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University of Basel Founded in 1460, it is Switzerland's oldest university. Erasmus, Paracelsus, Daniel Bernoulli, Jacob Burckhardt, Leonhard Euler, Friedrich Nietzsche, Eugen Huber, Carl Jung,Karl Barth, Hermann Peter,[3] and Hans Urs von Balthasar are among those associated with the university. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7332 Laptop Keyboard The University of Basel was founded in connection with the Council of Basel. The deed of foundation given in the form of a Papal bull by Pope Pius II on November 12, 1459, and the official opening ceremony was held on April 4, 1460. Originally the University of Basel was decreed to have four faculties - arts, medicine, theology and jurisprudence.  HP COMPAQ NX6120 Laptop Keyboard The faculty of arts served until 1818 as foundation for the other three academic subjects. In the eighteenth century as Basel became more commercial, the university, one of the centers of learning in the Renaissance, slipped into insignificance. Enrollment which had been over a thousand around 1600, dropped to sixty in 1785 with eighteen professors. The professors themselves were mostly sons of the elite.[4]TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard Over the course of centuries as many scholars came to the city, Basel became an early center of book printing and humanism. Around the same time as the university itself, the University Library of Basel was founded. Today it has over three million books and writings and is the largest library in Switzerland. HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard In 1830 the Canton of Basel split in two with the Federal Diet requiring that the canton's assets, including the books at the University library, be divided—two thirds going to the new half canton of Basel-Landschaft. The city, Basel-Stadt, had to buy back this share and the university became so impoverished that it drastically reduced its course offerings. Students were expected to continue their education after two years or so at a German university. In 1835 the enrollment at the university was forty students, mostly from the area.[4]TOSHIBA NB200-10J Laptop Keyboard The Biozentrum is a Department of the university.[18] It is a research institute, covering the research areas of biochemistry, biophysical chemistry, microbiology, structural biology, and cell biology of the faculty of natural sciences, as well as the areas of pharmacology and neurobiology of the medical faculty. In 2001, the new fields of bioinformatics, genomics & proteomics, ACER Aspire 5741 Laptop Keyboard and a nanosciences branch were been introduced. A second building has been constructed next to the Biozentrum which was inaugurated in fall 2000, the “Pharmazentrum”. It hosts some Biozentrum research groups, including the bioinformatics unit and Applied Microbiology as well as the Zoological Institute of the Basel University. TOSHIBA NB200-10J Laptop Keyboard The special aspect of the Biozentrum is that the studies in biology at the university are passed "live" in a research institute. The advantage is that from the beginning on, the students are involved in an authentic research environment. From their first day on, they experience the every day life of a research scientist. They gain theoretical knowledge, but at the same time learn how to set up experimental methods, and gather practical experience through active research work. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard The biological research studies are split up into three steps:About 430 people are employed at the Biozentrum. More than half of them stay between one and five years only, for different reasons: about 120 are postdocs, independent scientists, grant holders and assistant professors (1 – 5 years), about 80 are PhD students (3 – 4 years) and 50 are diploma students (undergraduate students in their 4th year of studies). More than 80 persons occupy technical positions or work in the administration, about 70 are laboratory technicians, and about 30 tenured professors work in groups with up to 20 members. The institute has about 40 new students every year.  HP Mini 210-2038tu Laptop Keyboard Abderhalden is known for a blood test for pregnancy, a test for cystine in urine, and for explaining the Abderhalden–Kaufmann–Lignac syndrome, a recessive genetic condition. He did extensive work in the analysis of proteins, polypeptides, and enzymes. His Abwehrfermente ("defensive enzymes") theory stated that immunological challenge will induce production of proteases. This was seemingly "proven" by many collaborators in Europe, although attempts to verify the theory abroad failed. HP Mini 110-3007tu Laptop Keyboard The pregnancy test was determined to be unreliable a few years after its inception.[4] In late 1912 Abderhalden's "defensive ferments reaction test" was applied to the differential diagnosis of dementia praecox from other mental diseases and from normals by Stuttgart psychiatrist August Fauser (1856–1938), and his miraculous claims of success were soon replicated by researchers in Germany and particularly in the United States. However, despite the worldwide publicity this "blood test for madness" generated, ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard within a few years the "Abderhalden–Fauser reaction" was discredited and only a handful of American psychiatric researchers continued to believe in it.[5] Certainly by 1920 the test was all but forgotten in the USA. Abderhalden's reputation continued to grow in Germany, however, where collaborators managed to "replicate" his results, SONY VAIO VGN-CR520E Laptop Keyboard usually by simply repeating experiments until they succeeded and discarding the negative results. As Abderhalden was seen as the founder of scientific biochemistry in Germany, questioning his work could harm one's career, as Leonor Michaelis discovered in the mid-1910s; by 1922, Michaelis' reputation was so tarnished that he had to leave the country to embark on an outstanding career of scientific success abroad.Otto Westphal later called Abderhalden's Abwehrfermente work "a fraud from beginning to end".Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Abderhalden's work was strongly ideologically slanted: his theory was put to use for human experiments by Otmar von Verschuer and Josef Mengele to develop a blood test for separating "Aryan" from "non-Aryan" individuals. While Abderhalden himself did not take part in this work, evidence suggests that he was instrumental in ideologically streamlining the German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina by having the Jewish members purged[6] and replaced by Nazisycophants.[citation needed]HP 508112-001 Laptop Keyboard "In another research project of the KWI-A Berlin Mengele worked officially in his role as camp doctor at Auschwitz. Biochemist Emil Abderhalden had turned in 1940 to Verschuer, because he needed the blood of twins to check the "Abderhalden reaction named after him" on identical twins. Abderhalden asserted here, that certain reactions of the immune system are stimulated by the production of each specific proteases. Due to the detection of such enzymes in the blood - Abderhalden called it "Defensive enzymes" -HP Mini 1001TU Laptop Keyboard the detection of diseases such as mental illness or cancer through blood tests should be possible. Abderhalden also believed that racial characteristics were included in the proteins of the tissue and blood. These suggestions were taken up by Verschuer and developed into a research project on the inheritance of "specific white type bodies", from which he obviously hoped to, to be able to develop a blood test for the determination of human race. In an interim report of the KWI-A at the German Research Foundation, SONY VAIO PCG-F23 Laptop Keyboard hich funded the project, Verschuer explained that his assistant was posted as a camp doctor in AUSCHWITZ, Dr Mengele, who was entered as an employee in this branch. "With the permission of the Reichsführer-SS be conducted anthropological studies of the various racial groups in this concentration camp and sent the blood samples to my laboratory for processing." HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard Also, the biochemist Günther Hillmann was included in the project, was established as a specialist for protein research by the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biochemistry under Adolf Butenandt. Verschuer spoke in this context of 200 studied blood samples from family members of different "races" which substrates are made of." (trans. from German)[7]SAMSUNG NP-N145-JP04 Laptop Keyboard Despite of his theories being rejected as early as the mid-1910s, Abderhalden still loomed large as a kind of "father figure" in parts of the German scientific community and only by Deichmann and Müller-Hill's scathing 1998 review,[6] the entire extent of the rejection was revealed. However, in Abderhalden's days, the science of immunology was all but non-existent. SONY VAIO VGN-FS415E Laptop Keyboard That his experiments indeed seemed to "work" on occasion was probably due to immunoprecipitation. The crucial difference between this and Abderhalden's theory is that the former is an effect of antibodies, whereas the fictitious Abwehrfermente were presumed to beproteases; a difference that has large implications for biochemistry and immunology. SAMSUNG NP-N145-JP03 Laptop Keyboard Oberuzwil has a population (as of 31 December 2011) of 5,922.[1] As of 2007, about 14.7% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. Of the foreign population, (as of 2000), 85 are from Germany, 92 are from Italy, 401 are from ex-Yugoslavia, 36 are from Austria, 42 are from Turkey, and 78 are from another country.[6] Over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 6.2%. SAMSUNG NP-N145-JP04 Laptop Keyboard Most of the population (as of 2000) speaks German (91.4%), with Serbo-Croatian being second most common ( 2.6%) and Albanian being third ( 1.9%).[4] Of the Swiss national languages (as of 2000), 5,048 speak German, 19 people speak French, 65 people speak Italian, and 8 people speak Romansh.[7]SONY 147963021 Laptop Keyboard The age distribution, as of 2000, in Oberuzwil is; 730 children or 13.2% of the population are between 0 and 9 years old and 823 teenagers or 14.9% are between 10 and 19. Of the adult population, 569 people or 10.3% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 866 people or 15.7% are between 30 and 39, 812 people or 14.7% are between 40 and 49, and 671 people or 12.2% are between 50 and 59. The senior population distribution is 470 people or 8.5% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old, 357 people or 6.5% are between 70 and 79, there are 198 people or 3.6% who are between 80 and 89,and there are 25 people or 0.5% who are between 90 and 99.[7]HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard In 2000 there were 568 persons (or 10.3% of the population) who were living alone in a private dwelling. There were 1,213 (or 22.0%) persons who were part of a couple (married or otherwise committed) without children, and 3,251 (or 58.9%) who were part of a couple with children. There were 244 (or 4.4%) people who lived in single parent home, while there are 40 persons who were adult children living with one or both parents, 30 persons who lived in a household made up of relatives, 37 who lived in a household made up of unrelated persons, and 138 who are either institutionalized or live in another type of collective housing.[7]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SVP which received 34% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the CVP (23.1%), theFDP (16.4%) and the SP (12.1%).[4]Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard In Oberuzwil about 74.3% of the population (between age 25-64) have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education (either university or a Fachhochschule).[4] Out of the total population in Oberuzwil, as of 2000, the highest education level completed by 1,093 people (19.8% of the population) was Primary, while 2,033 (36.8%) have completed their secondary education, 644 (11.7%) have attended a Tertiary school, and 220 (4.0%) are not in school. The remainder did not answer this question.[7]TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7305 Laptop Keyboard College and university rankings are lists of institutions in higher education, ordered by combinations of factors. In addition to entire institutions, specific programs, departments, and schools are ranked. Rankings are conducted by magazines, newspapers, governments and academics. HP G42-164LA Laptop Keyboard Various rankings consider measures of research excellence and/or influence, student choices, eventual success and/or demographics, on surveys, and others. Some rankings evaluate institutions within a single country, while others assess institutions worldwide. The subject has produced much debate about rankings' usefulness and accuracy. The expanding diversity in rating methodologies and accompanying criticisms of each indicate the lack of consensus in the field. HP G42-283LA Laptop Keyboard Rankings are often consulted by prospective students in the university and college admissions process. The Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) compiled by the Shanghai Jiao Tong University and now maintained by the Shanghai Ranking Consultancy, has provided annual global rankings of universities since 2003, making it the earliest of its kind. The ranking is funded by the Chinese government and its initial purpose was to measure the gap between Chinese and "world class" universities. ARWU rankings have been cited by The Economist magazine.[1] HP G42-364LA Laptop Keyboard It has been lauded for being "consistent and transparent" based on an article.[2] The education ministers of France, Norway and Denmark traveled to China to discuss and find ways to improve their rankings.[3] ARWU does not rely on surveys and school submissions. Among other criteria, ARWU includes the number of articles published by Natureor Science and the number of Nobel Prize winners and Fields Medalists (mathematics).[4] HP G42-359TU Laptop Keyboard One of the primary criticisms of ARWU's methodology is that it is biased towards the natural sciences and English language science journals over other subjects.[4] Moreover, the ARWU is known for "relying solely on research indicators", and "the ranking is heavily weighted toward institutions whose faculty or alumni have won Nobel Prizes": it does not measure "the quality of teaching or the quality of humanities."[5]FUJITSU CP270342-02 Laptop Keyboard TOSHIBA NB200 Laptop Keyboard From 2004 to 2009 Times Higher Education (THE), a British publication, published the annual Times Higher Education–QS World University Rankings in association with Quacquarelli Symonds (QS). THE published a table of the top 200 universities and QS ranked approximately 500 online, in book form, and via media partners.[6] On 30 October 2009, THE broke with QS and joined Thomson Reuters to provide a new set of world university rankings, called Times Higher Education World University Rankings. THE has stated that academic opinion will form part of its new offering. HP Pavilion dv5-1104tu Laptop Keyboard On 3 June 2010, Times Higher Education revealed the methodology which they proposed to use when compiling the new world university rankings.[7] The new methodology included 13 separate performance indicators, an increase from the six measures employed between 2004 and 2009. After further consultation the criteria were grouped under five broad overall indicators to produce the final ranking. THE published its first rankings using its new methodology on 16 September 2010, a month earlier than previous years.[8]SONY VAIO VGN-CS110E/R Laptop Keyboard The Times Higher Education World University Rankings, along with the QS World University Rankings and the Academic Ranking of World Universities are described to be the three most influential international university rankings.[9][10] The Globe and Mail in 2010 described the Times Higher Education World University Rankings to be "arguably the most influential."[11] Research published by professors at the University of Michigan in 2011 demonstrated that the early THES rankings were disproportionately influential in establishing the status order of world research universities.[12]HP 317443-001 Laptop Keyboard Published for the first time in March 2011,[13] the rankings are based on a survey of 13,388 academics over 131 countries - which is the largest evaluation of academic reputation to date.[14] The survey was conducted in eight languages by Ipsos Media CT for Times Higher Education's ranking-data partner Thomson Reuters, and asked experienced academics to highlight what they believed to be the strongest universities for teaching and research in their own fields.  HP 606609-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The top six universities in the ranking for 2012—Harvard University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, University of Cambridge, Stanford University, UC Berkeley andUniversity of Oxford—were found to be "head and shoulders above the rest", and were touted as a group of globally recognised "super brands".[15]HP G62-b07SL Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The QS World University Rankings are a ranking of the world’s top universities produced by Quacquarelli Symonds and published annually since 2004. In 2011 they ranked 712 universities, with the University of Cambridge in the UK, Harvard University in the USA and MIT on top. The QS rankings should not be confused with the Times Higher Education World University Rankings. From 2004 to 2009 the QS rankings were published in collaboration with Times Higher Education and were known as the Times Higher Education-QS World University Rankings. HP 622029-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 2010 QS assumed sole publication of rankings produced with this methodology when Times Higher Education split from QS in order to create a new rankings methodology in partnership with Thomson Reuters. The QS rankings are published in the United States by US News & World Report as the "World's Best Universities."[16]Toshiba MCF-TS5008P05 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The QS rankings use peer review data collected (in 2011) from 33,744 scholars and academics and 16,785 recruiters. These two are worth 40 per cent and 10 per cent of a university's possible score respectively. The QS rankings also incorporate citation per faculty member data from Scopus,[17] faculty/student ratios, and international staff and student numbers. The citations and faculty/student measures are worth 20 per cent of an institution's total possible score and the international staff and student data five per cent each. QS has published online material about its methodology.[18]Toshiba Satellite 1905-S303 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan QS published the 2011 QS World University Rankings online on September 6, 2011. The rankings also appear in book form, and via media partners including US News & World Report and The Chosun Ilbo.  SONY VGN-CS170F/Q Laptop CPU Cooling Fan QS has added to its main World University Rankings, starting in 2009 with the Asian University Rankings.[19] The QS Latin American University Rankings [20] and the QS World University Rankings by Subject [21] were published for the first time in 2011. HP Mini 110-3135sz Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The subject rankings are intended to address the most frequent criticism of all world university ranking systems, that they contain too little material about specific subjects, something potential applicants are keen to see. These rankings have been drawn up on the basis of citations, academic peer review and recruiter review, with the weightings for each dependent upon the culture and practice of the subject concerned. They are published in five clusters; engineering; biomedicine; the natural sciences; the social sciences; and the arts and humanities, and cover 29 subjects in 2012.  Dell Vostro 3400 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 2009, Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) launched a department of the QS Asian University Rankings in partnership with The Chosun Ilbo newspaper in Korea. They rank the top 200 Asian universities and has now appeared three times. They release an independent list of rankings each time, different to that of the QS World University Rankings.  HP Pavilion dv9910us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan These rankings use some of the same criteria as the World University Rankings but they use other measures, such as incoming and outgoing exchange students as well. As the criteria and their weightings are different, the QS World university rankings and the QS Asian University rankings released in the same academic year may be different. For example, the University of Hong Kong being 22th in the world was regarded as the best in Asia in the QS World University Rankings (2012) but the Hong Kong University of Science & Technology was at the top of the list of the QS Asian University Rankings (2012).  HP Pavilion dv7-4171us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The QS Latin American University Rankings [4] were launched in 2011. They use academic opinion (30 per cent), employer opinion (20 per cent), publications per faculty member, citations per paper, academic staff with a PhD, faculty/student ratio and web visibility (10 per cent each) as measures. These criteria were developed in consultation with experts in Latin America, and the web visibility data come from Webometrics [5]. This ranking showed that the University of São Paulo in Brazil is the region's top institution, top in the first and second editions in 2011 and 2012 respectively. SONY Vaio VGN-NW240F/B Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities is produced by the Higher Education Evaluation and Accreditation Council of Taiwan(HEEACT).[27] HEEACT is designed to assess research universities. The indicators are designed to measure both long-term and short-term research performance.  HP Envy 17-2050eb Laptop CPU Cooling Fan This project employs bibliometrics to analyze and rank the performance of the 500 top universities and the top 300 universities in six fields. HEEACT further provides subject rankings in science and technology fields. It also rank the top 300 universities across ten science and technology fields.[28] The ranking includes eight indicators. They are: articles published over prior 11 years; citations of those articles, "current" articles, current citations, average citations, "H-index", number of "highly–cited papers" and high impact journal articles. They represent three criteria of scientific papers performance: research productivity, research impact, and research excellence. HP Pavilion dv7-4070us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The 2007 ranking methodology was alleged to have favored universities with medical schools, and in response, HEEACT added assessment criteria.[29] The six field–based rankings are based on the subject categorization of WOS, including Agriculture & Environment Sciences (AGE), Clinical Medicine (MED), Engineering, Computing & Technology (ENG), Life Sciences (LIFE), Natural Sciences (SCI) and Social Sciences (SOC). The ten subjects include Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Geosciences, Electrical Engineering, Computer Science, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering (including Energy & Fuels), Materials Sciences, and Civil Engineering (including Environmental Engineering).[28]DELL Latitude D600 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan G-factor ranks university and college web presence by counting the number of links only from other university websites, using Google search engine data. G-factor is an indicator of the popularity or importance of each university's website from the combined perspectives of other institutions. It claims to be an objective peer review of a university through its website—in social network theory terminology, G-factor measures the centrality of each university's website in the network of university websites.[22]Toshiba Satellite L505D-GS6000 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The High Impact Universities Research Performance Index (RPI) is a 2010 Australian initiative[30] that studies university research performance. The pilot project involved a trial of over 1,000 universities or institutions and 5,000 constituent faculties (in various disciplines) worldwide. The top 500 results for universities and faculties were reported at the project website.[30] The project promotes simplicity, transparency and fairness. The assessment analyzes research performance as measured by publications and citations. SONY PCG-6S2L Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Publication and citation data is drawn from Scopus. The project uses standard bibliometric indicators, namely the 10-year g-index and h-index. RPI equally weighs contributions from the five faculties. The five faculty scores are normalized to place them onto a common scale. The normalized scores are then averaged to arrive at a final RPI. The Human Resources & Labor Review (HRLR) publishes a human competitiveness index & analysis annually in Chasecareer Network (ChaseCareer.Net). This system is based on Human Resources & Labour Review Indexes (HRI and LRI), which measure the performance of top 300 universities' graduates.[31]IBM 42X4399 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 2004, a couple of educational institutions voiced concerns at several events in regard to the accuracy and effectiveness of ranking bodies or lists. The HRLR ranking was pioneered in late 2005 within a working group in response to those concerns. The team was founded in January 2007 and started compiling and processing datas, resulting in the first lists in 2007-2008.[32]ACER Aspire 7741ZG Laptop Keyboard The new HRLR ranking innovative methods sparked intense interests from many institutions and inspired several other ranking lists and scoring which are based on professional, alumni, executives, competitiveness, human capital-oriented aspects. Nevertheless, HRLR remains to be the leader in university ranking with innovative and comprehensive approaches, and not relying merely on those aforementioned aspects.[33]FUJITSU Lifebook T4210 Laptop Keyboard The Centre for Science and Technology Studies at Leiden University maintains a European and world wide ranking of the top 500 universities according including the number and impact of Web of Science-indexed publications per year. The rankings compare research institutions by taking into account differences in language, discipline and institutional size.[34] Multiple ranking lists are released according to various bibliometric normalization and impact indicators, including the number of publications, citations-per-publication, and field-averaged impact per publication.[35]SONY VAIO PCG-792L Laptop Keyboard Global University Ranking measures over 400 universities using the RatER, an autonomous, non-commercial, Russian rating agency supported by Russia's academic society.[23][24] The methodology pools universities from ARWU, HEEACT, Times-QS and Webometrics and a pool of experts formed by project officials and managers to determine the rating scales for indicators in seven areas. It considers academic performance, research performance, faculty expertise, resource availability, TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7340 Laptop Keyboard socially significant activities of graduates, international activities, and international opinion. Each expert independently evaluates these performance indicators for candidate universities. The rating is the average of the expert evaluations.[25] This ranking raised questions when it placed Russian Moscow State University in fifth place, ahead of Harvard and Cambridge.[26]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard In August 2006, the American magazine Newsweek published a ranking of the Top 100 Global Universities, using selected criteria from ARWU and the Times Higher Education-QS rankings, with the additional criterion of the number of volumes in the library. It formed part of a special issue including an article from Tony Blair, then prime minister of the UK, HP G71-445US Laptop Keyboard but has not been repeated. It considered openness and diversity as well as distinction in research.[36] The ranking has been continued since its merger with The Daily Beast, and currently uses data from the Times Higher Education World Rankings, Webometrics world college rankings from public-research outlet Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas in Spain, and the Shanghai Ranking Consultancy in order to compile its results.[37]HP G42-240US Laptop Keyboard The Webometrics Ranking of World Universities is produced by Cybermetrics Lab (CCHS), a unit of the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), the main public research body in Spain. It offers information about more than 12,000 universities according to their web presence (an assessment of the scholarly contents, visibility and impact of universities on the web). The ranking is updated every January and July. Dell Inspiron 2500 Laptop Keyboard The Webometrics Ranking or Ranking Web is built from a database of over 20,000 higher education institutions. The top 12,000 universities are shown in the main ranking and more are covered in regional lists. The ranking started in 2004 and is based on a composite indicator that includes both the volume of the Web contents and the visibility and impact of web publications according to the number of external links they received. A wide range of scientific activities appears exclusively on academic websites and is typically overlooked by bibliometric indicators. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Webometric indicators measure institutional commitment to Web publication. Webometric results show a high correlation with other rankings. However, North American universities are relatively common in the top 200, while small– and medium–size biomedical institutions and German, French, Italian and Japanese universities were less common in the top ranks. Possible reasons include publishing via independent research councils (CNRS, Max Planck, CNR) or the large amount of non-English web contents, which are less likely to be linked. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard The European Commission compiled a list of the 22 universities in the EU with the highest scientific impact.[58] This ranking was compiled as part of the Third European Report on Science & Technology Indicators,[59] prepared by the Directorate General for Science and Research of the European Commission in 2003 (updated 2004).[60] It only explicitly considers the European Union's top institutions, but comparisons with the rest of the world are provided in the full report. The report says, TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard "University College London comes out on top in both publications (the number of scientific publications produced by the university) and citations (the number of times those scientific publications are cited by other researchers)" however the table lists the top scoring university as "Univ London" indicating that the authors counted the scientific output of the entire University of London, rather than its constituent colleges.  SONY KFRMBA151B Laptop Keyboard In this ranking, the EU's top two universities are Cambridge and Oxford, as in the Jiao Tong and Times rankings. This ranking stresses the scientific quality of the institution, as opposed to its size or perceived prestige.[citation needed] Thus smaller, technical universities, such as Eindhoven (Netherlands) and Technical University Munich (Germany) are ranked third and forth, behind Cambridge, and followed by University of Edinburgh. The report does not provide a direct comparison between EU and universities in the rest of the world—although it does compute a scientific impact score, measured against the world average.  DELL Vostro 1510 Laptop Keyboard In December 2008, the European Commission published a call for tenders, inviting bidders to design and test a new multi-dimensional university ranking system with global outreach. The first results of the envisaged pilot project were promised for the first half of 2011.[61]ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard Another approach to classify the European research area is offered by 'European Research Ranking'.[62] This ranking is based on publicly available data from the European Commissions project and funding database CORDIS to estimate the funding and networking performance of European research institutions. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Since 2007, the CHE "ExcellenceRanking" has been published by the Center for Higher Education Development in Germany.[67] The ranking includes the sciences of biology, chemistry, mathematics and physics as well as psychology, political science and economics. The ranking is designed to support the search for masters or doctoral programmes. The CHE also wants to highlight the research strengths of European universities and provide them with ideas for improvement. The ranking is published by the German weekly newspaper Die Zeit in English and German. The CHE Center for Higher Education Development gathers the data for this ranking. An English version is provided by the DAAD. TOSHIBA NSK-TAE01 Laptop Keyboard The CHE also publishes a "ResearchRanking" showing the research strengths of German universities. The CHE ResearchRanking is based on the research–related data of the UniversityRanking. HP Pavilion dv6-3023nr Laptop Keyboard Since 2007, the CHE "ExcellenceRanking" has been published by the Center for Higher Education Development in Germany.[67] The ranking includes the sciences of biology, chemistry, mathematics and physics as well as psychology, political science and economics. The ranking is designed to support the search for masters or doctoral programmes. HP Pavilion dv6-1005ea Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The CHE also wants to highlight the research strengths of European universities and provide them with ideas for improvement. The ranking is published by the German weekly newspaper Die Zeit in English and German. The CHE Center for Higher Education Development gathers the data for this ranking. An English version is provided by the DAAD. Toshiba Satellite L305-S5955 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The CHE also publishes a "ResearchRanking" showing the research strengths of German universities. The CHE ResearchRanking is based on the research–related data of the UniversityRanking. HP Pavilion dv7-4029tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Maclean's, a Canadian news magazine, publishes an annual ranking of Canadian Universities, called the Maclean’s University Rankings.[81] Ranking criteria include student body characteristics, classes, faculty, finances, library, and reputation. The rankings are split into three categories: schools that focus on undergraduate studies with few to no graduate programs, schools that have both extensive undergraduate studies and an extensive selection of graduate programs and schools that have a professional medical program and a selection of graduate programs.[82] Packard Bell Easynote TM97 Laptop Keyboard The University of Calgary produced a formal study examining the ranking methodology, illuminating the factors that determined its rank and criticizing certain aspects of the methodology. The University of Alberta, the University of Toronto and University of Manitoba have expressed displeasure over the ranking system.[83]HP G42-354TU Laptop Keyboard A notable difference between rankings in the United States and Maclean's rankings, however, is that Maclean's excludes privately–funded universities. However, the majority of Canada's institutions, including the best–known are publicly–funded. Packard Bell PEW91 Laptop Keyboard Beginning in September 2006, over 20 Canadian universities, including several of the most prestigious and largest universities such as the University of Toronto, University of British Columbia, University of Alberta, Concordia University, McMaster University and Dalhousie University, jointly refused to participate.[84]SAMSUNG Q330-JS09 Laptop Keyboard University of Alberta president Indira Samarasekera wrote that Maclean's initially filed a "Freedom of Information" request but that it was "too late" for the universities to respond. Samarasekera further stated, "Most of [the universities] had already posted the data online, and we directed Maclean’sstaff to our Web sites. In instances where the magazine staff couldn’t find data on our Web site, they chose to use the previous year’s data."[85]TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5245 Laptop Keyboard Mexican institutions have been compared in the Estudio Comparativo de Universidades Mexicanas (ECUM) produced within the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México(UNAM).[86] ECUM provides data on institutional participation in articles on ISI Web of Knowledge–indexed journals; faculty participation in each of Mexico's three–level National Researchers System (SNI[87]); graduate degrees within (National Council of Science and Technology's (CONACYT) register of quality graduate programs;[88] and number of academic research bodies (cuerpos academicos) according to the Secretariat of Public Education (SEP) program PROMEP.[89]HP Pavilion dv6-3174se Laptop Keyboard ECUM provides online access to data for 2007 and 2008 through ExECUM.[90] Institutional data can be visualized through three options: Referred to as the "granddaddy of the college rankings",[94] The American college and university rankings have been compiled since 1983 by U.S. News & World Report and are widely regarded as the most influential of all college rankings.[95] The college rankings were published in all years thereafter, except 1984. The ranking order of universities has been shown to have great effect; a one-rank improvement leads to a 0.9% increase in number of applicants.[96] Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard The US News rankings are based upon data which U.S. News collects from each educational institution either from an annual survey or from the school's website. There has been some significant controversy surrounding this annual survey, including a letter from the Annapolis Group requesting that school presidents do not participate in the US News annual survey, which led to "a majority of the approximately 80 presidents at the meeting said that they did not intend to participate in the U.S. News reputational rankings in the future."[97]ACER TravelMate 2355LC Laptop Keyboard ExECUM allows users to establish comparison types and levels which they consider relevant. Data is presented in raw form with virtually no derived indicators. Users can relate variables and build indicators according to their own analytical perspectives. Based on this comparative study project, ECUM's creator, the Dirección General de Evaluación Institucional, published reports providing an analysis of the data for 2007 and 2008.[91][92][93]APPLE A1278 Laptop Keyboard TrendTopper MediaBuzz College Guide is an American-college guide based on what it calls "Internet brand equity" based on data collected from the Internet and global media sources. It ranks the Top 300 United States colleges and universities. The guide includes specialty and for profit schools including Art, Business, Design, Music, and Online Education. The TrendTopper MediaBuzz College Rankings are produced twice a year by the Global Language Monitor of Austin, Texas. HP Mini 110-1006tu Laptop Keyboard Time Magazine described internet brand equity as "a measure of who's talking about you online, based on Internet data, social media, blogs and the top 75,000 print and electronic media outlets.[106][107]SAMSUNG N145 Laptop Keyboard GLM ranks the schools "according to their online presence -- or internet brand equity ... By focusing on online presence, the Monitor hopes to avoid the biases that characterize other rankings, which commonly rely on the opinions of university officials and college counselors rather than that of the greater public.[108]" GLM believes the rankings provide an up-to-date perspective on which schools have the most popular brand. The resulting rankings gauge the relative value of the various institutions and how they change over time. HP AEAT8TPU319 Laptop Keyboard In 2008, Forbes.com began publishing an annual list, prepared by the Center for College Affordability and Productivity[109] of "America's Best Colleges".[110] The Forbes rankings use the list of alumni published in Who's Who in America, student evaluations from RateMyProfessors.com, self-reported salaries of alumni fromPayScale, four-year graduation rates, numbers of students and faculty receiving "nationally competitive awards," and four-year accumulated student debt to calculate the rankings.[111] It disregards subjective measures such as public reputation, which causes some Ivy League and other highly reputable colleges to score lower than in other lists. HP Pavilion dv2610us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 2009, the American Council of Trustees and Alumni (ACTA) began grading colleges and universities based on the strength of their general education requirements. In ACTA's annual What Will They Learn? report, colleges and universities are assigned a letter grade from "A" to "F" based on how many of seven subjects are required of students. The seven subjects are composition, mathematics, foreign language, science, economics, literature and American government or history.[112] ACER Aspire 5710Z Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The 2011-2012 edition of What Will They Learn? graded 1,007 institutions.[113] In the 2011-2012 edition, 19 schools received an "A" grade for requiring at least six of the subjects the study evaluated.[114] ACTA's rating system has been endorsed by Mel Elfin, founding editor of U.S. News & World Report’s rankings.[115] New York Times higher education blogger Stanley Fish, while agreeing that universities ought to have a strong core curriculum, disagreed with some of the subjects ACTA includes in the core.[116]ACER Aspire 5333 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Avery et al. pioneered the use of choice modelling to rank colleges. Their methodology used a statistical analysis of the decisions of 3,240 students who applied to college in 1999.[117] MyChances.net, now called Parchment, adopted a similar approach starting in 2009,[118] stating that its method is based on this approach.[119] ACER eMachines E525 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The study analysed students admitted to multiple colleges. The college they attended became the winner, and the others became the losers. An Elo rating system was used to assign points based on each win or loss, and the colleges were ranked based on their Elo points. A useful consequence of the use of Elo points is that they can be used to estimate the frequency with which students, upon being admitted to two schools, will choose one over the other. HP Pavilion dv5-1272et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Other organizations that rank US institutions include the Fiske Guide to Colleges and College Prowler. Many specialized rankings are available in guidebooks, considering individual student interests, fields of study, geographical location, financial aid and affordability. Dell Vostro 3500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Among the rankings dealing with individual fields of study is the Philosophical Gourmet Report or "Leiter Report",[120] a ranking of philosophy departments. This report has attracted criticism from different viewpoints. Notably, practitioners of continental philosophy, who perceive the Leiter report as unfair to their field, have compiled alternative rankings. HP G42-359TX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Gourman Report, last published in 1996, ranked the quality of undergraduate majors and graduate programs. Within the growing field of Virtual Schooling, Guide to Online Schools has been ranking online colleges and universities since 2009 and military-friendly online schools since 2012.[121] Gallup polls ask American adults, "All in all, what would you say is the best college or university in the United States?"[122] The Princeton Review, annually publishes a book of Best Colleges. In 2011, this was titled The Best 373 Colleges. Phi Beta Kappa has also sought to establish chapters at the best schools, lately numbering 280.[123] Toshiba GDM610000456 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In Chile the "Comisión Nacional de Acreditación" (National Commission of Accreditation of the Universities) manages evaluation and accreditation. It also ranks universities according to accreditation levels.[125] Other commercial rankings are made by research magazines, including Qué Pasa and América EconomíaCompaq Presario CQ61-220SL Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Qué Pasa's ranking evaluates perception and quality following surveys of approximately 1,000 employers across the country.[126] América Economía's ranking considers quality of students, quality of teachers, rating of professors by student, research productivity, internationalization, integration with the community, student life quality and inclusion of students from lower social strata.[127]HP Pavilion dv7-4131sa Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The stated misson of the Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education (QAA) is to 'safeguard standards and improve the quality of UK higher education'.[1] Established in 1997 through the transfer of functions and staff from the former Higher Education Quality Council and the quality assessment divisions of HEFCE and HEFCW, SONY UDQF2PH52CF0 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan this independent agency works to ensure that higher education qualifications in the United Kingdom (UK) are of a sound standard. It protects the public interest by checking how universities and colleges maintain their academic standards and quality. This work is supported by a range of guidance developed in cooperation with the higher education sector, principal among which is the UK Quality Code for Higher Education (the Quality Code). HP Pavilion dv7-3169wm Laptop CPU Cooling Fan QAA is the body entrusted with advising the Privy Council on which institutions should be granted degree awarding powers and the right to be called a university. Since 2011 QAA has been designated by the UK Border Agency (UKBA) to conduct educational oversight of higher education providers, to enable them to apply for 'highly trusted sponsor' status under UKBA Tier 4 regulations. Providers having, or acquiring, this status are entitled to recruit overseas students into the UK. HP Pavilion dv6-3065ea Laptop CPU Cooling Fan QAA also regulates the Access to Higher Education Diploma, a qualification that enables individuals without A-levels or the usual equivalent to enter higher education. It does this by monitoring the Access Validating Agencies that award the Diploma.  HP 450933-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan QAA's mission to safeguard standards and improve quality is supported by four strategic aims, which may be summarised as follows: to address the needs of students and be valued by them; to safeguard standards in an increasingly diverse sector; to drive improvements; and to improve public understanding of UK higher education.[1]HP G60-445DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan QAA is an independent body; a company limited by guarantee operating under the legal jurisdiction of England; and a charity registered in England and Wales and in Scotland. It is not an accrediting body and does not hold a list of recognised universities or colleges. (This is held by the UK Government's Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, known as BIS). QAA's objects and constitution are set out in its Memorandum and Articles of Association.[2] The Chief Executive since October 2009 has been Anthony McClaran, and the Board contains a broad representation of the UK higher education sector, including universities, funding councils and students. QAA has offices in Gloucester, Glasgow and London. SONY VAIO PCG-6L3L Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Around one third of QAA's funding is by annual subscription from UK universities and colleges; two thirds come from the public sector through contracts with the higher education funding bodies and government departments. Since the publication of the Browne Review in 2010 and the White Paper 'Students at the heart of the system', the higher education landscape has been continually changing, and as part of its response to these changes, QAA has set up a commercial arm, Partners in Quality, which offers services relating to quality assurance in the UK higher education sector. The work of Partners in Quality contributes to QAA's overall mission and funding.  HP Pavilion dv7-4007eo Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Higher education providers use it, in conjunction with their own internal policies and guidance, to ensure that UK expectations for standards and quality are being met. The Quality Code has three parts: Part A on standards; Part B on quality and enhancement of learning opportunities; and Part C on provision of public information. Parts A and B are subdivided into a number of chapters on particular topics. Each chapter contains a single mandatory Expectation supported by a range of discretionary Indicators. The Expectations establish what UK higher education providers expect of themselves and each other, and what students and the public can likewise expect of them. ACER Aspire 4755G Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Quality Code contains an updated version of all the key material from the former Code of practice for the assurance of academic quality and standards in higher education as well as the content of the 'frameworks for higher education qualifications' which establish what skills and attributes students should have at the different higher education levels (these levels are different in Scotland from the rest of the UK). The Quality Code is use

d in conjunction with subject benchmark statements and programme specifications (descriptions of courses published by higher education providers) to design students' courses and make clear what they can expect of their UK higher education. HP G62-b30SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Each university and higher education college publishes information about its courses, together with student handbooks and other information. Part C helps them to do this effectively and provides a means of checking that this is happening.  COMPAQ Presario CQ42-228TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan QAA publishes publicly available reports on UK higher education provision. In the UK the primary responsibility for academic standards and quality rests with individual universities and colleges, each of which has its own internal quality assurance procedures. QAA reports on how well they meet these responsibilities, using processes of peer review. This work is supported by the Quality Code and other accepted benchmarks and guidelines. QAA actively involves students in this work, appointing a student to every review team and encouraging students to express their views. HP Pavilion dv6-3019tu Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Not all organisations reviewed are degree awarding bodies. Some are providers such as further education colleges, private colleges or overseas institutions, which run higher education courses by formal agreement with UK degree awarding bodies (usually universities). HP G42-364LA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Reports identify features of good practice, and QAA produces follow-up publications to summarise these findings. QAA reports also state whether, and to what extent, providers are meeting UK expectations about: academic standards; the quality of the student learning experience; the enhancement of the student learning experience; and the quality of public information provided. They make recommendations to promote improvement (enhancement), and providers follow these up with appropriate action.  Gateway MX6447 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The ongoing debate about 'risk-based quality assurance' is likely to result in the length of time between reviews varying from one institution to another, according to perceived 'risk'. A six-year cycle is likely to be typical; however at time of writing this situation is still evolving. Compaq Presario C571NR Laptop CPU Cooling Fan QAA handles complaints or concerns relating to cases where a UK higher education provider is suspected of failing to meet national expectations for standards and quality. In such investigations it is concerned with general systemic issues of standard and quality. Complaints relating to individual experiences and grievances should be referred to the college or university's internal complaints procedure in the first instance. If this fails to resolve the issue such complaints can be referred to the Office of the Independent Adjudicator. Gateway NV55C Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Dearing Report published in 1997 expanded QAA’s role. In addition to carrying out reviews and audits, it would now be called upon to provide public information on quality assurance, verify standards, set up a higher education qualifications framework, develop a code of practice, provide subject benchmark information and establish a pool of external examiners. Most of these proposals were adopted, and QAA's position as the UK's sole agency with responsibility for the assurance and enhancement of the quality and standards of higher education was consolidated. HP Pavilion dv4-1204tu Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Between 1997 and 2001 QAA, as a result of the Dearing proposals, QAA began to develop the Academic Infrastructure (a set of UK benchmarks for quality and standards) and a new, UK-wide review process of Academic Review which comprised elements of both Subject Review and Academic Audit - with an emphasis on the latter. SONY PCG-6S2L Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The new process was introduced in Scotland, but before it had become fully operational across the UK a number of English universities complained about the administrative burden that this approach entailed, leading to a rethink by the Westminster government. The Scottish and Welsh higher education authorities took this opportunity to set up their own national arrangements,  FUJITSU CA49008-0271 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan while in England QAA worked with the bodies representing higher education institutions (Universities UK and Guild HE)to devise a modified approach known as Institutional Audit. QAA Scotland developed the procedure known as Enhancement-Led Institutional Review (ELIR), while in Wales the method known as Institutional Review was established. Northern Ireland followed England and adopted Institutional Audit. QAA remained the organisation charged with developing and undertaking these activities. HP Envy 17-1050eb Laptop CPU Cooling Fan It was agreed that in England there would be a transitional period of three years (2002 to 2005) during which all higher education institutions would undergo their first Institutional Audit. Thereafter audits would take place on a six-yearly cycle. In the year prior to their audit, institutions underwent 'developmental engagements' - HP Mini 110-1116NR Laptop CPU Cooling Fan unpublished subject-based reviews to support internal quality assurance. There were also 'discipline audit trails' (DATs) - selective subject-based enquiries that enabled a phased reduction of the subject focus of QAA reviews. In 2005 a revised Institutional Audit model was developed and adopted with the agreement of the representative bodies and HEFCE. This removed the DATs, thereby freeing time in the audit process to explore a broader range of topics and themes. This model continued in use on a six-year cycle until 2011.  Toshiba Portege R835 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the summer of 2008, following a lecture given by Professor Geoffrey Alderman at the University of Buckingham, an urgent parliamentary inquiry was ordered into his allegations (made in the lecture) concerning the decline of academic standards in British higher education and the alleged part played by the Quality Assurance Agency in that decline.[6][7] HP Pavilion G72-a10EV Laptop CPU Cooling Fan At that parliamentary inquiry (17 July 2008) the chairman of the House of Commons’ Select Committee on Universities condemned the Agency as ‘a toothless old dog’ and declared that the British degree classification system had ‘descended into farce.’[8] Alderman himself gave evidence to the Select Committee, whose report (2 August 2009) amounted to a strong endorsement of his views.[9][10] HP Pavilion dv6-3340et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan n October 2009 a new Chief Executive was appointed (Anthony McClaran, formerly of UCAS), and measures were put in place to strengthen QAA's reputation for upholding standards and identifying best practice in higher education. These included an agenda to increase student participation and public engagement, with an emphasis on clearer, more accessible information and a less formal style of reporting. HP Pavilion dv6-2170us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The publication of the government-commissioned Browne Report in October 2010, and the subsequent government White Paper 'Students at the heart of the system' in 2011, heralded far-reaching changes in UK higher education and had a substantial impact on QAA's work. In 2011 QAA, in consultation with the higher education sector, Toshiba Satellite P300-19P Laptop CPU Cooling Fan began to replace the Academic Infrastructure with a new suite of documents setting out UK national expectations about standards and quality in higher education. The phasing in of the Quality Code (due for completion in 2013) was accompanied by the launch in 2012 of a corresponding review method for higher education awarding bodies in England and Northern Ireland, called Institutional Review for England and Northern Ireland. SONY Vaio VGN-BZAAPS Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In response to the Browne Report, the government announced its confidence in QAA. In spring 2011 the government also announced that the UK Border Agency would be requiring all private colleges that provide higher education for UK degree-awarding bodies to undergo a standards and quality review by QAA. A successful outcome would be essential in order to obtain 'Tier 4 accreditation' and be authorised to recruit overseas students. This formed a large area of new work for QAA, which conducted over 200 educational oversight reviews in the first year of operation. SONY VGN-CS118E/R Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The ongoing post-Browne debate about 'risk-based quality assurance' centres around the issue of whether some more established or highly trusted institutions should be subject to less frequent reviews.  SONY Vaio VGN-NW228F/B Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Office of the Independent Adjudicator for Higher Education (OIA) is a company that handles students' complaints against universities within England and Wales Higher Education (HE). The OIA does not investigate the the merits of the original complaint, which can only be done through a court. It does however review if the Higher Education institution followed their own procedures. HP Pavilion dv7-4070us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Their remit is limited to those complaints that have first been taken through the procedures of a Higher Education institution's own internal system without reaching a satisfactory conclusion in the view of the complainant. All complaints to the OIA must be made within three months of the conclusion of the internal investigation by the Higher Education institution, which should usually have resulted in issue of a 'Completion of Procedures' Letter. HP Pavilion dv9890ep Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The OIA is the operator of the students complaint scheme as established in the Higher Education Act 2004.[1] The OIA has effectively taken on board the powers of the visitor of an Higher Education Institution as student complaints were specifically excluded from the remit of the visitor in the Higher Education Act 2004.[2] By law, all Higher Education bodies are required to abide by the rules of the scheme.[3] AWhite Paper in 2003 set out the government goal of establishing the body via legislation. The OIA was established in 2003 and began running a voluntary scheme in 2004 with it becoming the designated operator of the student complaints scheme in 2005. The first Independent Adjudicator was Baroness Ruth Deech. Following her retirement in May 2008, Robert Behrens was appointed Independent Adjudicator and Chief Executive.  APPLE MacBook Pro 17 inch A1151 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Prior to the establishment of the OIA, universities offered internal processes there was a widespread belief that these were frequently ineffective and often perceived by students as impractical. However, the students claim the current system is also frequently ineffective, biased, and often perceived by students as impractical. Some cases taking more than two years to be decided on.[4]SONY Vaio VGN-TX5XN/B Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The OIA's looks at a wide range of "procedural issues" but it does not adjudicate on academic issues, which are called "academic judgments" that can only be defined by the court and therefore is ill defined by the OIA leading to abuse of the term. It functions by a semi-transparent process, seeking information from both complainant and the Higher Education Institution and allowing each party to comment. Results can include payment of compensation from the Higher Education Institution where the complaint is upheld and so far compensation payments have exceeded £700,000 with the largest single award being £45,000 compensating a student for lawyer expenses.[5]Toshiba UDQF2RH51C1N Laptop CPU Cooling Fan There have been several Judicial Review cases regarding lack of compensation as they are statistically far less than court payments.[6] The Independent Adjudicator is required to report to the Board and publish in his Annual Report any non-compliance with recommendations by a University.[7] There is widespread dissatisfaction with the remedies awarded to successful students at the OIA. There is also widespread dissatisfaction with the remit of the OIA.[4]SONY Vaio VGN-NR430DP Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Following recent judgments, the OIA claim that they do not review disability matters as a court does. All cases are therefore recommended by the OIA to be taken to court even though their remit says otherwise.[8] The OIA claim not to be able to review or comment on already closed cases as it affects their independence. However, in a recent Judicial Review they have delayed a case so that they can review an already closed file. The OIA reached a new judgement before a court judge could review the case.[9]HP Pavilion dv5-1140us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan It is very difficult to complain about procedural issues and customer service within the OIA as a complainant due to its apparent remit on being fair, independent, and unbiased. Students have criticised their policy and due difficulty in complaining about cases, which the OIA consider in all circumstances closed after their judgments.[4] It has also been condemned by independent reviewers hired by the OIA.[10] This leads to more complainants following a judicial review procedure after their judgments and less noted complaints on OIA annual reports.[11] SONY Vaio VGN-C15GP/B Laptop CPU Cooling Fan When students choose to go to the OIA instead of the courts it was aimed that the OIA be the final word when they make their judgements. However, it has recently been decided that the OIA judgement can be reviewed in court in front of a judge. In British law, the application must be made promptly and in any event within three months from the date when the grievance arose. Given the excruciating circumstances, an application can be made later.[12]HP Pavilion dv7-4113tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan There have been cases where the OIA have reviewed the case again and given different verdicts due to the complainant taking his case to court. The OIA seem to have the right to delay a Judicial Review if they request the right for one when re-examining cases and do not require the complainant permission to do so. HP Pavilion dv9850eb Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

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