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United States Navy The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest navy in the world, with a battle fleettonnage that is greater than that of the next 13 largest navies combined.[4] The U.S. Navy also has the world's largest carrier fleet, with 11 in service, one under construction (two planned), and one in reserve. The service has 321,053 personnel on active duty and 106,188 in the Navy Reserve. It operates 286 ships inactive service and more than 3,700 aircraft.[2] Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard The Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, which was established during the American Revolutionary War and was essentially disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter. The United States Constitutionprovided the legal basis for a military force by giving Congress the power "to provide and maintain a navy".[5]HP Pavilion dv4t-1300 CTO Laptop Keyboard Depredations against U.S. shipping by Barbary Coast pirates in the Mediterranean Sea spurred Congress to employ this power by passing the Naval Act of 1794 ordering the construction and manning of six frigates.[6]These ships were used to end most pirate activity off the Barbary Coast. In the 20th century, American blue-water navy capability was demonstrated by the 1907–1909 world tour of the Great White Fleet. TOSHIBA Qosmio F45-AV411 Laptop Keyboard The 21st century United States Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in such areas as East Asia, the Mediterranean, and the Middle East. It is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto thelittoral regions of the world, engage in forward areas during peacetime, and rapidly respond to regional crises, making it an active player in U.S. foreign and defense policy. HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, which is headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy. The Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, which is headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations is currently held by Admiral Jonathan Greenert. This position is traditionally the highest ranking naval officer (O-10 on the pay chart), but the current highest ranking naval officer is the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Admiral James Winnefeld. TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-SP5012M Laptop Keyboard The mission of the Navy is to maintain, train and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. —Mission statement of the United States Navy[7]ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard From the New Recruits Handbook: The mission of the United States Navy is to protect and defend the right of the United States and our allies to move freely on the oceans and to protect our country against her enemies. HP AER15U00510 Laptop Keyboard The United States Navy serves as a seaborne branch of the Military of the United States. 10 U.S.C. § 5062prescribes the Navy's three primary areas of responsibility: IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, the establishment of an official navy was an issue of debate among the members of the Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, and make it easier to seek out support from foreign countries. Detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy, then the world's preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. The town of Marblehead was the birthplace of the American navy.[6] TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard Commander in Chief George Washington commissioned seven ocean-going cruisers to interdict British supply ships, and reported the captures to the Congress. This effectively ended the debate in Congress as to whether or not to "provoke" the British by establishing a Navy as Washington's ships had already captured British ships, somewhat a provocation. HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard While Congress deliberated, it received word that two unarmed British supply ships from England were heading towards Quebec without escort. A plan was drawn up to intercept the ships—however, the armed vessels to be used were owned not by Congress, but by individual colonies. Of greater significance then was an additional plan to equip two ships that would operate under the direct authority of Congress to capture British supply ships. HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard This was not carried out until 13 October 1775, when George Washington announced that he had taken command of three armed schooners under Continental authority to intercept any British supply ships near Massachusetts. With the revelation that vessels were already sailing under Continental control, the decision to add two more was made easier;[10] the resolution was adopted and 13 October would later become known as the U.S. Navy's official birthday.[11]SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard The Continental Navy achieved mixed results; it was successful in a number of engagements and raided many British merchant vessels, but it lost 24 of its vessels[12] and at one point was reduced to two in active service.[13] As Congress turned its attention after the conflict towards securing the western border of the new United States, a standing navy was considered to be dispensable because of its high operating costs and its limited number of roles.[6] DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard The United States would be without a navy for nearly a decade—a state of affairs that exposed its merchant ships to a series of attacks by Barbary pirates. The sole armed maritime presence between 1790 and the launching of the U.S. Navy's first warships in 1797 was the U.S. Revenue Cutter Service (USRCS), the primary predecessor of the U.S. Coast Guard. SAMSUNG R522 Laptop Keyboard Although USRCS Cutters conducted operations against these pirates, the depredations far outstripped the abilities of the USRCS and Congress ordered the construction and manning of six frigates on 27 March 1794;[12] three years later the first three were welcomed into service: theUSS United States, USS Constellation and USS Constitution. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5214 Laptop Keyboard Following an undeclared Quasi-War with France, the U.S. Navy saw substantial action in the War of 1812, where it was victorious in eleven single-ship duels with the Royal Navy. The Navy drove all significant British forces off Lake Erie andLake Champlain and prevented them from becoming British controlled zones of conflict. DELL Inspiron n7110 Laptop Keyboard Despite this, the U.S. Navy was unable to prevent the British from blockading American ports and landing troops on American soil.[6] After the war, the U.S. Navy again focused its attention on protecting American shipping assets, sending squadrons to the Caribbean, the Mediterranean, South America, Africa, and the Pacific.[12]ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard During the Mexican-American War the U.S. Navy contributed by instituting blockades of Mexican ports, capturing or burning the Mexican fleet in the Gulf of California and capturing all major cities in Baja California peninsula—later returned. In 1846-1848 the navy successfully used the Pacific Squadron under Commodore (Rear Admiral) Robert Stockton and its marines and blue-jackets to DELL Inspiron M4110 Laptop Keyboard facilitate the capture of California with large scale land operations coordinated with the local militia organized in the California Battalion. The navy conducted the U.S. military's first large-scale amphibious joint operation by successfully landing 12,000 army troops with their equipment in one day at Veracruz, Mexico. When larger guns were needed to bombard Veracruz Navy volunteers landed large navy guns and manned them in the SONY VAIO VGN-NR21Z/S Laptop Keyboard successful bombardment of the city and its surrender. This successful landing and capture of Veracruz eventually opening the way for the capture of Mexico City and the end of the war.[6] The United States Navy established itself as a player in American foreign policy through the actions of Commodore Matthew Perry in Japan, which resulted in the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854. HP Pavilion dv6-2115sa Laptop Keyboard Naval power would play a significant role during the American Civil War, where the Union had a distinct advantage over the Confederacy on the seas.[6] A Union blockade on shipping handicapped the Southern effort throughout the conflict. The two American navies would help usher in a new era in world naval history by putting ironclad warships into combat for the first time. SONY VAIO VGN-FS285M Laptop Keyboard The Battle of Hampton Roads in 1862, which pitted USS Monitor against CSS Virginia, became the first engagement between two steam-powered ironclads.[13] Soon after the war, however, the U.S. Navy's fleet slipped into obsolescence because of neglect. HP Pavilion dv6-2020sa Laptop Keyboard 20th century A modernization program beginning in the 1880s with the first steel hulled warships stimulated the American steel industry and "the new steel navy" was born.[15] This rapid expansion of the US Navy and its easy victory over the Spanish Navy in 1898 brought a new respect for American technical quality. Rapid building of at first pre-dreadnoughts, TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S7432 Laptop Keyboard then dreadnoughts brought the U.S. in line with the navies of countries such as Britain and Germany. In 1907, most of the Navy's battleships, with several support vessels, dubbed the Great White Fleet, were showcased in a 14-month circumnavigation of the world. Ordered by President Theodore Roosevelt, it was a mission designed to demonstrate the Navy's capability to extend to the global theater.[12] By 1911, the US had begun building the super-dreadnoughts at a pace to eventually become competitive with even Britain.[16]COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard The Navy saw little action during World War I, but nevertheless the strength of the United States Navy grew under an ambitious ship building program associated with the Naval Act of 1916. Naval construction, especially of battleships was later limited by the Washington Naval Conference of 1921-22. Saratoga and Lexington were built on the hulls of partially built battle cruisers that had been canceled by the treaty.  HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard Construction of aircraft carrierscontinued however, accelerating after the New Deal, which provided funding for the construction of the USS Yorktown (CV-5) andUSS Enterprise (CV-6). These ships would not have been built had it not been for the demonstrations of the capability of aircraft against ships by Gen Billy Mitchell. By 1936, with the completion of the USS Wasp (CV-7), the U.S. Navy possessed a carrier fleet of 165,000 tonnes displacement, although this figure was nominally recorded as 135,000 tonnes to comply with treaty limitations. HP Pavilion DV6-6B00 Laptop Keyboard The U.S. Navy grew into a formidable force in the years prior to World War II, with battleship production being restarted in 1937, commencing with the USS North Carolina (BB-55). Though ultimately unsuccessful, Japan attempted to allay this strategic threat with the 1941 surprise attack on Pearl Harbor. Following American entry into the war, TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7305 Laptop Keyboard the U.S. Navy grew tremendously as the United States was faced with a two-front war on the seas. It achieved notable acclaim in the Pacific Theater, where it was instrumental to the Allies' successful "island hopping" campaign.[13]  HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard HP 550 Laptop Keyboard The U.S. Navy participated in many significant battles, including the Battle of the Coral Sea, the Battle of Midway, the Solomon Islands Campaign, the Battle of the Philippine Sea, the Battle of Leyte Gulf, and the Battle of Okinawa. By 1943, the Navy's size was larger than the combined fleets of all the other combatant nations in World War II.[17] IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard By war's end in 1945, the United States Navy had added hundreds of new ships, including 18 aircraft carriers and 8 battleships, and had over 70% of the world's total numbers and total tonnage of naval vessels of 1,000 tons or greater.[18][19] At its peak, the U.S. Navy was operating 6,768 ships on V-J Day in August 1945.[20]HP G61-323CA Laptop Keyboard Doctrine had significantly shifted by the end of the war. The United States Navy had followed in the footsteps of the navies of Great Britain and Germany which favored concentrated groups of battleships as their main offensive naval weapons.[21] The development of the aircraft carrier and its devastating utilization by the Japanese against the U.S. at Pearl Harbor however shifted U.S. thinking. ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard The Pearl Harbor attack destroyed or took out of action a significant number of U.S.N. battleships. This placed much of the burden of retaliating against the Japanese on the small number of aircraft carriers.[22]TOSHIBA Satellite A500-ST5601 Laptop Keyboard

Cold War

The potential for armed conflict with the Soviet Union during the Cold War pushed the U.S. Navy to continue its technological advancement by developing new weapons systems, ships, and aircraft. United States naval strategy changed to that of forward deployment in support of U.S. allies with an emphasis on carrier battle groups.[23]  HP Probook 4515S Laptop Keyboard The Navy was a major participant in the Vietnam War, blockaded Cuba during the Cuban Missile Crisis, and, through the use of ballistic missile submarines, became an important aspect of the United States' nuclear strategic deterrence policy. The United States Navy conducted various combat operations in the Persian Gulf against Iran in 1987 and 1988, most notably Operation Praying Mantis. The Navy was extensively involved in Operation Urgent Fury, Operation Desert Shield,Operation Desert Storm, Operation Deliberate Force, Operation Allied Force, Operation Desert Fox and Operation Southern Watch. HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard The U.S. Navy has also been involved in Search and Rescue/Search and Salvage operations, some times in conjunction with vessels of other countries as well as with U.S. Coast Guard ships. Two examples are the 1966 Palomares B-52 crash incident and search for the nuclear bombs, and the Task Force 71 of the Seventh Fleet operation in search for Korean Air Lines Flight 007 shot down by the Soviets on Sept. 1, 1983. TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S2812 Laptop Keyboard The United States Navy continues to be a major support to U.S. interests in the 21st century. Since the end of the Cold War, it has shifted its focus from preparations for large-scale war with the Soviet Union to special operations and strike missions in regional conflicts.[25] The Navy participated in Operation Enduring Freedom,  Packard Bell NEW90 Laptop Keyboard Operation Iraqi Freedom, and is a major participant in the ongoing War on Terror, largely in this capacity. Development continues on new ships and weapons, including the Gerald R. Ford class aircraft carrier and the Littoral combat ship. Because of its size, weapons technology, and ability to project force far from U.S. shores, the current U.S. Navy remains a potent asset for the United StatesCommander-in-Chief (the President of the United States). TOSHIBA Satellite C655D-SP5003M Laptop Keyboard In 2007, the U.S. Navy joined with the U.S. Marine Corps and U.S. Coast Guard to adopt a new maritime strategy called A Cooperative Strategy for 21st Century Seapower that raises the notion of prevention of war to the same philosophical level as the conduct of war. The strategy was presented by the Chief of Naval Operations, DELL XPS 15 L502X Laptop Keyboard the Commandant of the Marine Corps andCommandant of the Coast Guard at the International Sea power Symposium in Newport, R.I. on 17 October 2007.[26] The strategy recognized the economic links of the global system and how any disruption due to regional crises—man made or natural—can adversely impact the U.S. economy and quality of life. ACER Aspire 5542 Laptop Keyboard This new strategy charts a course for the Navy, Coast Guard and Marine Corps to work collectively with each other and international partners to prevent these crises from occurring or reacting quickly should one occur to prevent negative impacts on the United States. HP Pavilion dv6-3351ef Laptop Keyboard During the George W. Bush administration, the fleet dropped to a total number of ships that was smaller than any time since 1917.[27] In 2010, Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Gary Roughead noted that demands on the Navy have grown as the fleet has shrunk and that in the face of declining budgets in the future, the US Navy must rely even more on international partnerships.[28]HP Pavilion dv6-2125el Laptop Keyboard In its 2013 budget request, the Navy has focused on retaining all eleven big deck carriers, at the expense of cutting numbers of smaller ships and delaying the SSBN replacement.[29]ACER TravelMate 4080 Laptop Keyboard


The Navy falls under the administration of the Department of the Navy, under civilian leadership of the Secretary of the Navy (SECNAV). The most senior naval officer is the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO), a four-star admiral who is immediately under and reports to the Secretary of the Navy. At the same time, the Chief of Naval Operations is one of theJoint Chiefs of Staff, ACER Aspire 3002LMi Laptop Keyboard which is the second-highest deliberatory body of the armed forces after the United States National Security Council, although it only plays an advisory role to the President and does not nominally form part of the chain of command. The Secretary of the Navy and Chief of Naval Operations are responsible for organizing, recruiting, training, and equipping the Navy so that it is ready for operation under the command of the Unified Combatant Commanders. SONY VAIO VPCF12AFM Laptop Keyboard There are nine components in the operating forces of the U.S. Navy: the United States Fleet Forces Command, United States Pacific Fleet, United States Naval Forces Central Command, United States Naval Forces Europe, Naval Network Warfare Command, Navy Reserve, United States Naval Special Warfare Command, Operational Test and Evaluation Force, and Military Sealift Command. Fleet Forces Command controls a number of unique capabilities, including Military Sealift Command, Naval Expeditionary Combat Command, and Navy Cyber Forces. SONY VAIO VGN-AR320E Laptop Keyboard The United States Navy has six active numbered fleets — Third, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh Fleet and Tenth Fleets are each led by a three-star vice admiral, and the Fourth Fleet is led by a rear admiral. These six fleets are further grouped under Fleet Forces Command (the former Atlantic Fleet), Pacific Fleet, Naval Forces Europe-Africa, DELL Latitude E5410 Laptop Keyboard and Naval Forces Central Command, whose commander also doubles as Commander Fifth Fleet; the first three commands being led by four-star full admirals. The United States First Fleet existed after the Second World War from 1947, but it was redesignated Third Fleet in early 1973. In early 2008, the Navy reactivated the United States Fourth Fleet to control operations in the area controlled by Southern Command, which consists of US assets in and around Central and South America.[30]HP G61-410SA Laptop Keyboard Shore establishments exist to support the mission of the fleet through the use of facilities on land. Among the commands of the shore establishment, as of April 2011, are the Naval Education and Training Command, the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command, the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command, the Naval Facilities Engineering Command, TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7332 Laptop Keyboard the Naval Supply Systems Command, the Naval Air Systems Command, the Naval Sea Systems Command, the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, the Bureau of Naval Personnel, the United States Naval Academy, the Naval Safety Center, the Naval Strike and Air Warfare Center, and the United States Naval Observatory.[31]  DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard Official Navy websites list the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations and the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) as part of the shore establishment, but these two entities effectively sit superior to the other organizations, playing a coordinating role. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7220 Laptop Keyboard In 1834, the Marines came under the Department of the Navy.[32] Historically, the United States Navy has had a unique relationship with the United States Marine Corps (USMC), partly because they both specialize in seaborne operations. Together the Navy and Marine Corps form the Department of the Navy and report to the Secretary of the Navy. However, the USMC is considered to be a distinct, separate service branch with its own uniformed service chief - the Commandant of the Marine Corps (CMC), a four star general. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard The Navy and Marine Corps have a distinct relationship, the USMC depends on the Navy for religious support (i.e. chaplains) and medical support (i.e., dentists, medical doctors, medics known as "Corpsmen" and medical service staff); thus officers and enlisted sailors from the Navy fulfill these roles. When attached to Marine Corps units deployed to an operational environment they generally wear Marine camouflage uniforms, but otherwise they wear Navy dress uniforms unless they opt to conform to USMC grooming standards (appearance). TOSHIBA 92.N4XBC.A01 Laptop Keyboard In the operational environment, as an expeditionary force specializing in amphibious operations, Marines often embark on Navy ships in order to conduct operations from beyond territorial waters. Marine units deploying as part of a Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) operate under the command of the existing Marine chain of command. TOSHIBA Satellite l525 Laptop Keyboard Although Marine units routinely operate from amphibious assault ships the relationship has evolved over the years much as the "CAG" (Commander of the Carrier Air Group/Wing) does not work for the carrier Commanding Officer (CO), but coordinates with the ship's CO and staff. Some Marine aviation squadrons, HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard usually fixed-wing assigned to Carrier Air Wings (CVW) train and operate alongside Navy squadrons, flying similar missions and often flying sorties together under the cognizance of the "CAG". Aviation is where the Navy and Marine share the most common ground, since aircrews are guided in their use of aircraft by standard procedures outlined in series of publications known as NATOPS manuals. Packard Bell Easynote TM01 Laptop Keyboard

United States Coast Guard

Although the Posse Comitatus Act, which prevents federal military personnel from acting in a law enforcement capacity, applies only to the Army and Air Force, Department of Defense rules effectively require the Navy and Marine Corps to act as if Posse Comitatus did apply, preventing them from enforcing Federal law. Packard Bell Easynote TX86 Laptop Keyboard The United States Coast Guard fulfills this law enforcement role in naval operations. It provides Law Enforcement Detachments (LEDETs) to Navy vessels, where they perform arrests and other law enforcement duties during Navy boarding and interdiction missions. In times of war, or when directed by the President, ACER Aspire 5336 Laptop Keyboard the Coast Guard operates as a service in the Navy and is subject to the orders of the Secretary of the Navy until it is transferred back to the Department of Homeland Security.[33] At other times, Coast Guard Port Security Units are sent overseas to guard the security of ports and other assets. The Coast Guard also jointly staffs the Navy's Naval Coastal Warfare Groups and Squadrons (the latter of which were known as Harbor Defense Commands until late-2004), Packard Bell NEW95 Laptop Keyboard which oversee defense efforts in foreign littoral combat and inshore areas. Additionally, Coast Guard and Navy vessels sometimes operate together in search and rescueoperations. SONY Vaio VGN-AW220J Laptop Keyboard The second largest concentration of installations is in Hampton Roads, Virginia, where the Navy occupies over 36,000 acres (146 km²) of land. Located in Hampton Roads are NS Norfolk, homeport of the Atlantic Fleet, NAS Oceana, a Master Jet Base, Naval Amphibious Base Little Creek, as well as a number of Navy and commercial shipyards that service Navy vessels. TOSHIBA Satellite M75 Series Laptop Keyboard Also in Virginia is the Aegis Training and Readiness Center located at NSA Dahlgren. There is also a Naval base in Charleston, SC. This is home to the Nuclear A-School. The state of Floridais the location of three major bases, Naval Station Mayport, the Navy's fourth largest, in Jacksonville, Florida,Naval Air Station Jacksonville, TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5256 Laptop Keyboard a Master Air Anti-submarine Warfare base, and Naval Air Station Pensacola, home of the Naval Education and Training Command, the Naval Air Technical Training Center that provides specialty training for enlisted aviation personnel, and the primary flight training base for Navy and Marine Corps Naval Flight Officers and enlisted Naval Aircrewmen. ACER Aspire 5336 Laptop Keyboard There is also Naval Support Activity in Panama City Beach, Florida which is home to the Navy Diving and Salvage Training Center. The main U.S. Navy submarine bases on the east coast are located in Groton,Connecticut and Kings Bay, Georgia. There are also naval bases in Portsmouth, New Hampshire.[34] Naval Station Great Lakes, north of Chicago, Illinois is the home of the navy's boot camp for enlisted sailors. SONY VAIO VGN-AW21M Laptop Keyboard

estern United States and Hawaii

The Navy's largest complex is China Lake, California, which covers 1.1 million acres (4,500 km²) of land, or approximately 1/3 of the United States Navy's total land holdings.[34]ACER Aspire 5738PZG Laptop Keyboard Naval Base San Diego, California is principal home to the Pacific Fleet (although the headquarters is located in Pearl Harbor). NAS North Island is located on the north side of Coronado, and is home to Headquarters for Naval Air Forces and Naval Air Force Pacific, the bulk of the Pacific Fleet's helicopter squadrons, and part of the West Coast aircraft carrier fleet. Naval Amphibious Base Coronado is located on the southern end of the Coronado island and is home to the Navy's west coast SEAL teams and Special Boat Units. SONY VAIO VGN-FZ21E Laptop Keyboard NAB Coronado is also home to the Naval Special Warfare Center, the primary training center for SEALs. The other major collection of naval bases on the west coast is in Puget Sound, Washington. Among them, Naval Station Everett is one of the newer bases and the Navy states that it is its most modern facility.[35] SONY VAIO VGN-AW170YIQ Laptop Keyboard NAS Fallon, Nevada serves as the primary training ground for Navy Strike aircrews, and is home to the Naval Strike Air Warfare Center. Master Jet Bases are also located at NAS Lemoore, California and NAS Whidbey Island, Washington, while the carrier-based airborne early warning aircraft community and major air test activities are located at NAS Point Mugu, California. The naval presence in Hawaii is centered on Pearl Harbor Naval Base, which hosts the headquarters of the Pacific Fleet and many of its subordinate commands.[34]SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP08 Laptop Keyboard Guam, an island strategically located in the Western Pacific Ocean, maintains a sizable U.S. Navy presence, including Naval Base Guam. The westernmost U.S. territory, it contains a natural deep water harbor capable of harboring even aircraft carriers in emergencies.[36] Its naval air station was deactivated[37] in 1995 and its flight activities transferred to nearby Andersen Air Force Base. Puerto Rico in the Caribbean formerly housed Roosevelt Roads Naval Station, which was shut down in 2004 shortly after the controversial closure of the live ordnance training area on nearby Vieques Island.[34]ACER Aspire 5739G Laptop Keyboard The largest overseas base is in Yokosuka, Japan,[38] which serves as the home port for the Navy's largest forward-deployed fleet and is a significant base of operations in the Western Pacific. European operations revolve around facilities in Italy (Sigonella and Naples), Spain and Greece with Naples as the homeport for the Sixth Fleet and CNRE Command Naval Region Europe, which are based in Gaeta. HP 540 Laptop Keyboard In the Middle East, naval facilities are located almost exclusively in countries bordering the Persian Gulf, with Manama, Bahrain serving as the headquarters of U.S. Naval Forces Central Command and U.S. Fifth Fleet. Guantánamo Bayin Cuba is the oldest overseas facility and has become known in recent years as the location of a detention camp for suspected al-Qaeda operatives.[39]SONY VAIO VGN-FW180FU Laptop Keyboard The names of commissioned ships of the U.S. Navy are prefixed with the letters "USS", designating "United States Ship".[41] Non-commissioned, civilian-manned vessels of the Navy have names that begin with "USNS", standing for "United States Naval Ship" The names of ships are officially selected by the Secretary of the Navy, HP AESP7U00110 Laptop Keyboard often to honor important people or places. Additionally, each ship is given a letter-based hull classification symbol (for example, CVN or DDG) to indicate the vessel's type and number. All ships in the Navy inventory are placed in the Naval Vessel Register, which is part of "the Navy List" (required by article 29 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea).  IBM Thinkpad R61i Laptop Keyboard The Register tracks data such as the current status of a ship, the date of its commissioning, and the date of its decommissioning. Vessels that are removed from the register prior to disposal are said to be stricken from the register. The Navy also maintains a reserve fleet of inactive vessels that are maintained for reactivation in times of need. SONY VAIO PCG-FR415M Laptop Keyboard The U.S. Navy was one of the first to install nuclear reactors aboard naval vessels;[42] today, nuclear energy powers all of U.S. active aircraft carriers andsubmarines. In the case of the Nimitz-class carrier, two naval reactors give the ship almost unlimited range and provide enough electrical energy to power a city of 100,000 people.[43] The U.S. Navy previously operated nuclear-powered cruisers and destroyers, but all have been decommissioned. TOSHIBA P205-S6337 Laptop Keyboard The U.S. Navy has identified a need for 313 combat ships, but under the current plans will only be able to afford 232 to 243.[44] The Navy has established a minimum requirement for 11 aircraft carriers, but will drop to 10 when the Enterprise retires before the Gerald R. Ford enters service.[45]HP 640892-001 Laptop Keyboard A carrier is typically deployed along with a host of additional vessels, forming a carrier strike group. The supporting ships, which usually include three or four Aegis-equipped cruisers and destroyers, a frigate, and two attack submarines, are tasked with protecting the carrier from air, missile, sea, and undersea threats as well as providing additional strike capabilities themselves. Ready logistics support for the group is provided by a combined ammunition, oiler, and supply ship. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard Amphibious assault ships are the centerpieces of US amphibious warfare and fulfill the same power projection role as aircraft carriers except that their striking force comprises land forces instead of aircraft. They deliver, command, coordinate, and fully support all elements of a 2200-strong Marine Expeditionary Unit in an amphibious assault using both air and amphibious vehicles. HP Pavilion DV6-1013tx Laptop Keyboard Resembling small aircraft carriers, amphibious assault ships are capable of V/STOL, STOVL, VTOL, tiltrotor, and rotary wing aircraft operations. They also contain a well deck to support the use of Landing Craft Air Cushion (LCAC) and other amphibious assault watercraft. Recently, amphibious assault ships have begun to be deployed as the core of anexpeditionary strike group, HP 646568-001 Laptop Keyboard which usually consists of an additional amphibious transport dock and dock landing ship for amphibious warfare and an Aegis-equipped cruiser and destroyer, frigate, and attack submarine for group defense. Amphibious assault ships are typically named after World War II aircraft carriers. HP AEUT3U00140 Laptop Keyboard Amphibious transport docks are warships that embark, transport, and land Marines, supplies, and equipment in a supporting role during amphibious warfare missions. With a landing platform, amphibious transport docks also have the capability to serve as secondary aviation support for an expeditionary group. All amphibious transport docks can operate helicopters, HP Envy 17-3002ea Laptop Keyboard LCACs, and other conventional amphibious vehicles while the newer San Antonioclass of ships has been explicitly designed to operate all three elements of the Marines' "mobility triad": Expeditionary Fighting Vehicles (EFVs), the V-22 Osprey tiltrotor aircraft, and the previously mentioned LCACs. Amphibious transport docks are named for cities, except for USS Mesa Verde (LPD-19), named forMesa Verde National Park in Colorado, and three San Antonio class ships named in memory of the September 11, 2001 attacks.  HP G62-a33EO Laptop Keyboard Cruisers are large surface combat vessels that conduct anti-air/anti-missile warfare, surface warfare, anti-submarine warfare, and strike operations independently or as members of a larger task force. Modern guided missile cruisers were developed out of a need to counter the anti-ship missile threat facing the United States Navy. Acer eMachines G730Z Laptop Keyboard This led to the development of the AN/SPY-1 phased array radar and the Standard missile with the Aegis combat system coordinating the two. Ticonderoga-class cruisers became the first to equip Aegis and were put to use primarily as anti-air and anti-missile defense in a battle force protection role. DELL Inspiron 1564 Laptop Keyboard Later developments of vertical launch systems and the Tomahawk missile gave cruisers additional long-range land and sea strike capability, making them capable of both offensive and defensive battle operations. All cruisers since CG-47 have been named for famous battles with USS Thomas S. Gates (CG-51) as the only exception. Previously, cruisers were either named for cities (until CG-12), former important navy figures (CG-15 to CG-35), or states (CGN-36 to CGN-41). APPLE A1278 Laptop Keyboard Modern U.S. frigates mainly perform anti-submarine warfare for carrier strike groups and amphibious expeditionary groups and provide armed escort for supply convoys and merchant shipping. They are designed to protect friendly ships against hostile submarines in low to medium threat environments, using torpedoes and LAMPS helicopters. ACER Aspire 5735 Laptop Keyboard Independently, frigates are able to conduct counterdrug missions and other maritime interception operations. The U.S. Navy expects to retire and replace its current class of frigates by 2020 as the Littoral Combat Ships are introduced into operation.[46] As in the case of destroyers, frigates are named after naval heroes. HP G61-110SA Laptop Keyboard The primary missions of submarines in the U.S. Navy are peacetime engagement, surveillance and intelligence, special operations, precision strikes, battlegroup operations, and control of the seas.[47] The U.S. Navy operates three types: ballistic submarines, guided missile submarines, and attack submarines. Ballistic missile submarines have only one mission: TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5362 Laptop Keyboard to carry and launch the nuclear Trident missile. Four Ohio class ballistic missile submarines were converted to guided missile submarines, which have a primary mission of attacking targets on land. Attack submarines have several tactical missions, including sinking ships and other subs, launching cruise missiles, gathering intelligence, TOSHIBA 6037b0026805 Laptop Keyboard and assisting in special operations. Earlier attack submarines (such as the Los Angeles class) are typically named for cities while Ohio class and later attack submarines are typically named for states. Attack submarines prior to the Los Angeles class were named for "denizens of the deep", while pre-Ohio class ballistic missile submarines were named for "famous Americans" (including foreigners with notable connections to the United States). SONY VAIO VGN-N Series Laptop Keyboard Carrier-based aircraft are able to strike air, sea, and land targets far from a carrier strike group while protecting friendly forces from enemy aircraft, ships, and submarines. In peacetime, aircraft's ability to project the threat of sustained attack from a mobile platform on the seas gives United States leaders significant diplomatic and crisis-management options. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5256 Laptop Keyboard Aircraft additionally provide logistics support to maintain the Navy's readiness and, through helicopters, supply platforms with which to conduct search and rescue, special operations, anti-submarine warfare (ASW), and anti-surface warfare(ASuW). HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard The U.S. Navy began to research the use of aircraft at sea in the 1910s, with Lt Theodore G. “Spuds” Ellyson becoming the first Naval aviator on 28 January 1911, and commissioned its first aircraft carrier, USS Langley, in 1922.[48] United States naval aviation fully came of age in World War II, when it became clear following the Attack on Pearl Harbor, the Battle of the Coral Sea, HP AEUT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard and the Battle of Midway that aircraft carriers and the planes that they carried had replaced the battleship as the greatest weapon on the seas. Leading Navy aircraft in World War II included the Grumman F4F Wildcat, the Grumman F6F Hellcat, the Chance Vought F4U Corsair, the Douglas SBD Dauntless, and the Grumman TBF Avenger.  HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard Navy aircraft also played a significant role in conflicts during the following Cold War years, with the F-4 Phantom II and the F-14 Tomcat becoming military icons of the era. The Navy's current primary fighter and attack airplanes are the multi-mission F/A-18C/D Hornet and its newer cousin, the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet. The F-35 Lightning II is presently under development and is scheduled to replace the C and D versions of the Hornet beginning in 2012.[49]ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard The Aircraft Investment Plan sees Naval aviation growing from 30 percent of current aviation forces to half of all procurement funding over the next three decades.[50]DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard


Main article: List of United States Navy weapons Current U.S. Navy shipboard weapons systems are almost entirely focused on missiles, both as a weapon and as a threat. In an offensive role, missiles are intended to strike targets at long distances with accuracy and precision. Because they are unmanned weapons, missiles allow for attacks on heavily defended targets without risk to human pilots. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard Land strikes are the domain of the BGM-109 Tomahawk, which was first deployed in the 1980s and is continually being updated to increase its capabilities. For anti-ship strikes, the Navy's dedicated missile is the Harpoon missile. To defend against enemy missile attack, the Navy operates a number of systems that are all coordinated by the Aegis combat system. Medium-long range defense is provided by the Standard Missile 2, HP 550 Laptop Keyboard which has been deployed since the 1980s. The Standard missile doubles as the primary shipboard anti-aircraft weapon and is undergoing development for use in theater ballistic missile defense. Short range defense against missiles is provided by the Phalanx CIWS and the more recently developed RIM-162 Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile. In addition to missiles, the Navy employs Mark 46 and Mark 50 torpedoes and various types of naval mines. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Naval fixed-wing aircraft employ much of the same weapons as the United States Air Force for both air-to-air and air-to-surface combat. Air engagements are handled by the heat-seeking Sidewinder and the radar guided AMRAAM missiles along with the M61 Vulcan cannon for close range dogfighting. For surface strikes, Navy aircraft utilize a combination of missiles, SONY VAIO VGN-AR520E Laptop Keyboard smart bombs, and dumb bombs. On the list of available missiles are the Maverick, SLAM-ER and JSOW. Smart bombs include the GPS-guided JDAM and the laser-guided Paveway series. Unguided munitions such as dumb bombs and cluster bombs make up the rest of the weapons deployed by fixed-wing aircraft. TOSHIBA Satellite P305D-S8829 Laptop Keyboard Rotary aircraft weapons are focused on anti-submarine warfare (ASW) and light to medium surface engagements. To combat submarines, helicopters use Mark 46 and Mark 50 torpedoes. Against small watercraft, they utilize Hellfire and Penguin air to surface missiles. Helicopters also employ various types of mounted anti-personnel machine guns, including the M60, M240, GAU-16/A, and GAU-17/A.  Packard Bell PEW91 Laptop Keyboard Nuclear weapons in the U.S. Navy arsenal are deployed through ballistic missile submarines and aircraft. The Ohio-class submarine carries the latest iteration of the Trident missile, a three stage, underwater launched, nuclear ICBM with MIRVcapability; TOSHIBA Satellite Pro C650-SP4166M Laptop Keyboard the current Trident II (D5) version is expected to be in service past 2020.[51] The Navy's other nuclear weapon is the air-deployed B61 nuclear bomb. The B61 is a thermonuclear device that can be dropped by strike aircraft such as the F/A-18 Hornet and Super Hornet at high speed from a large range of altitudes. It can be released through free-fall or parachute and can be set to detonate in the air or on the ground. TOSHIBA Satellite L40-139 Laptop Keyboard The current naval jack of the United States is the First Navy Jack, traditionally regarded as having been used during the American Revolutionary War. On 31 May 2002, Secretary of the Navy Gordon England directed all U.S. naval ships to fly the First Navy Jack for the duration of the "War on Terror". Many ships chose to shift colors later that year on the first anniversary of the September 11, 2001 attacks. HP Pavilion G6-1B97CL Laptop Keyboard The previous naval jack was a blue field with 50 white stars, identical to the canton of the ensign (the flag of the United States) both in appearance and size, and continues to remain in use with vessels of the U.S. SAMSUNG R522 Laptop Keyboard Coast Guard and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. A jack of similar design was used in 1794, though with 13 stars arranged in a 3–2–3–2–3 pattern. When a ship is moored or anchored, the jack is flown from the bowof the ship while the ensign is flown from the stern. When underway, the ensign is raised on the mainmast. The First Naval Jack, however, has always been flown on the oldest ship in the active American fleet, currently the USS Enterprise. HP Pavilion dv6-2112ea Laptop Keyboard Many past and present United States historical figures have served in the Navy. Notable officers include John Paul Jones, John Barry (Continental Navy officer and first flag officer of the United States Navy),[52] James Lawrence (whose last words "don't give up the ship" are memorialized in Bancroft Hall at the United States Naval Academy), Stephen Decatur, Jr., David Farragut, David Dixon Porter, Oliver Hazard Perry, Commodore Matthew Perry (whose Black Ships forced theopening of Japan), and Chester Nimitz, Admiral of the Pacific Fleet in World War II.  HP G42-265LA Laptop Keyboard A number of presidents served in the Navy before or early in their political careers, including John F. Kennedy (who commanded the famous PT-109), Lyndon B. Johnson, Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, and George H.W. Bush. Both Theodore Roosevelt and Franklin D. Roosevelt were the Assistant Secretary of the Navy prior to their presidencies. Many members of Congress served in the Navy, notably U.S. Senators Bob Kerrey, John McCain, and John Kerry. Other notable former members of the U.S. Navy include astronauts, entertainers, authors, and professional athletes. SONY VAIO VGN-FS215Z Laptop Keyboard military. Upon the death of his father Mohammed V, King Hassan II succeeded to the throne in 1961. He ruled Morocco for the next 38 years, until he died in 1999. His son, King Mohammed VI, assumed the throne in July 1999. Followingprotests in Morocco and elsewhere in the Arab world in early 2011, King Mohammed VI announced the establishment of a committee aimed at preparing the text of a new constitution, which included further limitations on the powers of the monarch.  HP G72-b15SA Laptop Keyboard Following the March 1998 elections, a coalition government headed by opposition socialist leader Abderrahmane Youssoufi and composed largely of ministers drawn from opposition parties, TOSHIBA Satellite A135-S2356 Laptop Keyboard was formed. Prime Minister Youssoufi's government was the first ever government drawn primarily from opposition parties, and also represents the first opportunity for a coalition of socialists, left-of-center, and nationalist parties to be included in the government until October 2002. It was also the first time in the modern political history of the Arab world that the opposition assumed power following an election. The current government is headed by Abbas El Fassi. SONY VAIO PCG-FX804 Laptop Keyboard

Legislative branch

Since the constitutional reform of 1996, the bicameral legislature consists of two chambers. The Assembly of Representatives of Morocco (Majlis an-Nuwwâb/Assemblée des Répresentants) has 325 members elected for a five year term, 295 elected in multi-seatconstituencies and 30 in national lists consisting only of women. SONY 147996611 Laptop Keyboard The Assembly of Councillors (Majlis al-Mustasharin) has 270 members, elected for a nine year term, elected by local councils (162 seats), professional chambers (91 seats) and wage-earners (27 seats). The Parliament's powers, though still relatively limited, were expanded under the 1992 and 1996 and even further in the 2011 constitutional revisions and include budgetary matters, approving bills, questioning ministers, and establishing ad hoc commissions of inquiry to investigate the government's actions. The lower chamber of Parliament may dissolve the government through a vote of no confidence.  Lenovo Ideapad G560 Laptop Keyboard Compulsory military service in Morocco has been suppressed since September 2006, and the country’s reserve obligation lasts until age 50. The country’s military consists of the Royal Armed Forces—this includes the army (the largest branch) and a small navy and air force—the National Police Force, the Royal Gendarmerie (mainly responsible for rural security), Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Laptop Keyboard and the Auxiliary Forces. Internal security is generally effective, and acts of political violence are rare (with one exception, the2003 Casablanca bombings which killed 45 people[68]). The UN maintains a small observer force in Western Sahara, where a large number of Morocco’s troops are stationed. The Saharawi group Polisario maintains an active militia of an estimated 5,000 fighters in Western Sahara and has engaged in intermittent warfare with Moroccan forces since the 1980s. COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard Because of the conflict over Western Sahara, the status of both regions of "Saguia el-Hamra" and "Río de Oro" is disputed. The United Nations views Western Sahara as a non-self-governing territory, and as a case of unfinished decolonization. Morocco's rule in the territory is not internationally recognized, nor is the independent republic proposed by Polisario, ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard aSaharawi group which fought against the Spanish colonial rule and then for Western Sahara's independence as the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (today headquartered in Algeria). There is a ceasefire in effect since 1991, and a UN mission (MINURSO) is tasked with organizing a referendum on whether

the territory should become independent or recognized as a part of Morocco. At the time, both parties signed an agreement to this effect, but they did not agree on who would be entitled to vote. HP G61-420SO Laptop Keyboard The territory is mostly administered as the Southern Provinces by Morocco since Spain handed over the territory to Morocco and Mauritania after the Madrid Accords in 1975–76. Part of the territory, the Free Zone, is a mostly uninhabited area controlled by the Polisario Front as the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic with Headquarters at Tindouf in Algeria. SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Laptop Keyboard A UN-administered cease-fire has been in effect since September, 1991. As of 2006, no UN member state has recognized Moroccan sovereignty over Western Sahara.[71]TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

Moroccan Autonomy Initiative

Recently, the government of Morocco has suggested autonomous status for the region, through the Moroccan Royal Advisory Council for Saharan Affairs (CORCAS). The project was presented to the United Nations Security Council in mid-April 2007. The proposal was encouraged by Moroccan allies such as the United States,France and Spain,[72] FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard and the Security Council "takes note of the Moroccan proposal presented on 11 April 2007 to the Secretary-General and welcoming serious and credible Moroccan efforts to move the process forward towards resolution". The Security Council has called upon the parties to enter into direct and unconditional negotiations to reach a mutually accepted political solution.[73]SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard The Western Sahara War was the armed conflict which saw the Sahrawi rebel national liberation movement Polisario Front (headquarted in Algeria) battling Morocco and Mauritania for the control of the former Spanish colony of Western Sahara from 1976 to 1991. The war resulted in the Spanish retreat in 1976, the Mauritanian retreat in 1979 and a cease fire agreement with Morocco. The bigger part of the territory remained under Moroccan control.、TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard Morocco's economy is considered a relatively liberal economy governed by the law of supply and demand. Since 1993, the country has followed a policy of privatization of certain economic sectors which used to be in the hands of thegovernment.[74] Morocco is the world's biggest exporter and third producer of phosphorus. Price fluctuations of phosphates in the international market strongly influence Morocco's economy.  TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7305 Laptop Keyboard Government reforms and steady yearly growth in the region of 4–5% from 2000 to 2007, including 4.9% year-on-year growth in 2003–2007 helped the Moroccan economy to become much more robust compared to a few years ago. For 2012 the World Bank forecasts a rate of 4% growth for Morocco and 4.2% for following year, 2013.[75]SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W Laptop Keyboard Economic growth is far more diversified, with new service and industrial poles, like Casablanca and Tangier, developing. Theagriculture sector is being rehabilitated, which in combination with good rainfalls led to a growth of over 20% in 2009. HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard The services sector accounts for just over half of GDP and industry, made up of mining, construction and manufacturing, is an additional quarter. The industries that recorded the highest growth are tourism, telecoms, information technology, and textile. Morocco, however, still depends to an inordinate degree on agriculture. ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard This economic sector accounts for only around 14% of GDP but employs 40–45% of the Moroccan working population. With a semi-arid climate and an ill-developed irrigation system, it is difficult to assure enough irrigation. Morocco’s economy depends heavily on the weather, a typical characteristic of third-world countries. Fiscal prudence has allowed for consolidation, with both the budget deficit and debt falling as a percentage of GDP. SAMSUNG NP-Q320-JS02UK Laptop Keyboard The economic system of the country presents several facets. It is characterized by a large opening towards the outside world.France remains the primary trade partner (supplier and customer) of Morocco. France is also the primary creditor and foreign investor in Morocco. In Africa, Morocco has the fifth largest economy and the fastest growing internet usership. HP 646568-001 Laptop Keyboard Since the early 1980s the Moroccan government has pursued an economic program toward accelerating real economy growth with the support of the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, and the Paris Club of creditors. The country's currency, thedirham, is now fully convertible for current account transactions[clarification needed]; reforms of the financial sector have been implemented; and state enterprises are being privatized. SAMSUNG R522 Laptop Keyboard The major resources of the Moroccan economy are agriculture, phosphates, and tourism. Sales of fish and seafood are important as well. Industry and mining contribute about one-third of the annual GDP. Morocco is the world's third-largest producer of phosphorus (after China, which is first, and the United States which is second),[76] and the price fluctuations of phosphates on the international market greatly influence Morocco's economy. SONY Vaio PCG-K415B Laptop Keyboard Tourism and workers' remittances have played a critical role since the Kingdom's independence. The production of textiles and clothing is part of a growing manufacturing sector that accounted for approximately 34% of total exports in 2002, employing 40% of the industrial workforce. The government wishes to increase textile and clothing exports from $1.27 billion in 2001 to $3.29 billion in 2010. DELL F484C Laptop Keyboard The high cost of imports, especially of petroleum imports, is a major problem. Another chronic problem is unreliable rainfall, which produces drought or sudden floods; in 1995, the country's worst drought in 30 years forced Morocco to import grain and adversely affected the economy. Another drought occurred in 1997, and one in 1999–2000. HP Pavilion DV3550el Laptop Keyboard Reduced incomes due to drought caused GDP to fall by 7.6% in 1995, by 2.3% in 1997, and by 1.5% in 1999. During the years between drought, good rains brought bumper crops to market. Good rainfall in 2001 led to a 5% GDP growth rate. Morocco suffers both from unemployment (9.6% in 2008), and a large external debt estimated at around $20 billion, or half of GDP in 2002.[77]HP MP-06703VS-9201 Laptop Keyboard Among the various free trade agreements that Morocco has ratified with its principal economic partners, are The Euro-Mediterranean free trade area agreement with the European Union with the objective of integrating the European Free Trade Association at the horizons of 2012; HP Pavilion DV7-2200 Laptop Keyboard the Agadir Agreement, signed with Egypt, Jordan, and Tunisia, within the framework of the installation of the Greater Arab Free Trade Area; the US-Morocco Free Trade Agreement with United States which came into force on January 1, 2006, and lately the agreement of free exchange with Turkey. SAMSUNG Q320 Laptop Keyboard Agriculture in Morocco employs about 40% of the nation's workforce and is the largest employer in the country. Barley, wheat, and other cereals are amongst the main products. On the Atlantic coast, where there are extensive plains, olives, citrus fruits, and grapes are grown. SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard Below is a table of the agricultural output of Morocco according to estimates of the UN Food & Agriculture Organisation, data is from 2009: In 2008, about 56% of the electricity source of Morocco came from coal.[78] However, as forecasts indicate that energy requirements in Morocco will rise 6% per year between 2012 and 2050,[79] a new law passed encouraging Moroccans to look for ways to diversify the energy supply, including more renewable resources. The Moroccan government has launched a project to build a solar thermal energy power plant[80] and is also in looking into the use of Natural Gas as a potential source of revenue for Morocco’s government.[79]  ACER Aspire 7535 Laptop Keyboard TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard

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