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Tufts University Tufts University is a private research university located in Medford/Somerville, near Boston, in the U.S. state ofMassachusetts. The university is organized into ten schools,[3] including two undergraduate programs and eight graduate divisions, on four campuses in Massachusetts and the French Alps. The university emphasizes active citizenship and public service in all of its disciplines[4] and is well known for its internationalism and study abroad programs.[5] Among its schools is the United States' oldest graduate school of international relations, The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. HP G62-225NR Laptop Keyboard In 1852, Tufts College was founded by Christian Universalists who worked for years to open a non-sectarian institution of higher learning.[6] Charles Tufts donated the land for the campus on Walnut Hill, the highest point in Medford, saying that he wanted to set a "light on the hill." The name was changed to Tufts University in 1954, SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Laptop Keyboard although the corporate name remains "the Trustees of Tufts College." After more than a century, Tufts was a small New England liberal arts college. The French-American nutritionist Jean Mayer became president of Tufts in the late 1970s and, through a series of rapid acquisitions, transformed the school into an internationally renowned research university.[7] It is known as both a Little Ivy and a "New Ivy" and consistently ranks among the nation's top schools. DELL AEFM8U00310 Laptop Keyboard In the 1840s, the Universalist church wanted to open a college in New England, and in 1852, Charles Tufts donated 20 acres to the church to help them achieve this goal. Charles Tufts had inherited the land, a barren hill which was one of the highest points in the Boston area, called Walnut HIll, and when asked by a family member what he intended to do with the land, he said "I will put a light on it." His 20 acre donation (then valued at $20,000) is still at the heart of Tufts' now 150 acre campus, straddling Somerville and Medford.  ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard It was also in 1852 that theCommonwealth of Massachusetts chartered Tufts College, noting the college should promote "virtue and piety and learning in such of the languages and liberal and useful arts as shall be recommended." Having been one of the biggest influences in the establishment of the College, Hosea Ballou II became the first president in 1853, and College Hall, the first building on campus, was completed the following year. That building now bears Ballou's name.[8] The campus opened in August 1854. The divinity school was organized in 1867.[9]DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard P. T. Barnum was one of the earliest benefactors of Tufts College, and the Barnum Museum of Natural History was constructed in 1884 with funds donated by him to house his collection of animal specimens and the stuffed hide of Jumbo the elephant, who would become the university's mascot. The building stood until April 14, 1975, when fire gutted Barnum Hall, destroying the entire collection. HP Compaq NC8430 Laptop Keyboard On July 15, 1892, the Tufts Board of Trustees voted "that the College be opened to women in the undergraduate departments on the same terms and conditions as men." At the same meeting, the trustees voted to create a graduate school faculty and to offer the Ph.D. degree in biology and chemistry. Tufts expanded in the 1930s with the opening of the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, the first graduate school of international affairs in the United States and a collaboration with Harvard University. Eventually, Fletcher lost its affiliation with Harvard. In 1955, continued expansion was reflected in the change of the school's name to Tufts University.[10]HP G61-300CA Laptop Keyboard During World War II, Tufts College was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission.[11] Due to travel restrictions imposed by World War II, the Boston Red Sox conducted spring training for the 1943 Major League season at Tufts College.[12]HP G56-141US Laptop Keyboard The university experienced tremendous growth during the presidency of Jean Mayer (1976–1992).[13] Mayer was, by all accounts, some combination of "charming, witty, duplicitous, ambitious, brilliant, intellectual, opportunistic, generous, vain, slippery, loyal, possessed of an inner standard of excellence, and charismatic."[14] Mayer established Tufts' veterinary, nutrition, and biomedical schools and acquired the Grafton and Talloires campuses, at the same time lifting the university out of its dire financial situation by increasing the size of the endowment by a factor of 15.[13]HP Mini 110-3001tu Laptop Keyboard Under President Larry Bacow, Tufts started a capital campaign in 2006 with the goal of raising $1.2 billion to implement full need-blind admission by 2011.[15][16] As of December 10, 2010 the campaign raised $1.14 billion.[17] Tufts received the largest donations in its history since 2005, including a $136 million bequest to its endowment upon the dissolution of a charitable trust set up by 1911 alumnus Frank C. Doble,[18][19] a $100 million gift from eBay founderPierre Omidyar to establish the Omidyar-Tufts Microfinance Fund,[20] and a number of $40 million-plus gifts to specific schools.[21][22][23]DELL Inspiron N4030 Laptop Keyboard On November 30, 2010, the university announced that Anthony P. Monaco, formerly of Oxford, would become its thirteenth president.[24] Monaco's inauguration took place on October 21, 2011.[25]HP Pavilion G60-243CL Laptop Keyboard Tufts' main campus is located on Walnut Hill in Medford, about 5 miles (8.0 km) from Boston. This campus houses all undergraduates in Arts & Sciences and Engineering, the graduate programs at The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy and all of the graduate programs in Arts & Sciences and Engineering. While the majority of the campus is in Medford, the Somerville line intersects it, placing parts of the lower campus in Somerville and leading to the common terms "Uphill" and "Downhill." Compaq Presario CQ62-215TU Laptop Keyboard Many points on the hill have noted views of the Boston skyline, particularly the patio on the Tisch Library roof. It has been ranked one of the prettiest college campuses in America. The offices of the president, the provost, and several vice presidents and deans are located in Ballou Hall, and administrative offices occupy the surrounding neighborhoods and nearby Davis Square, where Tufts makes payments in lieu of taxes on some of its tax-exempt (educational) properties.[26]SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard Tufts has a satellite campus in Talloires, France at the Tufts European Center, a former Benedictine priory built in the 11th century. The priory was purchased in 1958 by Donald MacJannet and his wife Charlotte and used as a summer camp site for several years before the MacJannets gave the campus to Tufts in 1978. TOSHIBA P205-S7469 Laptop Keyboard Each year the center hosts a number of summer study programs, and enrolled students live with local families. There are programs for American high school students during the month of July, as well as a 6-week program for Tufts undergraduates that extends from the middle of May until the end of June. The site is frequently the host of international conferences and summits, most notably the Talloires Declaration which united 22 universities toward a goal of sustainability.[27]TOSHIBA P205-S6267 Laptop Keyboard Each school has its own faculty and is led by a dean appointed by the president and the provost with the consent of the Board of Trustees. In addition, the university is affiliated with the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston and the New England Conservatory. Toshiba GB0506PHV1-A Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The School of Arts and Sciences and the School of Engineering are the only schools that award both undergraduate and graduate degrees. The Jackson College for Women, established in 1910 as a coordinate college adjacent to the Tufts campus, was integrated with the College of Liberal Arts in 1980, but is recognized in the formal name of the undergraduate arts and sciences division, the "College of Liberal Arts and Jackson College." Undergraduate women in arts and sciences continued to receive their diplomas from Jackson College until 2002. SONY Vaio VPC-EB11GD/BI Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Jonathan M. Tisch College of Citizenship and Public Service was founded in 2000 "to educate for active citizenship" with the help of a $10 million gift fromeBay founder Pierre Omidyar and his wife Pam. The school was renamed in 2006 after a $40 million gift from Jonathan Tisch. It has been called the "most ambitious attempt by any research university to make public service part of its core academic mission."[28] Tisch College does not grant degrees; the college facilitates and supports a wide range of community service, civic engagement programs, research, and teaching initiatives across the university.  Toshiba Satellite A300-M01 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Under the purview of the School of Arts and Sciences is the Experimental College, a non-degree-granting entity created in 1964 as a proving ground for innovative, experimental, and interdisciplinary curricula and courses. It offers the opportunity for students to take for-credit courses with non-academic practitioners in a variety of fields, and also from upper-level undergraduates who have a chance to design and teach their own courses. Another successful component of the Ex College is EPIIC, a year-long program begun in 1985 to immerse students in a global issue, which culminates in an annual symposium of scholars and experts from the field.  HP Pavilion dv7-4170ez Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Tufts' undergraduate school is ranked #15 in Forbes' list of America's Best Colleges among universities and #32 among all educational institutions.[36] Washington Monthly's annual list of best colleges ranked Tufts #25 in the nation.[37] According to U.S. News & World Report's 2013 college rankings, Tufts ranks #28 in the nation with high school guidance counselors rankings Tufts #22 in the nation.[38][39] Foreign Policy ranks Tufts' Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy #4 in the world for International Relations.[40ACER eMachines E625 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan U.S. News ranks Tufts as #51 for engineering among schools that grant PhD degrees, slightly ahead of nearby Worcester Polytechnic Institute.[41] In 2010, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings placed Tufts at #53 in the world.[42] The university ranks #101 in Shanghai Jiao Tong University's 2009 Academic Ranking of World Universities[43] HP 606609-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan and 174th in the 2011 QS World University Rankings.[44] Tufts' Medical School and Research Institute are ranked #33 and #44, respectively, according to U.S. News & World Report's 2010 rankings of Best Medical Schools in primary care and research,[45] and the Sackler School likewise ranks #56 in their rankings of Best Graduate Schools, Biological Sciences.[46] The Boston School of Occupational Therapy, an entry-level masters program within the Graduate School of Arts & Sciences at Tufts, ranks "#5" in U.S. News & World Report's Best Occupational Therapy Programs.[47]HP G42-230US Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Tufts is counted among the "Little Ivies" and was named by Newsweek as one of the "25 New Ivies."[48] In The Princeton Review's 2010–2011 "Best 363 Colleges," Tufts was ranked #14 for the happiest students and its study abroad program was ranked #3 in the country.[49][50] According to the October 2010 rankings compiled by The Chronicle of Higher Education, SONY Vaio VPC-EB3HGX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Tufts ranked 12th in the country (tied with both Harvard and Johns Hopkins) with 17 Fulbright scholars.[51] Tufts also ranks #20 among medium-sized schools for the number of Teach for Americavolunteers it produces.[52] Tufts is also tied for second (tied with Dartmouth College and the University of Pennsylvania) for the number of undergraduate alumni who are current Fortune 100 CEOs.[53] Because of its continual growth as an institution, Tufts was ranked as the 5th "hottest school" of the decade from 2000-2010.[54]Compaq Presario V3839tu Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the 2013 U.S. News & World Report college rankings, Tufts ranked as one of the top 20 most selective schools among national universities in the United States.[55] For the class of 2016, Tufts accepted 18.8% of 19,130 applicants,[56] an all-time low.[57] For the matriculating class of 2016, 91% of incoming freshmen rank in the top 10% of their high school class (up one percent from the previous year).[24][58] Tufts expects approximately thirty eight percent of its admitted students to enroll.[59] The most common overlap schools are Brown University, Dartmouth College, Cornell University, Washington University in St. Louis, University of Pennsylvania, and Georgetown University.[60] IBM ThinkPad T41 2687 Laptop Keyboard In 2006, Dean of Arts and Sciences Robert Sternberg added experimental criteria to the application process for undergraduates to test "creativity and other non-academic factors," including inviting applicants to submit YouTube videos to supplement their application.[61] Calling it the "first major university to try such a departure from the norm," Inside Higher Ed also notes that Tufts continues to consider the SAT and other traditional criteria.[62][63]HP G61 Laptop Keyboard Tufts competes in the New England Small College Athletic Conference—the NESCAC—in NCAA Division III. Their mascot is the Jumbo, which is the only college mascot to appear in Webster's Dictionary. The mascot comes from P. T. Barnum's circus, as Barnum was one of the original trustees of Tufts College. According to legend, Jumbo the Elephant heroically jumped in front of a train, sacrificing himself to save a younger elephant from dying. Jumbo's stuffed skin was donated to the school, HP Probook 4520S Laptop Keyboard and was displayed until a fire destroyed the body. Now, a statue of the elephant is a prominent landmark on the quad, near Barnum Hall, the Biology building. Tufts men's lacrosse team won the school's first ever NCAA team championship in 2010, beatingSalisbury State University in the championship game. They lost in 2011 to Salisbury in the championship.[64]DELL Inspiron N4050 Laptop Keyboard Tufts alumni in the government sector include Kostas Karamanlis, former Prime Minister of Greece; Shashi Tharoor, former United Nations Under-Secretary General and Indian Minister; Scott Brown, Republican United States Senator from Massachusetts; Bill Richardson, Democratic Governor of New Mexico; and Peter DeFazio, Democratic United States Representative from Oregon. Graduates who have found success in business include Pierre Omidyar, eBay founder; Roy Raymond, founder ofVictoria's Secret; HP Pavilion dv5-1126ee Laptop Keyboard Laura Lang, CEO of Time Inc; Jamie Dimon, CEO of JPMorgan Chase; John Bello, SoBe Beverages founder; Jeff Kindler, Former CEO of Pfizer;Jonathan Tisch, CEO of Loews Hotels; Ellen J. Kullman, CEO of DuPont; and Andy Fastow, Former CFO of Enron. Other notable alumni include President Lyndon B. Johnson, Michelle Kwan, Olympic medallist and World Champion figure skater from the United States; Rainn Wilson, American actor and comedian; Tracy Chapman, American singer/songwriter; and Peter Gallagher, American actor. DELL Precision M4500 Laptop Keyboard In media, alumni include David Faber (CNBC), anchor at CNBC; Meredith Vieira, journalist and TV personality; Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr., The New York Timespublisher; Lew Rockwell, founder of Ludwig von Mises Institute; and Gregory Maguire, novelist. Such alumni have been known to write characters as students of Tufts or a thinly-veiled substitute, such as the title characters of Two Guys and a Girl and the lead character of Christopher Golden's Body of Evidence mystery novels. COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard Fictional alumni include the title character on Crossing Jordan, Alex Welch from the novella The Odd Saga of the American and a Curious Icelandic Flock,[72] and Dr. Jennifer Melfi on The Sopranos. Elaine Benes from Seinfeld claims that she attended Tufts, calling it her "safety school." In the 2009 The Simpsonsepisode "Bart Gets a 'Z'," Bart's substitute teacher announces to the class that he received his Master's in teaching from Tufts. COMPAQ Presario CQ42-203AU Laptop CPU Cooling Fangraduate school is a school that awards advanced academic degrees (i.e. master's degrees and Ph.D. degrees) with the general requirement that students must have earned a previous undergraduate (bachelor's) degree.[1][2] A distinction is typically made between graduate schools (where courses of study do not provide training for a particular profession) and professional schools, which offer specialized advanced degrees in professional fields such as medicine, business,engineering, ministry or law. SONY Vaio VGN-NW26M Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Many universities award graduate degrees; a graduate school is not necessarily a separate institution. While the term "graduate school" is typical in the United States and often used elsewhere (e.g., the UK and Canada), "postgraduate education" is also used in some English-speaking countries (Australia, Canada, Ireland, India, New Zealand, and the UK) to refer to the spectrum of education beyond a bachelor's degree. COMPAQ Presario CQ42-228TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Those attending graduate schools are called "graduate students" (in both American and British English), or often in British English as "postgraduate students" and, colloquially, "postgraduates" and "postgrads". Degrees awarded to graduate students include master's degrees, doctoral degrees, and other postgraduate qualifications such as graduate certificates andprofessional degrees. FUJITSU LifeBook S7020 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Producing original research is often a significant component of graduate studies, including the writing and defense of a thesis or dissertation. The term "graduate school" is primarily North American. Additionally, in North America, the term does not usually refer to medical school (whose students are called "medical students"), and only occasionally refers to law school or business school. (The latter types of programs are often collectively termed professional schools). Toshiba Satellite L350-14F Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Although graduate school programs are distinct experiences from undergraduate degree programs, graduate instruction (in Australia, the United States, and other countries) is often offered by some of the same senior academic staff and departments that teach undergraduate courses. Unlike in undergraduate programs, however, it is rare for graduate students to take coursework outside their specific field of study at graduate or graduate entry level. At the Ph.D. level, though, ACER Aspire 5739G-6959 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan it is quite common to take courses from a wider range of study, for which some fixed portion of coursework, sometimes known as a residency, is typically required to be taken from outside the department and college of the degree-seeking candidate, to broaden the research abilities of the student. Some institutions designate separate graduate versus undergraduate staff and denote other divisions (often called School of X, e.g., diplomacy)  APPLE MacBook 13 inch MA701LL A Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In Canada, the Schools and Faculties of Graduate Studies are represented by the Canadian Association of Graduate Studies (CAGS) or Association canadienne pour les études supérieures (ACES). The Association brings together 58 Canadian universities with graduate programs, two national graduate student associations, and the three federal research-granting agencies and organizations having an interest in graduate studies.[3] Its mandate is to promote, advance, and foster excellence in graduate education and university research in Canada. In addition to an annual conference, the association prepares briefs on issues related to graduate studies including supervision, funding, and professional development. HP 493001-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Graduate students may take out student loans, but instead they often work as teaching or research assistants. Students often agree, as a condition of acceptance to a programme, not to devote more than twelve hours per week to work or outside interests. Various universities in Canada have different policies in terms of how much funding is available. This funding may also be different within a university in each of the disciplinesToshiba Satellite P100-434 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan For Masters students, funding is generally available to first-year students whose transcripts reflect exceptionally high grades; this funding can also be obtained in the second year of studies. Funding for Ph.D. students comes from a variety of sources, and many universities waive tuition fees for doctoral candidates (This may also occur for masters students of some universities). Funding is available in the form of scholarships, bursaries and other awards, both private and public. Toshiba Satellite L300D-10Q Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Requirements for completion Both master's and doctoral programs may be done by coursework or research or a combination of the two, depending on the subject and faculty. Most faculties require both, with the emphasis on research, and with coursework being directly related to the field of research. HP Pavilion dv6-2120es Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Master's candidates undertaking research are typically required to complete a thesis comprising some original research and ranging from seventy to two-hundred pages. Some fields may require candidates to study at least one foreign language if they have not already earned sufficient foreign-language credits. Some faculties require candidates to defend their thesis, but many do not. Those that do not often have a requirement of taking two additional courses, minimum, in lieu of preparing a thesis. HP Envy 14-3017nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Ph.D. candidates undertaking research must typically complete a thesis, or dissertation, consisting of original research representing a significant contribution to their field, and ranging from two-hundred to five-hundred pages. Most Ph.D. candidates will be required to sit comprehensive examinations—examinations testing general knowledge in their field of specialization—in their second or third year as a prerequisite to continuing their studies, and must defend their thesis as a final requirement. HP Pavilion dv6995la Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Some faculties require candidates to earn sufficient credits in a third or fourth foreign language; for example, most candidates in modern Japanese topics must demonstrate ability in English, Japanese, and Mandarin, while candidates in pre-modern Japanese topics must demonstrate ability in English, Japanese, Classical Chinese, and Classical Japanese language.  HP 6820s Laptop CPU Cooling Fan At English-speaking Canadian universities, both master's and Ph.D. theses may be presented in English or in the language of the subject (German for German literature, for example), but if this is the case, an extensive abstract must be also presented in English. In exceptional circumstances, a thesis may be presented in French. Gateway MT6723 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Admission to a master's program generally requires a bachelor's degree in a related field, with sufficiently high grades usually ranging from B+ and higher (note that different schools have different letter grade conventions, and this requirement may be significantly higher in some faculties), and recommendations from professors. Some schools require samples of the student's writing as well as a research proposal. At English-speaking universities, applicants from countries where English is not the primary language are required to submit scores from the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL).  Gateway MT6723 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Admission to a doctoral program typically requires a master's degree in a related field, sufficiently high grades, recommendations, samples of writing, a research proposal, and typically an interview with a prospective supervisor. Requirements are often set higher than those for a master's program. In exceptional cases, a student holding an honours BA with sufficiently high grades and proven writing and research abilities may be admitted directly to a Ph.D. program without the requirement to first complete a master's. Many Canadian graduate programs allow students who start in a master's to "reclassify" into a Ph.D. program after satisfactory performance in the first year, bypassing the master's degree. SONY 53010BE22-203-G Laptop Keyboard Students must usually declare their research goal or submit a research proposal upon entering graduate school; in the case of master's degrees, there will be some flexibility (that is, one is not held to one's research proposal, although major changes, for example from premodern to modern history, are discouraged). In the case of Ph.D.s, the research direction is usually known as it will typically follow the direction of the master's research. ACER KB.I170A.083 Laptop Keyboard Master's degrees can be completed in one year but normally take at least two; they typically may not exceed five years. Doctoral degrees require a minimum of two years but frequently take much longer, although not usually exceeding six years. The écoles doctorales ("Doctoral Schools") are educational structures similar in focus to graduate schools, but restricted at PhD level. These schools have the responsibilities of providing students with a structured doctoral training in a disciplinary field. The field of the school is related to the strength of the university : while some have two or three schools (typically "Arts and Humanities" and "Natural and Technological Sciences"), others have more specialized schools (History, Aeronautics, etc.). SONY 53010BE22-203-G Laptop Keyboard Admission to a doctoral program requires a master's degree, both research-oriented and disciplinary focused. High marks are required (typically a très bienhonour, equating a cum laude), but the acceptance is linked to a decision of the School Academical Board. HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard A large share of the funding offered to junior researchers is channeled through the école doctorale, mainly in the shape of three-years "Doctoral Fellowships" (contrats doctoraux). These fellowships are awarded after submitting a biographical information, undergraduate and graduate transcripts where applicable, letters of recommendation, and research proposal, then an oral examination by an Academical Committee. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard The establishment of Graduiertenkollegs in Germany started in the early 1990s funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), the German Research Foundation. Unlike the American model of graduate schools, a Graduiertenkolleg consists only of a PhD programme. In contrast with the traditional German apprentice model of pursuing a PhD, a Graduiertenkolleg aims to provide young researchers with a structured doctoral training within an excellent research environment. DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard A Graduiertenkolleg typically consists of 20-30 doctoral students, about half of whom are supported by stipends from the DFG or another sponsor. The research programme is usually narrowly defined around a specific topic and has an interdisciplinary aspect. The programme is set up for a specific period of time (up to nine years if funded by the DFG). The official English translation of the term Graduiertenkolleg is Research Training Group. HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard In 2006, a different type of graduate school, termed Graduiertenschule, was established by the DFG as part of the German Universities Excellence Initiative. They are thematically much broader than the focused Graduiertenkollegs and consist often of 100-200 doctoral students. Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard Admission While most graduate programs will have a similar list of general admission requirements, the importance placed on each type of requirement can vary drastically between graduate schools, departments within schools, and even programs within departments. The best way to determine how a graduate program will weigh admission materials is to ask the person in charge of graduate admissions at the particular program being applied to. Admission to graduate school requires a bachelor's degree. HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard High grades in one's field of study are important—grades outside the field less so. The Graduate Record Examination standardized test is required by almost all graduate schools, while other additional standardised tests (such as the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) and Graduate Record Examination (GRE) Subject Tests) scores may be required by some institutions or programs.[4][5] In addition, good letters of recommendation from undergraduate instructors are often essential,[6] as strong recommendation letters from mentors or supervisors of undergraduate research experience provide evidence that the applicant can perform research and can handle the rigors of a graduate school education. SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Laptop Keyboard Within the sciences and some social sciences, previous research experience may be important;[4][7] within most humanities disciplines, an example of academic writing normally suffices. Many universities require a personal statement (sometimes called Statement of purpose or Letter of Intent), which may include indications of the intended area(s) of research;[5] how detailed this statement is or whether it is possible to change one's focus of research depends strongly on the discipline and department to which the student is applying. DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard In some disciplines or universities, graduate applicants may find it best to have at least one recommendation from research work outside of the college where they earned their Bachelor's degree;[citation needed] however, as with previous research experience, this may not be very important in most humanities disciplines. SONY VAIO PCG-F60/BP Laptop Keyboard Some schools set minimum GPAs and test scores below which they will not accept any applicants;[8] this reduces the time spent reviewing applications. On the other hand, many other institutions often explicitly state that they do not use any sort of cut-offs in terms of GPA or the GRE scores. Instead, they claim to consider many factors, including past research achievements, the compatibility between the applicant's research interest and that of the faculty, the statement of purpose and the letters of reference, as stated above. Some programs also require professors to act as sponsors. Finally, applicants from non-English speaking countries often must take the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL).[9]TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5248 Laptop Keyboard At most institutions, decisions regarding admission are not made by the institution itself but the department to which the student is applying. Some departments may require interviews before making a decision to accept an applicant.[5] Most universities adhere to the Council of Graduate Schools' Resolution Regarding Graduate Scholars, Fellows, Trainees, and Assistants, which gives applicants until April 15 to accept or reject offers that contain financial support.[10] DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard Graduate students often declare their intended degree (master's or doctorate) in their applications. In some cases, master's programs allow successful students to continue toward the doctorate degree. Additionally, doctoral students who have advanced to candidacy but not filed a dissertation ("ABD," for "all but dissertation") often receive master's degrees and an additional master's called a Master of Philosophy (MPhil), or a Candidate of Philosophy (C.Phil.) degree. The master's component of a doctorate program often requires one or two years. APPLE MacBook Pro 17 inch MA897X A Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Many graduate programs require students to pass one or several examinations in order to demonstrate their competence as scholars.[4] In some departments, acomprehensive examination is often required in the first year of doctoral study, and is designed to test a student's background undergraduate-level knowledge. Examinations of this type are more common in the sciences and some social sciences, and relatively unknown in most humanities disciplines. HP Mini 110-3135dx Laptop Keyboard Most graduate students perform teaching duties, often serving as graders and tutors. In some departments, they can be promoted to Lecturer status, a position that comes with more responsibility. Doctoral students generally spend roughly their first two to three years taking coursework, and begin research by their second year if not before. Many master's and all specialist students will perform research culminating in a paper, presentation, HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard and defense of their research. This is called the master's thesis (or, for Educational Specialist students, the specialist paper). However, many US master's degree programs do not require a master's thesis, focusing instead primarily on course work or on "practicals" or "workshops". Such "real-world" experience may typically require a candidate work on a project alone or in a team as a consultant, or consultants, for an outside entity approved or selected by the academic institution, and under faculty supervision. DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard In the second and third years of study, doctoral programs often require students to pass more examinations.[4] Programs often require a Qualifying Examination("Quals"), a PhD Candidacy Examination ("Candidacy"), or a General Examination ("Generals"), designed to ensure students have a grasp of a broad sample of their discipline, and/or one or several Special Field Examinations ("Specials"), which test students in their narrower selected areas of specialty within the discipline. If these examinations are held orally, HP G62-b36EO Laptop Keyboard they may be known colloquially as "orals". For some social science and many humanities disciplines, where graduate students may or may not have studied the discipline at the undergraduate level, these exams will be the first set, and be based either on graduate coursework or specific preparatory reading (sometimes up to a year's work in reading). HP G62-b15EL Laptop Keyboard In all cases, comprehensive exams are normally both stressful and time consuming, and must be passed to be allowed to proceed on to the thesis. Passing such examinations allows the student to stay, begin doctoral research, and rise to the status of a doctoral candidate, while failing usually results in the student leaving the program or re-taking the test after some time has passed (usually a semester or a year). Some schools have an intermediate category, passing at the master's level, which allows the student to leave with a master's without having completed a master's thesis. HP Pavilion dv6-3210us Laptop Keyboard SAMSUNG R520 Laptop Keyboard For the next several years the doctoral candidate primarily performs his or her research. Usually this lasts three to eight years, though a few finish more quickly and some take substantially longer. In total, the typical doctoral degree takes between four and eight years from entering the program to completion, though this time varies depending upon the department, thesis topic, and many other factors. For example, astronomy degrees take five to six years on average, but observational astronomy degrees take six to seven due to limiting factors of weather, while theoretical astronomy degrees take five. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard Though there is substantial variation among universities, departments, and individuals, humanities and social science doctorates on average take somewhat longer to complete than natural science doctorates. These differences are due to the differing nature of research between the humanities and some social sciences and the natural sciences, and to the differing expectations of the discipline in coursework, languages and length of thesis. SONY VAIO VGN-FS775P/H Laptop Keyboard However, time required to complete adoctorate also varies according to the candidate's abilities and choice of research. Some students may also choose to remain in a program if they fail to win an academic position, particularly in disciplines with a tight job market; by remaining a student, they can retain access to libraries and university facilities, while also retaining an academic affiliation, which can be essential for conferences and job-searches. SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard Traditionally, doctoral programs were only intended to last three to four years and, in some disciplines (primarily the natural sciences), with a helpful advisor and a light teaching load, it is possible for the degree to be completed in that amount of time. However, increasingly many disciplines, including most humanities, set their requirements for coursework, languages and the expected extent of thesis research by the assumption that students will take five years minimum or six to seven years on average; competition for jobs within these fields also raises expectations on the length and quality of theses considerably. TOSHIBA PK130260100 Laptop Keyboard Competition for jobs within certain fields, such as the life sciences, is so great that almost all students now enter a second training period after graduate school called a postdoctoral fellowship. In total most life scientists will invest 12–14 years in low paid training positions and only 14% will obtain tenure track jobs (Miller McCune, the real science gap). The average age at which life scientists obtain their first R01 grant to conduct independent research is now 42. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard In some disciplines, doctoral programs can average seven to ten years. Archaeology, which requires long periods of research, tends towards the longer end of this spectrum. The increase in length of degree is a matter of great concern for both students and universities, though there is much disagreement on potential solutions to this problem. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard Many departments, especially those in which students have research or teaching responsibilities, offer tuition-forgiveness and a stipend that pays for most expenses. At some elite universities, there may be a minimum stipend established for all Ph.D. students, as well as a tuition waiver. The terms of these stipends vary greatly, and may consist of a scholarship or fellowship, followed by teaching responsibilities. At many elite universities, these stipends have been increasing, in response both to student pressure and especially to competition among the elite universities for graduate students.  TOSHIBA P205-S7469 Laptop Keyboard In some fields, research positions are more coveted than teaching positions because student researchers are typically paid to work on the dissertation they are required to complete anyway, while teaching is generally considered a distraction from one's work. Research positions are more typical of science disciplines; they are relatively uncommon in humanities disciplines, and where they exist, HP Pavilion G7-1081NR Laptop Keyboard rarely allow the student to work on their own research. Science PhD students can apply for individual NRSA fellowships from the NIH or fellowships from private foundations. US universities often also offer competitive support from NIH-funded training programs. One example is the Biotechnology Training Program – University of Virginia. DELL PM425 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Departments often have funds for limited discretionary funding to supplement minor expenses such as research trips and travel to conferences. A few students can attain funding through dissertation improvement grants funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), or through similar programs in other agencies. Many students are also funded as lab researchers by faculty who have been funded by private foundations or by the NSF, National Institutes of Health (NIH),  HP 606609-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan or federal "mission agencies" such as the Department of Defense or the Environmental Protection Agency. The natural sciences are typically well funded, so that most students can attain either outside or institutional funding, but in the humanities, not all do. Some humanities students borrow money during their coursework, then take full-time jobs while completing their dissertations. Students in the social sciences are less well funded than are students in the natural and physical sciences, but often have more funding opportunities than students in the humanities, particularly as science funders begin to see the value of social science research. HP G62-b51ST Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Funding differs greatly by departments and universities; some universities give five years of full funding to all Ph.D. students, though often with a teaching requirement attached; other universities do not. However, because of the teaching requirements, which can be in the research years of the Ph.D., even the best funded universities often do not have funding for humanities or social science students who need to do research elsewhere, whether in the United States or overseas.[citation needed] Such students may find funding through outside funders such as private foundations, such as the German Marshall Fund or the Social Science Research Council (SSRC). ACER Aspire 5742Z Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Foreign students are typically funded the same way as domestic (US) students, although federally subsidized student and parent loans and work-study assistance are generally limited to U.S. citizens and nationals, permanent residents, and approved refugees.[12] Moreover, some funding sources (such as many NSF fellowships) may only be awarded to domestic students. TOSHIBA V000120460 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan International students often have unique financial diffulties such as high costs to visit their families back home, support of a family not allowed to work due to immigration laws, tuition that is expensive by world standards, and large fees: visa fees by U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, and surveillance fees under the Student and Exchange Visitor Program of the United States Department of Homeland Security.[13]) Compaq Presario CQ61-406SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan At many universities, graduate students are employed by their university to teach classes or do research. While all graduate employees are graduate students, many graduate students are not employees. MBA students, for example, usually pay tuition and do not have paid teaching or research positions. In many countries graduate employees have collectively organized labor unions in order to bargain a contract with their university. In Canada, for example, almost all graduate employees are members of a CUPE local.  ASUS M51SE Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the United States there are many graduate employee unions at public universities, the Coalition of Graduate Employee Unions lists 25 recognized unions at public universities on its website. Private universities, however, are covered under the National Labor Relations Act rather than state labor laws and until 2001 there were no recognized unions at private universities. HP G50-116CA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Many graduate students see themselves as akin to junior faculty, but with significantly lower pay.[citation needed] Many graduate students feel that teaching takes time that would better be spent on research, and many point out that there is a vicious circle in the academic labor economy. Institutions that rely on cheap graduate student labor have no need to create expensive professorships, so graduate students who have taught extensively in graduate school can find it immensely difficult to get a teaching job when they have obtained their degree. FUJITSU CA49008-0790 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Many institutions depend heavily on graduate student teaching: a 2003 report by agitators for a graduate student union at Yale,[14] for instance, claims that "70% of undergraduate teaching contact hours at Yale are performed by transient teachers: graduate teachers, adjunct instructors, and other teachers not on the tenure track." The state of Michigan leads in terms of progressive policy regarding graduate student unions with five universities recognizing graduate employee unions: Central Michigan University, Michigan State University, theUniversity of Michigan, Wayne State University, and Western Michigan University. HP G50-116CA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The United Auto Workers (under the slogan "Uniting Academic Workers") and the American Federation of Teachers are two international unions that represent graduate employees. Private universities' administrations often oppose their graduate students when they try to form unions, arguing that students should be exempt from labor laws intended for "employees". HP Pavilion dv7-4012tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In some cases unionization movements have met with enough student opposition to fail. At the schools where graduate employees are unionized, which positions are unionized vary. Sometimes only one set of employees will unionize (e.g. teaching assistants, residential directors); at other times, most or all will. Typically, fellowship recipients, usually not employed by their university, do not participate. Toshiba Satellite A100-644 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan When negotiations fail, graduate employee unions sometimes go on strike. While graduate student unions can use the same types of strikes that other unions do, they have also made use of teach-ins, work-ins, marches, rallies, and grade strikes. In a grade strike, graduate students refuse to grade exams and papers and, if the strike lasts until the end of the academic term, also refuse to turn in final grades. Another form of job action is known as "work-to-rule", in which graduate student instructors work exactly as many hours as they are paid for and no more. ASUS G51JX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Mont Cenis (Italian: Moncenisio) is a massif and pass (el. 2081 m / 6827 ft) in Savoie in France which forms the limit between the Cottian and Graian Alps. The pass connects Lanslebourg-Mont-Cenis in France in the northwest with Susa in Italy in the southeast. It was used as part of the border between the two countries until the 1947 Treaty of Paris, but is now located completely in France.  HP Pavilion dv6995la Laptop CPU Cooling Fan A road over the pass was built between 1803 and 1810 by Napoleon. A Fell mountain railway system, named after its inventor John Fell and worked by English engine-drivers, was opened alongside the road in 1868, but was dismantled in 1871, on the opening of the Mont Cenis Tunnel. For the railway through the tunnel see Fréjus Rail Tunnel. DELL Latitude E4300 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan This tunnel (highest point 1295 m / 4249 ft) is really 27.4 km 17 miles west of the pass, below the Col du Fréjus. From Chambéry the line runs up the Isère valley, but soon bears through that of the Arc or the Maurienne past Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne to Modane (98.2 km / 61 mi from Chambéry). The tunnel is 13 km in length, and leads toBardonecchia, some way below which, at Oulx the line joins the road from the Col de Montgenèvre. HP Mini 210-1155DX Laptop Keyboard Thence the valley of the Dora Riparia is followed to Turin (103.8 km / 64.5 mi from Modane). The carriage road mounts the Arc valley for 25.7 km / 16 mi from Modane to Lanslebourg, whence it is 12.9 km / 8 mi to the hospice, a little way beyond the summit of the pass. The descent lies through the Cenis valley to Susa (49.9 km / 37 mi from Modane) where the road joins the railway. SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W Laptop Keyboard To the southwest of the Mont Cenis is the Little Mont Cenis (2184.2 m / 7166 ft) which leads from the summit plateau (in Italy) of the main pass to the Etache valley on the French slope and so to Bramans in the Arc valley. Boston (pronounced i/ˈbɒstən/ or locally /ˈbɔːstən/) is the capital of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and its largest city,[12] and is one of the oldest cities in the United States. It was named Boston by early settlers fromBoston, Lincolnshire in England. The largest city in New England, Boston is regarded as the unofficial "Capital of New England" for its economic and cultural impact on the entire New England region.[13] SONY Vaio VGN-NW235F/T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The city proper, covering 48.43 square miles (125.43 square km), had an estimated population of 625,087 in 2011 according to theU.S. Census,[7] making it the 21st largest in the country.[6] Boston is also the anchor of a substantially larger metropolitan area called Greater Boston, home to 4.5 million people and the tenth-largest metropolitan area in the country.[9] Greater Boston as a commuting region[14] is home to 7.6 million people, making it the fifth-largest Combined Statistical Area in the United States.[10][15]IBM ThinkPad T42 2378 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 1630, Puritan colonists from England founded the city on the Shawmut Peninsula.[16] The city thrived, becoming the largest in British America and the third largest city in the British Empire (behind London and Bristol). During the late 18th century, Boston was the location of several major events during the American Revolution, including the Boston Massacre and the Boston Tea Party. Several early battles of the American Revolution, such as the Battle of Bunker Hill and the Siege of Boston, /hp-g62t-350-cto-cpu-fan.html">HP G62t-350 CTO Laptop CPU Cooling Fan occurred within the city and surrounding areas. Through land reclamation and municipal annexation, Boston has expanded beyond the peninsula. After American independence was attained Boston became a major shipping port and manufacturing center,[16] and its rich history helps attract many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone attracting over 20 million every year.[17] The city was the site of several firsts, including the United States' first public school, Boston Latin School (1635),[18] and the first subwaysystem in the United States (1897).[19]Gateway MA1 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan With many colleges and universities within the city and surrounding area, Boston is an international center of higher education and a center for medicine.[20] The city's economic base includes research, manufacturing, finance, and biotechnology.[21] As a result, the city is a leading finance center, ranking 12th in the Z/Yen top 20 Global Financial Centers.[22] The city was also ranked number one for innovation, both globally and in North America,[23] for a variety of reasons.[24][25] Boston has one of the highest costs of living in the United States,[26] though it remains high on world livability rankings, ranking third in the US and 36th globally.[27]SONY Vaio VPC-EB1E8E/WI Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Boston was founded on September 7, 1630,[28] by Puritan colonists from England.[16] The Puritans of theMassachusetts Bay Colony are sometimes confused with the Pilgrims, who founded Plymouth Colony ten years earlier in what is today Bristol County, Plymouth County, and Barnstable County, Massachusetts. The two groups, which differed in religious practice, are historically distinct. The separate colonies were not united until the formation of the Province of Massachusetts Bay in 1691.[citation needed]SONY Vaio VGN-SZ6RXN/C Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Shawmut Peninsula was connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus and was surrounded by the waters of Massachusetts Bayand the Back Bay, an estuary of the Charles River. Several prehistoric Native American archaeological sites that were excavated in the city have shown that the peninsula was inhabited as early as 5000 BC.[29] Boston's early European settlers first called the area Trimountaine,  HP 606609-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan but later renamed the town after Boston in Lincolnshire, England, from which several prominent colonists had emigrated. Massachusetts Bay Colony's original governor, John Winthrop, gave a famous sermon entitled "A Model of Christian Charity", popularly known as the "City on a Hill" sermon, which espoused the idea that Boston had a special covenant with God. (Winthrop also led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, which is regarded as a key founding document of the city.)  HP Pavilion dv7-3155el Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Puritan ethics molded a stable and well-structured society in Boston. For example, shortly after Boston's settlement, Puritans founded America's first public school, Boston Latin School (1635),[18] and America's oldest school in continuous existence, Roxbury Latin School (1645). Over the next 130 years, Boston participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their native allies in North America. Boston was the largest town in British North America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid 18th century.[30]ACER Aspire 6920-602G16 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the 1770s, British attempts to exert more-stringent control on the thirteen colonies—primarily via taxation—led to the American Revolution.[16] The Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, and several early battles—including the Battle of Lexington and Concord, the Battle of Bunker Hill, and the Siege of Boston—occurred in or near the city. SONY Vaio VPC-EA35FB/B Laptop CPU Cooling Fan During this period, Paul Revere made his famous midnight ride. After the Revolution, Boston had become one of the world's wealthiest international trading ports because of the city's consolidated seafaring tradition. Exports included rum, fish, salt, and tobacco.[31] During this era, descendants of old Boston families were regarded as the nation's social and cultural elites; they were later dubbed the Boston Brahmins.[32] SONY Vaio VPC-EB47GM Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Embargo Act of 1807, adopted during the Napoleonic Wars, and the War of 1812 significantly curtailed Boston's harbor activity. Although foreign trade returned after these hostilities, Boston's merchants had found alternatives for their capital investments in the interim. Manufacturing became an important component of the city's economy, and by the mid-19th century, the city's industrial manufacturing overtook international trade in economic importance. Until the early 20th century, IBM 91P9252 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Boston remained one of the nation's largest manufacturing centers and was notable for its garment production and leather-goods industries.[17] A network of small rivers bordering the city and connecting it to the surrounding region made for easy shipment of goods and led to a proliferation of mills and factories. Later, a dense network of railroads facilitated the region's industry and commerce. From the mid-19th to late 19th century, Boston flourished culturally. It became renowned for its rarefied literary culture and lavish artistic patronage.  DELL Inspiron 630m Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Boston also became a center of the abolitionist movement.[35] The city reacted strongly to theFugitive Slave Law of 1850,[36] which contributed to President Franklin Pierce's attempt to make an example of Boston after the Burns Fugitive Slave Case.[37][38]SONY Vaio VGN-NR21M/S Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Between 1631 and 1890, the city tripled its physical size by land reclamation—by filling in marshes, mud flats, and gaps between wharves along the waterfront[44] —a process thatWalter Muir Whitehill called "cutting down the hills to fill the coves". The largest reclamation efforts took place during the 19th century. Beginning in 1807, the crown of Beacon Hill was used to fill in a 50-acre (20 ha) mill pond that later became theHaymarket Square area. HP G62x-400 CTO Laptop Keyboard The present-day State House sits atop this lowered Beacon Hill. Reclamation projects in the middle of the century created significant parts of the South End, the West End, the Financial District, and Chinatown. After The Great Boston Fire of 1872, workers used building rubble as landfill along the downtown waterfront. During the mid-to-late 19th century, workers filled almost 600 acres (2.4 km2) of brackish Charles River marshlands west of Boston Common with gravel brought by rail from the hills of Needham Heights. HP 646568-001 Laptop Keyboard Also, the city annexed the adjacent towns of South Boston (1804), East Boston (1836), Roxbury(1868), Dorchester (including present day Mattapan and a portion of South Boston) (1870), Brighton (including present day Allston) (1874), West Roxbury(including present day Jamaica Plain and Roslindale) (1874), Charlestown (1874), and Hyde Park (1912).[45][46] Other proposals, for the annexation of Brookline, Cambridge,[47] and Chelsea,[48][49] have been unsuccessful. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard On January 15, 1919, in the North End neighborhood, a large molasses storage tank burst, and a wave of molasses rushed through the streets at an estimated 35 miles per hour (56 km/h), killing 21 and injuring 150. The event has entered local folklore, known as The Boston Molasses Disaster.[50]HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard By the early and mid-20th century, the city was in decline as factories became old and obsolete, and businesses moved out of the region for cheaper labor elsewhere.[16] Boston responded by initiating various urban renewal projects under the direction of the Boston Redevelopment Authority (BRA), which was established in 1957. In 1958, BRA initiated a project to improve the historic West End neighborhood. Extensive demolition was met with vociferous public opposition.[51] SONY VAIO VGN-FZ21E Laptop Keyboard BRA subsequently reevaluated its approach to urban renewal in its future projects, including the construction of Government Center. In 1965, the first Community Health Center in the United States opened, the Columbia Point Health Center, in the Dorchester neighborhood. It mostly served the massiveColumbia Point public housing complex adjoining it, which was built in 1953. The health center is still in operation and was rededicated in 1990 as the Geiger-Gibson Community Health Center.[52]COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard In 1822,[39] the citizens of Boston voted to change the official name from "the Town of Boston" to "the City of Boston", and on March 4, 1822, the people of Boston accepted the charter incorporating the City.[40] At the time Boston was chartered as a city, the population was about 46,226, while the area of the city was only 4.7 square miles (12 km2).[40] In the 1820s, Boston's population began to swell, and the city's ethnic composition changed dramatically with the first wave of European immigrants. Irish immigrants dominated the first wave of newcomers during this period, TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5102CL Laptop Keyboard especially following the Irish potato famine. By 1850, about 35,000 Irish lived in Boston.[41] In the latter half of the 19th century, the city saw increasing numbers of Irish, Germans, Lebanese, Syrians,[42] French Canadians, and Russian and Polish Jews settle in the city. By the end of the 19th century, Boston's core neighborhoods had become enclaves of ethnically distinct immigrants—HP 496121-001 Laptop Keyboard Italians inhabited the North End, Irish dominated South Boston and Charlestown, and Russian Jews lived in the West End. Irish and Italianimmigrants brought with them Roman Catholicism. Currently, Catholics make up Boston's largest religious community,[43] and since the early 20th century, the Irish have played a major role in Boston politics—prominent figures include the Kennedys, Tip O'Neill, and John F. Fitzgerald.[32]HP NSK-H7A01 Laptop Keyboard TOSHIBA Satellite L505-S5998 Laptop Keyboard DELL UW739 Laptop Keyboard

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