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were 3,120 tobacco product manufacturing facilities in all of India.[50] Around 0.25% of India’s cultivated land is used for tobacco production.[51]  TOSHIBA Satellite P305-S89041 laptop keyboard

Since 1947, the Indian Government has supported growth in the tobacco industry. India has seven tobacco research centers, located in Madras (now known asChennai, Tamil Nadu), Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, Bihar, Mysore, West Bengal, and Rajamundry.[49] Rajahmundry houses the core research institute. The government has set up a Central Tobacco Promotion Council, which works to increase exports of Indian tobacco. TOSHIBA Satellite L755D-SP5165RM Laptop Keyboard

The Indian Government and several states have taken multiple measures to reduce Cigarette smoking. Smoking in public places is banned in many states, it is not allowed to be portrayed in movies, and warnings are posted on cigarette packs. SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Laptop Keyboard

Tobacco in the Philippines remained highly concentrated in 2009 and dominated by cigarette manufacturers Fortune Tobacco Corporation and Philip Morris International. The strength of these companies is due to their extensive distribution networks which encompass both traditional and non-traditional retail channels as well as their ability to offer their products at affordable prices. HP 405963-001 Laptop Keyboard

Top player Fortune Tobacco Corp maintained its leadership position throughout the review period as mass market cigarette smokers continued to purchase its economy cigarette brands, particularly leading brand Fortune International.[52]  SONY Vaio PCG-K315S Laptop Keyboard

Cigarette prices in the Philippines are low, with the price of Marlboro (cigarette) being the second lowest for all ASEAN nations. The cigarette market has been dominated by menthol brands for several decades, although non-menthol volume has been steadily improving in recent years. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

La Suerte Cigar and Cigarette Company and the Fortune TobaccoCorporation (FTC) have been the two leading producers, and have had licensing agreements with PMI and RJ Reynolds (RJR) respectively. FTC commands a 67% market share, while La Suerte holds a 25% share. HP Pavilion dv4-1241tx Laptop Keyboard

industry houses some of these working children. There is widespread use of children on farms in Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malawi and Zimbabwe.[54] While some of these children work with their families on small family-owned farms, others work on large plantations. SAMSUNG R522 Laptop Keyboard

The organization interviewed 44 teens, who worked full-time on farms during the 2007-2008 growing season. The child-laborers complained of low pay, long hours as well as physical and sexual abuse by their supervisors.[55] They also reported suffering from “green tobacco sickness,” a form of nicotine poisoning. When wet leaves are handled,  HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard

nicotine from the leaves gets absorbed in the skin and causes nausea, vomiting and dizziness. Children were exposed to 50 cigarettes worth of nicotine through direct contact with tobacco leaves. This level of nicotine in children can permanently alter brain structure and function.[53]

Tobacco production requires the use of a large amount of pesticides. COMPAQ Presario CQ40-117TU Laptop Keyboard

Tobacco companies recommend up to 16 separate applications of pesticides just in the period between planting the seeds in greenhouses and transplanting the young plants to the field.[59] Pesticide use has been worsened by the desire to produce larger crops in less time because of the decreasing market value of tobacco. HP Probook 4515S Laptop Keyboard

Pesticides often harm tobacco farmers because they are unaware of the health effects and the proper safety protocol for working with pesticides. These pesticides, as well as fertilizers, end up in the soil, waterways, and the food chain.[60] Coupled with child labor, pesticides pose an even greater threat. Early exposure to pesticides may increase a child's lifelong cancer risk as well as harm his or her nervous and immune systems.[61] COMPAQ Presario CQ40-132TU Laptop Keyboard

Tobacco is a crop that extracts nutrients, such as phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium, from the soil more quickly than any other major crop.[62] This leads to dependence on fertilizers.

Furthermore, the wood used to cure tobacco in some places leads to deforestation. While some big tobacco producers such as China and the United States have access to petroleum, coal and natural gas, HP Pavilion dv3-2106tu Laptop Keyboard

which can be used as alternatives to wood, most developing countries still rely on wood in the curing process.[62]Brazil alone uses the wood of 60 million trees per year for curing, packaging and rolling cigarettes.[59] SONY VGN-FE550G Laptop Keyboard

In botany, a fruit is a part of a flowering plant that derives from specific tissues of the flower, one or more ovaries, and in some cases accessory tissues. Fruits are the means by which these plants disseminate seeds. Many of them that bear edible fruits, in particular, have propagated with the movements of humans and animals in a symbiotic relationship as a means forseed dispersal and nutrition, respectively; ACER Aspire 5810T-8929 Laptop Keyboard

in fact, humans and many animals have become dependent on fruits as a source of food.[1] Fruits account for a substantial fraction of the world's agricultural output, and some (such as the apple and thepomegranate) have acquired extensive cultural and symbolic meanings. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

In common language usage, "fruit" normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of a plant that are sweet or sour and edible in the raw state, such as apples, oranges, grapes, strawberries, bananas, and lemons. On the other hand, the botanical sense of "fruit" includes many structures that are not commonly called "fruits", such as bean pods, corn kernels, wheatgrains, and tomatoes.[2][3]  HP Pavilion dv3-2106tu Laptop Keyboard

In the culinary sense of these words, a fruit is usually any sweet-tasting plant product, especially those associated with seeds; a vegetable is any savoury or less sweet plant product; and a nut is any hard, oily, and shelled plant product.[5] Lenovo 3000 Y500 Laptop Keyboard

These culinary vegetables that are botanically fruit include cucurbits (e.g., squash, pumpkin, and cucumber), tomatoes, peas,beans, corn, eggplant, and sweet pepper. In addition, some spices, such as allspice and chilies, are fruits, botanically speaking.[6] In contrast, rhubarb is often referred to as a fruit, because it is used to make sweet desserts such as pies, though only the petiole (leaf stalk) of the rhubarb plant is edible.[7] Edible gymnosperm seeds are often given fruit names, e.g., pine nuts, ginkgo nuts. DELL AEVM8U00210 Keyboard

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Botanically, a cereal grain, such as corn, wheat or rice, is also a kind of fruit, termed a caryopsis. However, the fruit wall is very thin, and is fused to the seed coat, so almost all of the edible grain is actually a seed.[8] DELL E141395 Keyboard

Many common terms for seeds and fruit do not correspond to the botanical classifications. In botany, seeds are ripened ovules; fruits are the ripened ovaries or carpels that contain the seeds and a nut is a type of fruit and not a seed.[6] DELL F484C Keyboard

Inside the ovary/ovaries are one or more ovules where the megagametophyte contains the egg cell.[10] After double fertilization, these ovules will become seeds. The ovules are fertilized in a process that starts withpollination, which involves the movement of pollen from the stamens to the stigma of flowers. After pollination, a tube grows from the pollen through the stigma into the ovary to the ovule and two sperm are transferred from the pollen to the megagametophyte. SONY VAIO VPCF126FM Laptop Keyboard

Within the megagametophyte one of the two sperm unites with the egg, forming azygote, and the second sperm enters the central cell forming the endosperm mother cell, which completes the double fertilization process.[11][12] Later the zygote will give rise to the embryo of the seed, and the endosperm mother cell will give rise to endosperm, a nutritive tissue used by the embryo. HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard

As the ovules develop into seeds, the ovary begins to ripen and the ovary wall, the pericarp, may become fleshy (as in berries or drupes), or form a hard outer covering (as in nuts). In some multiseeded fruits, the extent to which the flesh develops is proportional to the number of fertilized ovules.[13] The pericarp is often differentiated into two or three distinct layers called the exocarp (outer layer, also called epicarp), DELL Precision M4500 Laptop Keyboard

mesocarp (middle layer), and endocarp (inner layer). In some fruits, especially simple fruits derived from an inferior ovary, other parts of the flower (such as the floral tube, including the petals, sepals, and stamens), fuse with the ovary and ripen with it. In other cases, the sepals, petals and/or stamens and style of the flower fall off. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard

When such other floral parts are a significant part of the fruit, it is called anaccessory fruit. Since other parts of the flower may contribute to the structure of the fruit, it is important to study flower structure to understand how a particular fruit forms.[3] HP Envy 15-1100 Series Laptop Keyboard

There are three general modes of fruit development:

Plant scientists have grouped fruits into three main groups, simple fruits, aggregate fruits, and composite or multiple fruits.[14] The groupings are not evolutionarily relevant, since many diverse plant taxa may be in the same group, but reflect how the flower organs are arranged and how the fruits develop.

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each pistil contains one carpel. Each pistil forms a fruitlet, and collectively the fruitlets are called an etaerio. Four types of aggregate fruits include etaerios of achenes, follicles, drupelets, and berries. Ranunculaceae species, including Clematis and Ranunculus have an etaerio of achenes, Calotropis has an etaerio of follicles, and Rubus species like raspberry, have an etaerio of drupelets. Annona have Etaerio of berries.[18][dead link][19][dead link] HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard

The raspberry, whose pistils are termed drupelets because each is like a small drupe attached to the receptacle. In somebramble fruits (such as blackberry) the receptacle is elongated and part of the ripe fruit, making the blackberry anaggregate-accessory fruit.[20] The strawberry is also an aggregate-accessory fruit, only one in which the seeds are contained in achenes.[21] In all these examples, the fruit develops from a single flower with numerous pistils. HP AEUT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard

Seedlessness is an important feature of some fruits of commerce. Commercial cultivars of bananas and pineapples are examples of seedless fruits. Some cultivars of citrus fruits (especially navel oranges), satsumas, mandarin oranges, table grapes,grapefruit, and watermelons are valued for their seedlessness. In some species, seedlessness is the result of parthenocarpy, where fruits set without fertilization. HP Pavilion dv6-3110se Laptop Keyboard

 Parthenocarpic fruit set may or may not require pollination but most seedless citrus fruits require stimulus from pollination to produce fruit.

Seedless bananas and grapes are triploids, and seedlessness results from the abortion of the embryonic plant that is produced by fertilization, a phenomenon known as stenospermocarpy which requires normal pollination and fertilization.[23] HP AECT1TPU112CT1A Keyboard

Some fruits have coats covered with spikes or hooked burrs, either to prevent themselves from being eaten by animals or to stick to the hairs, feathers or legs of animals, using them as dispersal agents. Examples include cocklebur and unicorn plant.[25][26]

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Likewise, the nutritious, oily kernels of nuts are appealing to rodents (such as squirrels) who hoard them in the soil in order to avoid starving during the winter, thus giving those seeds that remain uneaten the chance to germinate and grow into a new plant away from their parent.[6]

Other fruits are elongated and flattened out naturally and so become thin, HP AEDB3STU012 Keyboard

like wings or helicopter blades, e.g. maple,tuliptree and elm. This is an evolutionary mechanism to increase dispersal distance away from the parent via wind. Other wind-dispersed fruit have tiny parachutes, e.g. dandelion and salsify.[24] ACER Aspire 5235 keyboard

Coconut fruits can float thousands of miles in the ocean to spread seeds. Some other fruits that can disperse via water arenipa palm and screw pine.[24]

Some fruits fling seeds substantial distances (up to 100 m in sandbox tree) via explosive dehiscence or other mechanisms, e.g. impatiens and squirting cucumber.[27] ACER Aspire 5710 keyboard

Fruits are generally high in fiber, water, vitamin C and sugars, although this latter varies widely from traces as in lime, to 61% of the fresh weight of the date.[31] Fruits also contain various phytochemicals that do not yet have an RDA/RDI listing under most nutritional factsheets, and which research indicates are required for proper long-term cellular health and disease prevention. ACER Aspire 7520 keyboard

Regular consumption of fruit is associated with reduced risks of cancer, cardiovascular disease (especially coronary heart disease), stroke, Alzheimer disease, cataracts, and some of the functional declines associated with aging.[32] ACER Aspire 5930 keyboard

Diets that include a sufficient amount of potassium from fruits and vegetables also help reduce the chance of developing kidney stones and may help reduce the effects of bone-loss. Fruits are also low in calories which would help lower one's calorie intake as part of a weight-loss diet.[33]

Because fruits have been such a major part of the human diet, ACER Aspire 5235 keyboard

different cultures have developed many different uses for various fruits that they do not depend on as being edible. Many dry fruits are used as decorations or in dried flower arrangements, such as unicorn plant, lotus, wheat, annual honesty and milkweed. Ornamental trees and shrubs are often cultivated for their colorful fruits, including holly, pyracantha, viburnum, skimmia, beautyberry and cotoneaster.[34] DELL Inspiron 6400 keyboard

Fruits of opium poppy are the source of opium which contains the drugs morphine and codeine, as well as the biologically inactive chemical theabaine from which the drug oxycodone is synthesized.[35] Osage orange fruits are used to repelcockroaches.[36] Bayberry fruits provide a wax often used to make candles.[37] Many fruits provide natural dyes, e.g. walnut,sumac, cherry and mulberry.[38] Dried gourds are used as decorations, water jugs, DELL Inspiron 8500 keyboard

 bird houses, musical instruments, cups and dishes. Pumpkins are carved into Jack-o'-lanterns for Halloween. The spiny fruit of burdock or cocklebur were the inspiration for the invention of Velcro.[39] DELL Latitude D830 keyboard

Coir is a fibre from the fruit of coconut that is used for doormats, brushes, mattresses, floortiles, sacking, insulation and as a growing medium for container plants. The shell of the coconut fruit is used to make souvenir heads, cups, bowls, musical instruments and bird houses.[40]

Fruit is often used as a subject of still life paintings. Toshiba Satellite P300 keyboard

For food safety, the CDC recommends proper fruit handling and preparation to reduce the risk offood contamination and foodborne illness. Fresh fruits and vegetables should be carefully selected. At the store, they should not be damaged or bruised and pre-cut pieces should be refrigerated or surrounded by ice. All fruits and vegetables should be rinsed before eating. This recommendation also applies to produce with rinds or skins that are not eaten. Toshiba Satellite A300 keyboard

 It should be done just before preparing or eating to avoid premature spoilage. Fruits and vegetables should be kept separate from raw foods like meat, poultry, and seafood, as well as utensils that have come in contact with raw foods. HP AE0P7U00010 Keyboard

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Fruits and vegetables, if they are not going to be cooked, should be thrown away if they have touched raw meat, poultry, seafood or eggs. All cut, peeled, or cooked fruits and vegetables should be refrigerated within two hours. After a certain time, harmful bacteria may grow on them and increase the risk of foodborne illness.[41] HP AEAT8TPU017 Keyboard

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