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mid-1980s. Most served in the armed forces and the police around the areas where the military and police barracks were located - Ntinda, Naguru, Bugolobi and Mbuya. With the overthrow of Milton Obote in 1986, many northern Ugandans left the city. At the same time, a large number of western Ugandans, particularly the Banyankole, moved to the capital, reflecting the large proportion of western Ugandans in the new government of Yoweri Museveni.[12]

The mismanagement of Uganda's economy during the 1970s and 1980s meant that there were fewer employment opportunities outside Kampala. This encouraged many people from around the country to move into the city, and some have not moved back to their home districts after the revitalization of the economy in the 1990s and 2000s.[citation needed] COMPAQ Presario CQ50-106CA laptop keyboard

Inter-tribal marriage in Uganda is still rare, and although many Kampala residents have been born and raised in the city, they still define themselves by their tribal roots and speak their ancestral language. This is more evident in the suburbs, where tribal languages are spoken widely alongside English, Swahili andLuganda. In addition to the Baganda and Banyankole, other large ethnic groups include the Basoga, Bafumbira, Batoro, Bakiga, Alur, Bagisu, Banyoro, Iteso, Langiand Acholi.[13] SONY VAIO VGN-FS415M laptop keyboard

The League of Arab States (Arabic: جامعة الدول العربية‎ Jāmiʻat ad-Duwal al-ʻArabiyya), commonly called theArab League (Arabic: الجامعة العربية‎ al-Jāmiʻa al-ʻArabiyya), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa and Southwest Asia. It was formed in Cairo on 22 March 1945 with six members: Egypt, ACER Aspire 5810TZ-4657 laptop keyboard

Iraq,Transjordan (renamed Jordan in 1949), Lebanon, Saudi Arabia and Syria. Yemen joined as a member on 5 May 1945. Currently, the League has 22 members, although Syria's participation has been suspended since November 2011 as a consequence of government repression during the ongoing uprising and civil war.[2]  HP HDX18-1050EB laptop keyboard

The League's main goal is to "draw closer the relations between member States and co-ordinate collaboration between them, to safeguard their independence and sovereignty, and to consider in a general way the affairs and interests of the Arab countries".[3] SONY VAIO VPC-F12 laptop keyboard

Through institutions such as the Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALECSO) and the Economic and Social Council of the Arab League's Council of Arab Economic Unity (CAEU), the Arab League facilitates political, economic, cultural, scientific and social programs designed to promote the interests of the Arab world.[4][5]  Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 laptop keyboard

It has served as a forum for the member states to coordinate their policy positions, to deliberate on matters of common concern, to settle some Arab disputes, and to limit conflicts such as the 1958 Lebanon crisis. The League has served as a platform for the drafting and conclusion of many landmark documents promoting economic integration. One example is the Joint Arab Economic Action Charter which sets out the principles for economic activities in the region. Compaq Presario CQ42 laptop keyboard

Each member state has only one vote in the League Council, while decisions are binding only for those states that have voted for them. The aims of the league in 1945 were to strengthen and coordinate the political, cultural, economic, and social programs of its members, and to mediate disputes among them or between them and third parties. Furthermore, the signing of an agreement on Joint Defense and Economic Cooperation on 13 April 1950 committed the signatories to coordination of military defense measures. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard

In the early 1970s, the Economic Council of the League of Arab States put forward a proposal to create the Joint Arab Chambers of Commerce across the European states. This led, under the decree of the League of Arab States no. K1175/D52/G, to the decision by the Arab governments to set up the Arab British Chamber of Commerce which was mandated to: “promote, encourage and facilitate bilateral trade” between the Arab world and its major trading partner, the United Kingdom. SONY VAIO VGN-NW11S/S laptop keyboard

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The Arab League has also played a role in shaping school curricula, advancing the role of women in the Arab societies, promoting child welfare, encouraging youth and sports programs, preserving Arab cultural heritage, and fostering cultural exchanges between the member states.[citation needed] Literacy campaigns have been launched, HP Mini 110-1140TU laptop keyboard

intellectual works reproduced, and modern technical terminology is translated for the use within member states. The league encourages measures against crime and drug abuse, and deals with labour issues — particularly among the emigrant Arab workforce.

Following adoption of the Alexandria Protocol in 1944, the Arab League was founded on 22 March 1945. HP Mini 210 laptop keyboard

It aimed to be a regional organisation of Arab states with a focus to developing the economy, resolving disputes, and coordinating political aims.[6] Other countries joined the league at later dates.[7] Each country was given one vote in the council. The first major action was the joint intervention, ASUS X53S laptop keyboard

allegedly on behalf of the majority Arab population that was being uprooted as the State of Israel emerged in 1948 (and in response to popular outcry in the Arab world), although in fact a main participant in this intervention, Transjordan, had agreed with the Israelis to divide up the Arab Palestinian state proposed by the UN General Assembly, HP 633183-001 laptop keyboard

while Egypt intervened primarily to prevent its rival in Amman from accomplishing its objective.[8] This was followed by the creation of a mutual defense treaty two years later. A common market was established in 1965.[6] (Robert W. MacDonald, The League of Arab States: A Study in Regional Organization. Princeton, New Jersey, USA, Lenovo 3000 C200 laptop keyboard

Princeton University Press, 1965.) The Arab League was founded in Cairo in 1945 by seven countries, Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Transjordan(Jordan from 1946), and Yemen. There was a continual increase in membership during the second half of the 20th century, with additional 15 Arab States being admitted, with a current total of 21 member States due to Syria's suspension following the 2011 uprising. TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4070 laptop keyboard

On 22 February 2011, following the start of the Libyan civil war and the use of military force against civilians, the Arab League Secretary-General, Amr Moussa, stated that Libya's membership in the Arab League had been suspended: "the organisation has decided to halt the participation of the Libyan delegations from all Arab League sessions".[9] Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

This makes Libya the second country in the League's history to have a frozen membership. Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi declared that the League was illegitimate, saying: "The Arab League is finished. There is no such thing as the Arab League."[10][11] On 25 August 2011, Secretary-General Nabil Elaraby announced it was "about time" Libya's full member status was restored. HP Pavilion dv6-2124el laptop keyboard

The National Transitional Council, the partially recognised interim government of Libya, will send a representative to be seated at the Arab League meeting on 17 August to participate in a discussion as to whether to readmit Libya to the organisation.[12] HP 605344-001 laptop keyboard

The Arab Parliament recommended the suspension of member states Syria and Yemen on 20 September 2011, over persistent reports of disproportionate violence against regime opponents and activists during the Arab Spring.[13] SONY VAIO VGN-NW250D/W laptop keyboard

A vote on 12 November agreed to formally suspend Syria four days after the vote, giving Assad a last chance to avoid suspension. Syria, Lebanon, and Yemen voted against the motion, while Iraq abstained.[14] A wave of criticism rose as the Arab League sent in December 2011 a commission "monitoring" violence on people protesting against the regime.  Packard Bell PEW91 laptop keyboard

The commission was headed by Mohammad Ahmed Mustafa al-Dabi, who served as head of Omar al-Bashir's military intelligence, while war crimes including genocide were allegedly committed on his watch.[15][16][17] On 6 March 2013, the Arab League granted the Syrian National CoalitionSyria's seat in the Arab League.[citation needed] SONY VAIO VGN-FS115Z laptop keyboard

The Charter of the Arab League[3] endorsed the principle of an Arab homeland while respecting the sovereignty of the individual member states. The internal regulations of the Council of the League[18] and the committees[19] were agreed in October 1951. Those of the Secretariat-General were agreed in May 1953.[20] TOSHIBA Satellite L675-S7044 laptop keyboard

Since then, governance of the Arab League has been based on the duality of supra-national institutions and the sovereignty of the member states. Preservation of individual statehood derived its strengths from the natural preference of ruling elites to maintain their power and independence in decision making. Moreover, TOSHIBA Satellite L355-S7905 laptop keyboard

the fear of the richer that the poorer may share their wealth in the name of Arab nationalism, the feuds among Arab rulers, and the influence of external powers that might oppose Arab unity can be seen as obstacles towards a deeper integration of the league.  DELL AEGM7U00110 laptop keyboard

Mindful of their previous announcements in support of the Arabs of Palestine the framers of the Pact were determined to include them within the League from its inauguration.[21] This was done by means of an annex that declared:[3] SONY VAIO VGN-SR220J/H laptop keyboard

At the Cairo Summit of 1964, the Arab League initiated the creation of an organisation representing the Palestinian people. The first Palestinian National Council convened in East Jerusalem on 29 May 1964. The Palestinian Liberation Organization was founded during this meeting on 2 June 1964. Today, Palestine is a full member of the Arab League and is represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization. IBM 42T3265 laptop keyboard

At the Beirut Summit on 28 March 2002, the league adopted the Arab Peace Initiative,[22] a Saudi-inspired peace plan for the Arab–Israeli conflict. The initiative offered full normalisation of the relations with Israel. In exchange, Israel was required to withdraw from all occupied territories, including theGolan Heights, TOSHIBA NB100 laptop keyboard

to recognise Palestinian independence in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, with East Jerusalem as its capital, as well as a "just solution" for thePalestinian refugees. The Peace Initiative was again endorsed at 2007 in the Riyadh Summit. In July 2007, the Arab League sent a mission, consisting of theJordanian and Egyptian foreign ministers, SONY VAIO VGN-N11S laptop keyboard

to Israel to promote the initiative. Following Venezuela's move to expel Israeli diplomats amid the 20082009 Israel–Gaza conflict, Kuwaiti member of parliament Waleed al-Tabtabai proposed moving Arab League headquarters to Caracas, Venezuela.[23] On 13 June 2010, Amr Mohammed Moussa, Secretary-General of the Arab League, visited the Gaza Strip, the first visit by an official of the Arab League since Hamas' armed takeover in 2007. DELL NSK-DD101 laptop keyboard

The Arab League is rich in resources, with enormous oil and natural gas resources in certain member states. Another industry that is growing steadily in the Arab League is telecommunications. Within less than a decade, local companies such as Orascom and Etisalat have managed to compete internationally.  Compaq Mini 730EA laptop keyboard

Economic achievements initiated by the League amongst member states have been less impressive than those achieved by smaller Arab organisations such as the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC).[25] Among them is the Arab Gas Pipeline, that will transport Egyptian and Iraqi gas to Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, and Turkey.  SONY VGN-FE48E laptop keyboard

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Significant difference in wealth and economic conditions exist between the rich oil states of the UAE, Qatar, Kuwait, and Algeria, and poor countries like the Comoros,Mauritania, and Djibouti. The Arab League agreed to support the Sudanese region of Darfur with US$500 million.  Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

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