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University College London University College London (UCL) is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom, and the oldest and largest constituent college of the federal University of London.[5] Founded in 1826, UCL was the first university institution to be founded in London and the first in England to be established on an entirely secular basis, to admit students regardless of their religion and to admit women on equal terms with men.[6] UCL became one of the two founding colleges of the University of London in 1836. TOSHIBA Satellite L300-156 Laptop Keyboard UCL's main campus is located in the Bloomsbury area of central London, with a number of institutes and teaching hospitals located elsewhere in central London. UCL is organised into 10 constituent faculties, within which there are over 100 departments, institutes and research centres. UCL had a total income of £802 million in 2010/11, of which £283 million was from research grants and contracts.[2] For the period 1999 to 2009 it was the 13th most-cited university in the world (and the most-cited in Europe).[7]HP 506782-001 Laptop Keyboard UCL has around 4,000 academic and research staff and 650 professors, the highest number of any British university.[8] There are 26 Nobel Prize winners and three Fields Medalists amongst UCL’s alumni and current and former staff, the most recent being Sir Charles K. Kao, who received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2009. UCL is ranked 21st in the world (and 3rd in Europe) in the 2012 Academic Ranking of World Universities,[9] TOSHIBA Satellite P300 Laptop Keyboard 4th in the world (and 2nd in Europe) in the 2012 QS World University Rankings[10] and 17th in the world (and 5th in Europe) in the 2012-13 Times Higher Education World University Rankings.[11]TOSHIBA NB200 Laptop Keyboard UCL is part of three of the 11 biomedical research centres established by the NHS in England and is a founding member ofUCL Partners, the largest academic health science centre in Europe.[12] UCL is a member of the Association of Commonwealth Universities, the European University Association, the G5,[13] the League of European Research Universities, the Russell Group, UNICA and Universities UK.[14] It forms part of the 'Golden Triangle' of British universities.[15] COMPAQ Presario CQ60-201EP Laptop Keyboard UCL was founded on 11 February 1826 under the name London University as a secular alternative to the religious universities of Oxford and Cambridge.[16][17] Although the philosopher Jeremy Bentham is commonly seen as the father of UCL, he personally took no part in its creation. Bentham's radical ideas on education and society were the inspiration to the institution's founders however, particularly the Scotsmen James Mill (1773–1836) and Henry Brougham (1778–1868).[18] ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard In 1827 the Chair of Political Economy at London University was created, with John Ramsay McCulloch as the first incumbent, establishing one of the first Department of Economics in England.[19] In 1828 the university became the first in England to offer English as a degree subject[20] and the teaching of Classics and medicine began. SONY VAIO VPCF12AFM Laptop Keyboard In 1830 London University founded the London University School, which was to later become University College School. In 1833 the university appointed Captain Alexander Maconochie, Secretary to the Royal Geographical Society, as the first professor of geography in the UK. In 1834 University College Hospital opened as a teaching hospital for the university medical school.[21]HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard In 1836, London University became formally known as University College, London, when, under a Royal Charter, it worked with the recently established King's College, London, to create the federal University of London. The Slade School of Fine Art was founded in 1871 as the result of a bequest from Felix Slade. In 1878 UCL became the first British university to admit women on equal terms to men.[22] In 1898 William Ramsay discovered the elements krypton, neon and xenon whilst professor of chemistry at UCL.[23][24]Compaq Presario CQ62-112TU Laptop Keyboard 1901 to 2001 Sir Gregory Foster became UCL’s first Provost in 1906, a post that he held for the next 23 years. In the same year the Cruciform Building was opened as the new home for University College Hospital.[25] In 1907 the University of London was formally reconstituted with a new Royal charter, and a number of new institutions joined the federation. As part of this reorganisation each of the constituent institutions, including UCL, HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard lost their legal independence, and henceforth all offered degrees awarded by the University of London. UCL sustained considerable bomb damage during the Second World War, including to the Great Hall and the Carey Foster Physics Laboratory. The first UCL student magazine, Pi Magazine, was published for the first time on 21 February 1946. The Institute of Jewish Studies relocated to UCL in 1959. COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard The Mullard Space Science Laboratory was established in 1967.[26] In 1973 UCL became the first international link to the ARPANET, the precursor of the internet, sending the world's first e-mail in the same year.[27][28]ASUS NSK-U1001 Laptop Keyboard In 1976 a new charter restored UCL's legal independence, although not – at that time – the power to award its own degrees.[29][30]It was also under this charter that the College became formally known as University College London (thus abandoning the comma after "College" which had been used since 1836). DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard In 1986 UCL merged with the Institute of Archaeology.[31] In 1988 UCL merged with the Institute of Laryngology & Otology, the Institute of Orthopaedics, the Institute of Urology & Nephrology and Middlesex Hospital Medical School.[31] In 1994 the University College London Hospitals NHS Trust was established. DELL Latitude D510 Laptop Keyboard UCL merged with the College of Speech Sciences and the Institute of Ophthalmology in 1995, the Institute of Child Health and the School of Podiatry in 1996[32] and the Institute of Neurology in 1997.[31][33] In 1998 UCL merged with the Royal Free Hospital Medical School to create the Royal Free and University College Medical School (renamed the UCL Medical School in October 2008). In 1999 UCL merged with the School of Slavonic and East European Studies[34][35] and the Eastman Dental Institute.[31] ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard The UCL Jill Dando Institute of Crime Science, the first university department in the world devoted specifically to reducing crime, was founded in 2001.[36] Proposals for a merger between UCL and Imperial College London were announced in 2002.[37] The proposal provoked strong opposition from UCL teaching staff and students and the AUT union, which criticised 'the indecent haste and lack of consultation', leading to its abandonment and the resignation of the UCL Provost Sir Derek Roberts.[38]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard The London Centre for Nanotechnology was established in 2003 as a joint venture between UCL and Imperial College London.[39][40] In 2005 UCL was again granted its own taught and research degree awarding powers and all new UCL students registered from 2007/08 qualified with UCL degrees. Also in 2005, TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5102CL Laptop Keyboard UCL adopted a new corporate branding, under which, among other things, the name University College London was replaced by the simple initialism UCL in all external communications.[41] In the same year a major new £422 million building was opened for University College Hospital on Euston Road,[42] the UCL Ear Institute was established and a new building for the UCL School of Slavonic and East European Studies was opened. SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard In 2007 the UCL Cancer Institute was opened in the newly constructed Paul O'Gorman Building. In August 2008 UCL formed UCL Partners, an academic health science centre, with Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust and University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust.[43] In 2008 UCL established the UCL School of Energy & Resources in Adelaide, Australia, the first campus of a British university in the country.[44]HP G62-b20ES Laptop Keyboard HP 550 Laptop Keyboard In 2009, the Yale UCL Collaborative was established between UCL, UCL Partners, Yale University, Yale School of Medicineand Yale – New Haven Hospital.[45] The scale of the collaboration is the largest in the history of both universities, and its scope has been extended to the humanities and social sciences. COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard As part of the protests against the UK Government's plans to increase student fees, around 200 students occupied the Jeremy Bentham Room and part of the Slade School of Fine Art for over two weeks during November and December 2010.[46][47] The university successfully obtained a court order to evict the students but stated that it did not intend to enforce the order if possible.[47] HP MP-08K33US6930 Laptop Keyboard In June 2011 the mining company BHP Billiton agreed to donate A$10 million to UCL to fund the establishment of two energy institutes – the Energy Policy Institute, based in Adelaide, and the Institute for Sustainable Resources, based in London.[48] In November 2011 UCL announced plans for a £500 million investment in its main Bloomsbury campus over 10 years, and the establishment of a new 23-acre campus next to the Olympic Park in Stratford in the East End of London.[49]HP G61-450EE Laptop Keyboard The School of Pharmacy, University of London merged with UCL on 1 January 2012, becoming the UCL School of Pharmacy within the Faculty of Life Sciences.[50][51]In May 2012 UCL, Imperial College London and Intel announced the establishment of the Intel Collaborative Research Institute for Sustainable Connected Cities, a London-based institute for research into the future of cities.[52][53]DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard In August 2012, the University waded into controversy as it advertised an unpaid research position.[54] After the university was branded exploitative and unethical by the University and College Union, the university was forced into withdrawing the advert. UCL and the Institute of Education, University of London formed a strategic alliance in October 2012, including co-operation in teaching, research and the development of the London schools system.[55]TOSHIBA Portege R100 Laptop Keyboard


UCL is primarily based in the Bloomsbury area of central London. The main campus is located around Gower Street and includes the biology, chemistry, economics, engineering, geography, history, languages, mathematics, philosophy, politics and physics departments, the preclinical facilities of the UCL Medical School, the London Centre for Nanotechnology, the Slade School of Fine Art, the UCL Union, the main UCL Library, the UCL Science Library, the Bloomsbury Theatre and the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology. ACER NSK-H3S01 Laptop Keyboard Close by in Bloomsbury are the UCL Cancer Institute, the UCL Ear Institute, the UCL Eastman Dental Institute, the UCL Faculty of the Built Environment (The Bartlett), the UCL Faculty of Laws, the UCL Institute of Archaeology, the UCL Institute of Child Health, the UCL Institute of Neurology, the UCL School of Pharmacy, the UCL School of Slavonic and East European Studies and University College Hospital.[56]SONY AEGD1U00020 Laptop Keyboard SONY VAIO VGN-SZ220 Laptop Keyboard HP Pavilion dv6000 Laptop Keyboard A number of important institutions are based near to the main campus, including the British Library, the British Medical Association, the British Museum, Cancer Research UK, the Medical Research Council, RADA, the Royal Academy of Art, the Royal Institution and the Wellcome Trust. Many University of London schools and institutes are also close by, including Birkbeck, University of London, the Institute of Education, London Business School, the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, TOSHIBA Satellite A200-1Ai Laptop Keyboard the Royal Veterinary College, the School of Advanced Study, the School of Oriental and African Studies and the Senate House Library. The nearest London Underground station is Euston Square, with Goodge Street, Russell Square and Warren Street all nearby. The mainline railway stations at Euston, King's Cross and St Pancras are all within walking distance. SONY VAIO VGN-NR21Z/S Laptop Keyboard Elsewhere in central London are the UCL Institute of Ophthalmology (based in Clerkenwell), the Windeyer Institute (based in Fitzrovia), the UCL Institute of Orthopedics and Musculoskeletal Science (based in Stanmore), The Royal Free Hospital and the Whittington Hospital campuses of the UCL Medical School, and a number of other teaching hospitals. DELL Studio 1537 Laptop Keyboard The Department of Space and Climate Physics (Mullard Space Science Laboratory) is based in Holmbury St Mary, Surrey, the UCL School of Energy and Resources is based in Adelaide, Australia and there is a UCL campus in Doha, Qatar specialised in archaeology, conservation and museum studies.[57] Since September 2010 UCL has been running a University Preparatory Certificate course at Nazarbayev University in Astana, Kazakhstan.[58]SONY VAIO VGN-SZ220 Laptop Keyboard Notable UCL buildings include the UCL Main Building, including the Octagon, Quad, Cloisters and the Wilkins building designed by William Wilkins; the Cruciform Building, Gower Street (a red, cross-shaped building previously home to University College Hospital); and the Rockefeller Building, University Street, home to the original University College Hospital Medical School and named after the American oil magnate John Davison Rockefeller after support from the Rockefeller foundation in the 1920s.  SONY VAIO VGN-NW240F Laptop Keyboard Due to its position within London and the historical nature of its buildings, including most notably the UCL Main Building and quad, UCL has been used as a location for a number of film and television productions, including Doctor in the House (1954), Gladiator (2000), The Mummy Returns (2001), The Dark Knight(2008) and Inception (2010).[59]IBM Thinkpad T61P Laptop Keyboard Although UCL is a constituent college of the federal University of London, in most ways it is comparable with free-standing, self-governing and independently funded universities, and it awards its own degrees.[60] The current Provost and President of UCL is Professor Malcolm Grant.[61]Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Laptop Keyboard


In the financial year ended 31 July 2011, UCL had a total income (including share of joint ventures) of £801.6 million (2009/10 – £762.4 million) and total expenditure of £777.4 million (2009/10 – £732.4 million).[2] Key sources of income included £283.4 million from research grants and contracts (2009/10 – £275.1 million), TOSHIBA Satellite 1800-921 Laptop Keyboard £203.3 million from Funding Council grants (2009/10 – £201.0 million), £172.2 million from academic fees and support grants (2009/10 – £150.5 million) and £5.2 million from endowment and investment income (2009/10 – £5.0 million).[2] During the 2010/11 financial year UCL had a capital expenditure of £93 million (2009/10 – £37 million).[2] At year end UCL had endowments of £72.7 million (2009/10 – £67.9 million) and total net assets of £706.7 million (2009/10 – £640.3 million).[2]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard In 2010/11 UCL and the School of Pharmacy (which merged in January 2012) had a combined income of £826.52 million, the third-highest of any British university (after the University of Cambridge and the University of Oxford).[63] UCL launched a 10 year, £300 million fundraising appeal in October 2004, at the time the largest target ever set by a university in the United Kingdom for such an appeal.[64] HP G61-420SO Laptop Keyboard From its foundation the College was deliberately secular; the initial justification of this secularity was that students of different denominations (specifically Catholics and Protestants) could study alongside each other without conflict. Even today UCL retains its strict secular position, and unlike most other UK universities has no specific religious prayer rooms. However there has been a Christian chaplaincy since 2005, there is no restriction on religious groups among students, and a 'quiet contemplation room' allows prayer for staff and students of all faiths.  SONY VGN-FE41S Laptop Keyboard Whereas most universities primarily use their logo on mundane documents but their coat of arms on official documents such as degree certificates, UCL exclusively uses its logo.[65] The present logo was adopted as part of a rebranding exercise in August 2005.[41] Prior to that date, a different logo was used, in which the letters UCL were incorporated into a stylised representation of the collegeportico. Packard Bell Easynote TK85 Laptop Keyboard UCL did formerly make some use of a coat of arms, depicting a raised bent arm dressed in armour holding a green upturned open wreath.[66]A version of this badge (not on a shield) appears to have been used by UCL Union from shortly after its foundation in 1893.[67] Packard Bell Easynote TK87 Laptop Keyboard However, the arms are not known to have ever been the subject of an official grant of arms, and indeed depart from several of the rules and conventions of heraldry. They are no longer formally used by the College, although they are still occasionally seen in unofficial contexts, or used in modified form by sports teams and societies (such as University College London Conservative Society). TOSHIBA Satellite Pro A120 Series Laptop Keyboard The blazon of these arms is: Purpure, on a wreath of the colours Argent and Blue Celeste, an arm in armour embowed Argent holding an upturned wreath of laurel Vert, beneath which two branches of laurel Or crossed at the nombril and bound with a bowed cord Or, beneath the nombril a motto of Blue Celeste upon which Cuncti adsint meritaeque expectent praemia palmae.[68]HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard UCL's traditional sporting and academic colours of purple and light blue are derived from the arms. UCL has made cross-disciplinary research a priority and orientates its research around four "Grand Challenges".[71]According to Professor David Price, Pro-Provost for Research: "We believe we have a moral obligation to make a difference to global problems, and to combine the knowledge that our research generates to develop wisdom that can be applied in each of the four Grand Challenges: Global Health, Sustainable Cities, Intercultural Interaction and Human Wellbeing".[72]Packard Bell NEW95 Laptop Keyboard In 2010/11 UCL and the School of Pharmacy (which merged in January 2012) had a combined research income of £291.5 million (UCL – £283.38 million; School of Pharmacy – £8.13 million), the third-highest of any British university (after the University of Oxford and Imperial College London).[63] In the Times Higher Education ranking of research council awards 2008-9 UCL is shown to have won the most research awards with 174 awards amounting to £81,365,000. In second place Cambridge won 162 awards amounting to £74,263,000. There are currently approximately 3,000 PhD students working at UCL. DELL Inspiron N5030 Laptop Keyboard According to a ranking of universities produced by SCImago Research Group, UCL is ranked 12th in the world (and 1st in Europe) in terms of total research output.[73] According to data released in July 2008 by ISI Web of Knowledge, UCL is the 13th most-cited university in the world (and most-cited in Europe). The analysis covered citations from 1 January 1998 to 30 April 2008, during which 46, TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5168 Laptop Keyboard 166 UCL research papers attracted 803,566 citations. The report covered citations in 21 subject areas and the results revealed some of UCL's key strengths, including: Clinical Medicine (1st outside North America); Immunology (2nd in Europe); Neuroscience & Behaviour (1st outside North America and 2nd in the world); SONY VAIO VGN-N21M/W Laptop Keyboard Pharmacology & Toxicology (1st outside North America and 4th in the world); Psychiatry & Psychology (2nd outside North America); and Social Sciences, General (1st outside North America).[74] According to a separate analysis by ISI Web of Knowledge, for the period January 2000 to August 2010 UCL was ranked 16th in the world (and 2nd in Europe) for citations per paper in engineering.[75]SAMSUNG NP-N145-JP04 Laptop Keyboard In the Microsoft Academic Search, which measures total research output, UCL ranks highly in a diverse range of areas.[76] As of 2012 UCL ranks among the top five institutions in the world in Chromatography (5th), Geography (2nd), Linguistics (5th), Literature (2nd), Medical Education and Training (2nd), Neuroscience (2nd), Oncology (4th), HP G61-415SA Laptop Keyboard Ophthalmology (4th) and Pathology (5th).[76] It ranks among the top 10 in the world in Archaeology (6th), Art History (8th), Dentistry (9th), Evolutionary Sciences (10th), Gynecology and Obstetrics (10th), Machine Learning and Recognition (10th), Pharmacology (9th), Plastic Arts (6th), Regional Studies (10th), Religion (6th) and Simulation (10th).[76]HP 441426-001 Laptop Keyboard UCL ranks 11th to 20th in the world in Anatomy (15th), Biochemistry (15th), Biomedical Engineering (20th), Biotechnology (16th), Cardiology (20th), Diabetes (11th), Diseases (11th), Endocrinology (17th), Family Medicine (20th), Genetics and Genealogy (14th), History (14th), Hydrology (13th), Immunology (12th), SONY 148084122 Laptop Keyboard Labor and Demographics Economics (14th), Mineralogy and Petrology (15th), Molecular Biology (16th), Nutrition (12th), Physiology (12th), Psychiatry and Psychology (19th), Public Affairs (12th) and Statistics (16th).[76] UCL is ranked 10th overall in Arts and Humanities and 9th in Medicine.[76]IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R51 1833 Laptop Keyboard UCL has offered courses in medicine since 1834 but the current UCL Medical School developed from mergers with the medical schools of the Middlesex Hospital (founded in 1746) and the Royal Free Hospital (founded as the London School of Medicine for Women in 1874).[77] Clinical medicine is primarily taught at the Royal Free Hospital, University College Hospital and the Whittington Hospital, with other associated teaching hospitals including the Eastman Dental Hospital, Great Ormond Street Hospital, Moorfields Eye Hospital, the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery and the Royal National Throat, Nose and Ear Hospital. TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard UCL is a major centre for biomedical research. It is a member of three of the 11 biomedical research centres established by the NHS in England – the UCLH/UCL Comprehensive Biomedical Research Centre, the Moorfields Eye Hospital/UCL Institute of Ophthalmology Biomedical Research Centre and the Great Ormond Street Hospital/UCL Institute of Child Health Biomedical Research Centre.[78] HP 413554-001 Laptop Keyboard It is also a founding member of UCL Partners, the largest academic health science centre in Europe with a turnover of approximately £2 billion.[12] UCL has joined with the Medical Research Council, Cancer Research UK and the Wellcome Trust to establish the Francis Crick Institute, a new £600 million medical research centre to be based next to St Pancras railway station and planned to open in 2015.[79] It will be one of the world’s largest medical research centres, housing 1,250 scientists.[80]TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7226 Laptop Keyboard


Admission to UCL is highly selective. For undergraduate entry many of UCL's courses require three A grades at A Level, or a grade equivalent of 6,6,6 on higher level subjects on the International Baccalaureate Program. Due to a very high proportion of applicants receiving the highest school grades, UCL,[81] ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard along with institutions such as Imperial College London and the University of Cambridge[82] was one of the first universities in the UK to make use of the A* grade at A-Level (introduced in 2010) for admissions, particularly for very oversubscribed courses such as Economics, Mathematics,Theoretical Physics, Medicine, History, Psychology, and European Social and Political Studies. HP Pavilion DV3510nr Laptop Keyboard Undergraduate law applicants are required to take the National Admissions Test for Law[83] and undergraduate medical applicants are required to take theBioMedical Admissions Test.[84] Some UCL departments interview undergraduate applicants prior to making an offer of admission.[85]Compaq Presario CQ57-311 Laptop Keyboard The UCL library system comprises 16 libraries located across several sites within the main UCL campus and across Bloomsbury, linked together by a central networking catalogue and request system called eUCLid.[87][88] The libraries contain a total of over 1.5 million books.[89] The largest library is the UCL Main Library, which is located in the UCL Main Building and contains collections relating to the arts and humanities, economics, history, law and public policy.[87] FUJITSU CP275815-01 Laptop Keyboard The second largest library is the UCL Science Library, which is located in the DMS Watson Building on Malet Place and contains collections relating to anthropology, engineering, geography, life sciences, management and the mathematical and physical sciences.[87] Other libraries include the UCL Bartlett Library (architecture and town planning), the Cruciform Library (general clinical and medical sciences), the UCL Eastman Dental Institute Library (oral health sciences), HP Probook 4710S Laptop Keyboard the UCL Institute of Archaeology Library (archaeology and egyptology), the UCL Institute of Neurology Rockefeller Medical Library (neurosurgery and neuroscience), the Joint Moorfields Eye Hospital & the UCL Institute of Ophthalmology Library (biomedicine, medicine, nursing, ophthalmology and visual science), HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard the UCL Language & Speech Science Library (audiology, communication disorders, linguistics & phonetics, special education, speech & language therapy and voice) and the UCL School of Slavonic and East European Studies Library (the economics, geography, history, languages, literature and politics of Eastern Europe).[87]TOSHIBA PK130260100 Laptop Keyboard UCL staff and students have full access to the main libraries of the University of London—the Senate House Library and the libraries of the Institutes of the School of Advanced Study—which are located close to the main UCL campus in Bloomsbury.[90] These libraries contain over 3.7 million books and focus on the arts, humanities and social sciences.[89] The British Library, which contains around 14 million books, is also located close to the main UCL campus. SAMSUNG NP-Q320-FS01UK Laptop Keyboard Since 2004 UCL Library Services has been collecting the scholarly work of UCL researchers to make it freely available on the internet via an open access repository known as UCL Eprints.[91][92] The intention is that material curated by UCL Eprints will remain accessible indefinitely.[91]TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7332 Laptop Keyboard UCL's Special Collections contains UCL's collection of historical or culturally significant works. It is one of the foremost university collections ofmanuscripts, archives and rare books in the UK.[93] It includes collections of medieval manuscripts and early printed books, as well as significant holdings of 18th-century works, HP AEUT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard ACER 9J.N9482.11B Laptop Keyboard and highly important 19th- and 20th-century collections of personal papers, archival material, and literature, covering a vast range of subject areas. Archives include the Latin American archives, the Jewish collections and the George Orwell Archive.[94] Collections are often displayed in a series of glass cabinets in the Cloisters of the UCL Main Building.[95]FUJITSU Lifebook E8310 Laptop Keyboard The most significant works are housed in the Strong Rooms. The special collection includes first editions of Isaac Newton's Principia, Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species and James Joyce's Ulysses . The earliest book in the collection is The crafte to lyve well and to dye well, printed in 1505.[96]HP 640892-001 Laptop Keyboard UCL is consistently ranked as one of the world's leading universities. In the 2012 Academic Ranking of World Universities, UCL is ranked 21st in the world (and 3rd in Europe).[9] In the subject tables it is ranked 15th in the world (and 3rd in Europe) for Clinical Medicine & Pharmacy,[114] joint 101st-150th in the world (and joint 21st in Europe) for Engineering, HP 636191-001 Laptop Keyboard Technology and Computer Sciences,[115] 24th in the world (and 4th in Europe) for Life & Agricultural Sciences,[116] joint 51st to 75th in the world (and joint 11th in Europe) for Natural Sciences and Mathematics[117] and joint 48th in the world (and 5th in Europe) for Social Sciences.[118]SONY 147963021 Laptop Keyboard In the 2012 QS World University Rankings, UCL is ranked 4th in the world (and 2nd in Europe). In the subject tables it is ranked 16th in the world (and 3rd in Europe) for Arts and Humanities,[119] 44th in the world (and 12th in Europe) for Engineering & Technology,[120] 15th in the world (and 4th in Europe) for Life Sciences and Medicine,[121] 33rd in the world (and 10th in Europe) for Natural Sciences[122] and 23rd in the world (and 4th in Europe) for Social Sciences & Management.[123]SAMSUNG X20 Laptop Keyboard In the 2012-13 Times Higher Education World University Rankings, UCL is ranked 17th in the world (and 5th in Europe).[11] In the subject tables it is ranked 10th in the world (and 3rd in Europe) for Arts and Humanities,[124] 6th in the world (and 4th in Europe) for Clinical, Pre-Clinical and Health,[125] 35th in the world (and 9th in Europe) for Engineering and Technology,[126] ACER 9J.N9482.11B Laptop Keyboard 19th in the world (and 5th in Europe) for Life Sciences,[127] 39th in the world (and 12th in Europe) for Physical Sciences[128] and 11th in the world (and 3rd in Europe) for Social Sciences.[129] In the 2012 Times Higher Education World Reputation Rankings, UCL is ranked 21st in the world (and 4th in Europe).[130] HP Pavilion DV3000 Laptop Keyboard UCL is consistently one of the top multi-faculty universities in UK university rankings. UCL is ranked first in the UK for its staff/student ratio in The Times Good University GuideThe Sunday Times University Guide and The Guardian University Guide.[6] In the 2013 Guardian University Guide subject tables, UCL is ranked first in six subject areas (out of a total of 46): Archaeology and Forensics, Compaq Presario CQ57-218 Laptop Keyboard Architecture, Art and Design, Civil Engineering, English, and Psychology.[131] In the 2013 Complete University Guide subject tables, UCL is ranked in the top 10 in 28 subjects, and is ranked first for Building.[132] Packard Bell Easynote TK37 Laptop Keyboard UCL is ranked 20th in the world in the 2011 300 Best World Universities human competitiveness ranking produced by Human Resources & Labor Review.[133] In a ranking of universities' international reputations produced by The Guardian in 2009, UCL placed 3rd in the UK (behind Oxford and Cambridge).[134] In 2011, UCL was ranked 12th in the world (and 3rd in the Europe) in a survey of business leaders at top companies carried out by The New York Times.[135]HP 317443-001 Laptop Keyboard Founded in 1893, the UCL Union has a credible claim to be the oldest students' union in England.[29] UCL Union operates both as the representative voice for UCL students, and as a provider of a wide range of services. It is democratically controlled through General Meetings and referendums, and is run by elected student officers. The Union has provided a prominent platform for political campaigning of all kinds in recent years. It also supports a range of services, including numerous clubs and societies, sports facilities, an advice service, and a number of bars, cafes and shops.[136]COMPAQ Presario V3621AU Laptop Keyboard

Rivalry with King's College London

Main article: Student Rags UCL has a long-running, mostly friendly, rivalry with King's College London (King's), which has historically been known as "Rags".[141] UCL is often referred to by students from King's as the "Godless Scum of Gower Street", in reference to a comment made at the founding of King's, which was based on Christian principles. UCL students refer to King's as "Strand Polytechnic" in a similar attitude. SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Laptop Keyboard The King's' mascot, Reggie the Lion, went missing in the 1990s and was recovered after being found dumped in a field. It was restored at the cost of around £15,000 and then placed on display in the students' union.[142] It is in a glass case and filled with concrete to prevent theft, particularly by UCL students who once castrated it. In turn, King's' students are also believed to have once stolen Phineas, a UCL mascot.[143]SONY VAIO VGN-FZ21E Laptop Keyboard It is often claimed that King's' students played football with the embalmed head of Jeremy Bentham. Although the head was indeed stolen, the football story is a myth or legend which is unsupported by official UCL documentation about Bentham available next to his display case (his Auto Icon) in the UCL cloisters. The head is now kept in the UCL vaults.[144]HP 444635-B31 Laptop Keyboard UCL alumni include the "Father of the Nation" of both India and Kenya, the inventor of the telephone, one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA, and all of the members of the band Coldplay. Artists include Sir William Coldstream (realist painter), Wyndham Lewis (Vorticist painter), Antony Gormley (sculptor), Augustus John (painter, draughtsman and etcher), Gerry Judah (artist and designer), Ben Nicholson (abstract painter) and Sir Eduardo Paolozzi(sculptor and artist). SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP07 Laptop Keyboard Authors include Edith Clara Batho, Raymond Briggs, Robert Browning, G. K. Chesterton,[147] David Crystal, Stella Gibbons, Clive Sansom, Marie Stopes,[147] Helen MacInnes, Rabindranath Tagore and Demetrius Vikelas (who was also the first President of the International Olympic Committee). Business people include Lord Digby Jones (Director-General of the Confederation of British Industry (2001–2006)) and Edwin Waterhouse (a founding partner of what is now the professional services firm PwC). Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Engineers and scientists include Alexander Graham Bell (inventor of the telephone),[147] Colin Chapman (founder of Lotus Cars),Francis Crick (co-discoverer of the structure of DNA), John Ambrose Fleming (inventor of the vacuum tube), Jaroslav Heyrovský(father of the electroanalytical method), Sir Charles Kuen Kao (winner of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physics) and Joseph Lister(pioneer of antiseptic surgery). ACER Aspire 5710 Laptop Keyboard HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard Entertainers, musicians, composers and filmmakers include Ricky Gervais (comedian and actor),[147] Gustav Holst (composer), Chris Martin, Jonny Buckland, Guy Berryman and Will Champion (The Members of Coldplay), Christopher Nolan (director of films including The Dark Knight saga),[148] Franny Armstrong (director), Tim Rice-Oxley and Richard Hughes of the band Keane and Jonathan Ross(television presenter). Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Journalists and commentators include A. A. Gill (columnist), three former editors of The Economist, most notably Walter Bagehot, two editors of The Times Literary Supplement, and Jonathan Dimbleby (television and radio current affairs presenter). Former ITN Home Affairs Correspondent Sarah Cullen also attended UCL. FUJITSU Lifebook P1610 Laptop Keyboard Lawyers include a Lord Chancellor (Lord Herschell); Chief Justices of England (Lord Woolf), Hong Kong (Sir Yang Ti-liang), India (A. S. Anand), Malaysia (Arifin Zakaria), Ghana (Samuel Azu Crabbe) and the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (Rt. Hon. Sir Vincent Floissac); two Masters of the Rolls (Lord Cozens-Hardy and Sir George Jessel); and Attorneys-General of England (Lord Goldsmith andBaroness Scotland), Singapore (Tan Boon Teik and Chao Hick Tin) and Gambia (Hassan Bubacar Jallow). HP Envy 15-1050nr Laptop Keyboard Politicians include Mahatma Gandhi (leader of the Indian independence movement and "Father of the Nation"),[147] Jomo Kenyatta (first Prime Minister, first President and "Father of the Nation" of Kenya), Chaim Herzog (President of Israel), Itō Hirobumi (first Prime Minister of Japan),Junichiro Koizumi (Prime Minister of Japan), Wu Tingfang (Acting Premier during the early years of the Republic of China). Sir Stafford Cripps (British Chancellor of the Exchequer 1947–1950). At least 8 serving MPs graduated from UCL, including current Secretary of State for Wales David Jones.  FUJITSU Lifebook P1620 Laptop Keyboard Sports people include David Gower (former captain of the England cricket team), Patrick Head (co-founder of the Williams Formula One team) and Christine Ohuruogu (Olympic 400 metres gold medalist). Compaq 6720s Laptop Keyboard Notable former UCL faculty and staff include Jocelyn Bell Burnell (co-discoverer of radio pulsars), A. S. Byatt (writer), Ronald Dworkin (philosopher of law and scholar of constitutional law), Sir A.J. Ayer (philosopher), Lucian Freud (painter), Francis Galton (founder of psychometricsand father of fingerprinting), Peter Higgs[149] (the proposer of the Higgs mechanism, which predicted the existence of the Higgs boson), Andrew Huxley(physiologist and biophysicist), Sir Frank Kermode (literary critic), Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk (first President of Czechoslovakia and "Father of the Nation"),John Stuart Mill (philosopher) and George R. Price (population geneticist).  HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Laptop Keyboard All five of the naturally occurring noble gases were discovered at UCL by Sir William Ramsay, who was a professor of chemistry and after whom Ramsay Hall is named.[150]HP 640208-001 Laptop Keyboard Itō was born as the son of Hayashi Jūzō. He was originally named Hayashi Risuke. His father Hayashi Jūzō was the adopted son of Mizui Buhei who was an adopted son of Itō Yaemon's family, a lower class samurai from Hagi, Chōshū domain (present-dayYamaguchi prefecture). Mizui Buhei was renamed to Itō Naoemon. Mizui Jūzō took the name Itō Jūzō, and Hayashi Risuke was renamed to Itō Shunsuke at first, FUJITSU Lifebook P1510 Laptop Keyboard then Itō Hirobumi. He was a student of Yoshida Shōin at the Shōka Sonjuku and later joined the Sonnō jōi movement ("to revere the Emperor and expel the barbarians"), together with Kido Takayoshi. Itō was chosen to be one of the Chōshū Five who studied atUniversity College London in 1863, and the experience in Great Britain convinced him of the necessity of Japan adopting Western ways. SONY VGN-FE550G Laptop Keyboard In 1864, Itō returned to Japan with fellow student Inoue Kaoru to attempt to warn the Chōshū clan against going to war with the foreign powers (the Bombardment of Shimonoseki) over the right of passage through the Straits of Shimonoseki. At that time, He met Ernest Satow for the first time, later a lifelong friend.  HP G62-b18EO Laptop Keyboard

Political career

After the Meiji Restoration, Itō was appointed governor of Hyōgo Prefecture, junior councilor for Foreign Affairs, and sent to the United States in 1870 to study Western currency systems. Returning to Japan in 1871, he established Japan's taxation system. Later that year, he was sent on the Iwakura Mission around the world as vice-envoy extraordinary, during which he won the confidence of Ōkubo Toshimichi, one of the three great nobles who led the Meiji Restoration. HP 633183-001 Laptop Keyboard In 1873, Itō was made a full councilor, Minister of Public Works, and in 1875 chairman of the first Assembly of Prefectural Governors. He participated in theOsaka Conference of 1875. After Ōkubo's assassination, he took over the post of Home Minister and secured a central position in the Meiji government. In 1881 he urgedŌkuma Shigenobu to resign, leaving himself in unchallenged control. TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-S5095 Laptop Keyboard Itō went to Europe in 1882 to study the constitutions of those countries, spending nearly 18 months away from Japan. While working on a constitution for Japan, he also wrote the first Imperial Household Law and established the Japanese peeragesystem (kazoku) in 1884.  HP G42-164LA Laptop Keyboard Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard In 1885, he negotiated the Convention of Tientsin with Li Hongzhang, normalizing Japan's diplomatic relations with Qing Dynasty China. In 1885, based on European ideas, Itō established a cabinet system of government, replacing the Daijō-kan as the decision-making state organization, and on December 22, 1885, he became the first prime minister of Japan. HP 640892-001 Laptop Keyboard On April 30, 1888, Itō resigned as prime minister, but headed the new Privy Council to maintain power behind-the-scenes. In 1889, he also became the firstgenro. The Meiji Constitution was promulgated in February 1889. He had added to it the references to the kokutai or "national polity" as the justification of the emperor's authority through his divine descent and the unbroken line of emperors, and the unique relationship between subject and sovereign.[3] This stemmed from his rejection of some European notions as unfit for Japan, as they stemmed from European constitutional practice and Christianity.[3]SONY VAIO VGN-NR32M/S Laptop Keyboard He remained a powerful force while Kuroda Kiyotaka and Yamagata Aritomo, his political nemeses, were prime ministers. During Itō's second term as prime minister (August 8, 1892 – August 31, 1896), he supported the First Sino-Japanese War and negotiated the Treaty of Shimonoseki in March 1895 with his ailing foreign minister Mutsu Munemitsu. In the Anglo-Japanese Treaty of Commerce and Navigation of 1894, he succeeded in removing some of the onerous unequal treaty clauses that had plagued Japanese foreign relations since the start of the Meiji period. SONY VAIO VGN-N31M/W Laptop Keyboard During Itō's third term as prime minister (January 12 – June 30, 1898), he encountered problems with party politics. Both the Jiyūtō and the Shimpotō opposed his proposed new land taxes, and in retaliation, Itō dissolved the Diet and called for new elections. As a result, both parties merged into the Kenseitō, won a majority of the seats, and forced Itō to resign. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard This lesson taught Itō the need for a pro-government political party, so he organized the Rikken Seiyūkai in 1900. Itō's womanizing was a popular theme in editorial cartoons and in parodies by contemporary comedians, and was used by his political enemies in their campaign against him. Packard Bell Easynote TK87 Laptop Keyboard Itō returned to office as prime minister for a fourth term from October 19, 1900, to May 10, 1901, this time facing political opposition from the House of Peers. Weary of political back-stabbing, he resigned in 1901, but remained as head of the Privy Council as the premiership alternated between Saionji Kimmochi and Katsura Tarō. SONY Vaio PCG-K86P Laptop Keyboard Toward the end of August 1901, Itō announced his intention of visiting the United States to recuperate. This turned into a long journey in the course of which he visited the major cities of the United States and Europe, setting off from Yokohama on September 18, traveling through the U.S. to New York City, from which he sailed to Boulogne, reaching Paris on November 4. SONY VAIO VGN-AW170YIQ Laptop Keyboard (Itō received an honorary doctorate from Yale University around this time.) On November 25 he reached Saint Petersburg, having been asked by the new prime minister, Katsura Tarō, to sound out the Russians, entirely unofficially, on their intentions in the Far East. Japan hoped to achieve what it called Man-Kan kōkan, ASUS A6M Laptop Keyboard the exchange of a free hand for Russia in Manchuria for a free hand for Japan in Korea, but Russia, feeling greatly superior to Japan and unwilling to give up its ability to use Korean ports for its navy, was in no mood to compromise; its foreign minister, Vladimir Lamsdorf, "thought that time was on the side of his country because of the (Trans-Siberian) railway and there was no need to make concessions to the Japanese."[4] Itō left empty-handed for Berlin (where he received honors from Kaiser Wilhelm), Brussels, and London. HP Pavilion dv6-2020sa Laptop Keyboard Meanwhile, Katsura had decided that Man-Kan kōkan was no longer desirable for Japan, which should not renounce activity in Manchuria. When Itō reached London, he had talks with Lord Lansdowne which helped lay the groundwork for the Anglo-Japanese Alliance announced early the following year. The failure of his mission to Russia was "one of the most important events in the run-up to the Russo-Japanese War."[5]TOSHIBA Satellite L555-S7929 Laptop Keyboard It was during his terms as Prime Minister that he invited Professor George Trumbull Ladd of Yale University to serve as a diplomatic adviser to promote mutual understanding between Japan and the United States. It was because of his series of lectures he delivered in Japan revolutionizing its educational methods, that he was the first foreigner to receive the Second Class honor (conferred by the Meiji Emperor in 1907) TOSHIBA Satellite L770D Series Laptop Keyboard and the Third Class honor (conferred by The Meiji Emperor in 1899), Orders of the Rising Sun. He later wrote a book on his personal experiences in Korea and with Resident-General Itō.[6][7][8] Following his assassination, half of Hirobumi's ashes were buried in a Tokyo Temple and a monument was erected to him.[7][9]HP Pavilion DV6-1190ev Laptop Keyboard In November 1905, following the Russo-Japanese War, Japan–Korea Treaty of 1905 was made between the Empire of Japan and the Empire of Korea,[10][11] making Korea a Japanese protectorate. After the treaty had been signed, Itō became the firstResident-General of Korea on 21 December 1905. In 1907, SONY VAIO VGN-N31M/W Laptop Keyboard he urged Emperor Gojong to abdicate in favor of his son Sunjong and secured the Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty of 1907, giving Japan its authorities to control Korea's internal affairs. Itō's position, however, was nuanced. He was firmly against Korea falling into China or Russia's sphere of influence, which would cause a grave threat to Japan's national security. But, he was actually against the annexation, TOSHIBA Satellite Pro A120 Series Laptop Keyboard advocating instead that Korea should remain as a protectorate. When the cabinet eventually voted for annexing Korea, he insisted and proposed a delay, hoping that the annexation decision could be reversed in the future.[12] His political nemesis came when politically influential Imperial Japanese Army, led by Yamagata Aritomo, whose main faction was advocating annexation forced Itō to resign on 14 June 1909. His assassination is believed to have accelerated the path to the Ja

pan-Korea Annexation Treaty.[13]SONY VAIO VGN-FS515E Laptop Keyboard Itō proclaimed[when?] that if East Asians do not closely cooperate with each other, all three would fall to the victims of Western imperialism. Gojong and the Joseon government believing in these claims, agreed to help the Japanese military.[14]However, the opinion of Joseon soon turned against Japan as many Japanese actions were considered to be too brutal and barbaric including confiscation of lands and drafting civilians for forced labor, even executing those that resisted.[14]Ironically, his assassin, TOSHIBA Satellite Pro A120 Series Laptop Keyboard An Jung-geun, strongly believed in a union of the three East Asian nations in order to counter and fight off the "White Peril", being the European countries engaged in colonialism, restoring peace in the region. With his political and diplomatic skills backed by Japanese military's strong presence, Itō laid the foundation for Japan's colonization of Korea and expansion into Manchuria, China and Russia during the World War II .  SONY VAIO VGN-NR21S/S Laptop Keyboard Annals of Joseon Dynasty should be noted that Annals of Gojong and of Sujong are regarded as unreliable by the National Institute of Korean History, given that these two Annals or sillocks are not designated as National Treasures of South Korea and UNESCO's World Heritage unlike other silloks due to Japanese influence exerted on them. They consider these last two documents are regarded as a falsification of history.[17]Packard Bell Easynote TK85 Laptop Keyboard The 1979 North Korean film, An Jung-gun Shoots Ito Hirobumi, is an account of Hirobumi's assassination from the North Korean perspective. The 1973 South Korean film Femme Fatale: Bae Jeong-ja is the life of Itō's adopted daughter Bae Jeong-ja (1870–1950). HP Pavilion dv6-2010sa Laptop Keyboard Junichiro Koizumi (小泉 純一郎 Koizumi Jun'ichirō?, born 8 January 1942) is a Japanese politician who served as Prime Minister of Japan from 2001 to 2006. He retired from politics when his term in parliament ended in 2009.[1] ACER Aspire 5336 Laptop Keyboard Widely seen as a maverick leader of the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), he became known as an economic reformer, focusing on Japan's government debt and the privatization of its postal service. In 2005, Koizumi led the LDP to win one of the largest parliamentary majorities in modern Japanese history. Koizumi also attracted international attention through his deployment of the Japan Self-Defense Forces to Iraq. His visits to Yasukuni Shrine led to diplomatic tensions with neighboring China and South Korea. SONY Vaio PCG-K86P Laptop Keyboard Since 1972, Koizumi is the only Prime Minister to have served more than five years in office. None of his successors have been able to keep the office for more than fifteen months. Koizumi is a third-generation politician. His father, Junya Koizumi, was director general of the Japan Defense Agency and a member of the Diet. His grandfather, Koizumi Matajirō, was Minister of Posts and Telecommunications under Prime Ministers Hamaguchi and Wakatsuki and an early advocate of postal privatization. See Koizumi family. SONY VGN-FE550G Laptop Keyboard Born in Yokosuka, Kanagawa prefecture on 8 January 1942, Koizumi was educated at Yokosuka High School and Keio University, where he studied economics. He attended University College London before returning to Japan in August 1969 upon the death of his father. TOSHIBA Satellite l20-101 Laptop Keyboard He stood for election to the lower house in December; however, he did not earn enough votes to win election as a Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) representative. In 1970, he was hired as a secretary to Takeo Fukuda, who was Minister of Finance at the time and was elected as Prime Minister in 1976. HP 550 Laptop Keyboard In the general elections of December 1972, Koizumi was elected as a member of the Lower House for the Kanagawa 11th district. He joined Fukuda's faction within the LDP. Since then, he has been re-elected ten times. Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard

Member of House of Representatives

Koizumi gained his first senior post in 1979 as Parliamentary Vice Minister of Finance, and his first ministerial post in 1988 as Minister of Health and Welfare under Prime Minister Noboru Takeshita. He held cabinet posts again in 1992 (Minister of Posts and Telecommunications in the Miyazawa cabinet) and 1996–1998 (Minister of Health and Welfare in the Uno andHashimoto cabinets). Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard In 1994, with the LDP in opposition, Koizumi became part of a new LDP faction, Shinseiki, made up of younger and more motivated parliamentarians led by Taku Yamasaki, Koichi Kato and Koizumi, a group popularly dubbed "YKK" (after the YKK Group well known for manufacturing zippers). He competed for the presidency of the LDP in September 1995 and July 1998, SAMSUNG Q320 Laptop Keyboard but he gained little support losing decisively to Ryutaro Hashimoto and then Keizō Obuchi, both of whom had broader bases of support within the party. However, after Yamasaki and Kato were humiliated in a disastrous attempt to force a vote of no confidence against Prime Minister Yoshirō Mori in 2000, Koizumi became the last remaining credible member of the YKK trio, which gave him leverage over the reform-minded wing of the party. HP G62-b12SA Laptop Keyboard On 24 April 2001, Koizumi was elected president of the LDP. He was initially considered an outside candidate against Hashimoto, who was running for his second term as Prime Minister. However, in the first poll of prefectural party organizations, Koizumi won 87 to 11 percent; in the second vote of Diet members, Koizumi won 51 to 40 percent. He defeated Hashimoto by a final tally of 298 to 155 votes.[2] He was made Prime Minister of Japan on 26 April, and his coalition secured 78 of 121 seats in the Upper House elections in July.  Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard Within Japan, Koizumi pushed for new ways to revitalise the moribund economy, aiming to act against bad debts with commercial banks, privatize the postal savings system, and reorganize the factional structure of the LDP. He spoke of the need for a period of painful restructuring in order to improve the future. HP Pavilion dv4-1120us Laptop Keyboard In the fall of 2002, Koizumi appointed Keio University economist and frequent television commentator Heizō Takenaka as Minister of State for Financial Services and head of the Financial Services Agency (FSA) to fix the country's banking crisis. Bad debts of banks were dramatically cut with the NPL ratio of major banks approaching half the level of 2001. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard The Japanese economy has been through a slow but steady recovery, and the stock market has dramatically rebounded. The GDPgrowth for 2004 was one of the highest among G7 nations, according to the International Monetary Fund and Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development.[citation needed] Takenaka was appointed as a Postal Reform Minister in 2004 for the privatization of Japan Post, operator of the country's Postal Savings system. ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard Koizumi moved the LDP away from its traditional rural agrarian base toward a more urban, neoliberal core, as Japan's population grew in major cities and declined in less populated areas, although under current purely geographical districting, rural votes in Japan are still many times more powerful than urban ones. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard In addition to the privatization of Japan Post (which many rural residents fear will reduce their access to basic services such as banking), Koizumi also slowed down the LDP's heavy subsidies for infrastructure and industrial development in rural areas. These tensions made Koizumi a controversial but popular figure within his own party and among the Japanese electorate. DELL XPS M1530 Laptop Keyboard Although Koizumi's foreign policy was focused on closer relations with the United States and UN-centered diplomacy, which were adopted by all of his predecessors, he went further to pursue supporting the US policies in the War on Terrorism. He decided to deploy the Japan Self-Defense Forces to Iraq, which was the first military mission in active foreign war zones since the end of the World War II.  HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard Many Japanese commentators indicated that the favorable US-Japan relation was based on the Koizumi's personal friendship with the US President George W. Bush. In the North Korean abductions and nuclear development issues, he took more assertive attitudes than his predecessors.[3]  TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7226 Laptop Keyboard Although Koizumi did not initially campaign on the issue of defense reform,[2] he approved the expansion of the Japan Self-Defense Forces (JSDF) and in October 2001 they were given greater scope to operate outside of the country. Some of these troops were dispatched to Iraq. Koizumi's government also introduced a bill to upgrade the Japan Defense Agency to ministry status; finally, the Defense Agency became the Japanese Ministry of Defense on 9 January 2007.[4]TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard Koizumi has often been noted for his controversial visits to the Yasukuni Shrine, starting on 13 August 2001. He visited the shrine six times as prime minister. Because the shrine honors many convicted Japanese war criminals, including 14 executed Class A war criminals, these visits drew strong condemnation and protests from both Japan's neighbours, mainly China andSouth Korea, SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard and many Japanese citizens. China and South Korea's people hold bitter memories of Japanese invasion and occupation during the first half of the 20th century. China and South Korea refused to have their representatives meet Koizumi in Japan and their countries. There were no mutual visits between Chinese and Japanese leaders from October 2001, and between South Korean and Japanese leaders from June 2005. The standstill ended when the next prime minister Abe visited China and South Korea in October 2006. SONY VGN-FE11H Laptop Keyboard In China, the visits led to massive anti-Japanese riots. The president, ruling and opposition parties, and much of the media of South Korea openly condemned Koizumi's pilgrimages.[5] Many Koreans applauded the president's speeches criticizing Japan, despite the South Korean President's low popularity. When asked about the reaction, Koizumi said the speeches were "for the domestic (audience)". ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard Although Koizumi signed the shrine's visitor book as "Junichiro Koizumi, the Prime Minister of Japan", he claimed that his visits were as a private citizen and not an endorsement of any political stance.[6] China and Korea found the claims weak as excuses. Several journals and news reports in Japan, such as one published by Kyodo News Agency on 15 August 2006, GATEWAY M-6750 Laptop Keyboard questioned Koizumi's statement of private purpose, as he recorded his position on the shrine's guestbook as prime minister. He visited the shrine annually in fulfillment of a campaign pledge. Koizumi's last visit as prime minister was on 15 August 2006, fulfilling a campaign pledge to visit on the anniversary of Japan's surrender in World War II.[7]TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard Eleven months after his resignation as prime minister, Koizumi revisited the shrine on 15 August 2007, to mark the 62nd anniversary of Japan's surrender inWorld War II. His 2007 visit attracted less attention from the media than his prior visits while he was in office.[8][9]TOSHIBA P205-S7469 Laptop Keyboard Koizumi was at certain points in his tenure an extremely popular leader. Most people know him very well due to his trademark wavy grey hair. His outspoken nature and colourful past contributed to that; his nicknames included "Lionheart", due to his hair style and fierce spirit, and "Maverick".[2] During his tenure in office, the Japanese public referred to him as Jun-chan(the suffix "chan" in the Japanese language is used as a term of familiarity, typically between children, "Jun" is a contraction of Junichiro). In June 2001, he enjoyed an approval rating of 85 percent.[11]SONY VAIO VPCF12AFM Laptop Keyboard In January 2002, Koizumi sacked his popular Foreign Minister Makiko Tanaka, replacing her with Yoriko Kawaguchi. Following an economic slump and a series of LDP scandals that claimed the career of YKK member Koichi Kato, by April Koizumi's popularity rating had fallen 40 percentage points since his nomination as prime minister.[12]HP Pavilion DV6z artist edition 2 Laptop Keyboard Koizumi was re-elected in 2003 and his popularity surged as the economy recovered. His proposal to cut pension benefits as a move to fiscal reform turned out to be highly unpopular. Two visits to North Korea to solve the issue of abducted Japanese nationals only somewhat raised his popularity, as he could not secure several abductee's returns to Japan. In the House of Councilors elections in 2004, the LDP performed only marginally better than the opposition Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ). HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard In 2005, the House of Councilors rejected the contentious postal privatization bills. Koizumi previously made it clear that he would dissolve the lower house if the bill failed to pass. The Democratic Party, while expressing support for the privatization, made a tactical vote against the bill. Fifty-one LDP members also either voted against the bills or abstained. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard On 8 August 2005, Koizumi, as promised, dissolved the House of Representatives and called for snap elections. He expelled rebel LDP members for not supporting the bill. The LDP's chances for success were initially uncertain; the secretary general of New Komeito (a junior coalition partner with Koizumi's Liberal Democratic Party) said that his party would entertain forming a coalition government with the Democratic Party of Japan if the DPJ took a majority in the House of Representatives.[13]HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Laptop Keyboard Koizumi's popularity rose almost twenty points after he dissolved the House and expelled rebel LDP members. Opinion polls ranked the government's approval ratings between 51 and 59 percent. The electorate saw the election in terms of a vote for or against the reform (privatisation), which the Democratic Party and rebel LDP members were seen as being against. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard The September 2005 elections were the LDP's largest victory since 1986, giving the party a large majority in the House of Representatives and nullifying opposing voices in the House of Councilors. In the following Diet session, the last to be held under Koizumi's government, the LDP passed 82 of its 91 proposed bills, including postal privatization.[4]HP 576835-001 Laptop Keyboard HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard  HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard

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