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Congo, on the southwest by Rwanda, and on the south by Tanzania. The southern part of the country includes a substantial portion of Lake Victoria, shared with Kenya and Tanzania. Uganda lies within the Nile basin, Dell Inspiron 2500 Laptop Keyboard

and has a varied but generally equatorial climate.

Uganda takes its name from the Buganda kingdom, which encompasses a large portion of the south of the country including the capital Kampala. The people of Uganda were hunter-gatherers until 1,700 to 2,300 years ago, when Bantu-speaking populations migrated to the southern parts of the country. HP Pavilion G7-1167DX Laptop Keyboard

Beginning in the late 1800s, the area was ruled as a colony by the British, who established administrative law across the territory. Uganda gained independence from Britain on 9 October 1962. The period since then has been marked by intermittent conflicts, most recently a lengthy civil war against the Lord's Resistance Army, which has caused tens of thousands of casualties and displaced more than a million people.

The official languages are Swahili and English. SAMSUNG N140 Laptop Keyboard

The current President of Uganda is Yoweri Kaguta Museveni, who came to power in a coup in 1986.

The Ugandans were hunter-gatherers until 1,700 to 2,300 years ago. Bantu-speaking populations, who were probably from central Africa, migrated to the southern parts of the country.[5][6] These groups brought and developed ironworking skills and new ideas of social and political organization. The Empire of Kitara covered most of the great lakes area, from Lake Albert, Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, to Lake Kyoga. TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard

Its leadership headquarters were mainly in what became Ankole (Ancholi) in the North, believed to have been run by the Bachwezi dynasty in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. They may have followed a semi-legendary dynasty known as the Batembuzi. Bunyoro-Kitara is claimed as the antecedent of later kingdoms; Buganda, Toro, Ankole and Busoga.[7]

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Nilotic people, including Luo and Ateker, entered the area from the north, probably beginning about A.D. 120. They were cattle herders and subsistence farmers who settled mainly in the northern and eastern parts of the country. The Nilotic Luo invasion is believed to have led to the collapse of the Chwezi Empire. The twins Rukidi Mpuuga and Kato Kintu are believed to be the first kings of Bunyonro and Buganda after the Chwezi Empire collapsed, TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard

creating the Babiito and Bambejja Dynasty. Some Luo invaded the area of Bunyoro and assimilated with the Bantu there, establishing the Babiito dynasty of the current Omukama (ruler) of Bunyoro-Kitara.[8] Luo migration continued until the 16th century, with some Luo settling amid Bantu people in Eastern Uganda, with others proceeding to the eastern shores of Lake Victoria in Kenya and Tanzania. TOSHIBA Satellite A215-S4807 Laptop Keyboard

The Ateker (Karimojong and Iteso) settled in the northeastern and eastern parts of the country, and some fused with the Luo in the area north of Lake Kyoga.

Arab traders moved inland from the Indian Ocean coast of East Africa in the 1830s. They were followed in the 1860s by British explorers searching for the source of the Nile. HP G72-b67CA Laptop Keyboard

In the 1890s, 32,000 labourers from British India were recruited to East Africa under indentured labour contracts to work on the construction of the Uganda Railway. Most of the surviving Indians returned home, but 6,724 decided to remain in East Africa after the line's completion.

As several other territories and chiefdoms were integrated, the final protectorate called Uganda took shape in 1914. From 1900 to 1920, DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard

a sleeping sickness epidemic killed more than 250,000 people,[10] about two-thirds of the population in the affected lake-shore areas.[11]

Uganda gained independence from Britain in 1962, maintaining its Commonwealth membership. The first post-independence election, held in 1962, was won by an alliance between the Uganda People's Congress (UPC) and Kabaka Yekka (KY). HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard

UPC and KY formed the first post-independence government with Milton Obote as executive Prime Minister, the Buganda Kabaka (King) Edward Muteesa II holding the largely ceremonial position of President[12][13] and William Wilberforce Nadiope, the Kyabazinga (paramount chief) of Busoga, as Vice President.[citation needed] ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

In 1966, following a power struggle between the Obote-led government and King Muteesa, the UPC-dominated Parliament changed the constitution and removed the ceremonial president and vice president. In 1967, a new constitution proclaimed Uganda a republic and abolished the traditional kingdoms. Without first calling elections, Obote was declared the executive President.[14] ACER Aspire 5336 Laptop Keyboard

After a military coup in 1971, Obote was deposed from power and the dictator Idi Aminseized control of the country. Amin ruled Uganda with the military for the next eight years[15] and carried out mass killings within the country to maintain his rule. An estimated 300,000 Ugandans lost their lives at the hands of his regime HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard

, many of them in the north, which he associated with Obote's loyalists.[16] Aside from his brutalities, heforcibly removed the entrepreneurial South Asian minority from Uganda, which left the country's economy in ruins.[17] Amin's atrocities were graphically accounted in the 1977 book, A State of Blood, written by one of his former ministers after he fled the country.  DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard

Amin's reign was ended after the Uganda-Tanzania War in 1979, in which Tanzanian forces aided by Ugandan exiles invaded Uganda. This led to the return of Obote, who was deposed again in 1985 by General Tito Okello. Okello ruled for six months until he was deposed. This occurred after the so-called "bush war" by the National Resistance Army (NRA) operating under the leadership of the current president,  SAMSUNG N140 Laptop Keyboard

Yoweri Museveni, and various rebel groups, including the Federal Democratic Movement of Andrew Kayiira, and another belonging to John Nkwaanga.

Museveni has been in power since 1986. In the mid- to late 1990s, he was lauded by the West as part of a new generation of African leaders.[18] TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

As president, he has led Uganda in involvement in the civil war in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and other conflicts in the Great Lakes region. He has struggled for years in the civil war against the Lord's Resistance Army, which has been guilty of numerous crimes against humanity, including child slavery and mass murder. Conflict in northern Uganda has killed thousands and displaced millions.[19]  Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

The country is located on the East African plateau, lying mostly between latitudes 4°N and 2°S (a small area is north of 4°), and longitudes 29° and 35°E. It averages about 1,100 metres (3,609 ft) above sea level, and this slopes very steadily downwards to the Sudanese Plain to the north. However, Lenovo 3000 G430 4152 laptop keyboard

much of the south is poorly drained, while the centre is dominated byLake Kyoga, which is also surrounded by extensive marshy areas. Uganda lies almost completely within the Nile basin. The Victoria Nile drains from the lake into Lake Kyoga and thence into Lake Albert on the Congolese border. It then runs northwards into South Sudan. One small area on the eastern edge of Uganda is drained by the Turkwel River, part of the internal drainage basin of Lake Turkana. HP Pavilion dv6-3030sp laptop keyboard

Lake Kyoga serves as a rough boundary between Bantu speakers in the south and Nilotic and Central Sudanic language speakers in the north. Despite the division between north and south in political affairs, this linguistic boundary runs roughly from northwest to southeast, near the course of the Nile.  HP Pavilion DV8310CA laptop keyboard

However, many Ugandans live among people who speak different languages, especially in rural areas. Some sources describe regional variation in terms of physical characteristics, clothing, bodily adornment, and mannerisms, but others claim that those differences are disappearing.

Although generally equatorial, SONY VAIO VGN-CR21Z laptop keyboard

the climate is not uniform as the altitude modifies the climate. Southern Uganda is wetter with rain generally spread throughout the year. AtEntebbe on the northern shore of Lake Victoria, most rain falls from March to June and in the November/December period. Further to the north a dry season gradually emerges; at Gulu about 120 km (75 mi) from the South Sudanese border, November to February is much drier than the rest of the year. HP Pavilion dv5-1114ez laptop keyboard

The northeastern Karamoja region has the driest climate and is prone to droughts in some years. Rwenzori, a snowy peaked mountainous region on the southwest border with Congo (DRC), receives heavy rain all year round and is the source of the Nile. The south of the country is heavily influenced by one of the world's biggest lakes, HP Pavilion dv5-1033ez laptop keyboard

Lake Victoria, which contains many islands. It prevents temperatures from varying significantly and increases cloudiness and rainfall. Most important cities are located in the south, near Lake Victoria, including the capital Kampala and the nearby city of Entebbe.

Although landlocked, Uganda contains many large lakes; besides Lake Victoria and Lake Kyoga, there are Lake Albert, Lake Edward and the smaller Lake George. SONY VGN-FE48E laptop keyboard

The President of Uganda, currently Yoweri Kaguta Museveni, is both head of state and head of government. The President appoints a Vice President, currently Edward Ssekandi, and a prime minister, currently Amama Mbabazi, who aid him in governing. The parliament is formed by the National Assembly, which has 332 members. 104 of these members are nominated by interest groups, including women and the army. The remaining members are elected for five-year terms during general elections.[21]  Lenovo 3000 C200 laptop keyboard

Political parties in Uganda were restricted in their activities beginning in 1986, in a measure ostensibly designed to reduce sectarian violence. In the non-party "Movement" system instituted by Museveni, political parties continued to exist, but they could only operate a headquarters office. They could not open branches, hold rallies, or field candidates directly (although electoral candidates could belong to political parties). TOSHIBA Satellite m502 laptop keyboard

A constitutional referendum canceled this nineteen-year ban on multi-party politics in July 2005. Additionally, the constitutional term limit for the presidency was changed from the previous two-term limit, in order to enable the current president to continue in active politics.

Presidential elections were held in February 2006. Yoweri Museveni ran against several candidates, the most prominent of them being Dr. Kizza Besigye. TOSHIBA Satellite P300 Laptop Keyboard

On Sunday, 20 February 2011, the Uganda Electoral Commission declared the 24-year reigning president Yoweri Kaguta Museveni the winning candidate of the 2011 elections that were held on 18 February 2011. The opposition were, however, not satisfied with the results, condemning them as full of sham and rigging. According to the results released, Museveni won with 68% of the votes, HP Pavilion DV8310CA Laptop Keyboard

easily topping his nearest challenger Kizza Besigye. Besigye, who was formerly Museveni's physician, told reporters that he and his supporters 'downrightly snub' the outcome as well as the unremitting rule of Museveni or any person he may appoint. Besigye added that the rigged elections would definitely lead to an illegitimate lead and that it is up to Ugandans to critically analyse this. ACER TravelMate 4050 Laptop Keyboard

The EU Election Observation Mission reported on improvements and flaws of the Ugandan electoral process: "The electoral campaign and polling day were conducted in a peaceful manner [...] However, the electoral process was marred by avoidable administrative and logistical failures that led to an unacceptable number of Ugandan citizens being disfranchised."[22] TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard

Since August 2012, hacktivist group Anonymous has threatened Ugandan officials and hacked official government websites over its anti-gay bills.[23] Some international donors have threatened to cut financial aid to the country if anti-gay bills continue.[24]

Museveni will be heading Uganda for another 4 years, with the next elections anticipated to be held in 2016. HP Mini 1001TU Laptop Keyboard

Uganda is rated among countries perceived as very corrupt by Transparency International. It is rated at 29 on a scale from 0 (perceived as most corrupt) to 100 (perceived as clean).[25]

Uganda is divided into districts, spread across four administrative regions: Northern, Eastern, Central (Kingdom of Buganda) and Western. SONY VAIO VGN-NR21E/S Laptop Keyboard

The districts are subdivided into counties. A number of districts have been added in the past few years, and eight others were added on 1 July 2006 plus others added in 2010. There are now over 100 districts.[26] Most districts are named after their main commercial and administrative towns. Each district is divided into sub-districts, counties,  ACER Aspire 5810T-8929 Laptop Keyboard

sub-counties, parishes and villages. Political subdivisions in Uganda are officially served and united by the Uganda Local Governments Association(ULGA), a voluntary and non-profit body which also serves as a forum for support and guidance for Ugandan sub-national governments.[27] DELL Vostro 1510 Laptop Keyboard

Parallel with the state administration, five traditional Bantu kingdoms have remained, enjoying some degrees of mainly cultural autonomy. The kingdoms are Toro,Busoga, Bunyoro, Buganda and Rwenzururu. Furthermore, some groups attempt to restore Ankole as one of the officially recognized traditional kingdoms, to no avail yet.[28]  ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

There are many areas which continue to attract concern when it comes to human rights in Uganda.

Conflict in the northern parts of the country continues to generate reports of abuses by both the rebel Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), COMPAQ NSK-H5401 Laptop Keyboard

led by Joseph Kony, and the Ugandan Army. A UN official accused the LRA in February 2009 of "appalling brutality" in the Democratic Republic of Congo.[31] The number of internally displaced persons is estimated at 1.4 million. Torture continues to be a widespread practice amongst security organisations. Attacks on political freedom in the country, DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard

including the arrest and beating of opposition members of parliament, have led to international criticism, culminating in May 2005 in a decision by the British government to withhold part of its aid to the country. The arrest of the main opposition leader Kizza Besigye and the siege of the High Court during a hearing of Besigye's case by heavily armed security forces – before the February 2006 elections – led to condemnation.[32] SONY VAIO VGN-CR23G laptop keyboard

Child labour is common in Uganda. Many child workers are active in agriculture.[33] Children who work on tobacco farms in Uganda are exposed to health hazards.[33] Child domestic servants in Uganda risk sexual abuse.[33] Trafficking of children occurs.[33] Slavery and forced labour are prohibited by the Ugandan constitution.[33] DELL 0PVDG3 laptop keyboard

The U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants reported several violations of refugee rights in 2007, including forcible deportations by the Ugandan government and violence directed against refugees.[34]  Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

Homosexuality itself is not technically illegal in Uganda, but sodomy laws from the British colonial era are still on the books and there is a strong social bias against homosexuality. Gays and lesbians face discrimination and harassment at the hands of the media, police, teachers, and other groups. HP Pavilion ze5170 laptop keyboard

 In 2007, a Ugandan newspaper, The Red Pepper, published a list of allegedly gay men, many of whom suffered harassment as a result.[35] Also on 9 October 2010, the Ugandan newspaper Rolling Stone published a front page article titled "100 Pictures of Uganda's Top Homos Leak" that listed the names, addresses, and photographs of 100 homosexuals alongside a yellow banner that read "Hang Them".[36] SAMSUNG R20 laptop keyboard

The paper also alleged that homosexuals aimed to "recruit" Ugandan children. This publication attracted international attention and criticism from human rights organisations, such as Amnesty International,[37] No Peace Without Justice[38] and the International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association.[39] Compaq Presario CQ71-235SO laptop keyboard

According to gay rights activists, many Ugandans have been attacked since the publication.[40] On 27 January 2011, gay rights activist David Kato was murdered.[41] Kato was on Rolling Stone's hit list. Also a number of other gays and lesbians are missing and are believed to have been murdered.  SONY VGN-FE48E laptop keyboard

In 2009, the Ugandan parliament considered an Anti-Homosexuality Bill which would have broadened the criminalisation of homosexuality by introducing the death penalty for people who have previous convictions, or are HIV-positive, and engage in same-sex sexual acts. The bill also included provisions for Ugandans who engage in same-sex sexual relations outside of Uganda, Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

asserting that they may be extradited back to Uganda for punishment, and included penalties for individuals, companies, media organisations, or non-governmental organisations that support LGBT rights. The private member's bill was submitted by MP David Bahati in Uganda on 14 October 2009, SONY VAIO VGN-FS940 laptop keyboard

and is believed to have had widespread support in the Uganda parliament.[42] Debate of the bill was delayed in response to global condemnation but is now expected to be passed before Christmas 2012.[43] The hacktivist group Anonymous has hacked into Ugandan government websites in protest of the homophobic bill.[44] ACER TravelMate 3012 laptop keyboard

For decades, Uganda's economy suffered from devastating economic policies and instability, leaving Uganda as one of the world's poorest countries. The country has commenced economic reforms and growth has been robust. In 2008, Uganda recorded 7% growth despite the global downturn and regional instability.[46]  ACER TravelMate 3043WTMi laptop keyboard

Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils, regular rainfall, and sizable mineral deposits of copper and cobalt. The country has largely untapped reserves of both crude oil and natural gas.[47] While agriculture accounted for 56% of the economy in 1986, with coffee as its main export, it has now been surpassed by the services sector, which accounted for 52% of GDP in 2007.[48]  IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard

In the 1950s the British Colonial regime encouraged some 500,000 subsistence farmers to join co-operatives.[49] Since 1986, the government (with the support of foreign countries and international agencies) has acted to rehabilitate an economy devastated during the regime of Idi Amin and the subsequent civil war.[2] Inflation ran at 240% in 1987 and 42% in June 1992, and was 5.1% in 2003. ACER Aspire 7736ZG Laptop Keyboard

Between 1990 and 2001, the economy grew because of continued investment in the rehabilitation of infrastructure, improved incentives for production and exports, reduced inflation and gradually improved domestic security. Ugandan involvement in thewar in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, corruption within the government, and slippage in the government's determination to press reforms raise doubts about the continuation of strong growth. HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard

In 2000, Uganda was included in the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) debt relief initiative worth $1.3 billion andParis Club debt relief worth $145 million. These amounts combined with the original HIPC debt relief added up to about $2 billion. In 2006 the Ugandan Government successfully paid all their debts to the Paris Club, which meant that it was no longer in the (HIPC) list. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard

Growth for 2001–2002 was solid despite continued decline in the price of coffee, Uganda's principal export.[2] According to IMF statistics, in 2004 Uganda's GDP per capita reached $300, a much higher level than in the 1980s but still at half the Sub-Saharan African average income of $600 per year. Total GDP crossed the 8 billion dollar mark in the same year. TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

Economic growth has not always led to poverty reduction. Despite an average annual growth of 2.5% between 2000 and 2003, poverty levels increased by 3.8% during that time.[50] This has highlighted the importance of avoiding jobless growth and is part of the rising awareness in development circles of the need for equitable growth not just in Uganda, but across the developing world.[50]  HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard

With the Uganda securities exchanges established in 1996, several equities have been listed. The Government has used the stock market as an avenue for privatisation. All Government treasury issues are listed on the securities exchange. The Capital Markets Authority has licensed 18 brokers, asset managers and investment advisors including names like: African Alliance Investment Bank, COMPAQ Presario CQ50-106CA Laptop Keyboard

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