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23 décembre 2013 1 23 /12 /décembre /2013 10:10

Turf wars between rival societies occasionally led to hundreds of deaths and attempts to suppress them had limited success.[20]

The situation created deep concern in the European population of the island. In 1854 the Singapore Free Press complained that Singapore was a "small island" full of the "very dregs of the population of south eastern Asia".SONY Vaio VGN-NR31S/S CPU Fan

As Singapore continued to grow, the deficiencies in the Straits Settlements administration became serious and Singapore's merchant community began agitating against British Indian rule. The British government agreed to establish the Straits Settlements as a separate Crown Colony on 1 April 1867. IBM 91P9252 CPU Fan

This new colony was ruled by a governor under the supervision of theColonial Office in London. An executive council and a legislative council assisted the governor.[22] Although members of the councils were not elected, more representatives for the local population were gradually included over the years. Toshiba Satellite M70-122 CPU Fan

The colonial government embarked on several measures to address the serious social problems facing Singapore. A Chinese Protectorate under Pickering was established in 1877 to address the needs of the Chinese community, especially in controlling the worst abuses of the coolie trade and protecting Chinese women from forced prostitution.[22] SONY UDQFWPH22FQU CPU Fan

In 1889 Governor Sir Cecil Clementi Smith banned secret societies, driving them underground.[22] Nevertheless, many social problems persisted up through the post-war era, including an acute housing shortage and poor health and living standards. HP Pavilion dv6-2150ei CPU Fan

In 1906, the Tongmenghui, a revolutionary Chinese organisation dedicated to the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty and led by Sun Yat-sen, founded its Nanyangbranch in Singapore, which served as the organisation's headquarters in Southeast Asia.[22] The members of the branch included Dr. Wong Hong-Kui (黃康衢),[23] HP G42-367TU CPU Fan

Mr. Chan Cho-Nam (陳楚楠, 1884-1971, originally a rubber manufacturer) [24] and Mr. Cheung Wing-Fook (張永福, originally a rubber shoe manufacturer).[25] Chan Cho-Nam, Cheung Wing-Fook and Chan Po-Yin (陳步賢, 1883-1965) started the revolution-related Chong Shing Chinese Daily Newspaper (中興日報, 中興 meaning China revival),[26] Toshiba Satellite P100-238 CPU Fan

with the inaugural issue on 20 August 1907 and a daily distribution of 1000 copies. The newspaper ended in 1910, presumably due to the revolution in 1911. Working with other Cantonese people, Chan, Cheung and Chan opened the revolution-related Kai Ming Bookstore (開明書報社, 開明 meaning open wisdom) [27] in Singapore. ACER Aspire 5739 CPU Fan

For the revolution, Chan Po-Yin raised over 30,000 yuan for the purchase and shipment (from Singapore to China) of military equipment and for the support of the expenses of people travelling from Singapore to China for revolutionary work.[28][29] The immigrant Chinese population in Singapore donated generously to Tongmenghui, IBM ThinkPad T40 2678 CPU Fan

which organised the 1911Xinhai Revolution that led to the establishment of the Republic of China.

World War I (1914–1918) did not deeply affect Singapore: the conflict did not spread to Southeast Asia. The only significant local military event during the war was a 1915 mutiny by the British Muslim Indian sepoys garrisoned in Singapore.[30] IBM Thinkpad T43 CPU Fan

After hearing rumors of plans to send them to fight the Ottoman Empire, the soldiers revolted, killing their officers and several British civilians before troops arriving from Johor and Burma suppressed the unrest.[31]

After the war, the British government devoted significant resources into building a naval base in Singapore, IBM ThinkPad T43 2668 CPU Fan

as a deterrent to the increasingly ambitious Japanese Empire. Completed in 1939 at a staggering cost of $500 million, the naval base boasted what was then the largest dry dock in the world, the third-largest floating dock, and enough fuel tanks to support the entire British navy for six months. It was defended by heavy 15-inch naval guns and by IBM ThinkPad T43 1871 CPU Fan

Royal Air Force squadrons stationed at Tengah Air Base. Winston Churchill touted it as the "Gibraltar of the East." Unfortunately, it was a base without a fleet. TheBritish Home Fleet was stationed in Europe and the plan was for it to sail quickly to Singapore when needed. However, after World War II broke out in 1939, the Fleet was fully occupied with defending Britain. ACER Travelmate 8104WLMI CPU Fan

On 7 December 1941, Japan attacked Pearl Harbor and the Pacific War began in earnest. One of Japan's objectives was to capture Southeast Asia and secure the rich supply of natural resources to feed its military and industry needs. Singapore, the main Allied base in the region, was an obvious military target because of its flourishing trade and wealth. DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

The British military commanders in Singapore had believed that the Japanese attack would come by sea from the south, since the dense Malayan jungle in the north would serve as a natural barrier against invasion. Although they had drawn up a plan for dealing with an attack on northern Malaya, preparations were never completed. ASUS F80S CPU Fan

The military was confident that "Fortress Singapore" would withstand any Japanese attack and this confidence was further reinforced by the arrival of Force Z, a squadron of British warships dispatched to the defense of Singapore, including the battleship HMS Prince of Wales, and cruiserHMS RepulseHP Pavilion dv5-1058eo CPU Fan

The squadron was to have been accompanied by a third capital ship, the aircraft carrier HMS Indomitable, but it ran aground en route, leaving the squadron without air cover.

On 8 December 1941, Japanese forces landed at Kota Bharu in northern Malaya. Just two days after the start of the invasion of Malaya, IBM 13N5182 CPU Fan

Prince of Wales and Repulse were sunk 50 miles off the coast of Kuantan in Pahang, by a force of Japanese bombers and torpedo bomber aircraft, in the worst British naval defeat of World War II. Allied air support did not arrive in time to protect the two capital ships.[33] After this incident, IBM Thinkpad T30 2366-AA3 CPU Fan

Singapore and Malaya suffered daily air raids, including those targeting civilian structures such as hospitals or shophouses with casualties ranging from the tens to the hundreds each time.

The Japanese army advanced swiftly southward through the Malay Peninsula, crushing or bypassing Allied resistance.[34] IBM Thinkpad T30 CPU Fan

The Allied forces did not have tanks, which they considered unsuitable in the tropical rainforest, and their infantry proved powerless against the Japanese light tanks. As their resistance failed against the Japanese advance, the Allied forces were forced to retreat southwards towards Singapore. By 31 January 1942, HP 535438-001 CPU Fan

a mere 55 days after the start of the invasion, the Japanese had conquered the entire Malay Peninsula and were poised to attack Singapore.

The causeway linking Johor and Singapore was blown up by the Allied forces in an effort to stop the Japanese army. DELL Inspiron N3010 CPU Fan

However, the Japanese managed to cross the Straits of Johor in inflatable boats days after. Several fights by the Allied forces and volunteers of Singapore's population against the advancing Japanese, such as the Battle of Pasir Panjang, took place during this period.[36] However, with most of the defenses shattered and supplies exhausted, HP Pavilion dv6-3070tx CPU Fan

Lieutenant-General Arthur Percivalsurrendered the Allied forces in Singapore to General Tomoyuki Yamashita of the Imperial Japanese Army on Chinese New Year, 15 February 1942. About 130,000 Indian, Australian and British troops became prisoners of war, many of whom would later be transported to Burma, IBM 41W5269 CPU Fan

Japan, Korea, or Manchuria for use as slave labour via prisoner transports known as "hell ships." The fall of Singapore was the largest surrender of British-led forces in history.[37] Japanese newspapers triumphantly declared the victory as deciding the general situation of the war.[38] ASUS A8H CPU Fan

Singapore, renamed Syonan-to (昭南島 Shōnan-tō, "Light of the South Island" in Japanese), was occupied by the Japanese from 1942 to 1945. The Japanese army imposed harsh measures against the local population, with troops, especially the Kempeitai or Japanese military police, particularly ruthless in dealing with the Chinese population.[39] SONY UDQFRZH13CF0 CPU Fan

The most notable atrocity was theSook Ching massacre of Chinese civilians, undertaken in retaliation against support of the war effort in China. The mass executions claimed between 25,000 and 50,000 lives in Malaya and Singapore. The rest of the population suffered severe hardship throughout the three and a half years of Japanese occupation.[40] HP COMPAQ 2510P CPU Fan

The Malay and Indians were forced to build the "Death Railway", a railway between Thailand and Burma (Myanmar). Most of them died while building the railway. The Eurasians were also caught as POWs (Prisoners of War).

After the Japanese surrender to the Allies on 15 August 1945, Singapore fell into a brief state of anomie; looting and revenge-killing were widespread. APPLE 661-4951 CPU Fan

British troops led by Lord Louis Mountbatten, Supreme Allied Commander for Southeast Asia Command, returned to Singapore to receive formal surrender of the Japanese forces in the region from General Itagaki Seishiro on behalf of General Hisaichi Terauchi on 12 September 1945, and a British Military Administration was formed to govern the island until March 1946. HP Pavilion dv6-3034ca CPU Fan

Much of the infrastructure had been destroyed during the war, including electricity and water supply systems, telephone services, as well as the harbor facilities at the Port of Singapore. There was also a shortage of food leading to malnutrition, disease, and rampant crime and violence. HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

High food prices, unemployment, and workers' discontent culminated into a series of strikes in 1947 causing massive stoppages in public transport and other services. By late 1947, the economy began to recover, facilitated by a growing demand for tin and rubber around the world, but it would take several more years before the economy returned to pre-war levels.[41]  cCompaq Presario C556CA CPU Fan

The failure of Britain to defend Singapore had destroyed its credibility as infallible ruler in the eyes of Singaporeans. The decades after the war saw a political awakening amongst the local populace and the rise ofanti-colonial and nationalist sentiments, epitomized by the slogan Merdeka, or "independence" in the Malay language. SONY Vaio VGN-NR360E CPU Fan

The British, on their part, were prepared to gradually increase self-governance for Singapore and Malaya.[41] On 1 April 1946, the Straits Settlements was dissolved and Singapore became a separate Crown Colony with a civil administration headed by a Governor. HP Pavilion dv5170us CPU Fan

In July 1947, separate Executive and Legislative Councils were established and the election of six members of the Legislative Council was scheduled in the following year.

The first Singaporean elections, held in March 1948, were limited as only six of the twenty-five seats on theLegislative Council were to be elected. SONY Vaio VPC-EE3WFX/WI CPU Fan

Only British subjects had the rights to vote, and only 23,000 or about 10% of those eligible registered to vote. Other members of the Council were chosen either by the Governor or by the chambers of commerce.[41] Three of the elected seats were won by a newly formed Singapore Progressive Party(SPP), HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

a conservative party whose leaders were businessmen and professionals and were disinclined to press for immediate self-rule. The other three seats were won by independents.

Three months after the elections, an armed insurgency by communist groups in Malaya – the Malayan Emergency – broke out. HP 3MLX8TATP20 CPU Fan

The British imposed tough measures to control left-wing groups in both Singapore and Malaya and introduced the controversial Internal Security Act, which allowed indefinite detention without trial for persons suspected of being "threats to security". Since the left-wing groups were the strongest critics of the colonial system, progress on self-government was stalled for several years. SONY Vaio VGN-NW240F/S CPU Fan

A second Legislative Council election was held in 1951 with the number of elected seats increased to nine. This election was again dominated by the SPP which won six seats. While this contributed to the formation of a distinct local government of Singapore, the colonial administration was still dominant. SONY Vaio VPC-EB1Z0E/B CPU Fan

In 1953, with the communists in Malaya suppressed and the worst of the Emergency over, a British Commission, headed by Sir George Rendel, proposed a limited form of self-government for Singapore. A new Legislative Assembly with twenty-five out of thirty-two seats chosen by popular election would replace the Legislative Council, Compaq Presario CQ60-514NR CPU Fan

from which a Chief Minister as head of government and Council of Ministers as a cabinet would be picked under a parliamentary system. The British would retain control over areas such as internal security and foreign affairs, as well as veto power over legislation.

The election for the Legislative Assembly held on 2 April 1955 was a lively and closely fought affair, Toshiba Satellite X205-S9800 CPU Fan

with several new political parties joining the fray. Unlike previous elections, voters were automatically registered, expanding the electorate to around 300,000. The SPP was soundly defeated in the election, winning only four seats. The newly formed, left-leaning Labour Front was the biggest winner with ten seats and it formed a coalition government with the UMNO-MCA Alliance, which won three seats.[41] ASUS G2P CPU Fan

Another new party, the leftist People's Action Party (PAP), won three seats.

David Marshall, leader of the Labour Front, became the first Chief Minister of Singapore. He presided over a shaky government, receiving little cooperation from either the colonial government or the other local parties. Compaq Presario CQ60-430SA CPU Fan

 

Social unrest was on the rise, and in May 1955, the Hock Lee bus riots broke out, killing four people and seriously discrediting Marshall's government.[43] In 1956, the Chinese middle school riotsbroke out among students in The Chinese High School and other schools, DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

further increasing the tension between the local government and the Chinese students and unionists who were regarded of having communist sympathies.

In April 1956, Marshall led a delegation to London to negotiate for complete self-rule in the Merdeka Talks, but the talks failed when the British were reluctant to give up control over Singapore's internal security. HP Pavilion dv5-1272et CPU Fan

The British were concerned about communist influence and labour strikes which were undermining Singapore's economic stability, and felt that the local government was ineffective in handling earlier riots. Marshall resigned following the failure of the talk.

The new Chief Minister, Lim Yew Hock, launched a crackdown on communist and leftist groups, Toshiba AB7005HX-SB3 CPU Fan

imprisoning many trade union leaders and several pro-communist members of the PAP under the Internal Security Act.[44] The British government approved of Lim's tough stance against communist agitators, and when a new round of talks was held beginning in March 1957, they agreed to grant complete internal self-government. Toshiba Satellite A500-18T CPU Fan

A State of Singapore would be created, with its own citizenship. The Legislative Assembly would be expanded to fifty-one members, entirely chosen by popular election, and the Prime Minister and cabinet would control all aspects of government except defense and foreign affairs. The governorship was replaced by a Yang di-Pertuan Negara or head of state. HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

In August 1958, the State of Singapore Act was passed in the United Kingdom Parliament providing for the establishment of the State of Singapore.

Elections for the new Legislative Assembly were held in May 1959. The People's Action Party (PAP) won the polls in a landslide victory, winning forty-three of the fifty-one seats. ASUS EEE PC 1201NL CPU Fan

They accomplished this by courting the Chinese-speaking majority, particularly those in the labour unions and radical student organizations. Its leader Lee Kuan Yew, a young Cambridge-educated lawyer, became the first Prime Minister of Singapore.

The PAP's victory was viewed with dismay by foreign and local business leaders because some party's members were pro-communists. SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D/T CPU Fan

Many businesses promptly shifted their headquarters from Singapore to Kuala Lumpur.[44] Despite these ill omens, the PAP government embarked on a vigorous program to address Singapore's various economic and social problems. Economic development was overseen by the new Minister of Finance Goh Keng Swee, Compaq Presario CQ60-418DX CPU Fan

whose strategy was to encourage foreign and local investment with measures ranging from tax incentives to the establishment of a large industrial estate in Jurong.[44] The education system was revamped to train a skilled workforce and the English language was promoted over the Chinese language as the language of instruction. SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D CPU Fan

To eliminate labour unrest, existing labour unions were consolidated, sometimes forcibly, into a single umbrella organisation, called the National Trades Union Congress (NTUC) with strong oversight from the government. On the social front, an aggressive and well-funded public housing program was launched to solve the long-standing housing problem. SONY VGN-BX197XP CPU Fan

More than 25,000 high-rise, low-cost apartments were constructed during the first two years of the program.

Despite their successes in governing Singapore, the PAP leaders, including Lee, Goh, believed that Singapore's future lay with Malaya. They felt that the historical and economic ties between Singapore and Malaya were too strong for them to continue as separate nations, Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

and they campaigned vigorously for a merger. On the other hand, the sizable pro-communist wing of the PAP were strongly opposed to the merger, fearing a loss of influence as the ruling party of Malaya, United Malays National Organisation, was staunchly anti-communist and would support the non-communist faction of PAP against them. Toshiba AB7805HX-GB3 CPU Fan

The UMNO leaders were also skeptical of the merger idea due to their distrust of the PAP government and concerns that the large Chinese population in Singapore would alter the racial balance on which their political power base depended. Toshiba Satellite L500-208 CPU Fan

The issue came to a head in 1961 when pro-communist PAP minister Ong Eng Guan defected from the party and beat a PAP candidate in a subsequent by-election, a move that threatened to bring down Lee's government. Faced with the prospect of a takeover by the pro-communists, UMNO did an about-face on the merger. HP 535441-001 CPU Fan

On 27 May, Malaya's Prime Minister, Tunku Abdul Rahman, mooted the idea of a Federation of Malaysia, comprising existing Federation of Malaya, Singapore, Brunei and the British Borneo territories of Sabah and Sarawak. The UMNO leaders believed that the additional Malay population in the Borneo territories would offset Singapore's Chinese population.[44] Toshiba Satellite P100-444 CPU Fan

On 9 July 1963, the leaders of Singapore, Malaya, Sabah and Sarawak signed the Malaysia Agreement to establish the Federation of Malaysia.

On 16 September 1963, Malaya, Singapore, North Borneo and Sarawak were formally merged and Malaysia was formed.[44] The PAP Government felt that Singapore's survival as a nation would be difficult. HP Pavilion dv7-3114eo CPU Fan

They lacked natural resources and faced a declining entrepot trade and a growing population which required jobs. Therefore, Singapore felt that the merger was thought to benefit the economy by creating a common free market, eliminating trade tariffs, solving unemployment woes and to support new industries. HP Mini 110-1125SA CPU Fan

The British government were reluctant to grant full independence to Singapore because they believed it would provide a haven for communism.

The union was rocky from the start. During the 1963 Singapore state elections, a local branch of UMNO took part in the election despite an earlier UMNO's agreement with the PAP not to participate in the state's politics during Malaysia's formative years. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

Although UMNO lost all its bids, relations between PAP and UMNO worsened. The PAP, in a tit-for-tat, challenged UMNO candidates in the 1964 federal election as part of the Malaysian Solidarity Convention, winning one seat in Malaysian Parliament.

Racial tensions increased as the Chinese in Singapore disdained being discriminated against by the federal policies of affirmative action, Compaq Presario CQ60-210eo CPU Fan

which granted special privileges to the Malays guaranteed under Article 153 of the Constitution of Malaysia. There were also other financial and economic benefits that were preferentially given to Malays. Lee Kuan Yew and other political leaders began advocating for the fair and equal treatment of all races in Malaysia, with a rallying cry of "Malaysian Malaysia!"HP Pavilion dv7-2250sf CPU Fan

Meanwhile, the Malays in Singapore were being increasingly incited by the federal government's accusations that the PAP was mistreating the Malays. The external political situation was also tense; Indonesian President Sukarno declared a state of Konfrontasi (Confrontation) against Malaysia and initiated military and other actions against the new nation, HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

including the bombing of MacDonald House in Singapore 10 March 1965 by Indonesian commandos, killing three people.[45]Indonesia also conducted sedition activities to provoke the Malays against the Chinese.[44] Numerous racial riots resulted and curfews were frequently imposed to restore order. HP G60-230us CPU Fan

The most notorious riots were the 1964 Race Riots that first took place on Prophet Muhammad's birthday on 21 July with twenty three people killed and hundreds injured. During the unrest, the price of food skyrocketed when transport system was disrupted, causing further hardship for the people. HP Pavilion dv6365us CPU Fan

The state and federal governments also had conflicts on the economic front. UMNO leaders feared that the economic dominance of Singapore would inevitably shift political power away from Kuala Lumpur. Despite earlier agreement to establish a common market, Singapore continued to face restrictions when trading with the rest of Malaysia. HP 535439-001 CPU Fan

In retaliation, Singapore refused to provide Sabah and Sarawak the full extent of the loans previously agreed to for the economic development of the two eastern states. The Bank of China branch of Singapore was closed by the Central Government in Kuala Lumpur as it was suspected of funding communists. COMPAQ 6910c CPU Fan

The situation escalated to such an extent that talks between UMNO and the PAP broke down, and abusive speeches and writings became rife on both sides. UMNO extremists called for the arrest of Lee Kuan Yew.

Seeing no other alternative to avoid further bloodshed, IBM Lenovo IdeaPad G510 CPU Fan

the Malaysian Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman decided to expel Singapore from the federation. Goh Keng Swee, who had become skeptical of merger's economic benefits for Singapore, convinced Lee Kuan Yew that the separation had to take place. UMNO and PAP representatives worked out the terms of separation in extreme secrecy in order to present the British government, in particular, with a fait accompliHP G62-110SO CPU Fan

On the morning of 9 August 1965, the Parliament of Malaysia voted 126–0 in favor of a constitutional amendment expelling Singapore from the federation; hours later, the Parliament of Singapore passed the Republic of Singapore Independence Act, establishing the island as an independent and sovereign republic. DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

A tearful Lee Kuan Yew announced in a televised press conference that Singapore had become a sovereign, independent nation. In a widely remembered quote, he stated: "For me, it is a moment of anguish. All my life, my whole adult life, I have believed in merger and unity of the two territories."[46][47] SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan

The new state became the Republic of Singapore, with Yusof bin Ishak appointed as its first President.

After gaining independence abruptly, Singapore faced a future filled with uncertainties. The Konfrontasi was on-going and the conservative UMNO faction strongly opposed the separation; HP Envy 17-1090eo CPU Fan

Singapore faced the dangers of attack by the Indonesian military and forcible re-integration into the Malaysia Federation on unfavorable terms. Much of the international media was skeptical of prospects for Singapore's survival. Besides the issue of sovereignty, the pressing problems were unemployment, housing, education, and the lack of natural resources and land.[49] Toshiba Satellite A210-1CF CPU Fan

Unemployment was ranging between 10–12%, threatening to trigger civil unrest.

Singapore immediately sought international recognition of its sovereignty. The new state joined the United Nations on 21 September 1965, becoming the 117th member; and joined the Commonwealth in October that year. Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

Foreign minister Sinnathamby Rajaratnam headed a new foreign service that helped assert Singapore's independence and establishing diplomatic relations with other countries.[50] On 22 December 1965, the Constitution Amendment Act was passed under which the Head of State became the President and the State of Singapore became the Republic of Singapore. Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan

Singapore later co-founded the Association of Southeast Asian Nations on 8 August 1967 and was admitted into the Non-Aligned Movement in 1970.[51]

The Economic Development Board had been set up in 1961 to formulate and implement national economic strategies, focusing on promoting Singapore's manufacturing sector.[52] Compaq Presario A900 CTO CPU Fan

Industrial estates were set up, especially in Jurong, and foreign investment was attracted to the country with tax incentives. The industrialization transformed the manufacturing sector to one that produced higher value-added goods and achieved greater revenue. Theservice industry also grew at this time, driven by demand for services by ships calling at the port and increasing commerce. ACER Aspire 4736ZG CPU Fan

This progress helped to alleviate the unemployment crisis. Singapore also attracted big oil companies like Shell and Esso to establish oil refineries in Singapore which, by the mid-1970s, became the third largest oil-refining centre in the world.[49] The government invested heavily in an education system that adopted English as the language of instruction and emphasised practical training to develop a competent workforce well suited for the industry. Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan

The lack of good public housing, poor sanitation, and high unemployment led to social problems from crime to health issues. The proliferation of squattersettlements resulted in safety hazards and caused the Bukit Ho Swee Squatter Fire in 1961 that killed four people and left 16,000 others homeless.[53] SONY MCF-519PAM05 CPU Fan

TheHousing Development Board set up before independence continued to be largely successful and huge building projects sprung up to provide affordable public housing to resettle the squatters. Within a decade, the majority of the population had been housed in these apartments. The Central Provident Fund (CPF) Housing Scheme, SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan

introduced in 1968, allows residents to use their compulsory savings account to purchase HDB flats and gradually increases home ownership in Singapore.[54]

British troops had remained in Singapore following its independence, but in 1968, London announced its decision to withdraw the forces by 1971.[55] HP Pavilion dv7-2043cl CPU Fan

With the secret aid of military advisers from Israel, Singapore rapidly established the Singapore Armed Forces, with the help of a national service program introduced in 1967.[56] Since independence, Singaporean defense spending has been approximately five percent of GDP. Today, the Singapore Armed Forces is among the best-equipped in Asia. HP Pavilion dv7-2130ev CPU Fan

Further economic success continued through the 1980s, with the unemployment rate falling to 3% and real GDP growth averaging at about 8% up until 1999. During the 1980s, Singapore began to upgrade to higher-technology industries, such as the wafer fabrication sector, in order to compete with its neighbours which now had cheaper labour. HP 608772-001 CPU Fan

Singapore Changi Airport was opened in 1981 and Singapore Airlines was developed to become a major airline.[57] The Port of Singapore became one of the world's busiest ports and the service and tourism industries also grew immensely during this period. Singapore emerged as an important transportation hub and a major tourist destination. Toshiba Satellite A100-194 CPU Fan

The Housing Development Board continued to promote public housing with new towns, such as Ang Mo Kio, being designed and built. These new residential estates have larger and higher-standard apartments and are served with better amenities. Today, 80–90% of the population lives in HDB apartments. HP Pavilion tx1205/ CT CPU Fan

In 1987, the first Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) line began operation, connecting most of these housing estates and the city centre.[58]

The political situation in Singapore continued to be dominated by the People's Action Party. The PAP won all the parliamentary seats in every election between 1966 and 1981.[59] HP Pavilion dv6640ep CPU Fan

The PAP rule is termed authoritarian by some activists and opposition politicians who see the strict regulation of political and media activities by the government as an infringement on political rights.[60] The conviction of opposition politician Chee Soon Juan for illegal protests and the defamation lawsuits against J. B. COMPAQ Presario CQ42-401TU CPU Fan

Jeyaretnam have been cited by the opposition parties as examples of such authoritarianism.[61] The lack of separation of powers between the court system and the government led to further accusations by the opposition parties of miscarriage of justice.

The government of Singapore underwent several significant changes. Toshiba Satellite A300D CPU Fan

Non-Constituency Members of Parliament were introduced in 1984 to allow up to three losing candidates from opposition parties to be appointed as MPs. Group Representation Constituencies (GRCs) was introduced in 1988 to create multi-seat electoral divisions, intended to ensure minority representation in parliament.[62] HP Pavilion dv8397ea CPU  Fan

Nominated Members of Parliament were introduced in 1990 to allow non-elected non-partisan MPs.[63] The Constitution was amended in 1991 to provide for an Elected President who has veto power in the use of national reserves and appointments to public office.[64] HP Pavilion dv9821ea CPU Fan

The opposition parties have complained that the GRC system has made it difficult for them to gain a foothold in parliamentary elections in Singapore, and the plurality voting system tends to exclude minority parties.[65]

In 1990, Lee Kuan Yew passed the reins of leadership to Goh Chok Tong, who became the second prime minister of Singapore. HP COMPAQ TC4200 CPU Fan

Goh presented a more open and consultative style of leadership as the country continued to modernise. In 1997, Singapore experienced the effect of the Asian financial crisis and tough measures, such as cuts in the CPF contribution, were implemented.

In the early 2000s, Singapore went through some post-independence crises, HP G62-b16ST CPU Fan

including the SARS outbreak in 2003 and the threat of terrorism. In December 2001, a plot to bomb embassies and other infrastructure in Singapore was uncovered[66] and as many as 36 members of the Jemaah Islamiyah group were arrested under the Internal Security Act.[67] Major counter-terrorism measures were put in place to detect and prevent potential terrorism acts and to minimise damages should they occur.[68HP 580696-001 CPU Fan

] More emphasis was placed on promoting social integration and trust between the different communities.[69]

In 2004, Lee Hsien Loong, the eldest son of Lee Kuan Yew, became the third prime minister of Singapore. HP Pavilion dv6-3049tx CPU Fan

He introduced several policy changes, including the reduction of national service duration from two and a half years to two years, and the legalisation of casino gambling.[70] Other efforts to raise the city's global profile included the reestablishment of the Singapore Grand Prix in 2008, and the hosting of the 2010 Summer Youth Olympics. HP G42-380LA CPU Fan

The general election of 2006 was a landmark election because of the prominent use of the internet and blogging to cover and comment on the election, circumventing the official media.[71] The PAP returned to power, winning 82 of the 84 parliamentary seats and 66% of the votes.[72] In 2005, Wee Kim Wee and Devan Nair, two former Presidents, died. Toshiba Qosmio G30-167 CPU Fan

The general election of 2011 was yet another watershed election due to the first time a GRC was lost by the ruling party PAP, to the opposition party WP. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan,Compaq Presario CQ40-408AX CPU Fan,HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

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