony VAIO VGN-NS190J/S Battery

The Sun and the Moon often appear as inhabited worlds in such contexts, or as vehicles (chariots or boats, etc.) driven by gods. The Japanese folk tale of The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter (10th century) is an example of a princess of the Moon people visiting Earth.Sony VAIO VGN-NS190J/W Battery

Such conceptions of a universe consisting of "many worlds" are also found in classical Greek philosophy, and later in Christian and Jewish theology (see also exotheology). The atomists of Greece likeEpicurus took up the idea, arguing that an infinite universe ought to have an infinity of populated worlds.Sony VAIO VGN-NS235J/L Battery

Ancient Greek cosmology worked against the idea of extraterrestrial life in one critical respect, however: the geocentric Universe. Championed by Aristotle and codified by Ptolemy, it favored the Earth and Earth-life (Aristotle denied that there could be a plurality of worlds) and seemingly rendered extraterrestrial life philosophically untenable.Sony VAIO VGN-NS235J/P Battery

The Jewish Talmud states that there are at least 18,000 other worlds, but provides little elaboration on the nature of those worlds, or on whether they are physical or spiritual. Based on this, however, the 18th century exposition "Sefer HaB'rit" posits that extraterrestrial creatures exist, and that some may well possess intelligence.Sony VAIO VGN-NS235J/S Battery

It adds that humans should not expect creatures from another world to resemble earthly life any more than sea creatures resemble land animals.

Hindu beliefs of endlessly repeated cycles of life have led to descriptions of multiple worlds in existence and their mutual contacts (Sanskrit word sampark (???????) means "contact" as in Mahasamparka (??????????) = "the great contact").Sony VAIO VGN-NS235J/W Battery

According to Hindu scriptures, there are innumerable universes to facilitate the fulfillment of the separated desires of innumerable living entities. However, the purpose of such creations is to bring back the deluded souls to correct understanding about the purpose of life.Sony VAIO VGN-NS240E/L Battery

Aside from the innumerable universes which are material, there is also the unlimited spiritual world, where the purified living entities live with perfect conception about life and ultimate reality. The spiritually aspiring saints and devotees, as well as thoughtful men of the material world,Sony VAIO VGN-NS290J/L Battery

have been getting guidance and help from these purified living entities of the spiritual world from time immemorial.

According to Ahmadiyya Islam a more direct reference from the Quran is presented by Mirza Tahir Ahmad as a proof that life on other planets may exist according to the Quran.Sony VAIO VGN-NS290J/S Battery

In his book, Revelation, Rationality, Knowledge & Truth, he quotes verse 42:29 "And among His Signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and of whatever living creatures (da'bbah) He has spread forth in both..."; according to this verse there is life in heavens.Sony VAIO VGN-NS50B/L Battery

According to the same verse "And He has the power to gather them together (jam-'i-him) when He will so please"; indicates the bringing together the life on Earth and the life elsewhere in the Universe. The verse does not specify the time or the place of this meeting but rather states that this event will most certainly come to pass whenever God so desires.Sony VAIO VGN-NS50B/W Battery

It should be pointed out that the Arabic term Jam-i-him used to express the gathering event can imply either a physical encounter or a contact through communication.

In Shia Islam the 6th Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq has been quoted as saying that there are living beings on other planets.Sony VAIO VGN-NS51B/L Battery

When Christianity spread throughout the West, the Ptolemaic system became very widely accepted, and although the Church never issued any formal pronouncement on the question of alien life, at least tacitly, the idea was aberrant. In 1277, the Bishop of Paris,Sony VAIO VGN-NS51B/P Battery

Étienne Tempier, did overturn Aristotle on one point: God could have created more than one world (given His omnipotence). Taking a further step, and arguing that aliens actually existed, remained rare. Notably, Cardinal Nicholas of Kues speculated about aliens on the Moon and Sun.Sony VAIO VGN-NS51B/W Battery

Early modern period

There was a dramatic shift in thinking initiated by the invention of the telescope and the Copernican assault on geocentric cosmology. Once it became clear that the Earth was merely one planet amongst countless bodies in the universe, the extraterrestrial idea moved towards the scientific mainstream.Sony VAIO VGN-NS52JB/L Battery

The best known early-modern proponent of such ideas was the Italian philosopher Giordano Bruno, who argued in the 16th century for an infinite Universe in which every star is surrounded by its own planetary system. Bruno wrote that other worlds "have no less virtue nor a nature different to that of our earth" and, like Earth, "contain animals and inhabitants".Sony VAIO VGN-NS52JB/P Battery

In the early 17th century, the Czech astronomer Anton Maria Schyrleus of Rheita mused that "if Jupiter has (...) inhabitants (...) they must be larger and more beautiful than the inhabitants of the Earth, in proportion to the [characteristics] of the two spheres".Sony VAIO VGN-NS52JB/W Battery

In Baroque literature such as The Other World: The Societies and Governments of the Moon by Cyrano de Bergerac, extraterrestrial societies are presented as humoristic or ironic parodies of earthly society. The didactic poet Henry More took up the classical theme of the Greek Democritus in "Democritus Platonissans, or an Essay Upon the Infinity of Worlds" (1647).Sony VAIO VGN-NS70B/W Battery

In "The Creation: a Philosophical Poem in Seven Books" (1712), Sir Richard Blackmoreobserved: "We may pronounce each orb sustains a race / Of living things adapted to the place". With the new relative viewpoint that the Copernican revolution had wrought, he suggested "our world's sunne / Becomes a starre elsewhere".Sony VAIO VGN-NS71B/W Battery

Fontanelle's "Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds" (translated into English in 1686) offered similar excursions on the possibility of extraterrestrial life, expanding, rather than denying, the creative sphere of a Maker.

The possibility of extraterrestrials remained a widespread speculation as scientific discovery accelerated.Sony VAIO VGN-NS72JB/W Battery

William Herschel, the discoverer of Uranus, was one of many 18th–19th century astronomers convinced that the Solar System, and perhaps others, would be well-populated by alien life. Other luminaries of the period who championed "cosmic pluralism" included Immanuel Kant and Benjamin Franklin.Sony VAIO VGN-NS90HS Battery

At the height of the Enlightenment, even the Sun and Moon were considered candidates for extraterrestrial inhabitants.

19th century

In 1854, William Whewell, a fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, who popularized the word scientist, theorized that Mars had seas, land and possibly life forms.Sony VAIO VGN-NS92JS Battery

Speculation about life on Mars exploded in the late 19th century, following telescopic observation by some observers of apparent Martian canals — which were however soon found to be optical illusions. Despite this, in 1895, American astronomer Percival Lowell published his book Mars,Sony VAIO VGN-NS92XS Battery

followed by Mars and its Canals in 1906, proposing that the canals were the work of a long-gone civilization. This idea led British writer H. G. Wells to write The War of the Worlds in 1897, telling of an invasion by aliens from Mars who were fleeing the planet’s desiccation.Sony VAIO VGN-NW21EF/S Battery

Spectroscopic analysis of Mars' atmosphere began in earnest in 1894, when U.S. astronomer William Wallace Campbell showed that neither water nor oxygen were present in the Martian atmosphere.  By 1909 better telescopes and the best perihelic opposition of Mars since 1877 conclusively put an end to the canal theory.Sony VAIO VGN-NW21JF Battery

The science fiction genre, although not so named during the time, develops during the late 19th century. Jules Verne's Around the Moon (1870) features a discussion of the possibility of life on the Moon, but with the conclusion that it is barren. Stories involving extraterrestrials are found in e.g.Sony VAIO VGN-NW21MF Battery

Garrett P. Serviss's Edison's Conquest of Mars (1897). The War of the Worlds by H. G. Wells was published in 1898 and stands at the beginning of the popular idea of the "Martian invasion" of Earth prominent in 20th century pop culture.Sony VAIO VGN-NW21MF/W Battery

20th century

A radio drama version of Wells' novel broadcast in 1938 over the CBS Radio Network led to outrage because it supposedly suggested to many listeners that an actual alien invasion by Martians was currently in progress.Sony VAIO VGN-NW21ZF Battery

In the wake of this, conspiracy theories on the presence of extraterrestrials became a widespread phenomenon in the United States during the 1940s and the beginning Space Age during the 1950s, accompanied by a surge of UFO reports.Sony VAIO VGN-NW31EF/W Battery

The term UFO itself was coined in 1952 in the context of the enormous popularity of the concept of "flying saucers" in the wake of the Kenneth Arnold UFO sighting in 1947. The Majestic 12 documents published in 1982 suggest that there was genuine interest in UFO conspiracy theories in the US government during the 1940s.Sony VAIO VGN-NW31JF Battery

The trend to assume that celestial bodies were populated almost by default was tempered as actual probes visited potential alien abodes in the Solar System beginning in the second half of the 20th century, and by the 1970s belief in UFOs had become part of the fringe beliefs associated with the paranormal, New Age, Earth mysteries, Forteana etc.Sony VAIO VGN-NW320F/B Battery

A number of UFO religions developed during the surge in UFO belief during th 1950s to 1970s period, and some, such as Scientology (founded 1953) and Raëlism (founded 1974) remain active into the present. The idea of "paleocontact", supposing that extraterrestrials ("ancient astronauts")Sony VAIO VGN-NW320F/TC Battery

have visited the Earth in the remote past and left traces in ancient cultures, appears in early 20th century fiction such as The Call of Cthulhu (1926), but it was given serious consideration in 1966 by astrophysicists I.S.Sony VAIO VGN-NW35E Battery

Shklovski and Carl Sagan, and the idea came to be established as a notable aspect of the Ufology subculture in the wake of Erich von Däniken's Chariots of the Gods? (1968). Alien abduction claims were also widespread during the 1960s and 1970s in the United States.Sony VAIO VGN-NW380F/S Battery

On the scientific side, the possibility of extraterrestrial life on the Moon was decisively ruled out by the 1960s, and during the 1970s it became clear that most of the other bodies of the Solar System do not harbour highly developed life, although the question of primitive life on bodies in the Solar System remains an open question.Sony VAIO VGN-NW380F/T Battery

Carl Sagan, Bruce Murray, and Louis Friedman founded the U.S. Planetary Society, partly as a vehicle for SETI studies in 1980, and since the 1990s, systematic search for radio signals attributable to intelligent extraterrestrial life has been ongoing.Sony VAIO VGN-NW50JB Battery

Recent history

The failure of the SETI program to announce an intelligent radio signal after decades of effort has at least partially dimmed the prevailing optimism of the beginning of the space age.Sony VAIO VGN-NW51FB/N Battery

Notwithstanding, the unproven belief in extraterrestrial beings continues to be voiced in pseudoscience, conspiracy theories, and in popular folklore, notably "Area 51" andlegends, but has also become a pop culture trope given less-than-serious treatment in popular entertainment with e.g. the ALF TV series (1986–1990), The X-Files (1993–2002), etc.Sony VAIO VGN-NW51FB/W Battery

The SETI program is not the result of a continuous, dedicated search, but instead utilizes what resources and manpower it can, when it can. Furthermore, the SETI program only searches a limited range of frequencies at any one time.Sony VAIO VGN-NW70JB Battery

In the words of SETI's Frank Drake, "All we know for sure is that the sky is not littered with powerful microwave transmitters". Drake has also noted that it is entirely possible that advanced technology results in communication being carried out in some way other than conventional radio transmission.Sony VAIO VGN-NW71FB/N Battery

At the same time, the data returned by space probes, and giant strides in detection methods, have allowed science to begin delineating habitability criteria on other worlds, and to confirm that at least other planets are plentiful, though aliens remain a question mark. The Wow! signal, from SETI, remains a speculative debate.Sony VAIO VGN-NW71FB/W Battery

In 2000, geologist and paleontologist Peter Ward and astrobiologist Donald Brownlee published a book entitled Rare Earth: Why Complex Life is Uncommon in the Universe.In it, they discussed theRare Earth hypothesis, in which they claim that Earth-like life is rare in the Universe, while microbial life is common.Sony VAIO VGN-NW91FS Battery

Ward and Brownlee are open to the idea of evolution on other planets which is not based on essential Earth-like characteristics (such as DNA and carbon).

The possible existence of primitive (microbial) life outside of Earth is much less controversial to mainstream scientists, although, at present, no direct evidence of such life has been found.Sony VAIO VGN-NW91GS Battery

Indirect evidence has been offered for the current existence of primitive life on Mars. However, the conclusions that should be drawn from such e

vidence remain in debate.Sony VAIO VGN-NW91VS Battery

The Catholic Church has not made a formal ruling on the existence of extraterrestrials. However, writing in the Vatican newspaper, the astronomer, Father José Gabriel Funes, director of the Vatican Observatory near Rome, said in 2008 that intelligent beings created by God could exist in outer space.Sony VAIO VPC CW2MFX/PU Battery

In September 2010, it was reported that the U.N. General Assembly had appointed Mazlan Othman as their official extraterrestrial liaison by the UK paper The Sunday Times. This claim was later refuted.

Theoretical physicist Stephen Hawking in 2010 warned that humans should not try to contact alien life forms.Sony VAIO VPC S11V9E/B Battery

He warned that aliens might pillage Earth for resources. "If aliens visit us, the outcome would be much as when Columbus landed in America, which didn't turn out well for the Native Americans," he said.[31] Anthropologist Jared Diamond has also expressed similar concerns.Sony VAIO VPCB119GJ/B Battery

Direct search

Scientists are directly searching for evidence of unicellular life within the Solar System, carrying out studies on the surface of Mars and examining meteorswhich have fallen to Earth. A mission is also proposed to Europa, one of Jupiter's moons with a possible liquid water layer under its surface, which might contain life.Sony VAIO VPCB11AGJ Battery

There is some limited evidence that microbial life might possibly exist (or have existed) on Mars. An experiment on the Viking Mars lander reported gas emissions from heated Martian soil that some argue are consistent with the presence of microbes.Sony VAIO VPCB11AVJ Battery

However, the lack of corroborating evidence from other experiments on the Viking lander indicates that a non-biological reaction is a more likely hypothesis. Independently, in 1996, structures resemblingnanobacteria were reportedly discovered in a meteorite,Sony VAIO VPCB11V9E Battery

ALH84001, thought to be formed of rock ejected from Mars. This report is also controversial.

In February 2005, NASA scientists reported that they had found strong evidence of present life on Mars.The two scientists, Carol Stoker and Larry Lemke of NASA's Ames Research Center,Sony VAIO VPCB11X9E Battery

based their claims on methane signatures found in Mars' atmosphere resembling the methane production of some forms of primitive life on Earth, as well as on their own study of primitive life near the Rio Tinto river in Spain. NASA officials soon denied the scientists' claims, and Stoker herself backed off from her initial assertions.Sony VAIO VPCCW18FJ/P Battery

Though such findings are still very much in debate, support among scientists for the belief in the existence of life on Mars seems to be growing. In an informal survey conducted at the conference at which the European Space Agency presented its findings, 75 percent of the scientists in attendance were reported to believe that life once existed on Mars,Sony VAIO VPCCW18FJ/R Battery

and 25 percent reported a belief that life currently exists there.

In November 2011, NASA plans to launch the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover which is designed to search for past or present life on Mars using a variety of scientific instruments. The MSL is scheduled to land on Mars at Gale Crater in August 2012.Sony VAIO VPCCW18FJ/W Battery

The Gaia hypothesis stipulates that any planet with a robust population of life will have an atmosphere in chemical disequilibrium, which is relatively easy to determine from a distance by spectroscopy. However, significant advances in the ability to find and resolve light from smaller rocky worlds near their star are necessary before such spectroscopic methods can be used to analyze extrasolar planets.Sony VAIO VPCCW19FJ/W Battery

On March 5, 2011, Richard B. Hoover, an astrobiologist with the Marshall Space Flight Center, speculated on the finding of alleged microfossils similar tocyanobacteria in CI1 carbonaceous meteorites.[41][42] However, NASA formally distanced itself from Hoover's claim.Sony VAIO VPCCW1AFJ Battery

Indirect search

It is theorized that any technological society in space will be transmitting information. However, if there is an advanced extraterrestrial society, there is no guarantee that they are transmitting information in the direction of Earth or that this information could be interpreted as such by humans.Sony VAIO VPCCW1AHJ Battery

Also, the length of time required for a signal to travel across the vastness of space means that any signal detected, or not detected, would come from the distant past.

Nevertheless, projects such as SETI are conducting an astronomical search for radio activity which would confirm the presence of intelligent life.Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E Battery

A related suggestion is that aliens might broadcast pulsed and continuous laser signals in the optical, as well as infrared, spectrum; laser signals have the advantage of not "smearing" in the interstellar medium, and may prove more conducive to communication between the stars.Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/B Battery

While other communication techniques, including laser transmission and interstellar spaceflight, have been discussed seriously and may well be feasible, the measure of effectiveness is the amount of information communicated per unit cost. This results in radio transmission as the method of choice.Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/L Battery

Extrasolar planets

Astronomers also search for extrasolar planets that they believe would be conducive to life, such as Gliese 581 c, Gliese 581 g, Gliese 581 d and OGLE-2005-BLG-390Lb, which have been found to have Earth-like qualities.Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/P Battery

Current radiodetection methods have been inadequate for such a search, since the resolution afforded by recent technology is inadequate for a detailed study of extrasolar planetary objects. Future telescopes should be able to image planets around nearby stars,Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/R Battery

which may reveal the presence of life – either directly or through spectrography – and would reveal key information, such as the presence of free oxygen in a planet's atmosphere:

  • The COROT mission, initiated by the French Space Agency, was launched in 2006, and is currently looking for extrasolar planets; it is the first of its kind.
  • The Terrestrial Planet Finder was supposed to have been launched by NASA, but as of 2010, budget cuts have caused it to be delayed indefinitely.Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/B Battery
  • The Kepler Mission, largely replacing the Terrestrial Planet Finder, was launched in March 2009.

It has been argued that Alpha Centauri, the closest star system to Earth, may contain planets which could be capable of sustaining life.Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/L Battery

On April 24, 2007, scientists at the European Southern Observatory in La Silla, Chile said they had found the first Earth-like planet. The planet, known asGliese 581 c, orbits within the habitable zone of its star Gliese 581, a red dwarf star which is 20.5 light years (194 trillion km) from the Earth.Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/R Battery

It was initially thought that this planet could contain liquid water, but recent computer simulations of the climate on Gliese 581 c by Werner von Bloh and his team at Germany's Institute for Climate Impact Research suggest that carbon dioxide and methane in the atmosphere would create a runaway greenhouse effect.Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/W Battery

This would warm the planet well above the boiling point of water (100 degrees Celsius/212 degrees Fahrenheit), thus dimming the hopes of finding life. As a result of greenhouse models, scientists are now turning their attention to Gliese 581 d, which lies just outside of the star's traditional habitable zone.Sony VAIO VPCCW26EC Battery

On May 29, 2007, the Associated Press released a report stating that scientists identified twenty-eight new extra-solar planetary bodies. One of these newly-discovered planets is said to have many similarities to Neptune.

Extrasolar planets have been discovered on a regular basis since 1992, with 563 confirmed as of July 18, 2011.Sony VAIO VPCCW26FX/B Battery

Drake used the equation to estimate that there are approximately 10,000 planets in the Milky Way galaxy containing intelligent life with the possible capability of communicating with Earth.

Based on observations from the Hubble Space Telescope, there are at least 125 billion galaxies in the observable Universe.Sony VAIO VPCCW28EC Battery

It is estimated that at least ten percent of all sun-like stars have a system of planets, i.e. there are 6.25×1018 stars with planets orbiting them in the observable Universe. Even if we assume that only one out of a billion of these stars have planets supporting life, there would be some 6.25×109 (billion) life-supporting planetary systems in the observable Universe.Sony VAIO VPCCW28FJ/P Battery

Many bodies in the Solar System have been suggested as being capable of containing conventional organic life. The most commonly suggested ones are listed below; of these, five of the ten are moons, where large bodies of underground liquid (oceans) are considered possible.Sony VAIO VPCCW28FJ/R Battery

Life there may have evolved in a way similar to biological communities surrounding deep sea vents.

  • Mars — Life on Mars has been long speculated. Liquid water is widely thought to have existed on Mars in the past, and there may still be liquid water beneath the surface.Sony VAIO VPCCW28FJ/W Battery
  • Methane was found in the atmosphere of Mars and work is underway to discern its biological or abiotic origin. By July 2008, laboratory tests aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander had identified water in a soil sample. The lander's robotic arm delivered the sample to an instrument which identifies vapors produced by the heating of samples.Sony VAIO VPCCW29FJ/W Battery
  • Recent photographs from the Mars Global Surveyor show evidence of recent (i.e. within 10 years) flows of a liquid on the Red Planet's frigid surface.
  • Venus — Recently, scientists have speculated on the existence of microbes in the stable cloud layers 50 km above the surface, evidenced by hospitable climates and chemical disequilibrium.Sony VAIO VPCCW2AFJ Battery
  • Jupiter — Carl Sagan and others in the 1960s and 70s computed conditions for hypothetical amino acid-based macroscopic life in the atmosphere of Jupiter, based on observed conditions of this atmosphere. However, the conditions do not appear to permit the type of encapsulation believed necessary for molecular biochemistry, so life is thought to be unlikely.Sony VAIO VPCCW2AHJ Battery
  • Ganymede (Largest moon of Jupiter) — Possible underground ocean (see Europa).
  • Callisto (Moon of Jupiter) — Possible underground ocean (see Europa).Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E Battery
  • Europa (Moon of Jupiter) — Europa may contain liquid water beneath its thick ice layer. It is possible that vents on the bottom of the ocean warm the ice, so liquid could exist beneath the ice layer, perhaps capable of supporting microbes and simple plants, just like in Earth's hydrothermal vents.Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/B Battery
  • Titan (Largest moon of Saturn) — The only known moon with a significant atmosphere. Data from the Cassini-Huygens mission refuted the hypothesis of a global hydrocarbon ocean, but later demonstrated the existence of liquid hydrocarbon lakes in the polar regions—the first liquid lakes discovered outside of Earth.Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/L Battery
  • Analysis of data from the mission has uncovered aspects of atmospheric chemistry near the surface which are consistent with —but do not prove— the hypothesis that organisms there are consuming hydrogen, acetylene and ethane, and producing methane.Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/P Battery
  • Enceladus (Moon of Saturn) — Geothermal activity, water vapor. Possible under-ice oceans heated by tidal effects.

Numerous other bodies have been suggested as potential hosts for microbial life. Fred Hoyle has proposed that life might exist on comets,Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/R Battery

as some Earth microbes managed to survive on a lunar probe for many years (later considered doubtful as sterile procedures may not have been fully followed). However, it is considered highly unlikely that complex multicellular organisms of the conventional chemistry of terrestrial life (i.e. animals and plants) could exist under these living conditions.Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/W Battery

Even if microbial extraterrestrial life were found on another body in the Solar System, it would still need to be proven that such life did not originate from Earth in the recent or distant past. For example, an alternate explanation for the hypothetical existence of microbial life on Titan has already been formally proposedSony VAIO VPCCW2S5C CN1 Battery

—theorizing that microorganisms could have left Earth when it suffered a massive asteroid or comet impact (such as the impact that created Chicxulub crater only 65 mya), and survived a journey through space to land on Titan 1 million years later.Sony VAIO VPCEA20 Battery

The Living Interplanetary Flight Experiment, developed by the Planetary Society and due to be launched in 2011, has been designed to test similar theories.

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