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Track and field Track and field events are divided into three broad categories: track events, field events, and combined events. The majority of athletes tend to specialise in just one event (or event type) with the aim of perfecting their performances, although the aim of combined events athletes is to become proficient in a number of disciplines. SONY 147996611 Laptop Keyboard Track events involve running on a track over a specified distances and—in the case of the hurdling and steeplechase events—obstacles may be placed on the track. There are also relay races in which teams of athletes run and pass on a baton to their team member at the end of a certain distance. DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard There are two types of field events: jumps, and throws. In jumping competitions, athletes are judged on either the length or height of their jumps. The performances of jumping events for distance are measured from a board or marker, and any athlete overstepping this mark is judged to have fouled. In the jumps for height, an athlete must clear his or her body over a crossbar without knocking the bar off the supporting standards. The majority of jumping events are unaided, although athletes propel themselves vertically with purpose-built sticks in the pole vault. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard The throwing events involve hurling an implement (such as a heavy weight, javelin or discus) from a set point, with athletes being judged on the distance that the object is thrown. Combined events involve the same group of athletes contesting a number of different track and field events. Points are given for their performance in each event and the athlete with the greatest points total at the end of all events is the winner. SONY VAIO VGN NR385E/T Laptop Keyboard Races over short distances, or sprints, are among the oldest running competitions. The first 13 editions of the Ancient Olympic Games featured only one event, the stadion race, which was literally a race from one end of the stadium to the other.[1] Sprinting events are focused around athletes reaching and sustaining their quickest possible running speed. HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard Three sprinting events are currently held at the Olympics and outdoor World Championships: the 100 metres, 200 metres, and 400 metres. These events have their roots in races of imperial measurements that later changed to metric: the 100 m evolved from the 100 yard dash,[14] the 200 m distances came from the furlong (or 1/8 of a mile),[15] and the 400 m was the successor to the 440 yard dash or quarter-mile race.[16] SONY Vaio PCG-K215S Laptop Keyboard At the professional level, sprinters begin the race by assuming a crouching position in the starting blocks before leaning forward and gradually moving into an upright position as the race progresses and momentum is gained.[17] Athletes remain in the same lane on the running track throughout all sprinting events,[16ACER Aspire One 751h-1153 Laptop Keyboard ] with the sole exception of the 400 m indoors. Races up to 100 m are largely focused upon acceleration to an athlete's maximum speed.[17] All sprints beyond this distance increasingly incorporate an element of endurance.[18] Human physiology dictates that a runner's near-top speed cannot be maintained for more than thirty seconds or so because lactic acid builds up once leg muscles begin suffer oxygen deprivation.[16]TOSHIBA NB200 Laptop Keyboard  HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard The 60 metres is a common indoor event and indoor world championship event. Less-common events include the 50 metres, 55 metres, 300 metres and 500 metres which are run in some high school and collegiate competitions in the United States. The 150 metres, though rarely competed, has a star-studded history: Pietro Menneaset a world best in 1983,[19] Olympic champions Michael Johnson and Donovan Bailey went head-to-head over the distance in 1997,[20] and Usain Bolt improved Mennea's record in 2009.[19]SONY VGN-FE11H Laptop Keyboard The most common middle distance track events are the 800 metres, 1500 metres and mile run, although the 3000 metres may also be classified as a middle distance event.[21] The 880 yard run, or half mile, was the forebear of the 800 m distance and it has its roots in competitions in the United Kingdom in the 1830s.[22] The 1500 m came about as a result of running three laps of a 500 m track, which was commonplace in continental Europe in the 20th century.[23]Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard Runners start the race from a standing position along a curved starting line and after hearing the starter's pistol they head towards the innermost track to follow the quickest route to the finish. In 800 m races athletes begin at a staggered starting point before the turn in the track and they must remain in their lanes for the first 100 m of the race.[24HP Pavilion dv6-3010us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan ] This rule was introduced to reduce the amount of physical jostling between runners in the early stages of the race.[22] In the 800 m race, runners have the option of starting in blocks; doing so may reduce time spent accelerating off the starting line. Physiologically, these middle distance events demand that athletes have good aerobic and anaerobic energy producing systems, and also that they have strong speed endurance.[25]SONY Vaio VPC-EB2TGX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The 1500 m and mile run events have historically been some of the most prestigious track and field events. Swedish rivalsGunder Hägg and Arne Andersson broke each other's 1500 m and mile world records on a number of occasions in the 1940s.[26][27]The prominence of the distances were maintained by Roger Bannister, HP Pavilion dv9702ea Laptop CPU Cooling Fan who (in 1954) was the first to run the long-elusive four-minute mile,[28][29] and Jim Ryun's exploits served to popularise interval training.[23] Races between British rivals Sebastian Coe, Steve Ovett and Steve Cram characterised middle distance running in 1980s.[30] From the 1990s onwards, North Africans such as Noureddine Morceli of Algeria and Hicham El Guerrouj of Morocco came to dominate the 1500 and mile events.[23]HP Pavilion dv7-4294nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Beyond the short distances of sprinting events, factors such as an athlete's reactions and top speed becomes less important, while qualities such as pace, race tactics and endurance become more so.[22][23]Dell Studio XPS 1645 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan There are three common long distance running events in track and field competitions: 3000 metres, 5000 metres and 10,000 metres. The latter two races are both Olympic and World Championship events outdoors,  HP Pavilion dv7-6153nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan while the 3000 m is held at the IAAF World Indoor Championships. The 5000 m and 10,000 m events have their historical roots in the 3-mile and 6-mile races. The 3000 m was historically used as a women's long distance event, entering the World Championship programme in 1983 and Olympic programme in 1984, but this was abandoned in favour of a women's 5000 m event in 1995.[31]SONY VAIO VGN-FS515E Laptop Keyboard In terms of competition rules and physical demands, long distance track races have much in common with middle distance races, except that pacing, stamina, and race tactics become much greater factors in performances.[32][33] However, a number of athletes have achieved success in both middle and long distance events, including Saïd Aouita who set world records from 1500 m to 5000 m.[34] The use of pace-setters in long distance events is very common at the elite level, although they are not present at championship level competitions as all qualified competitors want to win.[33][35] Packard Bell EasyNote TJ71 Laptop Keyboard The long distance track events gained popularity in the 1920s by the achievements of the "Flying Finns", such as multiple Olympic champion Paavo Nurmi. The successes of Emil Zátopek in the 1950s promoted intense interval training methods, but Ron Clarke's world record-breaking feats established the importance of natural training and even-paced running. The 1990s saw the rise of North and East African runners in long distance events. Kenyan and Ethiopian athletes, in particular, have since remained dominant in these events.[31]Packard Bell Easynote TK87 Laptop Keyboard Relay races are the only track and field event in which a team of runners directly compete against other teams.[36] Typically, a team is made up of four runners of the same sex. Each runner completes their specified distance (referred to as a leg) before handing over a baton to a team mate, who then begins their leg upon receiving the baton. TOSHIBA Satellite U300-ST3094 Laptop Keyboard There is usually a designated area where athletes must exchange the baton. Teams may be disqualified if they fail to complete the change within the area, or if the baton is dropped during the race. A team may also be disqualified if its runners are deemed to have wilfully impeded other competitors.  ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Races with hurdles as obstacles were first popularised in the 19th century in England.[42] The first known event, held in 1830, was a variation of the 100-yard dash that included heavy wooden barriers as obstacles. A competition between the Oxford and Cambridge Athletic Clubs in 1864 refined this, holding a 120-yard race (109.72 m) TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7132 Laptop Keyboard with ten hurdles of 3-foot and 6 inches (1.06 m) in height (each placed 10 yards (9.14 m) apart), with the first and final hurdles 15 yards from the start and finish, respectively. French organisers adapted the race into metric (adding 28 cm) and the basics of this race, the men's110 metres hurdles, has remained largely unchanged.[43] TOSHIBA NSK-T4701 Laptop Keyboard The origin of the 400 metres hurdles also lies in Oxford, where (around 1860) a competition was held over 440 yards and twelve 1.06 m high wooden barriers were placed along the course. The modern regulations stem from the 1900 Summer Olympics: TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard the distance was fixed to 400 m while ten 3-foot (91.44 cm) hurdles were placed 35 m apart on the track, with the first and final hurdles being 45 m and 40 m away from the start and finish, respectively.[44] Women's hurdles are slightly lower at 84 cm for the 100 m event and 76 cm (2 ft 6in) for the 400 m event.[43][44] FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard By far the most common events are the 100 metres hurdles for women, 110 m hurdles for men and 400 m hurdles for both sexes. The men's 110 m has been featured at every modern Summer Olympics while the men's 400 m was introduced in the second edition of the Games.[43][44] Women's initially competed in the 80 metres hurdlesevent,  TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7330 Laptop Keyboard which entered the Olympic programme in 1932. This was extended to the 100 m hurdles at the 1972 Olympics,[43] but it was not until 1984 that a women's 400 m hurdles event took place at the Olympics (having been introduced at the 1983 World Championships in Athletics the previous year).[44] Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Relay races emerged in the United States in the 1880s as a variation on charity races between firemen, who would hand a redpennant on to team mates every 300 yards. There are two very common relay events: the 4×100 metres relay and the 4×400 metres relay. Both events entered the Olympic programme at the 1912 Summer Games after a one-off men's medley relay featured in 1908 Olympics.[37] The 4×100 m event is run strictly within the same lane on the track, DELL 0PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard meaning that the team collectively runs one complete circuit of the track. Teams in a 4×400 m event remain in their own lane until the runner of the second leg passes the first bend, at which point runners can leave their lanes and head towards the inner-most part of the circuit. For the second and third baton change overs, team mates must align themselves in respect of their team position – leading teams take the inner lanes while team mates of the slower teams must await the baton on outer lanes.[36][38]  HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard The IAAF keeps world records for five different types of track relays. As with 4×100 m and 4×400 m events, all races comprise teams of four athletes running the same distances, with the less commonly contested distances being the 4×200 m,4×800 m and 4×1500 m relays.[39] Other events include the distance medley relay (comprising legs of 1200 m, 400 m, 800 m, and 1600 m), TOSHIBA Qosmio F45-AV411 Laptop Keyboard which is frequently held in the United States, and a sprint relay, known as the Swedish medley relay, which is popular in Scandinavia and held at the World Youth Championships in Athletics programme.[40] Relay events have significant participation in the United States, where a number of large meetings (or relay carnivals) are focused almost exclusively on relay events.[41]Toshiba Satellite L500-1DT Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Outside of the hurdles events, the steeplechase race is the other track and field event with obstacles. Just as the hurdling events, the steeplechase finds its origin in student competition in Oxford, England. However, this event was born as a human variation on the original steeplechase competition found in horse racing. ACER Aspire 4738Z Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan A steeplechase event was held on a track for the 1879 English championships and the 1900 Summer Olympics featured men's 2500 m and 4000 m steeplechase races. The event was held over various distances until the 1920 Summer Olympics marked the rise of the 3000 metres steeplechase as the standard event.[45]  HP Pavilion dv6-4024tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The IAAF set the standards of the event in 1954, and the event is held on a 400 m circuit that includes a water jump on each lap.[46] Despite the long history of men's steeplechase in track and field, the women's steeplechase only gained World Championship status in 2005, with its first Olympic appearance coming in 2008. HP Pavilion dv7-1110eo Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The long jump is one of the oldest track and field events, having its roots as one of the events within the ancient Greek pentathlon contest. The athletes would take a short run up and jump into an area of dug up earth, with the winner being the one who jumped furthest.[47] Small weights (Halteres) were held in each hand during the jump then swung back and dropped near the end to gain extra momentum and distance.[48] ASUS G50 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The modern long jump, standardised in England and the United States around 1860, bears resemblance to the ancient event although no weights are used. Athletes sprint along a length of track that leads to a jumping board and a sandpit.[49] The athletes must jump before a marked line and their achieved distance is measured from the nearest point of sand disturbed by the athlete's body.[50]HP MCF-811AM05 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The athletics competition at the first Olympics featured a men's long jump competition and a women's competition was introduced at the 1948 Summer Olympics.[49] Professional long jumpers typically have strong acceleration and sprinting abilities. Toshiba Satellite A205-S4777 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan However, athletes must also have a consistent stride to allow them to take off near the board while still maintaining their maximum speed.[50][51] In addition to the traditional long jump, a standing long jump contest exists requires that athletes leap from a static position without a run-up. A men's version of this event featured on the Olympic programme from 1900 to 1912.[52]Toshiba MCF-TS5512M05 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Similar to the long jump, the triple jump takes place on a track heading towards a sandpit. Originally, athletes would hop on the same leg twice before jumping into the pit, but this was changed to the current "hop, step and jump" pattern from 1900 onwards.[53] There is some dispute over whether the triple jump was contested in ancient Greece: ACER Aspire 4740G Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan while some historians claim that a contest of three jumps occurred at Ancient Games,[53] others such as Stephen G. Miller believe this is incorrect, suggesting that the belief stems from a mythologised account of Phayllus of Croton having jumped 55 ancient feet (around 16.3 m).[48][54] TheBook of Leinster, a 12th century Irish manuscript, records the existence of geal-ruith (triple jump) contests at the ancient Tailteann Games.[55] SONY Vaio VGN-NR498E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan 1865 the basic rules of the modern event were standardised there.[58] Athletes have a short run up and then take off from one foot to jump over a horizontal bar and fall back onto a cushioned landing area.[59] The men's high jump was included in the 1896 Olympics and a women's competition soon followed in 1928.  SONY VAIO VGN-FS515E Laptop Keyboard Jumping technique has played a significant part in the history of the event. High jumpers typically cleared the bar feet first in the late 19th century, using either the Scissors, Eastern cut-off or Western roll technique. The straddle technique became prominent in the mid-20th century, but Dick Fosbury overturned tradition by pioneering a backwards and head-first technique in the late 1960s – the Fosbury Flop – which won him the gold at the 1968 Olympics. Packard Bell EasyNote TJ71 Laptop Keyboard This technique has become the overwhelming standard for the sport from the 1980s onwards.[58][60] The standing high jump was contested at the Olympics from 1900 to 1912, but is now relatively uncommon outside of its use as an exercise drill. DELL Latitude E5500 Laptop Keyboard In terms of sport, the use of poles for vaulting distances was recorded in Fierljeppen contests in the Frisian area of Europe, and vaulting for height was seen at gymnastics competitions in Germany in the 1770s.[61] One of the earliest recorded pole vault competitions was in Cumbria, England in 1843.[62] SONY VGN-FE550G Laptop Keyboard The basic rules and technique of the event originated in the United States. The rules required that athletes do not move their hands along the pole and athletes began clearing the bar with their feet first and twisting so that the stomach faces the bar. Bamboo poles were introduced in the 20th century and a metal box in the runway for planting the pole became standard. Landing matresses were introduced in the mid-20th century to protect the athletes who were clearing increasingly greater heights.[61]DELL 1R28D Laptop Keyboard The modern event sees athletes run down a strip of track, plant the pole in the metal box, and vault over the horizontal bar before letting go of the pole and falling backwards onto the landing matress.[63] While earlier versions used wooden, metal or bamboo, modern poles are generally made from artificial materials such as fibreglass or carbon fibre.[64] TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5102CL Laptop Keyboard The pole vault has been an Olympic event since 1896 for men, but it was over 100 years later that the first women's world championship competition was held at the 1997 IAAF World Indoor Championships. The first women's Olympic pole vaulting competition occurred in 2000.[61]SAMSUNG X15 Laptop Keyboard The genesis of the shot put can be traced to pre-historic competitions with rocks:[65] in the middle ages the stone put was known in Scotland and the steinstossen was recorded in Switzerland. In the 17th century, cannonball throwing competitions within the English military provided a precursor to the modern sport.[66][67] The modern rules were first laid out in 1860 and required that competitors take legal throws within a square throwing area of seven feet (2.13 m) on each side. SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Laptop Keyboard This was amended to a circle area with a seven foot diameter in 1906, and the weight of the shot was standardised to 16 pounds (7.26 kg). Throwing technique was also refined over this period, with bent arm throws being banned as they were deemed too dangerous and the side-step and throw technique arising in the United States in 1876.[66] Shot Putters are generally the largest and most explosive athletes on a team.[citation needed]SONY VAIO VGN-CS110D/Q Laptop Keyboard The shot put has been an Olympic sport for men since 1896 and a women's competition using a 4 kg (8.82 lb) shot was added in 1948. Further throwing techniques have arisen since the post-war era: in the 1950s Parry O'Brien popularised the 180 degree turn and throw technique commonly known as the "glide," breaking the world record 17 times along the way, while Aleksandr Baryshnikov and Brian Oldfield introduced the "spin" or rotational technique in 1976.[66][68]DELL Latitude D820 Laptop Keyboard As one of the events within the ancient pentathlon, the history of the discus throw dates back to 708 BC.[69] In ancient times a heavy circular disc was thrown from a set standing position on a small pedestal, and it was this style that was revived for the 1896 Olympics.[70] This continued until the 1906 Intercalated Games in Athens, which featured both the ancient style and the increasingly popular modern style of turning and throwing. By the 1912 Olympics, SONY VAIO VGN NR160E Laptop Keyboard the ancient standing throw style had fallen into disuse and contests starting within a 2.5 m squared throwing area became the standard.[71] The discus implement was standardised to 2 kg (4.4 pounds) in weight and 22 cm (8 inches) in diameter in 1907.[70] The women's discus was among the first women's events on the Olympic programme, being introduced in 1928.[72]FUJITSU Lifebook T4215 Laptop Keyboard As an implement of war and hunting, javelin throwing began in prehistoric times.[73] Along with the discus, the javelin was the second throwing event in the ancient Olympic pentathlon. Records from 708 BC show two javelin competition types co-existing: throwing at a target and throwing the javelin for distance. It was the latter type from which the modern event derives.[74] In ancient competitions, athletes would wrap an ankyle (thin leather strip) around the javelin that acted as a sling to facilitate extra distance.[75]HP Pavilion dv3-2312tx Laptop Keyboard The javelin throw gained much popularity in Scandinavia in the late 18th century and athletes from the region are still among the most dominant throwers in men's competitions.[74] The modern event features a short run up on a track and then the thrower releases the javelin before the foul line. LENOVO 25-008389 Laptop Keyboard The first Olympic men's javelin throw contest was held in 1908 and a women's competition was introduced in 1932.[76][77] The first javelins were made of various types of wood, but in the 1950s, former athlete Bud Held introduced a hollow javelin, then a metal javelin, both of which increased throwers performances.[74] Another former athlete, Miklós Németh invented the rough-tailed javelin and throws reached in excess of 100 m – edging towards the limits of stadia.[78] DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard The distances and the increasing number of horizontal landings led the IAAF to redesign the men's javelin to reduce distance and increase the implement's downward pitching moment to allow for easier measurement. Rough-tailed designs were banned in 1991 and all marks achieved with such javelins were removed from the record books. The women's javelin underwent a similar redesign in 1999.[74]The current javelin specifications are 2.6 to 2.7 m in length and 800 grams in weight for men, and between 2.2 to 2.3 m and 600 g for women.[79] HP 599572-001 Laptop Keyboard The earliest recorded precursors to the modern hammer throw stem from the Tailteann Games around 1800 BC, which featured events such as throwing either a weight attached to a rope, a large rock on a wooden handle, or even a chariot wheel on a wooden axle.[80] Other ancient competitions included throwing a cast iron ball attached to a wooden handle –HP Pavilion dv7-6099ee Laptop CPU Cooling Fan the root of the term "hammer throw" due to their resemblance to the tools.[81] In 16th century England, contests involving the throwing of actual blacksmith's Sledgehammers were recorded.[80] The hammer implement was standardised in 1887 and the competitions began to resemble the modern event. The weight of the metal ball was set at 16 pounds (7.26 kg) while the attached wire had to measure between 1.175 m and 1.215 m.[81] HP Pavilion dv7-6160sp Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The men's hammer throw became an Olympic event in 1900 but the women's event – using a 4 kg (8.82 lb) weight – was not widely competed until much later, finally featuring on the women's Olympic programme a century later.[82] The distance's thrown by male athletes became greater from the 1950s onwards as a result of improved equipment using the denser metals, a switch to concrete throwing areas, and more advanced training techniques.[83] SONY Vaio VGN-CR13G/B Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Professional hammer throwers as historically large, strong, sturdy athletes. However, qualities such as refined technique, speed and flexibility have become increasingly important in the modern era as the legal throwing area has been reduced from 90 to 34.92 degrees and throwing technique involves three to four controlled rotations.[81][84][85]ACER Aspire 4750 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Combined (or multi-discipline) events are competitions in which athletes participate in a number of track and field events, earning points for their performance in each event, which adds to a total points score. Outdoors, the most common combined events are the men's decathlon and the women's heptathlon. Due to stadium limitations, indoor combined events competition have a reduced number of events, resulting in the men's heptathlon and the women's pentathlon. Athletes arelocated points based on an international-standard points scoring system, such as the decathlon scoring table. HP G42-303DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Ancient Olympic pentathlon (comprising long jump, javelin, discus, the stadion race and wrestling) was a precursor to the track and field combined events and this ancient event was restored at the 1906 Summer Olympics (Intercalated Games). A men's decathlon was held at the 1904 Summer Olympics, albeit contested between five American and two British athletes.  IBM 91P9252 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The term track and field is intertwined with the stadiums that first hosted such competitions. The two basic features of a track and field stadium are the outer oval-shaped running track and an area of turf within this track—the field. In earlier competitions, track lengths varied: the Panathinaiko Stadium measured 333.33 Toshiba Satellite A205-S4587 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan metres at the 1896 Summer Olympics, while at the1904 Olympics the distance was a third of a mile (536.45 m) at Francis Field. As the sport developed, the IAAF standardised the length to 400 m and stated that the tracks must be split into six to eight running lanes. Precise widths for the lanes were established, as were regulations regarding the curvature of the track. Tracks made of flattened cinders were popular in the early 20th century but synthetic tracks became standard in the late 1960s. HP Pavilion dv5184ea Laptop CPU Cooling Fan 3M's Tartan track (an all-weather running track of polyurethane) gained popularity after its use at the 1968 US Olympic Trials and the 1968 Summer Olympics and it began the process in which synthetic tracks became the standard for the sport. Many track and field stadiums are multi-purpose stadiums, with the running track surrounding a field built for other sports, such as the various types of football. SONY UDQFRZH14CF0 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The field of the stadium combines a number of elements for use in the jumping and throwing events. The long jump and triple jump areas comprise a straight, narrow 40-metre running track with a sandpit at one or both ends. Jumps are measured from atake off board—typically a small strip of wood with a plasticine marker attached—Toshiba Satellite L305-S5917 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan which ensures athletes jump from behind the measurement line. The pole vault area is also a 40-metre running track and has an indentation in the ground (the box) where vaulters plant their poles to propel themselves over a crossbar before falling onto cushioned landing mats. The high jump is a stripped down version of this, with an open area of track or field that leads to a crossbar with a square area of landing mats behind it.  Compaq Presario C770BR Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The four throwing events generally all begin on one side of the stadium. The javelin throw typically takes place on a piece of track that is central and parallel to the straights of the main running track. The javelin throwing area is a sector shape frequently across the Pitch (sports field) in the middle of the stadium, ensuring that the javelin has a minimal chance of causing damage or injury. HP Pavilion dv6-2163tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The discus throw and hammer throw contests begin in a tall metal cage usually situated in one of the corners of the field. The cage reduces the danger of implements being thrown out of the field of play and throws travel diagonally across the field in the centre of the stadium. The shot put features a circular throwing area with a toe board at one end. The throwing area is a sector. Some stadia also have a water jump area on one side of the field specifically for steeplechase races. HP Pavilion G72 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Basic indoor venues may be adapted gymnasiums, which can easily accommodate high jump competitions and short track events. Full-size indoor arenas (i.e. those fully equipped to host all events for the World Indoor Championships) bear similarities with their outdoor equivalents. Typically, a central area is surrounded by a 200-metre oval track with four to eight lanes. Compaq Presario CQ40-105au Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The track can be banked at the turns to allow athletes to run around the radius more comfortably. There is also a second running track going straight across the field area, parallel to the straights of the main circuit. This track is used for the60 metres and 60 metres hurdles events, which are held almost exclusively indoors. SONY Vaio VGN-NW91VS Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Another common adaptation is a 160 yard track (11 laps to a mile) that fits into a common basketball court sized arena. This was quite popular when races were held at imperial distances, which gradually was phased out by different organizations in the 1970s and 1980s. Examples of this configuration include the Millrose Games at Madison Square Garden,[86] and the Sunkist Invitational formerly held in the Los Angeles Sports Arena.[87]Toshiba Satellite A215-S7416 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan All four of the common jumping events are held at indoor venues. The long and triple jump areas run alongside the central 60 m track and are mostly identical in form to their outdoor counterparts. The pole vault track and landing area are also alongside the central running track. Shot put (or weight throw) is the only throwing event held indoors due to size restrictions. The throwing area is similar to the outdoor event, but the landing sector is a rectangular section surrounded by netting or a stop barrier.[88]SONY Vaio PCG-K25 Laptop Keyboard The start of a race is marked by a white line 5 cm wide. In all races that are not run in lanes the start line must be curved, so that all the athletes start the same distance from the finish.[90] Starting blocks may be used for all races up to and including 400 m (including the first leg of the 4 x 100 m and 4 x 400 m) and may not be used for any other race. No part of the starting block may overlap the start line or extend into another lane.[91] TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard All races must be started by the report of the starter's gun or approved starting apparatus fired upwards after he or she has ascertained that athletes are steady and in the correct starting position.[92] An athlete may not touch either the start line or the ground in front of it with his or her hands or feet when on his or her marks.[93]  SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard At most international competitions the commands of the starter in his or her own language, in English or in French, shall, in races up to and including 400 m, be "On your marks" and "Set". When all athletes are "set", the gun must be fired, or an approved starting apparatus must be activated.[93] However, if the starter is not satisfied that all is ready to proceed, the athletes may be called out of the blocks and the process started over. HP 646568-001 Laptop Keyboard False start: An athlete, after assuming a final set position, may not commence his starting motion until after receiving the report of the gun, or approved starting apparatus. If, in the judgment of the starter or recallers, he does so any earlier, it is considered a false start. It is deemed a false start if, in the judgment of the starter an athlete fails to comply with the commands "on your marks" or "set" as appropriate after a reasonable time; TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard or an athlete after the command "on your marks" disturbs other athletes in the race through sound or otherwise. If the runner is in the "set" position and moves, then the runner is also disqualified.[94] As of 2010, any athlete making a false start is disqualified.[95] ACER Aspire 5610Z Laptop Keyboard In International elite competition, electronically tethered starting blocks sense the reaction time of the athletes. If the athlete reacts in less than 0.1 second, an alert sounds for a recall starter and the offending athlete is guilty of a false start.[92]HP Mini 110-3104sa Laptop Keyboard In all races run in lanes, each athlete must keep within his allocated lane from start to finish. This also applies to any portion of a race run in lanes. If an athlete leaves the track or steps on the line demarking the track, he/she should be disqualified.[96] Also, any athlete who jostles or obstructs another athlete, in a way that impedes his progress, should be disqualified from that event.[97] However, if an athlete is pushed or forced by another person to run outside his lane, and if no material advantage is gained, the athlete should not be disqualified. Toshiba Satellite A215-S5817 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan There are races that start in lanes and then at a "break" line, the competitors merge. Examples of this are the 800 metres, 4x400 relay and the indoor 400 metres. Variations on this, with alleys made up of multiple lanes on the track, are used to start large fields of distance runners. Compaq Presario CQ61-330EC Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The finish of a race is marked by a white line 5 cm wide.[98] The finishing position of athletes is determined by the order in which any part of their torso (as distinguished from the head, neck, arms, legs, hands or feet) reaches the vertical plane of the nearer edge of the finish line.[99] Fully automatic timingsystems (photo timing) are becoming more and more common at increasingly lower levels of track meets, improving the accuracy, HP Pavilion dv6-2023eg Laptop CPU Cooling Fan while eliminating the need for eagle-eyed officials on the finish line. Fully automatic timing (FAT) is required for high level meets and any time a (sprint) record is set (though distance records can be accepted if timed by three independent stopwatches).  HP Pavilion dv7-4011so Laptop CPU Cooling Fan With the accuracy of the timing systems, ties are rare. Ties between different athletes are resolved as follows: In determining whether there has been a tie in any round for a qualifying position for the next round based on time, a judge (called the chief photo finish judge) must consider the actual time recorded by the athletes to one thousandth of a second. If the judge decides that there has been a tie, the tying athletes must be placed in the next round or, HP Pavilion dv9920us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan if that is not practicable, lots must be drawn to determine who must be placed in the next round. In the case of a tie for first place in any final, the referee decides whether it is practicable to arrange for the athletes so tying to compete again. If he decides it is not, the result stands. Ties in other placings remain. HP Pavilion dv7-3164cl Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In general, most field events allow a competitor to take their attempt individually, under theoretically the same conditions as the other competitors in the competition. Each attempt is measured to determine who achieved the longest distance.  TOSHIBA V000120460 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Vertical jumps (High Jump and Pole Vault) set a bar at a particular height. The competitor must clear the bar without knocking it off the standards that are holding the bar (flat). Three failures in a row ends the competitor's participation in the event. The competitor has the option to PASS their attempt, SONY VAIO VGN-CR31S Laptop Keyboard which can be used to strategic advantage (of course that advantage is lost if the competitor misses). A pass could be used to save energy and avoid taking a jump that would not improve their position in the standings. After all competitors have either cleared, passed or failed their attempts at a height, the bar goes up. APPLE A1278 Laptop Keyboard The amount the bar goes up is predetermined before the competition, though when one competitor remains, that competitor may choose their own heights for the remaining attempts. A record is kept of each attempt by each competitor. After all competitors have taken their attempts, the one jumping the highest is the winner, and so on down the other competitors in the event. Ties are broken by first, the number of attempts taken at the highest height (fewest wins), SONY VAIO VPCF12AFM Laptop Keyboard and then if still tied, by the total number of misses in the competition as a whole. The bar does not go back to a lower height except to break a tie for first place or a qualifying position. If those critical positions are still tied after applying the tiebreakers, all tied competitors take a fourth jump at the last height. If they still miss, the bar goes down one increment where they again jump. This process continues until the tie is broken. ACER KB.T5007.007 Laptop Keyboard Horizontal jumps (Long Jump and Triple Jump) and all throws must be initiated behind a line. In the case of horizontal jumps, that line is a straight line perpendicular to the runway. In the case of throws, that line is an arc or a circle. Crossing the line while initiating the attempt invalidates the attempt—it becomes a foul. SONY VAIO VGN-FS115M Laptop Keyboard All landings must occur in a sector. For the jumps, that is a sand filled pit, for throws it is a defined sector. A throw landing on the line on the edge of sector is a foul (the inside edge of the line is the outside edge of the sector). Assuming a proper attempt, officials measure the distance from the closest landing point back to the line. DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard The measuring tape is carefully straightened to the shortest distance between the point and the line. To accomplish this, the tape must be perfectly perpendicular to the take off line in jumps, or is pulled through the center point of the arc for throws. The officials at the landing end of the tape have the zero, SONY VAIO VGN NR220ES Laptop Keyboard while the officials at the point of initiation measure and record the length. Whenever a record (or potential record) occurs, that measurement is taken (again) with a steel tape, and observed by at least three officials (plus usually the meet referee). Steel tapes are easily bent and damaged, so are not used to measure everyday competitions. For major competitions, each competitor gets three tries. The top competitors (usually 8 or 9 depending on that competition's rules or the number of lanes on the track) gets three more tries. HP G71-448CL Laptop Keyboard At that level of competition, the order of competitors for those final three attempts are set—so the competitor in first place at the end of the third round is last, while the last competitor to qualify goes first. Some meets rearrange the competition order again for the final round, so the final attempt is taken by the leader at that point. At other competitions, meet management may choose to limit all competitors to four or three attempts. Whatever the format, all competitors get an equal number of attempts. SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard The major global track and field competitions are both held under the scope of athletics. Track and field contests make up the majority of events on the Olympic and Paralympic athletics programmes, which occur every four years. Track and field events have held a prominent position at the Summer Olympics since its inception in 1896,[103] SONY Vaio PCG-K25 Laptop Keyboard and the events are typically held in the main stadium of the Olympic and Paralympic Games. Events such as the 100 metres receive some of the highest levels of media coverage of any Olympic or Paralympic sporting event. SONY 148096222 Laptop Keyboard The other two major international competition for track and field are organised by the IAAF. The IAAF had selected the Olympic competition as its world championship event in 1913, but a separate world championships for athletics alone was first held in 1983 – the IAAF World Championships in Athletics. ACER KB.I170A.083 Laptop Keyboard The championships comprised track and field competitions plus themarathon and racewalking competitions. Initially, this worked on a quadrennial basis but, after 1991, it changed to a biennial format. In terms of indoor track and field, the IAAF World Indoor Championships in Athletics has been held every two years since 1985 and this is the only world championships that consists of solely track and field events. ACER Aspire 3660 Laptop Keyboard Similar to the event programmes at the Olympics, Paralympics and World Championships, track and field forms a significant part of continental championships. The South American Championships in Athletics, created in 1919, was the first continental championships and the European Athletics Championships became the second championships of this type in 1934. The Asian Athletics Championships and African Championships in Athletics were created in the 1970s and Oceania started itschampionships in 1990. Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard There are also indoor continental competitions in Europe (European Athletics Indoor Championships) and Asia (Asian Indoor Athletics Championships). There has not been a consistent championships for all of North America, which may be (in part) due to the success of both the Central American and Caribbean Championships and the USA Outdoor Track and Field Championships. Most countries have a national championship in track and field and, for athletes, SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Laptop Keyboard these often play a role in gaining selection into major competitions. Some countries hold many track and field championships at high school and college-level, which help develop younger athletes. Some of these have gained significant exposure and prestige, such as the NCAA Track and Field Championship in the United States and the Jamaican High School Championships.[104] However, the number and status of such competitions significantly vary from country to country.  COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard Mirroring the role that track and field events have at the Summer Olympics and Paralympics, the sport is featured within the athletics programmes of many major multi-sport events. Among some of the first of these events to follow the Olympic-style model were the World University Games in 1923, the Commonwealth Games in 1930, and the Maccabiah Games in 1932.[105] The number of major multi-sport events greatly increased during the 20th century and thus did the number of track and field events held within them. Typically, track and field events are hosted at the main stadium of the games. TOSHIBA NSK-TAJ01 Laptop Keyboard After the Olympic and Paralympic Games, the most prominent events for track and field athletes include the three IOC-sanctioned continental games: the All-Africa Games, Asian Games, and the Pan American Games. Other games such as the Commonwealth Games and Summer Universiade, and World Masters Games have significant participation from track and field athletes. Track and field is also present at the national games level, with competitions such as the ACER Aspire 4510 Laptop Keyboard One-day track and field meetings form the most common and seasonal aspect of the sport – they are the most basic level of track and field competition. Meetings are generally organised annually either under the patronage of an educational institution or sports club, or by a group or business that serves as the meeting promoter. In the case of the former, athletes are selected to represent their club or institution. In the case of privately run or independent meetings, athletes participate on an invitation-only basis.[106]SONY VAIO PCG-FR215E Laptop Keyboard The IAAF ratifies track and field world records if they meet their set criteria. The IAAF first published a world records list in 1914, initially for men's events only. There were 53 recognised records in running, hurdling and relay, and 12 field records. World records in women's events began in 1936 as more events were gradually added to the listHP Mini 210-2010tu Laptop Keyboard but significant changes were made in the late 1970s. First, all records in imperial measurements were abandoned in 1976, with the sole exceptional being the mile run due to the prestige and history of the event. The following year, all world records in sprint events would only be recognised if fully automatic electronic timing was used (as opposed to the traditional hand-timingstopwatch method). In 1981, HP Pavilion DV6-1045ee Laptop Keyboard electronic timing was made compulsory for all world record runs in track and field, with times being recorded to within one hundredth of a second. Two additional types of world record were introduced in 1987: world records for indoor competitions, and world records for junior athletes under 20 years old.[111]SONY VAIO VGN-N31M/W Laptop Keyboard The next most important record type are those achieved at a specific competition. For example the Olympic records represent the best performances by athletes at the Summer Olympics. All major championships and games have their relevant competition records and a large number of track and field meetings keep a note of their meet records. SAMSUNG NP-N102-JA01DX Laptop Keyboard Other record types include: stadium records, records by age range, records by disability, and records by institution or organisation. Cash bonuses are usually offered to athletes if they break significant records, as doing so can generate greater interest and public attendance in track and field competitions. SONY VAIO VGN-FS215B Laptop Keyboard The most basic type of meetings are all-comers track meets, which are largely small, local, informal competitions that allow people of all ages and abilities to compete.[107]As meetings become more organized they can gain official sanctioning by the local or national association for the sport.[108]SONY VAIO VGN-NW235D Laptop Keyboard At the professional level, meetings began to offer significant financial incentives for all athletes in the 1990s in Europe with the creation of the "Golden Four" competition, comprising meetings in Zürich, Brussels, Berlin and Oslo. This expanded and received IAAF backing as the IAAF Golden League in 1998,[109]HP G56-115SA Laptop Keyboard which was later supplemented by the branding of selected meetings worldwide as the IAAF World Athletics Tour. In 2010, the Golden League idea was expanded globally as the IAAF Diamond League series and this now forms the top tier of professional one-day track and field meetings.[110]Packard Bell Easynote TM97 Laptop Keyboard Track and field athletes are banned from ingesting or using certain substances by governing bodies for the sport, from the national to the global level. The IAAF's constitution incorporates the World Anti-Doping Code among other anti-doping measure

s.[112] Practices such as blood doping and the use of anabolic steroids, peptide hormones, stimulants,  HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard or diuretics can give athletes a physical competitive advantage in track and field.[113] The use of such substances in track and field is opposed on both ethical and medical grounds. Given that the sport functions by measuring and comparing athletes' performances, performance-enhancing substances create an uneven playing field — ACER TravelMate 8215WLHi Laptop Keyboard athletes who do not use doping substances have a disadvantage over rivals who do. Medically, the use of banned substances may have an adverse effect upon athletes' health. However, some exemptions are made for athletes who take banned substances for therapeutic use, and athletes are not sanctioned for usage in these cases,[114] such as Kim Collins' failed drug test due to asthma medication.[115]SAMSUNG R520 Laptop Keyboard To prevent use of performance-enhancing substances, athletes must submit to drug tests that are conducted both in and out of competition by anti-doping officials or accredited medical staff.[114] Athletes found to have taken substances on the World Anti-Doping Agency's banned list receive sanctions and may be banned from competition for a period of time,[116] HP G62-225NR Laptop Keyboard reflecting the seriousness of the infraction. However, the use of substances not on the prohibited list may also result in sanctions if the substance is deemed similar to a banned substance in either composition or effect. Athletes may also be sanctioned for missing tests, seeking to avoid testing or tampering with results, refusing to submit to testing, through circumstantial evidence, or confession of use.[114]HP G72-b60US Laptop Keyboard Doping has played a significant part in the modern history of track and field. State-sponsored doping in East Germany with hormones and anabolic steroids marked the rise of women from the German Democratic Republic in track and field from the late 1960s to the 1980s. A number of these women, such as Marita Koch, ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard broke world records and were highly successful at international competitions. Some athletes, who were following a doping plan from their teenage years, suffered significant health problems as a result of the regime.[117][118] Ben Johnson ran a new world record in the 100 m at the 1988 Seoul Olympics but was later banned for using anabolic steroids.[119] In the mid-first decade of the 21st century, the BALCO Scandaleventually resulted in the downfall of prominent sprinters such as Marion Jones and Tim Montgomery, among others, through their usage of banned substances.[120]TOSHIBA Satellite A300 Laptop Keyboard Athletes performances are timed or measured at virtually all track and field competitions. Doing so can not only serve as a way of determining the winner in an event, but it can also be used for historical comparison (i.e. a record). A large variety of record types exist and men's and women's performances are recorded separately. SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard The foremost types of records organise athlete's performances by the region they represent—beginning with national records, then continental records, up to the global or world record level. National governing bodies control the national record lists, the area associations organise their respective continental lists, and the IAAF ratifies world records. TOSHIBA Satellite l20-101 Laptop Keyboard With the rise of numerous regional championships, as well as the growth in Olympic-style multi-sport events(such as the Commonwealth Games and the Pan-American Games), competitions between international track and field athletes became widespread. From the 1960s onwards, the sport gained more exposure and commercial appeal through television coverage and the increasing wealth of nations. TOSHIBA Satellite A110 Series Laptop Keyboard After over half a century of amateurism, the amateur status of the sport began to be displaced by growing professionalism in the late 1970s.[6] As a result, the Amateur Athletic Union was dissolved in the United States and it was replaced with a non-amateur body solely focused on the sport of athletics: The Athletics Congress (later USA Track and Field).[12] SONY VAIO VPCF12AFM Laptop Keyboard The IAAF soon followed suit in 1982, abandoning amateurism, and later removing all references to it from its name by rebranding itself as the International Association of Athletics Federations. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7226 Laptop Keyboard HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard The profile of the sport reached a new high in the 1980s, with a number of athletes becoming household names (such as Carl Lewis,Sergey Bubka, Sebastian Coe, Zola Budd and Florence Griffith-Joyner). Many world records were broken in this period, and the addedpolitical element between competitors of the United States, East Germany, and the Soviet Union, in reaction to the Cold War, only served to stoke the sport's popularity. The increase in the commercial capacity of track and field was also met with developments in the application of sports science, and there were many changes to coaching methods, athlete's diet regimes, Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard training facilities and sports equipment. This was also accompanied by an increase in the use of performance-enhancing drugs, and prominent cases, such as those of Olympic gold medallists Ben Johnson and Marion Jones, damaged the public image and marketability of the sport. SONY VAIO PCG-FR315M Laptop Keyboard From the 1990s onwards, track and field became increasingly more professional and international, as the IAAF gained over two hundred member nations. The IAAF World Championships in Athletics became a fully professional competition with the introduction of prize money in 1997,[6] and in 1998 the IAAF Golden League—COMPAQ Presario CQ60-201EP Laptop Keyboard an annual series of major track and field meetings in Europe—provided a higher level of economic incentive in the form of a US$1 million jackpot. In 2010, the series was replaced by the more lucrative IAAF Diamond League, a fourteen-meeting series held in Europe, Asia, North America and the Middle East—the first ever worldwide annual series of track and field meetings.[13]DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard HP Pavilion dv6-2040ev Laptop Keyboard

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