Overblog Suivre ce blog
Editer l'article Administration Créer mon blog
30 juin 2013 7 30 /06 /juin /2013 09:29

Katto, Karim Hirji, Chipper Adams and Charles Lubega. Ugandans have also featured prominently in the Safari Rally.[citation needed] HP G42-466LA laptop keyboard

Ugandans have played hockey since the early 1920s.[citation needed] It was originally played by Asians, but now is widely played by people from other racial backgrounds. Hockey is the only Ugandan field sport to date to have qualified for and represented the country at the Olympics; this was at the 1972 Summer Olympics. Uganda has won gold medals at the Olympics in athletics with legendary hurdler John Akii-Bua in 1972 and marathon winner at the London 2012 OlympicsStephen Kiprotich. SONY VAIO VGN-FS415M laptop keyboard

In July 2011 Kampala, Uganda qualified for the 2011 Little League World Series in Williamsport, Pennsylvania for the first time, beating Dharan LL in Saudi Arabia, though due to visa complications they were unable to attend the Series.[97] In 2012, Uganda qualified again for the Little League World Series; and, the team was able to finally make its first appearance at the tournament in Williamsport. COMPAQ Presario CQ50-106CA laptop keyboard

Ugandan cuisine consists of traditional cooking with English, Arab, Asian and especially Indian influences.[citation needed] Like the cuisines of most countries, it varies in complexity, from the most basic, a starchy filler with a sauce of beans or meat, to several-course meals served in upper-class homes and high-end restaurants.[citation needed] SONY VAIO VGN-FS415M laptop keyboard

Main dishes are usually centered on a sauce or stew of groundnuts, beans or meat. The starch traditionally comes from ugali (maize meal) or matoke (boiled and mashed green banana) in the South, or an ugali made from millet in the North. Cassava, yam and Africansweet potato[clarification needed – Sweet potatoes are an American Indian crop] are also eaten; the more affluent include white (often called "Irish")ACER Aspire 5810TZ-4657 laptop keyboard

potato and rice in their diets. Soybeans were promoted as a healthy food staple in the 1970s and are also used especially for breakfast. Chapati, an Asian flatbread, is also part of Ugandan cuisine.

The Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), also known as the Lord's Resistance Movement, is a militant movement, which is described by some as new religious movement or a cult which was operating in northern Uganda and South Sudan.  HP HDX18-1050EB laptop keyboard

Since 2005 there have been claims that the group has entered the Democratic Republic of Congo, but in 2007 it was reported that they are inCentral African Republic.[6] It has been accused of widespread human rights violations, includingmurder, abduction, mutilation, child-sex slavery and forcing children to participate in hostilities.[7][8] SONY VAIO VPC-F12 laptop keyboard

Initially, there was no such movement called LRA against the Ugandan government. On the contrary, it was the Ugandan government army who operated under the name NRA National Resistance Armybefore they changed their name to UPDF Uganda People's Defence Force. They terrorised the civilians by burning homes,  Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 laptop keyboard

looting livestock, killings, rapes, spreading HIV disease,genocide.[9][10] The Ugandan army were also the first to recruit children, and they continued to do so unabated. In June 2006, Radhika Coomaraswamy, the UN's special representative for children, found more than 5000 children recruited in the Ugandan government army.[11] The insurgency by the government's NRA led to the formation of the rebel group called the Lord's Resistance Army. Compaq Presario CQ42 laptop keyboard

Ideologically, LRA believe in African mysticism, Christian fundamentalism, andIslam.[12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22] It claims to be establishing a theocratic state based on the Ten Commandments and local Acholi tradition.[23][24][25] FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard

The area now known as Uganda has been divided by the British rule along tribal and language lines. Early history of Uganda.[26] Bantuspeaking agriculturists such as the Baganda people in Uganda's south and east created different and competing social and economic structures from the Nilotic language speaking Acholi in the north, whose economic system was centred around hunting, farming and livestock herding.[26]  SAMSUNG X20 Laptop Keyboard

The ethnic and cultural divisions within Uganda continued to exist during the years of the British Uganda Protectorate, which was created in 1894. While the agricultural Baganda people worked closely with the British, the Acholi and other northern ethnic groups supplied much of the national manual labor, and came to comprise a majority of the military.[27] The southern region became the center for commercial trade development.[28]  Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

The livestock-raising Acholi from the north of Uganda were resented for dominating the army and policing. Following the country's independence in 1962, Uganda's ethnic groups continued to compete with each other within the bounds of Uganda's new political system. HP Pavilion dv6-3015tx laptop keyboard

In 1986, the armed rebellion waged by Museveni's NRA National Resistance Army, took over power through military means. They sought vengeance against the ethnic groups in the North of Uganda. Their activities included Operation Simsim which consisted of burning, looting, killings and kambanakamba a three piece tying of the locals to death. HP Pavilion dv6-2070eo laptop keyboard

Their acts of terrorism led to formation of rebel groups from the previous Ugandan army UNLA. Many of those groups made peace with Museveni. However, the southern-dominated army did not stop attacking civilians in the north of the country. Therefore, by late 1987 to early 1988 a civilian resistance movement led by Alice Lakwena was formed. Lakwena did not pick arms against the central governmenet, HP Mini 110-1036TU laptop keyboard

her members carried sticks and stones. She believed she was inspired by the Holy Spirit of God. Lakwena portrayed herself as a prophet who received messages from the Holy Spirit of God. She expressed the belief that the Acholi could defeat the government run by Yoweri Museveni (following Museveni's own victory in the Ugandan Bush War). SONY VAIO VGN-NW11S/S laptop keyboard

According to her messages from God, her followers should cover their bodies with shea nut oil as protection from bullets, never take cover or retreat in battle, and never kill snakes or bees.[29] Joseph Kony would later preach a similar superstition encouraging soldiers to use oil to draw a cross on their chest as a protection from bullets. HP Pavilion dv5-1026eo laptop keyboard

During a later interview Alice Lakwena distanced herself from Kony, claiming that the spirit does not want them to kill civilians or prisoners of war. Kony sought to align himself with Lakwena and in turn garner support from her constituents, even going so far as to claim they were cousins.[30] Meanwhile, Kony gained a reputation as having been possessed by spirits and became a spiritual figure or a medium. HP Mini 110-1140TU laptop keyboard

He and a small group of followers first moved beyond his home village of Odek on 1 April 1987. HP Mini 210 laptop keyboard

By August 1987, Lakwena's Holy Spirit Mobile Force scored several victories on the battlefield and began a march towards the capitalKampala. In 1988, after the Holy Spirit Movement was decisively defeated in the Jinja District and Lakwena fled to Kenya, Kony seized this opportunity to recruit the Holy Spirit remnants. The LRA occasionally carried out local attacks to underline the inability of the government to protect the population. ASUS X53S laptop keyboard

The fact that most National Resistance Army (NRA) government forces, in particular former members of the Federal Democratic Movement (FEDEMO),[32] were known for their lack of discipline and brutal actions meant that the civilian population were accused of supporting the rebel LRA, likewise the rebels accused the population of supporting the government army.[33] HP 633183-001 laptop keyboard

In March 1991 the Ugandan government's NRA started Operation North, which combined efforts to destroy the LRA while cutting away its roots of support among the population through heavy-handed tactics.[34] As part of Operation North, the army created the "Arrow Groups", village guards mostly armed with bows and arrows. Lenovo 3000 C200 laptop keyboard

The creation of the Arrow Groups angered Kony, who began to feel that he no longer had the support of the population. After the failure of Operation North,Betty Bigombe initiated the first face-to-face meeting between representatives of the rebel LRA and NRA government. The rebels asked for a general amnesty for their combatants and to "return home", TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4070 laptop keyboard

but the government stance was hampered by disagreement over the credibility of the LRA negotiators and political infighting.[33] At a meeting in January 1994, Kony asked for six months to regroup his troops, but by early February the tone of the negotiations was growing increasingly acrimonious and the LRA broke off negotiations, accusing the government of trying to entrap them.[33] Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

Starting in the mid-1990s, the LRA was strengthened by military support from the government of Sudan,[35] which was retaliating against Ugandan government support for rebels in what would become South Sudan. The LRA fought with the NRA army which led to mass atrocities such as the killing or abduction of several hundred villagers in Atiak in 1995 and the kidnapping of 139 schoolgirls in Aboke in 1996. HP Pavilion dv6-2124el laptop keyboard

The government created the so-called "protected camps" beginning in 1996. The LRA declared a short-lived ceasefire for the duration of Ugandan presidential election, 1996, possibly in the hope that Yoweri Museveni would be defeated.[36] TOSHIBA NB100 laptop keyboard

In March 2002, the NRA under the new name Uganda People's Defence Force (UPDF) launched a massive military offensive code-named Operation Iron Fist against the LRA bases in southern Sudan, with agreement from the National Islamic Front. In retaliation, the LRA attacked the refugee camps in northern Uganda and theEastern Equatoria in southern Sudan, brutally killing hundreds of civilians.[32][37][38][39] SONY KFRMBA220A laptop keyboard

By 2004, according to the UPDF spokesman Shaban Bantariza, mediation efforts by the Carter Center and the Pope John Paul II had been spurned by Kony.[40] In February 2004, the LRA unit led by Okot Odhiambo attacked Barlonyo IDP camp, killing over 300 people and abducting many others.[32][41] In 2006, UNICEF estimated that the LRA had abducted at least 25,000 children since the conflict began.[42] SONY VAIO VGN-N38Z/W laptop keyboard

In January 2006, eight Guatemalan Kaibiles commandos and at least 15 rebels were killed in a botched UN special forces raid targeting the LRA deputy leader Vincent Otti in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.[43]  HP 576835-001 laptop keyboard

According to the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the LRA attacks and the government's counter-insurgency measures have resulted in the displacement of nearly 95 percent of the Acholi population in three districts of northern Uganda. By 2006, 1.7 million people lived in more than 200 internally displaced person (IDP) TOSHIBA Satellite L355-S7905 laptop keyboard

camps in northern Uganda.[42] These camps had some of the highest mortality rates in the world. The Ugandan Ministry of Health and partners estimated that through the first seven months of 2005, about 1,000 people were dying weekly, chiefly from malaria and AIDS. During the same time period of January–July 2005,  DELL AEGM7U00110 laptop keyboard

the LRA abducted 1,286 Ugandans (46.4 percent of whom were children under the age of 15 years), and violence accounted for 9.4 percent of the 28,283 deaths, occurring mostly outside camps.[44] SONY VAIO VGN-SR220J/H laptop keyboard

In 2006-2008, a series of meetings were held in Juba, Sudan, between the government of Uganda and the LRA, mediated by the south Sudanese separatist leader Riek Machar. The Ugandan government and the LRA signed a truce on 26 August 2006. Under the terms of the agreement, IBM 42T3265 laptop keyboard

LRA forces would leave Uganda and gather in two assembly areas in the remote Garamba National Parkarea of northern Democratic Republic of Congo that the Ugandan government agreed not to attack. In December 2008-March 2009, however, the armed forces of Uganda, the DR Congo and South Sudan launched aerial attacks and raids on the LRA camps in Garamba, destroying them, TOSHIBA NB100 laptop keyboard

but the efforts to inflict a final military defeat on the LRA were not fully successful. Rather, the U.S.-supported Operation Lightning Thunder resulted in brutal revenge attacks by scattered LRA remnants, with over 1,000 people killed and hundreds abducted in Congo and South Sudan, and hundreds of thousands were displaced while fleeing the massacres. The military action in the DRC did not result in the capture or killing of Kony, who remained elusive.[45] SONY VAIO VGN-N11S laptop keyboard

During the Christmas of 2008, the LRA massacred at least 143 people and abducted 180 at a concert celebration sponsored by the Catholic Church in Faradje in the Democratic Republic of Congo,[46] and struck several other communities in the near-simultaneous attacks: 75 people were murdered in a church near Dungu, at least 80 were killed in Batande, 48 in Bangadi, and 213 in Gurba.[47][48][49] DELL NSK-DD101 laptop keyboard

By August 2009, the LRA terror in this country resulted in displacing as 320,000 Congolese, exposing them to a threat of famine, according to UNICEF director Ann Veneman.[50] That same month, the LRA attacked a Catholic church in Ezo, South Sudan, on the Feast of the Assumption, with reports of victims being crucified,  Compaq Mini 730EA laptop keyboard

causing Sudanese Archbishop John Baptist Odama to call on the international community for help in finding a peaceful solution to the crisis.[51][52][53] In December 2009, the LRA forces under Dominic Ongwenkilled at least 321 civilians and abducted 250 others during a four-day rampage in the village and region of Makombo in the DR Congo.[32][54]  SONY VGN-FE48E laptop keyboard

In February 2010, about 100 people were massacred by the LRA in Kpanga, near DR Congo's border with the Central African Republic and Sudan.[55] Small-scale attacks continued daily, displacing large numbers of people and worsening an ongoing humanitarian crisis which the UN described as one of the worst in the world.[56] By May 2010, the LRA killed over 1,600 Congolese civilians and abducted more than 2,500.[57] SONY VAIO VGN-AR320E laptop keyboard

 Between September 2008 and July 2011, the group, despite being down to only a few hundred fighters, has killed more than 2,300 people, abducted more than 3,000, and displaced over 400,000 across the DR Congo, South Sudan and the Central African Republic.[58] Lenovo 45N2071 Laptop Keyboard

By July 2011, 90 percent of people in the LRA areas of activity in the Democratic Republic of Congo still lived in fear of their safety, feeling completely abandoned and believing that neither their government nor the MONUSCO UN peacekeepers care for their security, according to Oxfam survey.[58] In March 2012,  Lenovo 04W0872 Laptop Keyboard

Uganda announced it will head a new four-nation African Union military force (a brigade of 5,000, including contingents from the DR Congo, Central African Republic and South Sudan) to hunt down Kony and the remnants of the LRA, but asked for more international assistance for the task force.[3][59] Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard

The LRA's ideology is disputed among academics.[40][60] Although the LRA has been regarded primarily as a Christian militia,[13][14][15][16][17][18][19] the LRA reportedly evokes Acholi nationalism on occasion,[61] but many observers doubt the sincerity of this behaviour and the loyalty of Kony to either ideology.[62][63][64][65][66]  HP 576835-001 Laptop Keyboard

Robert Gersony, in a report funded by United States Embassy in Kampala in 1997, concluded that "the LRA has no political program or ideology, at least none that the local population has heard or can understand."[67] TheInternational Crisis Group has stated that "the LRA is not motivated by any identifiable political agenda, and its military strategy and tactics reflect this."[68] HP COMPAQ 486654-001 laptop keyboard

IRIN comments that "the LRA remains one of the least understood rebel movements in the world, and its ideology, as far as it has one, is difficult to understand."[40] During an interview with IRIN, the LRA commander Vincent Otti was asked about the LRA's vision of an ideal government, to which he responded, DELL Inspiron 9300 laptop keyboard

Lord’s Resistance Army is just the name of the movement, because we are fighting in the name of God. God is the one helping us in the bush. That’s why we created this name, Lord’s Resistance Army. And people always ask us, are we fighting for the Ten Commandments of God. TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4050 laptop keyboard

That is true – because the Ten Commandments of God is the constitution that God has given to the people of the world. All people. If you go to the constitution, nobody will accept people who steal, nobody could accept to go and take somebody’s wife, nobody could accept to kill the innocent, or whatever. The Ten Commandments carries all this. COMPAQ Presario CQ50Z-100 CTO laptop keyboard

In a speech delivered by James Alfred Obita, former secretary for external affairs and mobilisation of the Lord's Resistance Army, he adamantly denied that the LRA was "just an Acholi thing" and stated that claims made by the media and Museveni administration asserting that the LRA is a  ACER Extensa 5235 laptop keyboard

"group of Christian fundamentalists with bizarre beliefs whose aim is to topple the Museveni regime and replace it with governance based on the Bible's ten commandments" were false.[69] In the same speech, Obita also claimed that the LRA's objectives are: ACER NSK-H3M1D laptop keyboard

In 2007, the government of Uganda claimed that the LRA had only 500 or 1,000 soldiers in total, but other sources estimated that there could have been as many as 3,000 soldiers, along with about 1,500 women and children.[1] By 2011, unofficial estimates were in the range of 300 to 400 combatants, with more than half believed to be abductees.[2] The soldiers are organized into independent squads of 10 or 20 soldiers.[1]  Lenovo 45N2071 laptop keyboard

By early 2012, the LRA had been reduced to a force of between 200 and 250 fighters, according to Ugandan defence minister Crispus Kiyonga.[3] Abou Moussa, the UN envoy in the region, said in March 2012 that the LRA was believed to have dwindled to between 200 and 700 followers but remained a threat: " Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

The most important thing is that no matter how little the LRA may be, it still constitutes a danger [as] they continue to attack and create havoc."[59] HP Pavilion dv6-2030ev laptop keyboard

Since the LRA first started fighting in 1990s they may have forced well over 10,000 boys and girls into combat, often killing family, ACER Aspire 3623WXMi laptop keyboard

 neighbors and school teachers in the process.[72] Many of these children were put on the front lines so the casualty rate for these children has been high. The LRA have often used children to fight because they are easy to replace by raiding schools or villages.[73] According to Livingstone Sewanyana, executive director of the Foundation for  FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard

COMPAQ Presario CQ60-104TU Laptop Keyboard

Partager cet article

Repost 0
Published by batterys
commenter cet article

commentaires