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University College London University College London (UCL) is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom, and the oldest and largest constituent college of the federal University of London.[5] Founded in 1826, UCL was the first university institution to be founded in London and the first in England to be established on an entirely secular basis, to admit students regardless of their religion and to admit women on equal terms with men.[6] UCL became one of the two founding colleges of the University of London in 1836. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard UCL's main campus is located in the Bloomsbury area of central London, with a number of institutes and teaching hospitals located elsewhere in central London. UCL is organised into 10 constituent faculties, within which there are over 100 departments, institutes and research centres. UCL had a total income of £802 million in 2010/11, of which £283 million was from research grants and contracts.[2] For the period 1999 to 2009 it was the 13th most-cited university in the world (and the most-cited in Europe).[7]DELL XPS M1530 Laptop Keyboard UCL has around 4,000 academic and research staff and 650 professors, the highest number of any British university.[8] There are 26 Nobel Prize winners and three Fields Medalists amongst UCL’s alumni and current and former staff, the most recent being Sir Charles K. Kao, who received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2009.  HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard UCL is ranked 21st in the world (and 3rd in Europe) in the 2012 Academic Ranking of World Universities,[9] 4th in the world (and 2nd in Europe) in the 2012 QS World University Rankings[10] and 17th in the world (and 5th in Europe) in the 2012-13 Times Higher Education World University Rankings.[11]TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7226 Laptop Keyboard UCL is part of three of the 11 biomedical research centres established by the NHS in England and is a founding member ofUCL Partners, the largest academic health science centre in Europe.[12] UCL is a member of the Association of Commonwealth Universities, the European University Association, the G5,[13] the League of European Research Universities, the Russell Group, UNICA and Universities UK.[14] It forms part of the 'Golden Triangle' of British universities. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard UCL was founded on 11 February 1826 under the name London University as a secular alternative to the religious universities of Oxford and Cambridge.[16][17] Although the philosopher Jeremy Bentham is commonly seen as the father of UCL, he personally took no part in its creation. Bentham's radical ideas on education and society were the inspiration to the institution's founders however, particularly the Scotsmen James Mill (1773–1836) SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard and Henry Brougham (1778–1868).[18] In 1827 the Chair of Political Economy at London University was created, with John Ramsay McCulloch as the first incumbent, establishing one of the first Department of Economics in England.[19] In 1828 the university became the first in England to offer English as a degree subject[20] and the teaching of Classics and medicine began. SONY VGN-FE550G Laptop Keyboard In 1830 London University founded the London University School, which was to later become University College School. In 1833 the university appointed Captain Alexander Maconochie, Secretary to the Royal Geographical Society, as the first professor of geography in the UK. In 1834 University College Hospital opened as a teaching hospital for the university medical school.[21] HP G62-b18EO Laptop Keyboard In 1836, London University became formally known as University College, London, when, under a Royal Charter, it worked with the recently established King's College, London, to create the federal University of London. The Slade School of Fine Art was founded in 1871 as the result of a bequest from Felix Slade. In 1878 UCL became the first British university to admit women on equal terms to men.[22] In 1898 William Ramsay discovered the elements krypton, neon and xenon whilst professor of chemistry at UCL.[23][24]HP 633183-001 Laptop Keyboard Sir Gregory Foster became UCL’s first Provost in 1906, a post that he held for the next 23 years. In the same year the Cruciform Building was opened as the new home for University College Hospital.[25] In 1907 the University of London was formally reconstituted with a new Royal charter, and a number of new institutions joined the federation. TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-S5095 Laptop Keyboard As part of this reorganisation each of the constituent institutions, including UCL, lost their legal independence, and henceforth all offered degrees awarded by the University of London. UCL sustained considerable bomb damage during the Second World War, including to the Great Hall and the Carey Foster Physics Laboratory. The first UCL student magazine,  HP G42-164LA Laptop Keyboard Pi Magazine, was published for the first time on 21 February 1946. The Institute of Jewish Studies relocated to UCL in 1959. The Mullard Space Science Laboratory was established in 1967.[26] In 1973 UCL became the first international link to the ARPANET, the precursor of the internet, sending the world's first e-mail in the same year.[27][28]Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard In 1976 a new charter restored UCL's legal independence, although not – at that time – the power to award its own degrees.[29][30]It was also under this charter that the College became formally known as University College London (thus abandoning the comma after "College" which had been used since 1836). In 1986 UCL merged with the Institute of Archaeology.[31HP 640892-001 Laptop Keyboard ] In 1988 UCL merged with the Institute of Laryngology & Otology, the Institute of Orthopaedics, the Institute of Urology & Nephrology and Middlesex Hospital Medical School.[31] In 1994 the University College London Hospitals NHS Trust was established. UCL merged with the College of Speech Sciences and the Institute of Ophthalmology in 1995,  ACER Aspire 5336 Laptop Keyboard the Institute of Child Health and the School of Podiatry in 1996[32] and the Institute of Neurology in 1997.[31][33] In 1998 UCL merged with the Royal Free Hospital Medical School to create the Royal Free and University College Medical School (renamed the UCL Medical School in October 2008). In 1999 UCL merged with the School of Slavonic and East European Studies[34][35] and the Eastman Dental Institute.[31]SONY Vaio PCG-K86P Laptop Keyboard The UCL Jill Dando Institute of Crime Science, the first university department in the world devoted specifically to reducing crime, was founded in 2001.[36] Proposals for a merger between UCL and Imperial College London were announced in 2002.[37] The proposal provoked strong opposition from UCL teaching staff and students and the AUT union, which criticised 'the indecent haste and lack of consultation', leading to its abandonment and the resignation of the UCL Provost Sir Derek Roberts.[38]SONY VGN-FE550G Laptop Keyboard The London Centre for Nanotechnology was established in 2003 as a joint venture between UCL and Imperial College London.[39][40] In 2005 UCL was again granted its own taught and research degree awarding powers and all new UCL students registered from 2007/08 qualified with UCL degrees. Also in 2005, UCL adopted a new corporate branding, under which, among other things, the name University College London was replaced by the simple initialism UCL in all external communications.[41] TOSHIBA Satellite l20-101 Laptop Keyboard In the same year a major new £422 million building was opened for University College Hospital on Euston Road,[42] the UCL Ear Institute was established and a new building for the UCL School of Slavonic and East European Studies was opened. HP 550 Laptop Keyboard In 2007 the UCL Cancer Institute was opened in the newly constructed Paul O'Gorman Building. In August 2008 UCL formed UCL Partners, an academic health science centre, with Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust and University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust.[43] In 2008 UCL established the UCL School of Energy & Resources in Adelaide, Australia, the first campus of a British university in the country.[44]Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard In 2009, the Yale UCL Collaborative was established between UCL, UCL Partners, Yale University, Yale School of Medicineand Yale – New Haven Hospital.[45] The scale of the collaboration is the largest in the history of both universities, and its scope has been extended to the humanities and social sciences. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard As part of the protests against the UK Government's plans to increase student fees, around 200 students occupied the Jeremy Bentham Room and part of the Slade School of Fine Art for over two weeks during November and December 2010.[46][47] The university successfully obtained a court order to evict the students but stated that it did not intend to enforce the order if possible.[47]SAMSUNG Q320 Laptop Keyboard

to present

In June 2011 the mining company BHP Billiton agreed to donate A$10 million to UCL to fund the establishment of two energy institutes – the Energy Policy Institute, based in Adelaide, and the Institute for Sustainable Resources, based in London.[48] In November 2011 UCL announced plans for a £500 million investment in its main Bloomsbury campus over 10 years, and the establishment of a new 23-acre campus next to the Olympic Park in Stratford in the East End of London.[49]HP G62-b12SA Laptop Keyboard The School of Pharmacy, University of London merged with UCL on 1 January 2012, becoming the UCL School of Pharmacy within the Faculty of Life Sciences.[50][51]In May 2012 UCL, Imperial College London and Intel announced the establishment of the Intel Collaborative Research Institute for Sustainable Connected Cities, a London-based institute for research into the future of cities.[52][53] Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard In August 2012, the University waded into controversy as it advertised an unpaid research position.[54] After the university was branded exploitative and unethical by the University and College Union, the university was forced into withdrawing the advert. HP Pavilion dv4-1120us Laptop Keyboard UCL and the Institute of Education formed a strategic alliance in October 2012, including co-operation in teaching, research and the development of the London schools system.[55] UCL is primarily based in the Bloomsbury area of central London. The main campus is located around Gower Street and includes the biology, chemistry, economics, engineering, geography, history, languages, mathematics, philosophy, politics and physics departments, the preclinical facilities of the UCL Medical School, the London Centre for Nanotechnology, Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard the Slade School of Fine Art, the UCL Union, the main UCL Library, the UCL Science Library, the Bloomsbury Theatre and the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology. Close by in Bloomsbury are the UCL Cancer Institute, the UCL Ear Institute, the UCL Eastman Dental Institute, the UCL Faculty of the Built Environment (The Bartlett), the UCL Faculty of Laws, the UCL Institute of Archaeology, the UCL Institute of Child Health, the UCL Institute of Neurology, the UCL School of Pharmacy, the UCL School of Slavonic and East European Studies and University College Hospital.[56]ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard A number of important institutions are based near to the main campus, including the British Library, the British Medical Association, the British Museum, Cancer Research UK, the Medical Research Council, RADA, the Royal Academy of Art, the Royal Institution and the Wellcome Trust. Many University of London schools and institutes are also close by, including Birkbeck, HP 576835-001 Laptop Keyboard University of London, the Institute of Education, London Business School, the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, the Royal Veterinary College, the School of Advanced Study, the School of Oriental and African Studies and the Senate House Library. The nearest London Underground station is Euston Square, with Goodge Street, Russell Square and Warren Street all nearby. The mainline railway stations at Euston, King's Cross and St Pancras are all within walking distance. HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard Elsewhere in central London are the UCL Institute of Ophthalmology (based in Clerkenwell), the Windeyer Institute (based in Fitzrovia), the UCL Institute of Orthopedics and Musculoskeletal Science (based in Stanmore), The Royal Free Hospital and the Whittington Hospital campuses of the UCL Medical School, and a number of other teaching hospitals. TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard The Department of Space and Climate Physics (Mullard Space Science Laboratory) is based in Holmbury St Mary, Surrey, the UCL School of Energy and Resources is based in Adelaide, Australia and there is a UCL campus in Doha, Qatar specialised in archaeology, conservation and museum studies.[57] Since September 2010 UCL has been running a University Preparatory Certificate course at Nazarbayev University in Astana, Kazakhstan.[58] HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard Notable UCL buildings include the UCL Main Building, including the Octagon, Quad, Cloisters and the Wilkins building designed by William Wilkins; the Cruciform Building, Gower Street (a red, cross-shaped building previously home to University College Hospital); and the Rockefeller Building, University Street, home to the original University College Hospital Medical School and named after the American oil magnate John Davison Rockefeller after support from the Rockefeller foundation in the 1920s. TOSHIBA Satellite L770D Series Laptop Keyboard Filming In the financial year ended 31 July 2011, UCL had a total income (including share of joint ventures) of £801.6 million (2009/10 – £762.4 million) and total expenditure of £777.4 million (2009/10 – £732.4 million).[2] Key sources of income included £283.4 million from research grants and contracts (2009/10 – £275.1 million), HP Pavilion DV6-1190ev Laptop Keyboard £203.3 million from Funding Council grants (2009/10 – £201.0 million), £172.2 million from academic fees and support grants (2009/10 – £150.5 million) and £5.2 million from endowment and investment income (2009/10 – £5.0 million).[2] During the 2010/11 financial year UCL had a capital expenditure of £93 million (2009/10 – £37 million).[2] At year end UCL had endowments of £72.7 million (2009/10 – £67.9 million) and total net assets of £706.7 million (2009/10 – £640.3 million).[2]SONY VAIO VGN-N31M/W Laptop Keyboard In 2010/11 UCL and the School of Pharmacy (which merged in January 2012) had a combined income of £826.52 million, the third-highest of any British university (after the University of Cambridge and the University of Oxford).[63]TOSHIBA Satellite Pro A120 Series Laptop Keyboard UCL launched a 10 year, £300 million fundraising appeal in October 2004, at the time the largest target ever set by a university in the United Kingdom for such an appeal.[64] From its foundation the College was deliberately secular; the initial justification of this secularity was that students of different denominations (specifically Catholics and Protestants) could study alongside each other without conflict. SONY VAIO VGN-FS515E Laptop Keyboard Even today UCL retains its strict secular position, and unlike most other UK universities has no specific religious prayer rooms. However there has been a Christian chaplaincy since 2005, there is no restriction on religious groups among students, and a 'quiet contemplation room' allows prayer for staff and students of all faiths. TOSHIBA Satellite Pro A120 Series Laptop Keyboard Whereas most universities primarily use their logo on mundane documents but their coat of arms on official documents such as degree certificates, UCL exclusively uses its logo.[65] The present logo was adopted as part of a rebranding exercise in August 2005.[41] Prior to that date, a different logo was used, in which the letters UCL were incorporated into a stylised representation of the collegeportico.  SONY VAIO VGN-NR21S/S Laptop Keyboard UCL did formerly make some use of a coat of arms, depicting a raised bent arm dressed in armour holding a green upturned open wreath.[66]A version of this badge (not on a shield) appears to have been used by UCL Union from shortly after its foundation in 1893.[67] Packard Bell Easynote TK85 Laptop Keyboard However, the arms are not known to have ever been the subject of an official grant of arms, and indeed depart from several of the rules and conventions of heraldry. They are no longer formally used by the College, although they are still occasionally seen in unofficial contexts, or used in modified form by sports teams and societies (such as University College London Conservative Society). HP Pavilion dv6-2010sa Laptop Keyboard The blazon of these arms is: Purpure, on a wreath of the colours Argent and Blue Celeste, an arm in armour embowed Argent holding an upturned wreath of laurel Vert, beneath which two branches of laurel Or crossed at the nombril and bound with a bowed cord Or, beneath the nombril a motto of Blue Celeste upon which Cuncti adsint meritaeque expectent praemia palmae.[68]IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X301 2779 Laptop Keyboard UCL's traditional sporting and academic colours of purple and light blue are derived from the arms. UCL has made cross-disciplinary research a priority and orientates its research around four "Grand Challenges".[71]According to Professor David Price, Pro-Provost for Research: "We believe we have a moral obligation to make a difference to global problems, and to combine the knowledge that our research generates to develop wisdom that can be applied in each of the four Grand Challenges: Global Health, Sustainable Cities, Intercultural Interaction and Human Wellbeing".[72]ASUS X88S Laptop Keyboard In 2010/11 UCL and the School of Pharmacy (which merged in January 2012) had a combined research income of £291.5 million (UCL – £283.38 million; School of Pharmacy – £8.13 million), the third-highest of any British university (after the University of Oxford and Imperial College London).[63] In the Times Higher Education ranking of research council awards 2008-9 UCL is shown to have won the most research awards with 174 awards amounting to £81,365,000. In second place Cambridge won 162 awards amounting to £74,263,000. There are currently approximately 3,000 PhD students working at UCL. SONY VGN-FE11H Laptop Keyboard According to a ranking of universities produced by SCImago Research Group, UCL is ranked 12th in the world (and 1st in Europe) in terms of total research output.[73] According to data released in July 2008 by ISI Web of Knowledge, UCL is the 13th most-cited university in the world (and most-cited in Europe). The analysis covered citations from 1 January 1998 to 30 April 2008, ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard during which 46,166 UCL research papers attracted 803,566 citations. The report covered citations in 21 subject areas and the results revealed some of UCL's key strengths, including: Clinical Medicine (1st outside North America); Immunology (2nd in Europe); Neuroscience & Behaviour (1st outside North America and 2nd in the world); GATEWAY M-6750 Laptop Keyboard Pharmacology & Toxicology (1st outside North America and 4th in the world); Psychiatry & Psychology (2nd outside North America); and Social Sciences, General (1st outside North America).[74] According to a separate analysis by ISI Web of Knowledge, for the period January 2000 to August 2010 UCL was ranked 16th in the world (and 2nd in Europe) for citations per paper in engineering.[75]TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard In the Microsoft Academic Search, which measures total research output, UCL ranks highly in a diverse range of areas.[76] As of 2012 UCL ranks among the top five institutions in the world in Chromatography (5th), Geography (2nd), Linguistics (5th), Literature (2nd), Medical Education and Training (2nd), Neuroscience (2nd), Oncology (4th), Ophthalmology (4th) and Pathology (5th).[76] TOSHIBA P205-S7469 Laptop Keyboard It ranks among the top 10 in the world in Archaeology (6th), Art History (8th), Dentistry (9th), Evolutionary Sciences (10th), Gynecology and Obstetrics (10th), Machine Learning and Recognition (10th), Pharmacology (9th), Plastic Arts (6th), Regional Studies (10th), Religion (6th) and Simulation (10th).[76] UCL ranks 11th to 20th in the world in Anatomy (15th), SONY VAIO VPCF12AFM Laptop Keyboard Biochemistry (15th), Biomedical Engineering (20th), Biotechnology (16th), Cardiology (20th), Diabetes (11th), Diseases (11th), Endocrinology (17th), Family Medicine (20th), Genetics and Genealogy (14th), History (14th), Hydrology (13th), Immunology (12th), Labor and Demographics Economics (14th), Mineralogy and Petrology (15th), Molecular Biology (16th), Nutrition (12th), Physiology (12th), Psychiatry and Psychology (19th), Public Affairs (12th) and Statistics (16th).[76] UCL is ranked 10th overall in Arts and Humanities and 9th in Medicine.[76]HP Pavilion DV6z artist edition 2 Laptop Keyboard UCL has offered courses in medicine since 1834 but the current UCL Medical School developed from mergers with the medical schools of the Middlesex Hospital (founded in 1746) and the Royal Free Hospital (founded as the London School of Medicine for Women in 1874).[77] Clinical medicine is primarily taught at the Royal Free Hospital, ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard University College Hospital and the Whittington Hospital, with other associated teaching hospitals including the Eastman Dental Hospital, Great Ormond Street Hospital, Moorfields Eye Hospital, the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery and the Royal National Throat, Nose and Ear Hospital. HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard UCL is a major centre for biomedical research. It is a member of three of the 11 biomedical research centres established by the NHS in England – the UCLH/UCL Comprehensive Biomedical Research Centre, the Moorfields Eye Hospital/UCL Institute of Ophthalmology Biomedical Research Centre and the Great Ormond Street Hospital/UCL Institute of Child Health Biomedical Research Centre.[78] HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Laptop Keyboard It is also a founding member of UCL Partners, the largest academic health science centre in Europe with a turnover of approximately £2 billion.[12] UCL has joined with the Medical Research Council, Cancer Research UK and the Wellcome Trust to establish the Francis Crick Institute, a new £600 million medical research centre to be based next to St Pancras railway station and planned to open in 2015.[79] It will be one of the world’s largest medical research centres, housing 1,250 scientists.[80]IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard


Admission to UCL is highly selective. For undergraduate entry many of UCL's courses require three A grades at A Level, or a grade equivalent of 6,6,6 on higher level subjects on the International Baccalaureate Program. Due to a very high proportion of applicants receiving the highest school grades, UCL,[81]HP G42-466LA Laptop Keyboard along with institutions such as Imperial College London and the University of Cambridge[82] was one of the first universities in the UK to make use of the A* grade at A-Level (introduced in 2010) for admissions, particularly for very oversubscribed courses such as Economics, Mathematics,Theoretical Physics, Medicine, History, Psychology, and European Social and Political Studies. HP Envy 15-1050nr Laptop Keyboard Undergraduate law applicants are required to take the National Admissions Test for Law[83] and undergraduate medical applicants are required to take theBioMedical Admissions Test.[84] Some UCL departments interview undergraduate applicants prior to making an offer of admission.[85]SAMSUNG R520 Laptop Keyboard The UCL library system comprises 16 libraries located across several sites within the main UCL campus and across Bloomsbury, linked together by a central networking catalogue and request system called eUCLid.[87][88] The libraries contain a total of over 1.5 million books.[89] The largest library is the UCL Main Library, HP Pavilion G7-1081NR Laptop Keyboard which is located in the UCL Main Building and contains collections relating to the arts and humanities, economics, history, law and public policy.[87] The second largest library is the UCL Science Library, which is located in the DMS Watson Building on Malet Place and contains collections relating to anthropology, engineering, geography, DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard life sciences, management and the mathematical and physical sciences.[87] Other libraries include the UCL Bartlett Library (architecture and town planning), the Cruciform Library (general clinical and medical sciences), the UCL Eastman Dental Institute Library (oral health sciences), the UCL Institute of Archaeology Library (archaeology and egyptology), Packard Bell NEW90 Laptop Keyboard the UCL Institute of Neurology Rockefeller Medical Library (neurosurgery and neuroscience), the Joint Moorfields Eye Hospital & the UCL Institute of Ophthalmology Library (biomedicine, medicine, nursing, ophthalmology and visual science), the UCL Language & Speech Science Library (audiology, communication disorders, linguistics & phonetics, special education, speech & language therapy and voice) and the UCL School of Slavonic and East European Studies Library (the economics, geography, history, languages, literature and politics of Eastern Europe).[87]SAMSUNG Q330-JS09 Laptop Keyboard UCL staff and students have full access to the main libraries of the University of London—the Senate House Library and the libraries of the Institutes of the School of Advanced Study—which are located close to the main UCL campus in Bloomsbury.[90] These libraries contain over 3.7 million books and focus on the arts, humanities and social sciences.[89] The British Library, which contains around 14 million books, is also located close to the main UCL campus. TOSHIBA Satellite Pro A120 Series Laptop Keyboard Since 2004 UCL Library Services has been collecting the scholarly work of UCL researchers to make it freely available on the internet via an open access repository known as UCL Eprints.[91][92] The intention is that material curated by UCL Eprints will remain accessible indefinitely. Packard Bell Easynote TM97 Laptop Keyboard UCL's Special Collections contains UCL's collection of historical or culturally significant works. It is one of the foremost university collections ofmanuscripts, archives and rare books in the UK.[93] It includes collections of medieval manuscripts and early printed books, as well as significant holdings of 18th-century works, Packard Bell Easynote TK87 Laptop Keyboard and highly important 19th- and 20th-century collections of personal papers, archival material, and literature, covering a vast range of subject areas. Archives include the Latin American archives, the Jewish collections and the George Orwell Archive.[94] Collections are often displayed in a series of glass cabinets in the Cloisters of the UCL Main Building.[95] HP 646568-001 Laptop Keyboard The most significant works are housed in the Strong Rooms. The special collection includes first editions of Isaac Newton's Principia, Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species and James Joyce's Ulysses . The earliest book in the collection is The crafte to lyve well and to dye well, printed in 1505.[96]HP Mini 110-1032NR Laptop Keyboard UCL is consistently ranked as one of the world's leading universities. In the 2012 Academic Ranking of World Universities, UCL is ranked 21st in the world (and 3rd in Europe).[9] SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard In the subject tables it is ranked 15th in the world (and 3rd in Europe) for Clinical Medicine & Pharmacy,[114] joint 101st-150th in the world (and joint 21st in Europe) for Engineering, Technology and Computer Sciences,[115] 24th in the world (and 4th in Europe) for Life & Agricultural Sciences,[116] joint 51st to 75th in the world (and joint 11th in Europe) for Natural Sciences and Mathematics[117] and joint 48th in the world (and 5th in Europe) for Social Sciences.[118]TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard In the 2012 QS World University Rankings, UCL is ranked 4th in the world (and 2nd in Europe). In the subject tables it is ranked 16th in the world (and 3rd in Europe) for Arts and Humanities,[119] 44th in the world (and 12th in Europe) for Engineering & Technology,[120] 15th in the world (and 4th in Europe) for Life Sciences and Medicine,[121] 33rd in the world (and 10th in Europe) for Natural Sciences[122] and 23rd in the world (and 4th in Europe) for Social Sciences & Management.[123]HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard In the 2012-13 Times Higher Education World University Rankings, UCL is ranked 17th in the world (and 5th in Europe).[11] In the subject tables it is ranked 10th in the world (and 3rd in Europe) for Arts and Humanities,[124] 6th in the world (and 4th in Europe) for Clinical, Pre-Clinical and Health,[125] 35th in the world (and 9th in Europe) for Engineering and Technology,[126] SONY Vaio PCG-K215M Laptop Keyboard 19th in the world (and 5th in Europe) for Life Sciences,[127] 39th in the world (and 12th in Europe) for Physical Sciences[128] and 11th in the world (and 3rd in Europe) for Social Sciences.[129] In the 2012 Times Higher Education World Reputation Rankings, UCL is ranked 21st in the world (and 4th in Europe).[130]HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard UCL is consistently one of the top multi-faculty universities in UK university rankings. UCL is ranked first in the UK for its staff/student ratio in The Times Good University GuideThe Sunday Times University Guide and The Guardian University Guide.[6] In the 2013 Guardian University Guide subject tables, UCL is ranked first in six subject areas (out of a total of 46): Archaeology and Forensics, Architecture, Art and Design, Civil Engineering, English, and Psychology.[131] In the 2013 Complete University Guide subject tables, UCL is ranked in the top 10 in 28 subjects, and is ranked first for Building.[132]HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Laptop Keyboard UCL is ranked 20th in the world in the 2011 300 Best World Universities human competitiveness ranking produced by Human Resources & Labor Review.[133] In a ranking of universities' international reputations produced by The Guardian in 2009, UCL placed 3rd in the UK (behind Oxford and Cambridge).[134] In 2011, UCL was ranked 12th in the world (and 3rd in the Europe) in a survey of business leaders at top companies carried out by The New York Times.[135] Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Founded in 1893, the UCL Union has a credible claim to be the oldest students' union in England.[29] UCL Union operates both as the representative voice for UCL students, and as a provider of a wide range of services. It is democratically controlled through General Meetings and referendums, and is run by elected student officers. The Union has provided a prominent platform for political campaigning of all kinds in recent years. It also supports a range of services, including numerous clubs and societies, sports facilities, an advice service, and a number of bars, cafes and shops.[136]SAMSUNG NP-Q320-JS02UK Laptop Keyboard UCL has a long-running, mostly friendly, rivalry with King's College London (King's), which has historically been known as "Rags".[141] UCL is often referred to by students from King's as the "Godless Scum of Gower Street", in reference to a comment made at the founding of King's, which was based on Christian principles. UCL students refer to King's as "Strand Polytechnic" in a similar attitude. HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard The King's' mascot, Reggie the Lion, went missing in the 1990s and was recovered after being found dumped in a field. It was restored at the cost of around £15,000 and then placed on display in the students' union.[142] It is in a glass case and filled with concrete to prevent theft, particularly by UCL students who once castrated it. TOSHIBA A000014900 Laptop Keyboard In turn, King's' students are also believed to have once stolen Phineas, a UCL mascot.[143] It is often claimed that King's' students played football with the embalmed head of Jeremy Bentham. Although the head was indeed stolen, the football story is a myth or legend which is unsupported by official UCL documentation about Bentham available next to his display case (his Auto Icon) in the UCL cloisters. The head is now kept in the UCL vaults.[144]TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 Laptop Keyboard UCL alumni include the "Father of the Nation" of both India and Kenya, the inventor of the telephone, one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA, and all of the members of the band Coldplay. HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard Artists include Sir William Coldstream (realist painter), Antony Gormley (sculptor), Augustus John (painter, draughtsman and etcher), Gerry Judah (artist and designer), Ben Nicholson (abstract painter) and Sir Eduardo Paolozzi (sculptor and artist). HP 646568-001 Laptop Keyboard Authors include Edith Clara Batho, Raymond Briggs, Robert Browning, G. K. Chesterton,[147] David Crystal, Stella Gibbons, Clive Sansom, Marie Stopes,[147] Helen MacInnes, Rabindranath Tagore and Demetrius Vikelas (who was also the first President of the International Olympic Committee). HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard Business people include Lord Digby Jones (Director-General of the Confederation of British Industry (2001–2006)) and Edwin Waterhouse (a founding partner of what is now the professional services firm PwC). HP 636191-001 Laptop Keyboard Engineers and scientists include Alexander Graham Bell (inventor of the telephone),[147] Colin Chapman (founder of Lotus Cars),Francis Crick (co-discoverer of the structure of DNA), John Ambrose Fleming (inventor of the vacuum tube), Jaroslav Heyrovský(father of the electroanalytical method), Sir Charles Kuen Kao (winner of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physics) and Joseph Lister(pioneer of antiseptic surgery). HP 633736-001 Laptop Keyboard Entertainers, musicians, composers and filmmakers include Ricky Gervais (comedian and actor),[147] Gustav Holst (composer), Chris Martin, Jonny Buckland, Guy Berryman and Will Champion (The Members of Coldplay), Christopher Nolan (director of films including The Dark Knight saga),[148] Franny Armstrong (director), Tim Rice-Oxley and Richard Hughes of the band Keane and Jonathan Ross(television presenter). TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7220 Laptop Keyboard Journalists and commentators include A. A. Gill (columnist), three former editors of The Economist, most notably Walter Bagehot, two editors of The Times Literary Supplement, and Jonathan Dimbleby (television and radio current affairs presenter). Former ITN Home Affairs Correspondent Sarah Cullen also attended UCL. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard Lawyers include a Lord Chancellor (Lord Herschell); Chief Justices of England (Lord Woolf), Hong Kong (Sir Yang Ti-liang), India (A. S. Anand), Malaysia (Arifin Zakaria), Ghana (Samuel Azu Crabbe) and the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (Rt. Hon. Sir Vincent Floissac); two Masters of the Rolls (Lord Cozens-Hardy and Sir George Jessel); and Attorneys-General of England (Lord Goldsmith andBaroness Scotland), Singapore (Tan Boon Teik and Chao Hick Tin) and Gambia (Hassan Bubacar Jallow). IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard Politicians include Mahatma Gandhi (leader of the Indian independence movement and "Father of the Nation"),[147] Jomo Kenyatta (first Prime Minister, first President and "Father of the Nation" of Kenya), Chaim Herzog (President of Israel), Itō Hirobumi (first Prime Minister of Japan), Junichiro Koizumi (Prime Minister of Japan), Wu Tingfang (Acting Premier during the early years of the Republic of China). Sir Stafford Cripps (British Chancellor of the Exchequer 1947–1950). At least 8 serving MPs graduated from UCL, including current Secretary of State for Wales David Jones. IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R51 1833 Laptop Keyboard Sports people include David Gower (former captain of the England cricket team), Patrick Head (co-founder of the Williams Formula One team) and Christine Ohuruogu (Olympic 400 metres gold medalist).  ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

Notable faculty and staff

Notable former UCL faculty and staff include Jocelyn Bell Burnell (co-discoverer of radio pulsars), A. S. Byatt (writer), Ronald Dworkin (philosopher of law and scholar of constitutional law), Sir A.J. Ayer (philosopher), Lucian Freud (painter), Francis Galton (founder of psychometricsand father of fingerprinting), Peter Higgs[149] (the proposer of the Higgs mechanism, which predicted the existence of the Higgs boson), HP Pavilion G60-230 Laptop Keyboard Andrew Huxley(physiologist and biophysicist), Sir Frank Kermode (literary critic), Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk (first President of Czechoslovakia and "Father of the Nation"),John Stuart Mill (philosopher) and George R. Price (population geneticist). ACER Aspire 5810T Laptop Keyboard All five of the naturally occurring noble gases were discovered at UCL by Sir William Ramsay, who was a professor of chemistry and after whom Ramsay Hall is named.[150]Bloomsbury is an area of the London Borough of Camden, in central London, between Euston Road and Holborn, developed by the Russell family in the 17th and 18th centuries into a fashionable residential area. It is notable for its array ofgarden squares,[1] literary connections (exemplified by the Bloomsbury Group) and numerous cultural, educational and healthcare institutions. While Bloomsbury was not the first area of London to have acquired a formal square, Bloomsbury Square, laid out in 1660 by Thomas Wriothesley, 4th Earl of Southampton as Southampton Square, was the first square to be named as such.[2]DELL Latitude E5500 Laptop Keyboard Bloomsbury is home to the University of London's central bodies and departments, including the Senate House Library andSchool of Advanced Study, and several of its colleges, including University College London, Birkbeck, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, the School of Pharmacy and the School of Oriental and African Studies. SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard Numerous healthcare institutions are located in Bloomsbury, including the British Medical Association, Great Ormond Street Hospital, the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, University College Hospital and the Royal London Hospital for Integrated Medicine. The British Museum and the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art are also located in the area. ACER Aspire 5810T Laptop Keyboard Bloomsbury is in the Parliamentary constituency of Holborn and St Pancras. The earliest record of what would become Bloomsbury is the 1086 Domesday Book, which records that the area had vineyards and "wood for 100 pigs".[2] But it is not until 1201 that the name Bloomsbury is first noted, when William de Blemond, a Norman landowner, acquired the land.[3] The name Bloomsbury is a development from Blemondisberi – the bury, or manor, of Blemond. An 1878 publication, Old and New London: Volume 4, mentions the idea that the area was named after a village called "Lomesbury" which formerly stood where Bloomsbury Square is now,[4]though this piece of folk etymology is now discredited.  DELL Latitude E5500 Laptop Keyboard At the end of the 14th century Edward III acquired Blemond's manor, and passed it on to the Carthusian monks of the London Charterhouse, who kept the area mostly rural. In the 16th century, with the Dissolution of the Monasteries, Henry VIII took the land back into the possession of the Crown, and granted it to Thomas Wriothesley, 1st Earl of Southampton. SAMSUNG NP-N145-JP03 Laptop Keyboard In the early 1660s, the Earl of Southampton constructed what eventually became Bloomsbury Square. The area was laid out mainly in the 18th century, largely by landowners such as Wriothesley Russell, 3rd Duke of Bedford, who built Bloomsbury Market, which opened in 1730. The major development of the squares that we see today started in about 1800 when Francis Russell, 5th Duke of Bedford removed Bedford House and developed the land to the north with Russell Square as its centrepiece.  SAMSUNG NP-N150-KA03 Laptop Keyboard Bloomsbury has no official boundaries, but can be roughly defined as the square bounded by Tottenham Court Road to the west, Euston Road to the north, Gray's Inn Road to the east, and either High Holborn or the thoroughfare formed by New Oxford Street, Bloomsbury Way and Theobalds Road to the south.[2] Bloomsbury merges gradually with Holborn in the south, and with St Pancras in the north-east and Clerkenwell in the south-east. SAMSUNG NB30 Laptop Keyboard The area is bisected north to south by the main Southampton Row-Woburn Place thoroughfare, which contains several large tourist hotels and links Tavistock Square and Russell Square – the central points of Bloomsbury. The road runs fromEuston and Somers Town in the north to Holborn in the south. The area east of Southmpton Row/Woburn Place includes the Brunswick shopping centre and cinema,[7]  SONY VAIO VGN-FS415S Laptop Keyboard and Coram's Fields recreation area. The area to the north of Coram's Fields consists mainly of blocks of flats, built both as private and social housing, and is generally considered part of St Pancras[8] or King's Cross[9] rather than north-eastern Bloomsbury. The area to the south is generally less residential, containing several hospitals, including Great Ormond Street, and gradually becomes more commercial in character as it approaches the boundary with Holborn at Theobalds Road. SONY VAIO VGN-AR770 Laptop Keyboard The area west of Southampton Row/Woburn Place is notable for its concentration of academic establishments, museums, and formal squares. It is this side that contains the British Museum and the central departments and colleges of theUniversity of London, including Birkbeck College, University College London, the School of Oriental and African Studies, SONY V-0709BIAS1-US Laptop Keyboard and the University of London's School of Advanced Study. The main north-south road in west Bloomsbury is Gower Street which is a one-way road running south from Euston Road towards Shaftesbury Avenue in Covent Garden, becoming Bloomsbury Street when it passes to the west of the British Museum.  SONY VAIO VGN-FS415S Laptop Keyboard Location in context Bloomsbury is home to Senate House and the main library of the University of London, The Bloomsbury Colleges (Birkbeck, University of London, Institute of Education, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, School of Pharmacy, School of Oriental and African Studies and the Royal Veterinary College) and University College London (with the Slade School of Fine Art), the College of Law, London Contemporary Dance School, the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, and Goodenough College. HP 640892-001 Laptop Keyboard Other colleges in the area include the University of London's School of Advanced Study, the Architectural Association School of Architecture in Bedford Square, and several London campuses of American colleges including the University of CaliforniaLondon Centre, University of Delaware London Centre, Florida State University London Study Centre, Syracuse University London Facility, NYU London, and the London campus of the Hult International Business School. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard Museums The British Museum, which first opened to the public in 1759 in Montagu House, is at the heart of Bloomsbury. At the centre of the museum the space around the former British Library Reading Room, which was filled with the concrete storage bunkers of the British Library, is today the Great Court, an indoor square with a glass roof designed by British architect Norman Foster. It houses displays, a cinema, a shop, a cafe and a restaurant. Since 1998, the British Library has been located in a purpose-built building just outside the northern edge of Bloomsbury, on Euston Road. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5102CL Laptop Keyboard Also in Bloomsbury is the Foundling Museum close to Brunswick Square, which tells the story of the Foundling Hospital opened by Thomas Coram, for unwanted children (foundlings) in Georgian London. The hospital, now demolished but for the Georgian colonnade, is today a playground and outdoor sports field for children, called Coram’s Fields; adults are only admitted with a child. It is also home to a small number of sheep. The nearby Lamb’s Conduit Street is a pleasant thoroughfare with independent shops, cafes and restaurants. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children and the Royal London Hospital for Integrated Medicine (formerly the Royal London Homoeopathic Hospital) are both located on Great Ormond Street, off Queen Square, which itself is home to the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery (formerly the National Hospital for Nervous Diseases). FUJITSU Lifebook T4215 Laptop Keyboard Bloomsbury is also the location of University College Hospital, which re-opened in 2005 in new buildings on Euston Road, built under the government’s private finance initiative (PFI). The Eastman Dental Hospital is located on Gray’s Inn Road close to the Royal National Throat, Nose and Ear Hospital administered by the Royal Free Hampstead NHS Trust.  SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard


In February 2010, businesses were balloted on an expansion of the InHolborn Business Improvement District (BID) to include the southern part of Bloomsbury. Only businesses with a rateable value in excess of £60,000 could vote as only these would pay the BID levy. This expansion of the BID into Bloomsbury was supported by Camden Council.[11] The proposal was passed and part of Bloomsbury was brought within the InHolborn BID.[12]HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard Controversy was raised during this BID renewal when InHolborn proposed collecting Bloomsbury and the historic areas of St. Giles and Holborn under the name of "Midtown".[13][14][15] Whilst businesses were informed about the BID proposals there was little consultation with residents or voluntary organisations. InHolborn produced a comprehensive business plan aimed at large businesses.[16]TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard Bloomsbury contains three notable churches. St. George's Church, located on Bloomsbury Way in the south of the area, was built by Nicholas Hawksmoor between 1716 and 1731. It has a deep Roman porch with six huge Corinthian columns, and is notable for its steeple based on the Tomb of Mausolus at Halicarnassus and for the statue of King George I on the top.  Packard Bell NEW95 Laptop Keyboard The second is the Early English Neo-Gothic Church of Christ the King on Gordon Square. It was designed for the Irvingites[17]by Raphael Brandon in 1853. Since June 10, 1954 it has been a Grade I listed building.  HP Pavilion dv6-2110ea Laptop Keyboard The third is St Pancras New Church on the northern boundary, near Euston station. This church was completed in 1822, and is notable for the caryatids on north and south which are based on the "porch of the maidens" from the Temple of the Erechtheum. The church of St George the Martyr in Queen Square was built 1703–1706,[18] and was where Ted Hughes and Sylvia Plath married on Bloomsday in 1956.[19]Packard Bell EasyNote TJ67 Laptop Keyboard


The area surrounding Bloomsbury is served by several London Underground stati

ons, although only two of these (Russell Square and Euston Square) have entrances in Bloomsbury itself. The other stations, located on the fringes of Bloomsbury, are Euston, Goodge Street, Warren Street, Tottenham Court Road, Holborn,Chancery Lane and King's Cross St. Pancras. SONY VAIO PCG-FR285M Laptop Keyboard The mainline rail stations Euston, King's Cross and St. Pancras are all located just north of Bloomsbury. Since Wednesday, November 14, 2007, Eurostar services have relocated to St Pancras, promising shorter journey times to Paris and Brussels and better connections to the rest of the UK. HP G62-b39SE Laptop Keyboard Bloomsbury is also home to the disused British Museum tube station. It is well served by buses, with over 12 different routes running south down Gower Street, and both north and south through Russell Square.[20] Route 7 goes along Great Russell Street, past the British Museum, and on to Russell Square. Packard Bell NEW95 Laptop Keyboard

Historical politics

In the 1960s and 1970s, the Madison counterculture was centered in the neighborhood of Mifflin and Bassett streets, referred to as "Miffland". The area contained many three-story apartments where students and counterculture youth lived, painted murals, and operated the co-operative grocery store, the Mifflin Street Co-op. Packard Bell Easynote TK87 Laptop Keyboard Residents of the neighborhood often came into conflict with authorities, particularly during the administration of Republican mayor Bill Dyke. Dyke was viewed by students as a direct antagonist in efforts to protest the Vietnam War because of his efforts to suppress local protests. The annual Mifflin Street Block Party became a focal point for protest, although by the late 1970s it had become a mainstream community party.  Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard During the late 1960s and early 1970s, thousands of students and other citizens took part in anti-Vietnam War marches and demonstrations, with more violent incidents drawing national attention to the city and UW campus. These include: Packard Bell Easynote TK87 Laptop Keyboard These protests were the subject of the documentary The War at Home.[22] David Maraniss's book, They Marched into Sunlight, incorporated the 1967 Dow protests into a larger Vietnam War narrative. Tom Bates wrote the book Rads on the subject (ISBN 0-06-092428-4). Bates wrote that Dyke's attempt to suppress the annual Mifflin Street block party "would take three days, ACER Aspire 2920-3A2G12Mi Laptop Keyboard require hundreds of officers on overtime pay, and engulf the student community from the nearby Southeast Dorms to Langdon Street's fraternity row. Tear gas hung like heavy fog across the Isthmus." In the fracas, student activist Paul Soglin, then a city alderman, was arrested twice and taken to jail. Soglin was later elected mayor of Madison, serving from 1973 to 1979, 1989 to 1997, and is the current mayor, elected again in April, 2011. During his middle term he led the construction of the Frank Lloyd Wright designed Monona Terrace. DELL Inspiron 1564 Laptop Keyboard Madison is home to the Freedom from Religion Foundation, which attempts to influence government in matters relating to the separation of church and state. The foundation is known for its lawsuits against religious displays on public property, and for advocating removal of "In God We Trust" from American currency. DELL Inspiron 1545 Laptop Keyboard Madison is associated with "Fighting Bob" La Follette and the Progressive movement. La Follette's magazine, The Progressive, founded in 1909, is still published in Madison. Madison is the episcopal see for the Roman Catholic Diocese of Madison.[23] Saint Raphael's Cathedral, damaged by arson in 2005 and demolished in 2008, was the mother church of the diocese. IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R50e-1848 Laptop Keyboard The world's largest congregation of Unitarian Universalists,[citation needed] the First Unitarian Society of Madison, makes its home in the historic Unitarian Meeting House, designed by one of its members, Frank Lloyd Wright. InterVarsity Christian Fellowship/USA has its headquarter in Madison. The city also has a Buddhist temple, a Hindu temple, three mosques and several synagogues, a Bahá'í community center, an LDS stake, and a Unity Church congregation. SONY 147859712 Laptop Keyboard


Wisconsin state government and the University of Wisconsin–Madison remain the two largest Madison employers. However, Madison's economy today is evolving from a government-based economy to a consumer services and high-tech base, particularly in the health, biotech and advertising sectors.[citation needed] Beginning in the early 1990s, the city experienced a steady economic boom and has been less affected by recession than other areas of the state. Much of the expansion has occurred on the city's south and west sides, HP G61-450EE Laptop Keyboard but it has also affected the east side near the Interstate 39-90-94 interchange and along the northern shore of Lake Mendota. Underpinning the boom is the development of high-tech companies, many fostered by UW–Madison working with local businesses and entrepreneurs to transfer the results of academic research into real-world applications, especially bio-tech applications. HP AETT9U00010 Laptop Keyboard Many businesses are attracted to Madison's skill base, taking advantage of the area's high level of education. 48.2% of Madison's population over the age of 25 holds at least a bachelor's degree.[24] Forbes magazine reported in 2004 that Madison has the highest percentage of individuals holding Ph.D.s in the United States. In 2006, the same magazine listed Madison as number 31 in the top 200 metro areas for "Best Places for Business and Careers."[25]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Madison has also been named in Forbes ten Best Cities several times within the past decade.[citation needed] In 2009, in the midst of the late-2000s recession, Madison had an unemployment rate of 3.5% and was ranked number one in a list of "ten cities for job growth".[26]IBM Thinkpad R61i Laptop Keyboard


The largest employer in Madison is the Wisconsin state government, excluding employees of the University of Wisconsin–Madison, and University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics employees, although both groups of workers are state employees.[27]FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard The University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics is an important regional teaching hospital and regional trauma center, with strengths in transplant medicine, oncology, digestive disorders, and endocrinology.[28] Other Madison hospitals include St. Mary's Hospital,[29] Meriter Hospital, and the VA Medical Center. ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard Madison is home to companies such as Spectrum Brands (formerly Rayovac), Alliant Energy, American Family Insurance, American Girl (a subsidiary of Mattel), theCredit Union National Association and its CUNA Mutual Group, Dean Health Systems, Madison-Kipp Corporation, Pacific Cycle, Schoeps Ice Cream, TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard and Sub-Zero & Wolf Appliance. Technology companies in the area include Berbee Information Networks, Broadjam, Epic Systems, FSBO Madison, Full Compass Systems, Human Head Studios, Netconcepts (recently purchased by Covario), Raven Software, Sonic Foundry, TDS Telecom, and TomoTherapy. Biotech firms include Panvera (now part of Invitrogen), Promega, and the Iceland-based Nimblegen. The contract research organization Covance is a major employer in the area.[30]IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R51 1833 Laptop Keyboard Oscar Mayer has been a Madison fixture for decades, and was a family business for many years before being sold to Kraft Foods. The Onion newspaper and the pizza chains Rocky Rococo, the Glass Nickel Pizza Company, and Ian's Pizza originated in Madison.[31][32]DELL Vostro 1015 Laptop Keyboard Packard Bell EasyNote TJ61 Laptop Keyboard In the mid-2000s Madison partnered with Merrimac Communications to develop and build Mad City Broadband, a wireless internet infrastructure for the city.[33] In early 2010 a grass-root effort to bring Google's new high-speed fiber Internet to Madison failed.[34]ACER TravelMate 5742 Laptop Keyboard


According to Forbes magazine, Madison ranks second in the nation in education.[35][36] The Madison Metropolitan School District serves the city and surrounding area. With an enrollment of approximately 25,000 students in 46 schools, it is the second largest school district in Wisconsin behind the Milwaukee School District.[37] The five public high schools are James Madison Memorial, Madison West, Madison East, Madison LaFollette, and Malcolm Shabazz City High School, an alternative school. Packard Bell Easynote TK87 Laptop Keyboard Among private church-related high schools are Abundant Life Christian School, Edgewood High School,[38] located on theEdgewood College campus, and St. Ambrose Academy, a Catholic school offering grades 6 through 12.[39] Madison Country Day School is a private high school with no religious affiliation.  HP Pavilion dv6-2020sa Laptop Keyboard The city is home to the University of Wisconsin–Madison, Edgewood College, Madison Area Technical College, and Madison Media Institute, giving the city a post-secondary student population of nearly 50,000. The University of Wisconsin accounts for the vast majority of students, with an enrollment of roughly 41,000, of whom 30,750 are undergraduates.[40]In a Forbes magazine city ranking from 2003, Madison had the highest number of Ph.D.s per capita, and third highest college graduates per capita,among cities in the United States.[41][dead link] Packard Bell Easynote TK37 Laptop Keyboard Additional degree programs are available through satellite campuses of Cardinal Stritch University, Concordia University-Wisconsin, Globe University, Lakeland College, the University of Phoenix, and Upper Iowa University. Madison also has a non-credit learning community with multiple programs and many private businesses also offering classes. DELL Vostro 3700 Laptop Keyboard Madison is served by the Dane County Regional Airport, which serves more than 100 commercial flights on an average day, and nearly 1.6 million passengers annually. Most major general aviation operations take place at Morey Field in Middleton 15 miles (24 km) from the city center. Madison Metro operates bus routes throughout the city and to some surrounding towns.[42] Madison has four taxicab companies (Union, Badger, Madison and Green), and several companies provide specialized transit for individuals with disabilities. SAMSUNG M40 Laptop Keyboard A high-speed rail route from Chicago through Milwaukee and Madison to Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota, was proposed as part of the Midwest Regional Rail Initiative. Funding for the railway connecting Madison to Milwaukee was approved in January, 2010, SONY KFRSBA019A Laptop Keyboard but Governor-elect Scott Walker's opposition to the project led the Federal Railroad Administration to retract the $810 million in funding and reallocate it to other projects.[43] The nearest passenger train station is inColumbus, Wisconsin, 28 miles (45 km) away. There the eastbound Empire Builder provides daily service to Milwaukee and Chicago, and the westbound Empire Builder provides daily service to Portland, Oregon and Seattle, Washington. HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard Railroad freight services are provided to Madison by Wisconsin and Southern Railroad (WSOR) and Canadian Pacific Railway(CP). Wisconsin & Southern has been operating since 1980, having taken over trackage owned since the 19th century by theChicago and North Western and the Milwaukee Road.  HP G62-225NR Laptop Keyboard

Counterfeit coinage

In the reign of King George III (1760–1820) the first issue of halfpennies did not come until 10 years after the king's accession, in 1770. Counterfeiting was rampant, and in 1771 the issuance of counterfeit copper coin became a felony; this however had little effect and for the next twenty years or so the majority of copper so-called coins in circulation were forgeries. ACER Aspire 5930 Laptop Keyboard In March 1782 a female counterfeiter was hanged, then fixed to a stake and burned before the debtor's door at Newgate prison in London. In a letter to Lord Hawkesbury of 14 April 1789, Matthew Boulton commented "In the course of my journeys, I observe that I receive upon an average two-thirds counterfeit halfpence for change at toll-gates, etc.  HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard , and I believe the evil is daily increasing, as the spurious money is carried into circulation by the lowest class of manufacturers, who pay with it the principal part of the wages of the poor people they employ". Boulton's contract in 1797 to produce the Cartwheel pennies and twopences, thwarting the counterfeiters, did not extend to producing the halfpenny, though Boulton had expected that it would, FUJITSU Lifebook P1620 Laptop Keyboard and had prepared patterns of the appropriate size and weight in accordance with his ideas on the intrinsic value of copper coins. The reason the government gave for the omission of the denomination from the contract was that the large number of de facto halfpennies (including tokens and fakes) would be driven out of circulation and Boulton would be unable to produce enough coins to meet the demand that would ensue. Public demand for legal halfpennies soon forced the government to change its mind, HP AE0P7U00010 Laptop Keyboard and in 1798 a contract was issued to Boulton for him to produce halfpennies and farthings dated 1799. However in the meantime the price of copper had risen, and consequently the weight of the coins was reduced slightly, which resulted in them not being as popular as expected. In 1806 a further 427.5 tons of copper was struck into halfpennies by Boulton, but the price of copper had risen again and the weight was even less than the 1799 issue. This time, however, there was no unfavourable reaction from the public, so perhaps the national obsession with "intrinsic value" was over. DELL 454RX Laptop Keyboard substitution of REG for REX on the reverse), and the bronze issue of 1860–1901 (which itself is split between 1894 and 1895 into coins displaying the "young head" and the "old head" of the Queen). The bronze coins weighed 5.5–5.8 grams and were 25 millimetres in diameter. The bronze coins also featured the denomination HALF PENNY on the reverse for the first time, Lenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard with the date in the exergue beneath Britannia. The inscription on the obverse of the "young head" coins readsVICTORIA D G BRITT REG F D, while on the "old head" it is VICTORIA DEI GRA BRITT REGINA FID DEF IND IMP. Some 1874–1876 and 1881–1882 halfpennies have an "H" mintmark underneath the date, indicating that they were produced at the Heaton mint in Birmingham. Halfpennies were produced in all years of Victoria's reign except 1837, 1840, 1842, 1849 and 1850. SONY VAIO PCG-792L Laptop Keyboard Halfpennies weighing 5.67 grams (one fifth of an ounce) and of 1 inch (25.4 millimetres) diameter (which was to remain the standard size of the coin for the remainder of its existence) were minted in all years of Edward VII's reign (1901–1910) except 1901. They are similar to the last issues of Queen Victoria except for the king's right-facing bust on the obverse, with the inscription EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA BRITT OMN REX FID DEF IND IMP, and also are extremely reminiscent of the contemporary penny.  IBM Thinkpad R61i Laptop Keyboard The reign of King George V produced halfpennies to an unchanged design every year between 1911 and 1936. The obverse shows a left-facing portrait of the king by Sir Bertram Mackennal, with the inscription GEORGIVS V DEI GRA BRITT OMN REX FID DEF IND IMP, and the usual right-facing Britannia on the reverse. Unlike some of the pennies of this reign, APPLE A1181 Laptop Keyboard no halfpennies have mintmarks from provincial mints. Halfpennies of this reign suffer somewhat from "ghosting", caused by production problems when the image of one side partly comes through to the other; efforts were made to solve the problem with a modification of the king's effigy in 1925, but the problem wasn't finally solved until a second modification in 1928. COMPAQ Presario CQ50-211NR Laptop Keyboard A halfpenny exists for King Edward VIII, although strictly speaking it is a pattern which would have been awaiting royal approval about the time that the king abdicated in December 1936. The king insisted that his left profile be used on the coinage instead of the right, which would have been used if he had followed the alternating tradition going back to Charles II; SONY Vaio VGN-AW11M/H Laptop Keyboard the obverse has the inscription EDWARDVS VIII D G BR OMN REX F D IND IMP, but in a complete break from tradition Britannia was dropped from the reverse for the first time since 1672, and replaced by a sailing ship, said to represent Sir Francis Drake's Golden Hind. This reverse remained in use for the remainder of the coins' existence. HP pavilion DV7-1005eo Laptop Keyboard Halfpennies of a similar design to his brother's were produced in each year of the reign of King George VI. The inscription on the obverse reads GEORGIVS VI D G BR OMN REX F D IND IMP until 1948, then GEORGIVS VI D G BR OMN REX FIDEI DEF. There are reported to be slight differences in the reverse – the size and positioning of the ship, TOSHIBA Satellite L300-1AS Laptop Keyboard the inscription HALF PENNY and the date under the ship – from year to year, but numismatists differ in opinion as to whether this is significant enough to count as a design variation each year, or just one design for the whole reign. TOSHIBA 6037b0026805 Laptop Keyboard Unlike the penny, Queen Elizabeth II's reign produced halfpennies every year between 1953 and 1967, except for 1961. The reverse was the same as before, while the obverse featured the queen's head by Mary Gillick, with the inscription ELIZABETH II DEI GRA BRITT OMN REGINA F D in 1953, and ELIZABETH II DEI GRATIA REGINA F D for the rest of the reign. TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5111 Laptop Keyboard ACER Aspire 3613WLMi Laptop Keyboard SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard

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