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The United Arab Emirates,often abbreviated as UAEor shortened to The Emirates (Arabic: ????????? Al Im?r?t), is a federation situated in the southeast of the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia on thePersian Gulf, bordering Oman and Saudi Arabia and sharing sea borders with Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar and Iran.Nikon D200 Digital Camera Battery

Termed emirates because they are ruled by emirs, they are Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al-Quwain. The capital is Abu Dhabi, which is also the country's center of political, industrial and cultural activities.Acer PA-1650-02 Adapter

Before 1971, the UAE was known as the Trucial States or Trucial Oman, in reference to a 19th-century truce between the United Kingdom and several Arab Sheikhs. The name Pirate Coast was also used in reference to the area's emirates from the 18th to the early 20th century.Sony CYBER-SHOT DSC-T10  Battery

The UAE's political system, based on its 1971 Constitution, is composed of several intricately connected governing bodies. Islam is the official religion, and Arabic is the official language.

Its oil reserves are ranked as the world's sixth-largest and the UAE possesses one of the most-developed economies in West Asia.HP Compaq Business Notebook 6715b Battery

It is the thirty-fifth-largest economy at market exchange rates, and has a high per capita gross domestic product (GDP), with a nominal per capita GDP of US$47,407 as per the International Monetary Fund (IMF). It is 15th in purchasing power per capita and has a relatively high Human Development Index for the Asian continent, ranking thirty-second globally.Kodak KLIC-7004 Battery

The UAE is classified as a high-income developing economy by the IMF.

Although the UAE has a constitution and a president, it is neither a constitutional monarchy nor a republic. It is a federation of seven monarchies, whose rulers retain absolute power within their emirates. Acer Aspire 5920G Adapter

The emirs chose one of their number to be the president of the federation, but this does not alter the monarchical character of the government of the emirates. The constitution is concerned solely with the relations between the emirates as members of the federation, and does not prescribe a constitutional system of government.Canon Digital IXUS 90 IS   Battery

The UAE is a founding member of the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf, and a member state of the Arab League. It is also a member of the United Nations, the Organisation of the Islamic Conference, the OPEC, and the World Trade Organization.

Origins

The earliest known human habitation in the UAE dated from 5500 BC. HP 2133 Mini-Note PC Adapter

At this early stage, there is proof of interaction with the outside world, particularly with civilizations to the north in Persia. These contacts persisted and became wide-ranging, probably motivated by trade in copper from the Hajar Mountains, which commenced around 3000 BC.Toshiba PA3536U-1BRS Battery

Foreign trade, the recurring motif in the history of this strategic region, flourished also in later periods, facilitated by the domestication of the camel at the end of the second millennium BC.
By the 1st century AD overland caravan traffic between Syria and cities in southern Iraq began. Also, there was seaborne travel to the important port of Omana (perhaps present-day Umm al-Qaiwain) and then to India.HP Compaq Business Notebook NX6110 Battery

These routes were an alternative to the Red Sea route used by the Romans. Pearls had been exploited in the area for millennia but at this time the trade reached new heights. Seafaring was also a mainstay and major fairs were held at Dibba, bringing in merchants from as far as China.HP Pavilion DV9000 Adapter

Advent of Islam

The arrival of envoys from the Islamic prophet Muhammad in 630 heralded the conversion of the region to Islam. After Muhammad's death, one of the major battles of the Ridda Wars was fought at Dibba resulting in the defeat of the non-Muslims and the triumph of Islam in the Arabian Peninsula.Dell Studio 1537 battery

In 637, Julfar (today Ra's al-Khaimah) was used as a staging post for the conquest of Iran. Over many centuries, Julfar became a wealthy port and pearling center from which dhows travelled throughout the Indian Ocean especially to neighboring land of Sindh and its cities of Thatta and Debal.HP PPP009H Adapter

Portuguese control

Portuguese expansion into the Indian Ocean in the early 16th century following Vasco da Gama's route of exploration saw them battle Safavid Persia up the coast of the Persian Gulf. The Portuguese controlled the area for 150 years, in which they conquered the inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula.Sony VGP-BPS8 Battery

Vasco da Gama was helped by Ahmad Ibn Majid, a navigator and cartographer from Julfar, to find the route of spices from Asia.

European domination

During the 16th century, piecemeal, the entire territory of the nation came under the direct influence of the European colonial empires, with the British eventually getting the upper hand.Dell PA-12 Adapter

The region was known to the British as the "Pirate Coast", as raiders based there harassed the shipping industry despite both European and Arab navies patrolling the area from the 17th century into the 19th.British expeditions to protect the Indian trade from raiders at Ras al-Khaimah led to campaigns against that headquarters and other harbours along the coast in 1819.Sony Cyber-shot DSC-T7/B  Battery

The next year, a peace treaty was signed to which all the sheikhs of the coast adhered. Raids continued intermittently until 1835, when the sheikhs agreed not to engage in hostilities at sea. In 1853, they signed a treaty with the British, under which the sheikhs (the "Trucial Sheikhdoms") agreed to a "perpetual maritime truce."Dell LATITUDE M65 Battery

It was enforced by the United Kingdom, and disputes among sheikhs were referred to the British for settlement.

Primarily in reaction to the ambitions of other European countries, the United Kingdom and the Trucial Sheikhdoms established closer bonds in an 1892 treaty, similar to treaties entered into by Britain with other Persian Gulf principalities. HP Compaq 6720s Adapter

The sheikhs agreed not to dispose of any territory except to Britain and not to enter into relationships with any foreign government other than the United Kingdom without its consent. In return, the British promised to protect the Trucial Coast from all aggression by sea and to help in case of land attack.Acer AS07B41 Battery

British suppression of piracy meant that pearling fleets could operate in relative security. However, the British prohibition of the slave trade meant an important source of income was lost to some sheikhs and merchants. Dell Vostro 1310 Battery

Pearling industry

During the 19th and early 20th centuries, the pearling industry thrived in the relative calm at sea, providing both income and employment to the people of thePersian Gulf. It began to become a good economic resource for the local people.HP Compaq Business Notebook 6910p Battery

Then the First World War had a severe impact on the pearl fishery, but it was the economic depression of the late 1920s and early 1930s, coupled with the Japanese invention of the cultured pearl, that all but destroyed it. The industry eventually faded away shortly after theSecond World War,Panasonic LUMIX DMC-TZ4S Battery

when the newly independent Government of India imposed heavy taxation on pearls imported from the Arab states of the Persian Gulf.

The decline of pearling resulted in a very difficult era, with little opportunity to build any infrastructure.Dell PA-12 Adapter

Beginning of the oil era

At the beginning of the 1960s, the first oil company teams carried out preliminary surveys and the first cargo of crude was exported from Abu Dhabi in 1962. As oil revenues increased, ruler of Abu Dhabi, Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, undertook a massive construction program, building schools, housing, hospitals and roads.Sony NP-FH100 Battery

When Dubai’s oil exports commenced in 1969, Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoum, the de facto ruler of Dubai, was also able to use oil revenues to improve the quality of life of his people.

In 1955, Great Britain sided with Abu Dhabi in the latter's dispute with Oman over the Buraimi Oasis, another territory to the south.Toshiba Equium M50-192 Battery

A 1974 agreement between Abu Dhabi and Saudi Arabia would have settled the Abu Dhabi-Saudi border dispute; however, the agreement has yet to be ratified by the UAE government and is not recognized by the Saudi government. The border with Oman also remains officially unsettled, but the two governments agreed to delineate the border in May 1999. Apple MacBook Pro Battery

Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan and the union

In the early 1960s, oil was discovered in Abu Dhabi, an event that led to quick unification calls made by UAE sheikdoms.Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan became ruler of Abu Dhabi in 1966 and the British started losing their oil investments and contracts to U.S. oil companies.Apple PowerBook G4 Battery

The British had earlier started a development office that helped in some small developments in the emirates. The sheikhs of the emirates then decided to form a council to coordinate matters between them and took over the development office. They formed the Trucial States Council, and appointed Adi Bitar,Dell Studio 1537 battery

Sheikh Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoum's legal advisor, as Secretary General and Legal Advisor to the Council. The council was terminated once the United Arab Emirates was formed.Acer BATBL50L6 Battery

In 1968, the United Kingdom announced its decision, reaffirmed in March 1971, to end the treaty relationships with the seven Trucial Sheikhdoms which had been, together with Bahrain and Qatar, under British protection. The nine attempted to form a union of Arab emirates, Canon EOS 450D Digital Camera Battery

but by mid-1971 they were still unable to agree on terms of union, even though the British treaty relationship was to expire in December of that year.

Bahrain became independent in August, and Qatar in September 1971. When the British-Trucial Sheikhdoms treaty expired on December 1, 1971, they became fully independent.Acer Travelmate 2400 Battery

The rulers of Abu Dhabi and Dubai decided to form a union between their two emirates independently, prepare a constitution, then call the rulers of the other five emirates to a meeting and offer them the opportunity to join. It was also agreed between the two that the constitution be written by December 2, 1971.Dell Inspiron 1525 Adapter

On that date, at the Dubai Guesthouse Palace, four other emirates agreed to enter into a union called the United Arab Emirates. Ras al-Khaimah joined later, in early 1972. Compaq Presario 2100 Adapter
The UAE supported military operations from the United States and other Coalition nations that are engaged in the war against the Taliban in Afghanistan (2001) and Saddam Hussein in Iraq (2003) as well as operations supporting the Global War on Terrorism for the Horn of Africa at Al Dhafra Air Base located outside of Abu Dhabi.Acer Aspire 1362 Battery

The air base also supported Allied operations during the 1991 Persian Gulf War and Operation Northern Watch. The country had already signed a military defense agreement with the U.S. in 1994 and one with France in 1995.

On 2 November 2004, the UAE's first president, Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, passed away.Toshiba Equium M50-192 Battery

His eldest son, Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, succeeded as Emir of Abu Dhabi. In accordance with the constitution, the UAE's Supreme Council of Rulers elected Khalifa as president. Sheikh Mohammad bin Zayed Al Nahyan succeeded Khalifa as Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi.Dell XPS M1330 Battery

In January 2006, Sheikh Maktoum bin Rashid Al Maktoum, the prime minister of the UAE and the ruler of Dubai, died, and the crown prince Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum assumed both roles.

Geography

The United Arab Emirates is situated in Southwest Asia, bordering the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf, Acer Travelmate 2200 Adapter

between Oman and Saudi Arabia; it is in a strategic location along southern approaches to the Strait of Hormuz, a vital transit point for world crude oil.

The UAE lies between 22°30' and 26°10' north latitude and between 51° and 56°25? east longitude. It shares a 530-kilometer border with Saudi Arabia on the west, south, and southeast, and a 450-kilometer border with Oman on the southeast and northeast. The land border with Qatar in the Khawr al Udaydarea is about nineteen kilometers in the northwest;HP Compaq 6735b Adapter

however, it is a source of ongoing dispute. The total area of the UAE is approximately 77,700 square kilometers. The country's exact size is unknown because of disputed claims to several islands in the Persian Gulf, because of the lack of precise information on the size of many of these islands, and because most of its land boundaries, especially with Saudi Arabia, remain undemarcated. Dell Vostro 1000 Battery

Additionally, island disputes with Iran and Qatar remain unresolved.

The largest emirate, Abu Dhabi, accounts for 87% of the UAE's total area (67,340 square kilometers). The smallest emirate, Ajman, encompasses only 259 square kilometers (see figure).HP Compaq nx7300 Adapter

The UAE coast stretches for more than 650 kilometers along the southern shore of the Persian Gulf. Most of the coast consists of salt pans that extend far inland. The largest natural harbor is at Dubai, although other ports have been dredged at Abu Dhabi, Sharjah, and elsewhere.Asus f82 battery

Numerous islands are found in the Persian Gulf, and the ownership of some of them has been the subject of international disputes with both Iran and Qatar. The smaller islands, as well as many coral reefs and shifting sandbars, are a menace to navigation. Strong tides and occasional windstorms further complicate ship movements near the shore.Dell XPS M1330 Battery

The UAE also has a stretch of the Al B??inah coast of the Gulf of Oman, although the Musandam Peninsula, the very tip of Arabia by the Strait of Hormuz is an enclave of Oman within the UAE.

South and west of Abu Dhabi, vast, rolling sand dunes merge into the Rub al-Khali (Empty Quarter) of Saudi Arabia.HP Compaq Business Notebook 6910p Battery

The desert area of Abu Dhabi includes two important oases with adequate underground water for permanent settlements and cultivation. The extensive Liwa Oasis is in the south near the undefined border with Saudi Arabia. About 100 kilometers to the northeast of Liwa is the Al-Buraimi oasis, which extends on both sides of the Abu Dhabi-Oman border.Compaq PRESARIO R3000 Battery

Prior to withdrawing from the area in 1971, Britain delineated the internal borders among the seven emirates in order to preempt territorial disputes that might hamper formation of the federation. In general, the rulers of the emirates accepted the British intervention, but in the case of boundary disputes between Abu Dhabi and Dubai, HP Compaq Business Notebook NX6110 Battery

and also between Dubai and Sharjah, conflicting claims were not resolved until after the UAE became independent. The most complicated borders were in the Al-Hajar al-Gharbi Mountains, where five of the emirates contested jurisdiction over more than a dozen enclaves.Dell Latitude D610 Adapter

Flora and fauna

In the oases grow date palms, acacia and eucalyptus trees. In the desert the flora is very sparse and consists of grasses and thornbushes. The indigenous fauna had come close to extinction because of intensive hunting,Asus Eee PC 701 Adapter

which has led to a conservation program on Bani Yas island initiated by Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan in the 1970s, resulting in the survival of, for example, Arabian oryx and leopards. Coastal fish consist mainly of mackerel, perch and tuna, as well as sharks and whales.HP Compaq Business Notebook NX6325 Battery

Climate

The climate of the U.A.E is subtropical-arid with hot summers and warm winters. The hottest months are July and August, when average maximum temperatures reach above 48 °C (118.4 °F) on the coastal plain. In the Al Hajar Mountains, temperatures are considerably lower, a result of increased altitude.Dell Studio XPS 16 battery

Average minimum temperatures in January and February are between 10 and 14 °C (50 and 57.2 °F). During the late summer months, a humid southeastern wind known as Sharqi (i.e. "Easterner") makes the coastal region especially unpleasant. Acer Aspire 5520 Battery

The average annual rainfall in the coastal area is fewer than 120 mm (4.7 in), but in some mountainous areas annual rainfall often reaches 350 mm (13.8 in). Rain in the coastal region falls in short, torrential bursts during the summer months, sometimes resulting in floods in ordinarily dry wadi beds.Acer TravelMate 5720 Adapter

The region is prone to occasional, violent dust storms, which can severely reduce visibility. The Jebel Jais mountain cluster in Ras al-Khaimah has experienced snow only twice since records began.

Government

The politics of the United Arab Emirates take place in a framework of a federal, presidential, elective monarchy.HP Compaq 6735s Adapter

The UAE is a federation of seven absolute monarchies: the emirates of Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Fujairah, Sharjah, Dubai, Ras al-Khaimah and Umm al-Qaiwain. The President of the United Arab Emirates is its head of state, and the Prime Minister of the United Arab Emirates is its head of government,including foreign affairs,Dell XPS M1330 Battery

security and defense, nationality and immigration issues, education, public health, currency, postal, telephone and other communications services, air traffic control, licensing of aircraft, labor relations, banking, delimitation of territorial waters and extradition of criminals. HP Compaq nc6230 Adapter

All responsibilities not granted to the national government are reserved to the emirates.

The UAE government comprises three branches: the executive, legislature, and judiciary. The executive branch consists of the President, Vice President, Prime Minister, Federal Supreme Council, and a Council of Ministers (the cabinet). Dell T117C battery

The Federal Supreme Council is composed of the emirs of the seven emirates. It elects the president, vice president, members of the Council of Ministers, and judges of the Federal Supreme Court. The Supreme Council also formulates government policy, proposes and ratifies national laws, and ratifies treaties.Asus x5dij-sx039c battery

Although elected by the Supreme Council, the president and prime minister are essentially hereditary. The emir of Abu Dhabi holds the presidency, and the emir of Dubai is prime minister. All but one prime minister served concurrently as vice president. Dell Inspiron 1464 battery

The political influences and financial obligations of the emirates are reflected by their respective positions in the federal government. While each emirate still retains autonomy over its own territory, a percentage of its revenue is allocated to the UAE’s central budget.HP Compaq 6720s Adapter

Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan was the UAE's president from the nation's founding until his death on November 2, 2004. On the following day the Federal Supreme Council elected his son, Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, to the post. Abu Dhabi's crown prince, Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan, is the heir apparent.Dell Latitude D630 Adapter

The legislature is the Federal National Council (FNC), which consists of 40 members drawn from all the emirates. Half are appointed by the rulers of the constituent emirates, and the other half are indirectly elected to serve two-year terms. The first indirect elections took place in 2006, and the goal is a wholly elected council.HP Pavilion dm4 battery

The council carries out the country’s main consultative duties and has both a legislative and supervisory role provided by the constitution. The council scrutinizes and amends proposed legislation, but cannot prevent it from becoming law. The main tasks of the FNC are:Sony NP-FS11 Battery

  • Discussing constitutional amendments and draft laws, which may be approved, amended or rejected
  • Reviewing the annual draft budget of the federation
  • Debating international treaties and conventions  Dell Inspiron 1520 Adapter
  • Influencing the Government’s work through the channels of discussion, question and answer sessions, recommendations and following up on complaints

A constitutionally independent judiciary includes the Federal Supreme Court.Toshiba PA3399U-1BRS Battery

However, Dubai and Ras al-Khaimah do not belong to the national judiciary. All emirates have their own secular andIslamic law for civil, criminal, and high courts.

In parallel to the economic developments of the UAE, the country's leaders have also initiated political reforms in order to further develop the political institutions. Acer Aspire 5920G Adapter

The political modernization process was envisaged in three stages: first, conduct elections to elect half the FNC members through an Electoral College; second expand the powers of the FNC and increase the number of FNC members, which would require extensive constitutional studies and possible modifications, at the end of which the political institution would be a more enabled body; and finally, an open election for half the council.Acer Aspire 5920 Battery

The purpose of the elections was to expand political participation and develop a culture of government reform. The limited scope of participation was conditioned by three reasons: (1) the country not having an electoral tradition, (2) the prevailing political tension and instability in the region meaning that there was no scope for error, IBM Thinkpad T40 Adapter

and (3) elections in the region having proved to potentially be divisive affairs, based on sectarian and religious issues, which the UAE wanted to avoid.

In December 2008, the Supreme Council approved constitutional amendments both to empower the FNC and to enhance government transparency and accountability. Nikon COOLPIX 4300 Digital Camera Battery

[edit]Law

When contrasted with other Arab states, such as Saudi Arabia for instance, the UAE has comparatively very liberal laws. The country has a civil law jurisdiction. However,Shari'a or Islamic law is applied to aspects of family law, inheritance and certain criminal acts.Apple MB771 battery

Women can drive in the UAE and there is a strong emphasis in equality and human rights brought by the UAE's National Human Rights Committee .

A federal court system applies to all emirates except Dubai and Ras Al Khaimah, which are not fully integrated into the federal judicial system.Sony DSC-P5 Digital Camera Battery

All emirates have secular courts to rule about criminal, civil, and commercial matters, and Islamic courts to review family and religious disputes.

The country has undergone a period of liberalization and modernisation during the reign of Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan. Dell Inspiron 6400 Adapter

The laws of the UAE tolerate alcohol to a certain extent. However, public bars and nightclubs in the UAE operate mainly in hotels and clubs, much like in Qatar, although some do operate independently.

In the UAE the establishment of the Civil and Criminal Courts resulted in diminishing the role of the Sharia Courts.Toshiba PA3534U-1BRS Battery

Nevertheless, the competence of the Sharia Courts in some emirates, particularly Abu Dhabi, was substantially expanded later on to include, in addition to matters of personal status, all types of civil and commercial disputes as well as serious criminal offences.Sony NP-FP50 Battery

Therefore, in addition to the Civil Courts, each of the seven emirates maintains a parallel system of Sharia Courts which are organised and supervised locally.

Civil cases may also be tried under Sharia courts with one exception: Shi'ite Muslims may try such cases in their own courts. HP Compaq nx7300 Adapter

Other civil proceedings include those involving claims against the government and enforcement of foreign judgments. Live-in relationships are illegal in all emirates including Dubai where there have been numerous arrests of couples that have lived together, and even have visited the city together.Dell Latitude D820 Adapter

Human rights and social development

Human rights are legally protected by the Constitution of the United Arab Emirates, which confers equality, liberty, rule of law, presumption of innocence in legal procedures, inviolability of the home, freedom of movement, freedom of opinion and speech, freedom of communication, Toshiba PA3399U-1BRS Battery

freedom of religion, freedom of council and association, freedom of occupation, freedom to be elected to office and others onto all citizens, within the limit of the law.

Because of the rapid development of the UAE from a traditional, homogeneous society in the mid-20th century to a modern,Dell Studio XPS 1640 Battery

multicultural one at the beginning of the 21st century, the concurrent development of legal provisions and the practical enforcement of existing laws has been challenging and, in consequence, problems exist mainly in regard to human rights of non-citizens, who make up around 80% of the population.Dell Latitude D830 Battery

Main issues include companies' and employers' non-compliance with labor laws.

Many expatriate workers, mostly of South Asian origin, have after their arrival in the UAE been turned into debt-ridden de factoindentured servants.Toshiba Satellite M65 battery

Confiscation of passports, although illegal, occurs on a large scale, primarily of unskilled or semi-skilled employees.

The UAE's system of employment for non-citizens ties an employee to the employer and prevents him or her from seeking alternative employment without the express approval of the original employer.Toshiba NB100 Battery

Also, non-payment of wages, cramped and unsanitary living conditions and poor safety practices are widespread and have been the subject of foreign media attention.

In order to institutionalize the fight against human trafficking, including that of expatriate workers for blue collar jobs, the UAE government has devised a four-pillar strategy:Toshiba Satellite P10 Battery

(1) legislation, (2) enforcement (3) victim support, and (4) bilateral agreements and international cooperation. In 2007 the National Committee to Combat Human Trafficking was established, which serves as a coordinating agency. The UAE has ratified the United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol).Sony VGP-BPS13B/B Battery

The victim support program includes protection, counseling and rehabilitation. Police departments and non-Government organizations provide shelter and support for human trafficking victims until they are able to acquire the right documents and many victims are then sent home at the Government’s expense, under the Crime Victim Assistance Programme. Sony VGN-FW11S Battery

These shelters include the Dubai Women's and Children's Foundation, which was established in July 2007, and Ewaa in Abu Dhabi, which opened in late 2008, as well as the Human Rights Care Department in Dubai and the Social Support Centre in Abu Dhabi, which have been operating for several years.Hp pavilion dv6000 battery

The issue of sexual abuse among female domestic servants is an area of concern, particularly given that domestic servants are not covered by the UAE Labor Law of 1980 or the Draft Labor Law of 2007. Worker protests have been cracked down on. Until today, the government has not allowed for trade unions to form despite having promised to do so since 2004.Sony Vaio VGN-FZ31S battery

As Sharia prohibits sodomy, homosexual relationships are not commonly disclosed. The UAE is much more moderate on homosexual punishment than many of its neighbors. The death penalty is never implemented for homosexuality, and rarely life imprisonment.Sony Vaio VGN-FZ31S battery

Foreigners generally receive deportation, which is sometimes temporary. Prospective foreign employees infected with Hepatitis, Tuberculosis, or HIV will not be given work visas and have to leave the country.There is, however, no screening of tourists.HP NX8200 battery

The UAE authorities on the federal and local level have instituted a number of mechanisms and policies to improve the protection of human rights. For example, in 2004, the Dubai police opened designated departments in all emirate police stations that are mandated to protect the human rights of both victims and perpetrators of crime.HP NX7400 battery

UN rapporteurs – one on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, and the other on contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance – visited the UAE separately and held discussions with various ministries, civil society organizations, academics and ordinary citizens.HP NW8440 battery

Commending the Government’s ‘cooperation and openness’, a preliminary report of the rapporteur on racism said: "The recent review of the UAE by the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination and by the Universal Periodic Review of the Human Rights Council demonstrates that the authorities are willing to find ways and means of addressing human rights challenges faced by the people in the UAE and to ensure compliance with international human rights standards."HP NW8200 battery

Efforts are under way to promulgate a draft national law for better protection of children, in line with the Convention on the Rights of the Child. The proposed law provides for the establishment of a hotline to respond to children's problems and encourages the establishment of associations or clubs specializing in child affairs, HP NC6400 battery

as well as calling for the appointment of a special judge to handle cases related to children.

The UAE National Human Rights Report, prepared by a committee comprising representatives from various ministries and government institutions,HP NC6200 battery

with the participation of representatives from civil society and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and presented to the UN Human Rights Council on 4 December 2008 outlines efforts in the field of human rights observance and listed challenges facing the country, such as the following:HP NC6100 battery

  • Providing more mechanisms to protect human rights, keeping up with national and international developments, and updating laws and systems
  • Meeting the state's expectations with regards to building national capabilities and deepening efforts for education on human rights and basic freedoms through a national planHP NC6000 battery
  • Striving to regulate the relationship between employers and workers in framework that preserves dignity and rights, and is in harmony with international standards, especially with regard to domestic help
  • Increasing the empowerment of women's role in society, increasing opportunities for involvement in a number of fields based on their skills and abilities HP 6710B battery
  • Working to confront human trafficking crimes by reviewing the best international practices in the field, working to update and improve the state's legislature in accordance with international standards, working to establish institutions and agencies to confront human trafficking crimes, and working to support the foundations of international cooperation with international organizations and institutions.HP 6530B battery

The UAE government is currently studying the establishment of a national human-rights commission. Mean wages were $45.61 per manhour in 2009.HP 6510B battery

Foreign policy and military

The UAE’s liberal climate towards foreign cooperation, investment and modernization has prompted extensive diplomatic and commercial relations with other countries. It plays a significant role in OPEC and the UN, and is one of the founding members of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC).HP Pavilion DV6-1020ED Battery

Regionally, the UAE has a very close relationship with other GCC members as well as most of the Arab countries. The Emirates have long maintained close relations with Egypt and remain the highest investor in the country from among the rest of the Arab world.Dell Latitude E6400 battery

Pakistan has also been a major recipient of economic aid and relations have been extremely close since the founding of the federation. Pakistan had been first to formally recognize the UAE upon its formation and continues to be one of its major economic and trading partners with about 400,000 expatriates receiving employment in the UAE.HP Pavilion DV7-1290EO laptop battery

India’s large expat community in the UAE also has over the centuries evolved into current close political, economic and cultural ties. The largest demographic presence in the Emirates is Indian. Like most countries in the region, the UAE and Iran dispute rights to a number of islands in the Persian Gulf but this has not significantly impacted relations because of the large Iranian community presence and strong economic ties.Apple A1281 battery

Following the 1990 Iraq invasion of Kuwait, the UAE has maintained extensive relations with its allies for security and cooperation towards increasing interoperability of its defense forces and for liberating Kuwait. France and theUSA have played the most strategically significant roles with defense cooperation agreements and military material provision.Apple A1280 battery

Most recently, these relations culminated in a joint nuclear deal for the US to supply the UAE with nuclear power equipment, technology and fuel. In turn, the UAE – a Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) signatory – has agreed to open its nuclear facilities to full international inspections and refrain from producing its own reactor fuel.Dell LATITUDE D800 battery

Commercially, the UK and Germany are the UAE’s largest export markets and bilateral relations have long been close as a large number of their nationals reside in the UAE.

Diplomatic relations between UAE and Japan were established as early as UAE's independence in December 1971.Dell Inspiron 6400 AC Adapter

The two countries had always enjoyed friendly ties and trade between each other. Exports from the UAE to Japan include crude oil and natural gas and imports from Japan to UAE include cars andelectric items. Sony Vaio VGN-CR190E/L Battery

The UAE is pursuing a policy of peaceful settling of the region's issues. The country supports the right of the Palestinian people to establish an independent state. At the second international conference to support the Palestinian economy and reconstruction of Gaza strip, HP 448007-001 battery

which was held in Sharm el Sheikh, Egypt, the UAE said it would continue to offer political, economic and humanitarian support to the Palestinian cause. The UAE has provided over US$3 billion in aid to the Palestinians, including development funds for infrastructure, housing, hospital and school projects.Sony VGP-BPS11 battery

In addition, the country donated US$174 million towards reconstruction in Gaza. The UAE has been an active supporter of the Iraqi Government in its efforts to draw up a comprehensive political formula to enable the country to achieve security and stability. It has one of the few functioning Arab embassies and resident ambassadors in Baghdad,HP Pavilion DV6-1223EO Battery

and has canceled debts worth about US$7 billion to support Iraq’s reconstruction efforts. The UAE continues to contribute constructively to the international efforts aimed at stabilizing Afghanistan and supporting its bid to restore security. As part of its humanitarian and development assistance to Afghanistan, it provided US$550 million between 2002 and 2008. Compaq CQ35-100 battery

The UAE is the only Arab country performing humanitarian activities on the ground in Afghanistan.

One major diplomatic success for the UAE during 2009, which also reflected its growing international status, came with Abu Dhabi being chosen to host the headquarters of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). HP DV9700 battery

This is one of the few times that a developing country has had the opportunity to host the headquarters of a major international organization.

Foreign aid

The UAE has continuously been a major contributor of emergency relief to regions affected by conflict and natural disasters in the developing world.Sony VGP-BPS13 battery

he main UAE governmental agency for foreign aid is the Abu Dhabi Fund for Development (ADFD) which was established in 1971. Since its establishment, the ADFD has provided over Dh12.6 billion (US$3.45 billion) in soft loans and grants to countries mainly in Africa.HP Pavilion DV8 battery

Since 1971, these have accounted for a further Dh10 billion (US$2.7 billion), bringing the total amount of the loans, grants and investments provided by the fund or the Abu Dhabi government, and managed by the fund, to around Dh24 billion (US$6.5 billion), covering 258 different projects in a total of 52 countries.Compaq CQ50 battery

In November 2008, the Abu Dhabi Fund announced a long term loan of around US$278 million for rehabilitation of agricultural land in the state of Uzbekistan. Between 1994 to mid-2008, for example, around Dh15.4 billion (US$4.2 billion) has been provided for the Palestinians, including, most recently, HP Pavilion DV7 battery

US$300 million pledged at a donor conference in Paris and an annual commitment of US$43 million to support the Palestine National Authority.

The UAE has also used the Red Crescent authority and charities such as Dubai Cares and Noor Dubai to donate aid to foreign countries.Ibm THINKPAD X200 Battery

Political divisions

The United Arab Emirates is divided into seven emirates. Abu Dhabi is the most populated Emirate with 38% of the UAE population. The Emirate of Dubai has a further 30%, so over two-thirds of the UAE population live in either Abu Dhabi or Dubai.Ibm THINKPAD X200 Battery

Abu Dhabi has an area of 67,340 square kilometres, which is 86.7% of the country’s total area, excluding the islands. It has a coastline extending for more than 400 kilometres and is divided for administrative purposes into three major regions. The Emirate of Dubai extends along the Persian Gulf coast of the UAE for approximately 72 kilometres.Ibm THINKPAD X200 Battery

Dubai has an area of 3,885 square kilometers, which is equivalent to 5 per cent of the country’s total area, excluding the islands. The Emirate of Sharjah extends along approximately 16 kilometers of the UAE’s Persian Gulf coastline and for more than 80 kilometers into the interior. SONY VAIO VGN-FW21E Battery

The northern emirates which include Fujairah, Ajman, Ras al-Khaimah, and Umm al-Qaiwain all have a total area of 3,881 square kilometres. There are two areas under joint control. One is jointly controlled by Oman and Ajman, the other by Fujairah and Sharjah.Asus M52N Battery

There is an Omani exclave surrounded by UAE territory, known as Wadi Madha. It is located halfway between the Musandam peninsula and the rest of Oman in the Emirate of Sharjah. It covers approximately 75 square kilometres (29 sq mi) and the boundary was settled in 1589. Dell Latitude E6400 ATG Battery

The north-east corner of Madha is closest to the Khor Fakkan-Fujairah road, barely 10 metres (33 ft) away. Within the Omani exclave of Madha, is a UAE exclave called Nahwa, also belonging to the Emirate of Sharjah. It is about 8 kilometres (5 mi) on a dirt track west of the town of New Madha. It consists of about forty houses with its own clinic and telephone exchange.SONY VAIO VGN-FW21L Battery

Demographics

In 2010, the UAE's population was estimated at 4,975,593, of which less than 20% were UAE nationals or Emiratis, while the majority of the population were expatriates. The country's net migration rate stands at 21.71, the world's highest. SONY VAIO VGN-FW21M Battery

23% of the population are non-Emirati Arabs and Iranians and the majority of the population, about 50%, is from India. Approximately 1.75 million Indian nationals reside in the UAE, making them the single largest expatriate community in the country . SONY VAIO VGN-FW21Z Battery

However, by 2020 emiratis are projected to form 10% of the population. There is also a growing presence of Europeans especially in multi-cultural cities such as Dubai [85] Those from other parts of Asia (including the Philippines, Iran or Sri Lanka) comprised up to 1 million people. The rest of the population were from other Arab states.SONY VAIO VGN-FW33GW Battery

Thousands of Palestinians, who came as either political refugees or temporary employment, also live in the United Arab Emirates. There is also a sizable population of people from Egypt, Somalia and Sudan who migrated to the UAE before its formation. The UAE has also attracted a small number of expatriates from countries in Europe, North America, Asia, and Oceania.Dell XPS M1210 Battery

More than 100,000 British nationals live in the country.

The population of the UAE has a skewed sex distribution consisting of more than twice as many males as females. The 15–65 age group has a male/female sex ratioof 2.743. The UAE's gender imbalance is only surpassed by other Arab countries in the Persian Gulf region.Dell KM958 battery

The most populated city is Dubai, with approximately 1.7 million people. Other major cities include Abu Dhabi, Al-Ain, Sharjah, and Fujairah. About 88% of the population of the United Arab Emirates is urban. The remaining inhabitants live in tiny towns scattered throughout the country or in the many desert oilfield camps in the nation.Dell Studio 1555 battery

Religions

Islam is largest and the official state religion of the UAE, though the government follows a policy of tolerance toward other religions and rarely interferes in the activities of non-Muslims.Sony VGP-BPS13 battery

However, it is illegal in the UAE to spread the ideas of any religion apart from Islam through any form of media as it is considered a form of proselytizing. There are approximately 31 churches throughout the country and one Hindu temple in the region of Bur Dubai.Sony VGP-BPS13/S battery

Based on the Ministry of Economy census in 2005, 76% of the total population was Muslim, 9% Christian, and 15% other (mainly Hindu and Buddhist). Census figures do not take into account the many "temporary" visitors and workers while also counting Baha'is and Druze as Muslim.Sony VGP-BPS13A/B battery

Non-Islamic religions are mainly followed by foreigners or expatriates. As the majority of the population are non-citizens, of the citizens 85% are Sunni Muslim while 15% are Shi'a Muslims.Omani immigrants are mostly Ibadi, while Sufi influences exist too.Sony VGP-BPS13B/B battery

Education

The education system through secondary level is monitored by the Ministry of Education. It consists of primary schools, middle schools and high schools. The public schools are government-funded and the curriculum is created to match the United Arab Emi

rates development's goals and values. Sony VGP-BPL9 battery

The medium of instruction in the public school is Arabic with emphasis on English as a second language. There are also many private schools which are internationally accredited. Public schools in the country are free for citizens of the UAE, while the fees for private schools vary.Sony VGP-BPS13B/B battery

There has been significant improvement in private education across the UAE. This is particularly important given the fact that a relatively high percentage of students in the Emirates are enrolled in private schools: in Dubai 50% of all students are in private schools, while the number for Abu Dhabi stands at around 40%.Sony VGP-BPL15 battery

Many private international schools in the UAE are accredited by international bodies and there are currently 17 International Baccalaureate schools operating in the country, all of which have obtained approval from the International Baccalaureate Organization in Geneva to run their programs.HP Pavilion dv6000 Battery

Reforms to special education are under way across the country. In 2006, the Cabinet passed the UAE Disabilities Act, a comprehensive law that requires public and private schools to provide equal access to all children. The law was subsequently amended in 2009 to replace references to disability with the phrase "special needs".HP Pavilion dv8000 battery

The higher education system is monitored by the Ministry of Higher Education. The ministry also is responsible for admitting students to its undergraduateinstitutions.

A recent survey showed that the illiteracy rate is on the decline in the UAE, and is now in the region of 7%. HP PAVILION DV6000 Battery

This is mainly due to programmes that combat illiteracy amongst the adult population. Currently there are thousands of nationals pursuing formal learning at 86 adult education centres spread across the country.

In fall 2009, the Masdar Institute of Science and Technology (MIST) opened its doors to its first class of graduate students.HP PAVILION DV8000 Battery

The Dubai School of Government (DSG), a research and teaching institution focusing on good governance and public policy in the Middle East, launched its first masters program also in 2009. A number of foreign universities, from the Paris Sorbonne to Michigan State University, have opened campuses in the UAE. SONY VAIO VGN-FZ Battery

In February 2008, a branch of the New York Film Academy opened in Abu Dhabi; it will launch its first bachelor’s degree program in 2010. In fall 2010 the opening of the Abu Dhabi campus of New York University will mark a new milestone. INSEAD, one of the world’s largest graduate business schools, HP Pavilion DV6000 battery

has been operating a Middle East campus in Abu Dhabi since 2007, and now runs seven executive-education programs.

The Government has launched many programs and initiatives to improve the quality of education at schools across the country.HP Pavilion DV8000 battery

The UAE has shown a strong interest in improving education and research. Enterprises include the establishment of the CERT Research Centers and the Masdar Institute of Science and Technology and institute for enterprise development. HP Pavilion DV6000 battery

Health

Standards of healthcare are considered to be generally high in the United Arab Emirates, resulting from increased government spending during strong economic years. According to the UAE government, total expenditures on healthcare from 1996 to 2003 were US$436 million. HP Pavilion DV8000 battery

According to the World Health Organization, in 2006 total expenditures on health care constituted 2.6 percent of gross domestic product (GDP), and the per capita expenditure for health care was US$673. General government expenditure on health as percentage of total government expenditure is 8.7% and Health care currently is free only for UAE citizens,SONY VAIO VGN-FW31J Battery

with a health insurance scheme in place for those working the Emirates. Hospital beds (per 10 000 population) was 18 in 2005. The number ofdoctors per 100,000 (annual average, 1990–2005) was 17 and dentistry personnel (per 100 000 population) was 30 in 2002. The pharmaceutical personnel (per 100 000 population) was 40.Sony VAIO VGN-FW21E Battery

The life expectancy at birth in the UAE is at 78.5 years. According to World Health Organisation (WHO) statistics, the UAE is ranked fourth in the world in terms of health care.

In February 2008, the Ministry of Health unveiled a five-year health strategy for the public health sector in the northern emirates, which fall under its purview and which, unlike Abu Dhabi and Dubai, do not have separate healthcare authorities. Sony VAIO VGN-NR11S/S Battery

The strategy focuses on unifying healthcare policy and improving access to healthcare services at reasonable cost, at the same time reducing dependence on overseas treatment. The ministry plans to add three hospitals to the current 14, and 29 primary healthcare centres to the current 86. Nine were scheduled to open in 2008. Sony VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Battery

The introduction of mandatory health insurance in Abu Dhabi for expatriates and their dependents was a major driver in reform of healthcare policy. Abu Dhabi nationals were brought under the scheme from 1 June 2008 and Dubai followed for its government employees. Sony VAIO VGN-NR11M/S Battery

Eventually, under federal law, every Emirati and expatriate in the country will be covered by compulsory health insurance under a unified mandatory scheme. Recently the country has been benefiting from medical tourists from all over the GCC. The UAE currently attracts medical tourists seeking plastic surgery and advanced procedures, cardiac and spinal surgery, and dental treatment, as health services have higher standards than other Persian Gulf countries. Sony VAIO VGN-NR11Z/T Battery

Cardiovascular disease is the principal cause of death in the UAE, constituting 28 percent of total deaths; other major causes are accidents and injuries, malignancies, and congenital anomalies. Diabetes and Cancer are also the main causes of death in the country, and statistics have indicated that UAE has the highest rate of Diabetes in the world.Sony VGP-BPS8 Battery

Economy

The UAE has an open economy with one of the highest per capita incomes in the world and a sizable annual trade surplus. In 2009, its GDP, as measured by purchasing power parity, stood at US$400.4 billion. Dell Inspiron 1320n Battery

The GDP per capita is currently the third in the world and second in the Middle East, after Qatar and Kuwait as measured by the CIA World Factbook, or the 17th in the world as measured by the International Monetary Fund.

With almost $1 trillion in foreign invested assets, some argue the UAE to be the richest, with the highest average income in the world.Dell Inspiron 1320n Battery

Over half of this money is generated by the nation's capital; Abu Dhabi. With a population of just under 900,000 Abu Dhabi was labeled "The richest city in the world" by a CNN article .

UAE's economy, particularly that of Dubai, was badly hit by the financial crisis of 2007–2010.Dell Studio 1450 Battery

In 2009, the country's economy shrank by 4.00 percent, but UAE's overseas investments are expected to support its full economic recovery.[105] However, concern remains about the property sector. Property prices in Dubai fell dramatically when Dubai World, the government construction company, sought to delay a debt payment.Dell Studio 1457 Battery

The ability to service debt remains a problem.

Petroleum and natural gas exports play an important role in the economy, especially in Abu Dhabi. More than 85% of the UAE's economy was based on the exports of natural resources in 2009. Dell Latitude D610 Battery

A massive construction boom, an expanding manufacturing base, and a thriving services sector are helping the UAE diversify its economy. Nationwide, there is currently $350 billion worth of active construction projects. Aluminum, steel, iron and other forms of metal exports along with textile produce much a significant amount of income and are expected to surpass the income brought in by petroleum and natural gas exports within the next 40 to 60 years.Dell Studio 1457 Battery

Government projects include the Burj Khalifa, which is the world's tallest building, Dubai World Central International Airport which, when completed, will be the most expensive airport ever built, and the three Palm Islands, the largest artificial islands in the world.Toshiba Satellite M60 battery

Other projects include the Dubai Mall which is the world's largest shopping mall, and a man-made archipelago called The World which seeks to increase Dubai's rapidly growing tourism industry. Also in the entertainment sector is the construction ofDubailand, which is expected to be twice the size of Disney World,Dell Latitude D830 Battery

and of Dubai Sports City which will not only provide homes for local sports teams but may be part of future Olympic bids. However, this is concern that this construction boom has been built on debt and speculation, with little creation of true economic value.Dell Latitude D620 Battery

Major increases in imports occurred in manufactured goods, machinery, and transportation equipment, which together accounted for 80% of total imports. Another important foreign exchange earner, the Abu Dhabi Investment Authority - which controls the investments of Abu Dhabi, Dell Inspiron Mini 10 Battery

the wealthiest emirate - manages an estimated $360 billion in overseas investments & an estimated $900 billion in assets.

More than 200 factories operate at the Jebel Ali complex in Dubai, which includes a deep-water port and a free trade zone for manufacturing and distribution in which all goods for re-export or transshipment enjoy a 100% duty exemption. Sony VGN-FW11S Battery

A major power plant with associated water desalination units, an aluminium smelter, and a steel fabrication unit are prominent facilities in the complex. The complex is currently undergoing expansion, with sections of land set aside for different sectors of industry. Sony VGN-FW11M Battery

A large international passenger and cargo airport, Dubai World Central International Airport, with associated logistics, manufacturing and hospitality industries, is also planned here.

Except in the free trade zones, the UAE requires at least 51% local citizen ownership in all businesses operating in the country as part of its attempt to place Emiratis into leadership positions.Sony VGN-FW139E/H battery

However, this law is under review and the majority ownership clause will very likely be scrapped in order to bring the country into line with World Trade Organisation regulations.

As a member of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), the UAE participates in the wide range of GCC activities that focus on economic issues.Dell Latitude E5400 Battery

These include regular consultations and development of common policies covering trade, investment, banking and finance, transportation, telecommunications, and other technical areas, including protection of intellectual property rights.

The currency of the United Arab Emirates is the Emirati Dirham.Dell Latitude E4200 Battery

Infrastructure

The UAE has been spending billions of dollars on infrastructure and is the biggest projects market in the region, accounting for 37 percent of total project value within the construction, oil and gas, petrochemicals, power and water and waste sectors. Many huge investments have been poured into real estate, tourism andleisure.Dell Inspiron 300M Battery

These developments are particularly evident in the larger emirates of Abu Dhabi and Dubai. In the former, Masdar City and Saadiyat Island highlight the status as an emerging market. Dubai World Central, a 140-square kilometre multi-phase development under construction near Jebel Ali, Dell Studio 1737 battery

will create 900,000 jobs, and will include Al Maktoum International Airport, which will be the largest airport in the world by 2020. Property developer Emaar’s Burj Khalifa is a Dh3.67 billion (US$1billion) tower that is the world's tallest skyscraper.Dell Inspiron E1505 battery

Governments in the northern emirates are rapidly following suit, providing major incentives for developers of residential and commercial property. In addition, UAE President Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan has allocated Dh16 billion (US$4.4 billion) for infrastructure projects in the northern emirates. Dell RM791 battery

The allocation will be used to fund the construction of road networks, new housing communities, drainage networks and other projects, providing integrated solutions to some infrastructure deficits in these areas.

The United Arab Emirates has an extensive road network that connects all major cities and towns.Acer Aspire One battery 10400mAh

Roads in the western and southern regions are still relatively undeveloped. Those are highly dangerous roads passing through desert regions and many are still unsealed, gravel roads. This has resulted in the continued use of airplanes as the main or alternative mode of transportation for the residents.Dell Precision M70 Battery

There are seaports throughout the country. The major ports are Port Jebel Ali, Port Rashid, Port Khalid, Port Saeed, Port Khor Fakkan, and Port Zayed.

The UAE contains a number of significant airports. Dubai International Airport (DXB) is the main airport of the country. Toshiba Satellite L305 Battery

In 2008, the airport was the 20th busiest airport in the world by passenger traffic and 11th busiest by cargo traffic. The airport also was the 6th busiest airport in the world by international passenger traffic. Other important airports include Abu Dhabi International Airport, Sharjah International Airport, and Al-Ain International Airport.Toshiba Satellite T4900 Battery

There are also airports in smaller towns, as well as small domestic airstrips in the rural Western region. There are daily flight services between West and East UAE, which is the only convenient option for passengers travelling between the two parts of the country to places such as Sir Bani Yas.Toshiba PA3399U-2BRS battery

The UAE is home to the largest airline in the Middle East, Emirates Airline. It has Dubai as its hub, and flies to over 100 destinations across six continents. The airline was the eighth-largest airline in the world in terms of international passengers carried, and fifth-largest in the world in terms of scheduled international passenger-kilometres flown in 2008.Toshiba Satellite A200 Battery

Etihad Airways, from Abu Dhabi, is also growing, with over 100 aircraft on order.

The Dh15.5 billion (US$4.2 billion) Dubai Metro project includes a 52-kilometre Red Line viaduct, which stretches the length of Sheikh Zayed Road between Al Rashidiya and Jebel Ali and was opened in September 2009 after round-the-clock work for three years. Toshiba Satellite M300 Battery

The Red Line when fully complete will carry an estimated 27,000 passengers per hour in each direction on 42 trains.[125] Work also on the Green Line, which will link Al Qusais to Dubai Healthcare City, began in 2006 and is scheduled for completion in late 2010.Toshiba Satellite 1200 Battery

In Abu Dhabi plans are underway for all a metro system and also a country-wide national railway, which will connect all the major cities and is later to connect to the GCC wide network. The cost for the railway will be between Dh25bn and Dh30bn, and will be a total length of 1,100 kilometres, connecting Ghuwaifat, bordering the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, in the west and the border with the Sultanate of Oman in the east. SONY VGP-BPS13A/Q Battery

The Federal Electricity and Water Authority (FEWA) is the body responsible for overseeing federal utilities, whilst authorities in individual emirates, including Abu Dhabi Water and Electricity Authority (ADWEA), Dubai Water and Electricity Authority (DEWA) and Sharjah Water and Electricity Authority (SEWA), oversee power and water generation in their individual emirates. SONY VGP-BPS13/Q Battery

The UAE plans to build 68 rechargeable dams in the coming five years to augment the 114 dams in existence, all but two of which are rechargeable, to help with providing for the growing population.

The UAE is also planning to develop a peaceful nuclear energy programme to generate electricity. So far, the UAE has signed peaceful nuclear agreements withFrance, United States, and South Korea, and a MOU with the United Kingdom. Sony VGP-BPS21A/B Battery

The UAE is presently serviced by two telecommunications operators, Etisalat and Emirates Integrated Telecommunications Company ("du"). Etisalat operated a monopoly until du launched mobile services in February 2007. However, Etisalat, with over 80 per cent of the market, Sony VGP-BPS21/S Battery

remains the UAE's biggest telecom provider and is expanding dramatically internationally and is now the sixteenth largest telecommunications firm in the world. Du is targeting a 30 per centmarket share by 2010. Between 2002 and 2007, the number of mobile phone subscribers in the UAE grew by an annual average of 25.6 per cent,Sony VGP-BPS21A Battery

almost four times its population growth. Forecasts indicate that the UAE mobile market will increase from 7.7 million subscribers in 2007 to 9.2 million in 2008 and to 11.9 million by 2012.

Current UAE internet penetration figures assume 2.4 users per subscription.Sony VGP-BPS21 Battery

TRA projections indicate that over the next few years growth in both users and subscriptions will be coupled with a fall in the number of users per subscription: the number of subscribers are expected to increase from 0.904 million in 2007 to 1.15 million in 2008, 1.44 million in 2009 and 2.66 million in 2012.Dell Inspiron 6400 AC Adapter

Internet use is extensive; by 2007 there were 1.7 million users. The authorities filter websites for religious, political and sexual content.

Culture

The United Arab Emirates has a diverse and multicultural society.Dell LATITUDE D800 battery

The country's cultural imprint as a small, ethnically homogenous pearling community was changed with the arrival of other ethnic groups and nationals—first by the Iranians in the early 1900s, and later by Indians and Pakistanisin the 1960s. Dubai has been criticized for perpetuating a class-based society, where migrant workers are in the lower classes.Dell Inspiron Mini 12 battery

Despite the diversity of the population, only minor and infrequent episodes of ethnic tensions have been reported in the city. Major holidays in Dubai include Eid al Fitr, which marks the end of Ramadan, and National Day (2 December), which marks the formation of the United Arab Emirates.Dell Inspiron 1720 battery

Emirati culture mainly revolves around the religion of Islam and traditional Arab, and Bedouin culture. The influence of Islamic and Arab culture on the region's architecture, music, attire, cuisine and lifestyle are very prominent as well. Five times every day, Muslims are called to prayer from the minarets of mosques which are scattered around the country.Dell Inspiron 1564 battery

Since 2006, the weekend has been Friday-Saturday, as a compromise between Friday's holiness to Muslims and the Western weekend of Saturday-Sunday.

This unique socioeconomic development in the Persian Gulf has meant that the UAE is relatively liberal. Dell Inspiron 1464 battery

While Islam is the main religion, the UAE has been known for its tolerant practices. Christian churches can be found alongside mosques and this courtesy has seemingly been extended to Hinduism and Sikhism as there is a place tucked away inside a residential style building which houses a Hindu temple and a Sikh gurudwara. Dell XPS 1340 battery

There is evidently no persecution of Hindus or Sikhs which is why it is home to several communities that have faced persecution elsewhere, who are now contributing to the cosmopolitan atmosphere. There are a variety of Asian-influenced schools, cultural centers and restaurants. Increasing numbers of European centers, schools, and restaurants can also be seen in the UAE.Dell INSPIRON 9100 battery

Dress and etiquette

Most Emirati males prefer to wear a kandura, an ankle-length white tunic woven from wool or cotton, and most Emirati women wear an abaya, a black over-garment covering most parts of the body.[141] Western-style clothing is, however, dominant because of the large expatriate population, and this practice is beginning to grow in popularity among Emiratis.Dell Inspiron N4010 battery

Etiquette is an important aspect of UAE culture and tradition, to which visitors are expected to conform. Recently, many expatriates have disregarded the law and been arrested for indecent clothing at beaches. Western-style dress is tolerated in appropriate places, such as bars or clubs, but the UAE has maintained a strict policy of protecting highly public spaces from cultural insensitivity.Dell N3010 battery

This is due, in large part, to the effects such practices are considered to have on the social integration and participation of a largely conservative Emirati population.

Food

The traditional food of the Emirates has always been rice, fish, and meat. HP Pavilion DV6-1210SA battery

The people of the United Arab Emirates have adopted most of their foods from the surrounding countries including Iran, Saudi Arabia, and Oman. Seafood has been the mainstay of the Emirati diet for centuries. Meat and rice are other staple foods; lamb and mutton are the more favored meats, then goat and beef. Popular beverages are coffee and tea, which can be supplemented with cardamom, saffron, or mint to give them a distinct flavor. HP Pavilion DM4 battery

Muslims are prohibited from eating pork, so it is not included in local menus. Hotels frequently have pork substitutes such as beef sausages and veal rashers on their breakfast menus. If pork is available, it is clearly labeled as such.

Alcohol is generally only served in hotel restaurants and bars (but not in Sharjah).HP Pavilion DM3 battery

All nightclubs and golf clubs are permitted to sell alcohol. Specific supermarkets may sell alcohol and pork, but these products are sold in separate sections.

Literature and poetry

The main themes in Emirati poetry for Arab Poets range from satire, chivalry, self-praise, patriotism, religion, family and love, and could range from descriptive to narrative.Compaq CQ35-100 battery

The style and form of ancient poetry in the UAE was strongly influenced by the 8th-century Persian Gulf Arab scholar Al Khalil bin Ahmed, who followed sixteen metres. This form underwent slight modification (Al Muwashahat) during the period of Islamic civilization in Andalucia (Spain).HP DV9700 battery

The earliest known poet in the UAE is Ibn Majid, who was born between 1432 and 1437 in Ras Al-Khaimah. Coming from a family of successful sailors, Ibn Majid's oeuvre has a total of 40 surviving compositions, 39 of which are verses.HP Compaq 491278-001 battery

The greatest luminaries in the UAE literary realm during the 20th century, particularly for Classical Arabic poetry, were Mubarak Al Oqaili (1880–1954), Salem bin Ali al Owais (1887–1959) and Ahmed bin Sulayem (1905–1976). Three other poets from Sharjah,HP Compaq HSTNN-LB51 battery

known as the Hirah group, also thrived during the 20th century including Khalfan Musabah (1923–1946), Sheikh Saqr Al Qasimi (1925–1993), an ex-ruler of Sharjah, and Sultan bin Ali al Owais (1925–2000). The Hirah group’s works are observed to have been heavily influenced by the Apollo and romantic poets.HP Pavilion ZD8227 battery

The meeting of classical Arabic poetry and media continued through the regionally highly successful television shows – Million’s Poet and The Prince of Poets – broadcast on Abu Dhabi TV and poetry TV channels. The Prince of Poets also won the International Broadcasting Award in London in the specialist genre TV category.HP Compaq Business Notebook TC4400 battery

There are three annual book fairs in the UAE, the well-known Sharjah International Book Fair, the oldest and largest in the country, its Abu Dhabi counterpart and the newly launched Al-Ain Book Fair.

The UAE has a booming magazine and newspaper industry. the biggest selling English language magazine is Ahlan! magazine. The biggest selling English language newspaper is Gulf News.

Museums and art galleries

Many emirates have established museums of regional repute, most famously Sharjah with its Heritage District containing 17 museums,HP Pavilion DV7-2085EL battery

which in 1998 was the Cultural Capital of the Arab World. Abu Dhabi's cultural foundation is also an important place for the presentation of indigenous and foreign art. In Dubai, the area of Al Quoz has attracted a number of art galleries. Compaq Presario 300 battery

Abu Dhabi has embarked on the path to become an art center of international caliber, by creating a culture district on Saadiyat Island. There, six grand projects are planned: the Sheikh Zayed National Museum by Foster + Partners, the modern art museum Guggenheim Abu Dhabi to be built by Frank Gehry,HP Compaq Business Notebook 6735S battery

the classical museum Louvre Abu Dhabi by Jean Nouvel, a maritime museum by Tadao Ando, a Performing Arts Center by Zaha Hadid, and a Biennale Park with 16 pavilions.

Dubai also plans to build a Kunsthal museum and a district for galleries and artists.HP Pavilion DV2820EA battery

2009 saw the UAE’s first pavilion at the Venice Biennale, one of the top cultural events in Europe. The pavilion was called ‘It’s Not You, It’s Me’ and was designed to offer a playful and provocative look at what has been described as the world’s most prestigious contemporary art event. HP Pavilion DV6373EA battery

This was the first occasion on which a country from the Persian Gulf has taken part in the Biennale.

Music, dance and cinema

The United Arab Emirates is a part of the khaliji tradition, and is also known for Bedouin folk music. Liwa is a type of music and dance performed mainly in communities which contain descendants of East Africans.HP Compaq 572190-001 battery

During celebrations singing and dancing also took place and many of the songs and dances, handed down from generation to generation, have survived to the present time. Young girls would dance by swinging their long black hair and swaying their bodies in time to the strong beat of the music. Compaq Presario CQ50-105EL battery

Men would re-enact battles fought or successful hunting expeditions, often symbolically using sticks, swords or rifles. Recently Emirati music has ventured into Hip Hop with Desert Heat becoming the first Emirati Hip Hop Group in the UAE. Releasing a hip hop album "when The Desert Speaks". HP Pavilion DV7-1290EO battery

The Album is a fusion album of Arabian traditional music with modern Hip Hop Beats.

Hollywood movies are the most popular in the UAE. The UAE has an active music scene, with musicians Amr Diab, Diana Haddad, Tarkan, Aerosmith, Santana, Mark Knopfler, Christina Aguilera,Elton John, Pink, Shakira, Celine Dion, Coldplay, Ahlam, and Phil Collins and a slew of Bollywood stars having performed in the country.Compaq Presario CQ71 battery

Kylie Minogue was paid 4.4 million dollars to perform at the opening of the Atlantis resort on November 20, 2008. The Dubai Desert Rock Festival is also another major festival consisting of heavy metal and rock artists. HP Pavilion DV6000 battery

In 2009 the highly successful Abu Dhabi Classics series celebrated its second season by treating the Emirates Palace audience to the Middle Eastern debut of the New York Philharmonic with pieces by Beethoven and Mahler, as well as holding a concert inside the recently renovated Jahili Fort in Al-Ain.Compaq Presario CQ70 battery

Sports

Association football is the national sport of the United Arab Emirates. Emirati Soccer clubs Al-Ain, Al-Wasl, Al-Shabbab ACD, Al-Sharjah, Al-Wahda, and Al-Ahliare the most popular teams and enjoy the reputation of long-time regional champions.HP Compaq 491278-001 battery

The great rivalries keep the UAE energized as people fill the streets when their favorite team wins. The United Arab Emirates Football Association was first established in 1971 and since then has dedicated its time and effort to promoting the game, organizing youth programs and improving the abilities of not only its players, but of the officials and coaches involved with its regional teams.HP TouchSmart TX2-1150EG battery

The UAE football team qualified for the World Cup in 1990—with Egypt it was the third consecutive World Cup with two Arab nations qualifying after Kuwait andAlgeria in 1982 and Iraq and Algeria again in 1986.[156] The UAE also recently won the Gulf Cup Championship held in Abu Dhabi January 2007.[HP 520 battery

Cricket is one of the most popular sports in the UAE, largely because of the expatriate population from the Indian subcontinent, the United Kingdom, andAustralia. The Sharjah Cricket Association Stadium in Sharjah has hosted 4 international Test matches so far.Asus ADP-36EH C Adapter

Sheikh Zayed Stadium and Al Jazira Mohammed Bin Zayed Stadium in Abu Dhabi also host international cricket matches. Dubai has two cricket stadiums (Dubai Cricket Ground No.1 and No.2) with a third, 'S3' currently under construction as part of Dubai Sports City. Dubai is also home to the International Cricket Council.Dell PA-10 Adapter

The United Arab Emirates national cricket team qualified for the 1996 Cricket World Cup and narrowly missed out on qualification for the 2007 Cricket World Cup.

Other popular sports include camel racing, falconry, endurance riding, and tennis.Delta ADP-90FB Adapter

The Takatof Programme for Social Volunteering is a nationwide volunteering initiative in the United Arab Emirates. It is one of the principal initiatives of the Emirates Foundation  , a charitable organisation established in 2005 in the UAE under the patronage of His Highness Sheikh Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan, http://www.battery-pack.co.uk/

Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi and the Deputy Supreme Commander of UAE Armed Forces. Takatof was launched in Abu Dhabi in April 2007 with an inaugural school renovation event Delta ADP-90FB Adapter.

Takatof is working to create a culture of volunteering throughout the UAE. It offers all residents of the country an opportunity to volunteer in an Emirati environment through activities that promote community involvement, national identity and citizenship.Dell PA-10 Adapter

Mission

Takatof’s mission is to mobilize people and resources throughout the UAE to find creative and sustainable solutions for proven community needs. Takatof particularly offers young people meaningful opportunities to volunteer for humanitarian, social and community programmes.Dell PA-12 Adapter

Objectives

In promoting volunteering, Takatof seeks participation by citizens and all those living in the UAE, with special emphasis on young people as volunteers.

  • Strategic initiatives: Takatof seeks collaborative opportunities with other social organizations, so as to involve volunteers in meeting important local needs.Asus ADP-36EH C Adapter
  • Building capacity: Takatof is responsible for the development and delivery of training for volunteers, agencies and the general public, through a variety of activities.
  • Connecting people: Takatof acts as a clearing-house, helping to connect people with relevant volunteer opportunities across the seven Emirates.Dell Inspiron 6400 Adapter

Core Values

Takatof’s core values are at the heart of everything done including:

  • Commitment to social responsibility and public service.
  • Adherence to strict integrity and ethics.Dell Inspiron 1520 Adapter
  • Deep involvement in the community.

Takatof Projects

This programme gives volunteers unique opportunities for semi-skilled work in revamping schools – painting, cleaning, gardening and site cleaning, as well as replacing furniture and modernizing libraryand laboratory facilities. This project is implemented in partnership with the Ministry of Education, Abu Dhabi Education Council and related institutions.HP Pavilion DV6000 Adapter

  • Volunteering in the Health Sector

Volunteers for this programme perform highly useful health and administrative activities at hospitals and health centres, such as providing personal support, guidance and other services for patients, as well as receiving visitors and helping nursing staff.

Participation in this programme provides frequent opportunities for volunteers to utilize their leisure time through voluntary work for people with special needs. This develops their skills and life experience through humanitarian action, in collaboration with the various UAE centres for special needs.HP Pavilion DV9000 AC Adapter

  • Takatof Ramadan Project

This annual programme enables volunteers to list the needs of needy and disadvantage families before the beginning of the Islamic Holy Month of Ramadan, in order to provide nominated families with supplementary food, school and health needs. The volunteers also teach the culture of saving, in order to help the families to improve their living conditions.Sony VGP-BPS8 Battery

  • Takatof House Renovation Survey

This project was initiated as a follow up to the Takatof – Ramadan project (above) in which Takatof conducts case studies of families who have benefited from the Ramadan project, to assess their actual needs. The most recent survey was conducted by Takatof volunteers. Sony VGP-BPS9 Battery

It showed that house renovation has become the major requirement for most families living in the Northern Emirates.

This programme offers volunteers an opportunity to develop their skills and experiences outside the country, while taking part in socially responsible activities. This initiative is based on extensive cooperation with major partners who are well respected for their volunteering expertise on a global level.Dell Inspiron 6400 Battery

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a sovereign federation of seven states located southeast of the Persian Gulf on the Arabian Peninsulain Southwest Asia, bordering Oman and Saudi Arabia. The seven states, termed emirates, are Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah, and Umm al-Quwain.Dell Inspiron 1525 Battery

The UAE, rich in oil and natural gas, has become highly prosperous after gaining foreign direct investment funding in the 1970s. The country has a relatively high Human Development Index for the Asian continent and ranked 39th globally.Dell XPS M1530 Battery

Before 1971, the UAE were known as the Trucial States or Trucial Oman, in reference to a nineteenth-century truce between Britain and several Arab Sheikhs. The name Pirate Coast was also used in reference to the area's emirates in the eighteenth to early twentieth century.Dell Inspiron 6000 Battery

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